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Sample records for solid fuels biomass

  1. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  2. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  3. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  4. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  6. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  7. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  8. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO(sub 2) emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment

  9. Characterized hydrochar of algal biomass for producing solid fuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Young; Lee, Kwanyong; Kim, Daegi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characterized hydrochar of algal biomass to produce solid fuel though hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization conducted at temperatures ranging from 180 to 270 °C with a 60 min reaction improved the upgrading of the fuel properties and the dewatering of wet-basis biomasses such as algae. The carbon content, carbon recovery, energy recovery, and atomic C/O and C/H ratios in all the hydrochars in this study were improved. These characteristic changes in hydrochar from algal biomass are similar to the coalification reactions due to dehydration and decarboxylation with an increase in the hydrothermal reaction temperature. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means of generating highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources using algal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  11. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zannikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. The smoke levels are between the 3rd and 4th grades of the smoke number scale. Measuring the carbon monoxide emission, it was observed that the burning of the plastic in the mixture with biomass increases the carbon monoxide emissions from 10% to 30% as compared to carbon monoxide emission from sawdust biomass emissions which was used as a reference.

  12. Torrefaction study for energy upgrading on Indonesian biomass as low emission solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, R.; Siregar, N. C.; Hasanah, F.

    2017-05-01

    Torrefaction is a pyrolysis process with low heating rate and temperature lower than 300°C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a low emission solid fuel with relatively high energy. Through the torrefaction process biomass can be altered so that the end product is easy to grind and simple in the supply chain. The research was aimed at designing torrefaction reactor and upgrading energy content of some Indonesian biomass. The biomass used consist of empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB), cassava peel solid waste, and cocopeat (waste of coconut fiber). These biomass were formed into briquette and pellet form and were torrified with 300°C temperature during 1.5 hours without air. The results of terrified biomass and non-torrefied biomass were compared after burning on the stove in term of energy content and air emission quality. The result shows that energy content of biomass have increased by 1.1 up to 1.36 times. Meanwhile emission air resulted from its combustion was met with Indonesian emission regulation.

  13. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  14. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization should be maintained at a high level and the cathode temperature gradient maximized. Based on 1st and 2nd law...... based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP plants....... The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  15. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  16. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  17. Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapor Model Compounds over MoS2 Based Catalysts: A Step in Understanding and Optimizing Fuel Production from Solid Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabros, Trine Marie Hartmann

    This thesis is dedicated to the investigation, development, and optimization of catalysts and operating conditions for catalytic hydropyrolysis and pyrolysis vapor hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) with the aim of producing liquid fuel from solid biomass.......This thesis is dedicated to the investigation, development, and optimization of catalysts and operating conditions for catalytic hydropyrolysis and pyrolysis vapor hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) with the aim of producing liquid fuel from solid biomass....

  18. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  19. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  20. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  1. The Swedish Ash Programme 2002-2008. Biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Herbert, Roger

    2009-07-15

    In Sweden, producers of combustion residues have since 2002 implemented a collaborative applied RandD programme aimed at the utilisation of combustion residues (ash). The fuels are biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal. In this report, the main lines of the programme are described: Covers for landfills and mine tailings; Civil works, e.g. road-buildings, where both geotechnical and environmental questions have been addressed; Cement and concrete applications; Compensating soils for removing biomass and the mineral nutrients in the biomass. The emphasis of the Programme is on environmental questions, even if technical questions have been treated. The time perspective in this context is much longer than the 3-5 years that are usual in an applied RandD programme, i.e. decades after ash has been placed on a site, e.g. in a road, or spread to forest soil. New test fields have been created in the programme and old test fields have been evaluated in order to gather available information

  2. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Arnstein

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  3. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient att...

  4. Indoor air pollution from solid biomass fuels combustion in rural agricultural area of Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Yu, Q; Gu, Q; Chen, Y; Ding, K; Zhu, J; Chen, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we are trying to investigate the indoor air pollution and to estimate the residents' pollution exposure reduction of energy altering in rural Tibet. Daily PM(2.5) monitoring was conducted in indoor microenvironments like kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard in rural Tibet from December 2006 to March 2007. For kitchen air pollution, impact of two fuel types, methane and solid biomass fuels (SBFs), were compared. Questionnaire survey on the domestic energy pattern and residents' daily activity pattern was performed in Zha-nang County. Daily average PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard were 134.91 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 45, 95%CI 84.02, 185.80), 103.61 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 21, 95%CI 85.77, 121.45), 76.13 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 57.22, 95.04), and 78.33 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 34, 95%CI 60.00, 96.65) respectively. Using SBFs in kitchen resulted in higher indoor pollution than using methane. PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen with dung cake, fuel wood and methane use were 117.41 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 71.03, 163.79), 271.11 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 12, 95%CI 104.74, 437.48), and 46.96 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 15, 95%CI 28.10, 65.82) respectively. Family income has significant influence on cooking energy choice, while the lack of commercial energy supply affects the energy choice for heating more. The effects of two countermeasures to improve indoor air quality were estimated in this research. One is to replace SBFs by clean energy like methane, the other is to separate the cooking place from other rooms and by applying these countermeasures, residents' exposure to particulate matters would reduce by 25-50% (methane) or 20-30% (separation) compared to the present situation. Indoor air pollution caused by solid biomass fuels is one of the most important burdens of disease in the developing countries, which attracts the attention of environment and public health researchers, as well as policy makers. This paper

  5. Refuse recovered biomass fuel from municipal solid waste. A life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripa, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Giani, H.; Clausen, A.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative waste treatment process is proposed and evaluated by means of LCA. • The MARSS process produces a biomass fuel with a marketable quality for CHP plants. • The recovery of energy and metals generates significant environmental benefits. • Valuable resources can be recovered from waste and be feedback to the urban systems. - Abstract: Waste disposal is a controversial issue in many European countries: concerns about potential health effects and land value loss as well as the fulfillment of the European Landfill Directive and Waste Framework Directive have significantly changed the way waste should be managed. An appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) may allow a significant enhancement of efficiency in resources use, by recovering both energy and materials from waste, otherwise landfilled, thus replacing fossil fuels and virgin materials with renewable sources. Separation and recovery of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste is encouraged as a mean to produce bioenergy. Therefore, if not source segregated, innovative waste refining technologies may provide potential solutions for separation of organic fraction and improved energy and materials recovery. This paper presents a comprehensive system study of a recently developed technology aimed to improve the MSW management in order to decrease the demand for new landfill space and, at the same time, contribute to the urban energy needs. As part of a wider Life Plus Project entitled MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems), funded by European Community in 2012, the environmental assessment of an innovative and enhanced mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) demo plant installed in Mertesdorf (Germany) was performed by means of the SimaPro 8.0.5 LCA software, utilizing ReCiPe (H) Midpoint method for the impact assessment. The plant under study is designed to concentrate the biodegradable part of MSW in the <40 mm fraction, through a series

  6. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  7. Process integration and optimization of a solid oxide fuel cell – Gas turbine hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Gassner, Martin; D’Amelio, Matilde; Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its suitability for using wet biomass, hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of otherwise unused waste biomass to synthesis gas and biofuels. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based hybrid cycles are considered as the best candidate for a more efficient and clean conversion of (bio) fuels. A significant potential for the integration of the two technologies is expected since hydrothermal gasification requires heat at 673–773 K, whereas SOFC is characterized by heat excess at high temperature due to the limited electrochemical fuel conversion. This work presents a systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-gas turbine (GT) hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass. Several design options are systematically developed and compared through a thermodynamic optimization approach based on First Law and exergy analysis. The work demonstrates the considerable potential of the system that allows for converting wet waste biomass into electricity at a First Law efficiency of up to 63%, while simultaneously enabling the separation of biogenic carbon dioxide for further use or sequestration. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of waste wet biomass. ► Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine hybrid cycle emerges as the best candidates for conversion of biofuels. ► A systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-GT hybrid cycle fuelled with hydrothermally gasified biomass is presented. ► The system may convert wet waste biomass to electricity at a First Law efficiency of 63% while separating the biogenic carbon dioxide. ► The process integration enables to improve the First Law efficiency of around 4% with respect to a non-integrated system.

  8. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  9. Abundance of 14C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO 2 emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes 14 C and 12 C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in 14 C and reflect the 14 CO 2 abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying 14 C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper 14 C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated 14 C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC

  10. Effect of gasification agent on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colpan, C.O.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Dincer, I.; Yoo, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an integrated SOFC and biomass gasification system is modeled. For this purpose, energy and exergy analyses are applied to the control volumes enclosing the components of the system. However, SOFC is modeled using a transient heat transfer model developed by the authors in a previous study. Effect of gasification agent, i.e. air, enriched oxygen and steam, on the performance of the overall system is studied. The results show that steam gasification case yields the highest electrical efficiency, power-to-heat ratio and exergetic efficiency, but the lowest fuel utilization efficiency. For this case, it is found that electrical, fuel utilization and exergetic efficiencies are 41.8%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, and the power-to-heat ratio is 4.649. (author)

  11. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  12. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  13. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  14. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  15. Economic and environmental considerations of biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The economic and environmental aspects of biomass fuels are considered. Close to source, the cost of useful energy in the form of lignocellulose is often competitive with fossil fuels, say $1-3 per GJ. There are three main options to divert this biomass into commercial energy channels: solid fuels for underboiler use; liquid fuels for automotive use and electric power generation, each of which is discussed. The social, economic and environmental advantages of an afforestation programme are highlighted. (Author)

  16. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breinholt, T.; Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Meyer Henius, U.; Sander Nielsen, B.

    1992-09-01

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  17. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually high temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass between 2010 and 2011 contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing

  18. Holistic analysis of thermochemical processes by using solid biomass for fuel production in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the German act ''Biokraftstoff-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung'', biofuels must show a CO 2eq -reduction compared to the fossil reference fuel (83.8 g CO 2eq /MJ fuel /Richtlinie 98/70/EG/) of 35 % beginning with 2011. In new plants, which go into operation after the 31.12.2016 the CO 2eq -savings must be higher than 50 % in 2017 and higher than 60 % in 2018 /Biokraft-NachV/. The biofuels (methyl ester of rapeseed, bioethanol and biomethane) considered in this study do not meet these requirements for new plants. To comply with these rules new processes must be deployed. Alternative thermochemical generated fuels could be an option. The aim of this work is to evaluate through a technical, ecological and economic analysis (Well-to-Wheel) whether and under what conditions the thermochemical production of Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline, hydrogen (H 2 ) and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) complies with the targets. Four different processes are considered (fast pyrolysis and torrefaction with entrained flow gasifier, CHOREN Carbo-V registered -gasifier, Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER-) gasifier). Beside residues such as winter wheat straw and residual forest wood, wood from short-rotation plantations is taken into account. The technical analysis showed that at present status (2010) two and in 2050 six plants can be operated energy-self-sufficient. The overall efficiency of the processes is in the range of 41.5 (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline) and 59.4 % (H 2 ). Furthermore, it was found that for 2010, all thermochemical produced fuels except the H 2 -production from wood from short-rotation plantations in decentralised or central fast pyrolysis and in decentralised torrefactions with entrained flow gasifier keep the required CO 2eq -saving of 60 %. In 2050, all thermochemical produced fuels will reach these limits. The CO 2eq -saving is between 72 (H 2 ) and 95 % (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline). When the production costs of the

  19. A comparison between two methods of generating power, heat and refrigeration via biomass based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A thermodynamic and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazaei, M.; Rahimi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel trigeneration systems based biomass and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are compared. • A complete environmental analysis for three different cases is conducted. • Digester based system has 14.56% more exergetic efficiency than gasifier based one. • Gasifier based system has 14.31% more energetic efficiency than Digester based one. • Gasifier, Digester and air heat exchanger have the highest exergy destruction. - Abstract: Utilization of biomass energy is of prevalence focus these days. Using these fuels to run the fuel cells is of primary interest. In this regard, two new trigeneration systems (producing power and heating alongside with cooling) based on solid oxide fuel cell fed by either the syngas or biogas are proposed. The performance of systems is analyzed and compared with each other from the thermodynamic viewpoint. Applying the conservation of mass and energy as well as the exergy for each system component and using the engineering equation solver, the system’s performance are modeled. Through a parametric study, the effects of some key variables such as the current density and the fuel utilization factor in the systems’ performance are investigated. In addition, considering the system as a combination of three subsystems, that is, the power generation system, heat and power generation system and trigeneration system, an environmental impact assessment in terms of Carbon dioxide emission is carried out for both digester based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and gasifier based one. It is observed that using biogas from digester leads to more exergetic (which is 14.56%) and less energetic efficiency (Which is 14.31%), with a Carbon dioxide emission of 17.87 ton/MW h for the tri-generation system. The value of this parameter is 21.32 ton/MW h when gasifier is used as the supplier of fuel for solid oxide fuel cell.

  20. Biogas Production from Local Biomass Feedstock in the Mekong Delta and Its Utilization for a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shiratori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-flexible solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC technologies are presently under study in a Vietnam-Japan international joint research project. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate an SOFC-incorporated energy circulation system for the sustainable development of the Mekong Delta region. Lab-scale methane fermentation experiments in this study with a mixture of biomass feedstock collected in the Mekong Delta (shrimp pond sludge, bagasse, and molasses from sugar production recorded biogas production yield over 400 L kgVS−1 with H2S concentration below 50 ppm level. This real biogas was directly supplied to an SOFC without any fuel processing such as desulfurization, methane enrichment and pre-reforming, and stable power generation was achieved by applying paper-structured catalyst (PSC technology.

  1. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  2. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  3. Biomass as a modern fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.

    1994-01-01

    Case studies are presented for several developed and developing countries. Constraints involved in modernising biomass energy and the potential for turning them into entrepreneurial opportunities are discussed. It is concluded that the long term impacts of biomass programmes and projects depend mainly on ensuring sustainability, flexibility and replicability while taking account of local conditions and providing multiple benefits. Implementation of biomass projects requires governmental policy initiatives that will internalise the external economic, social and environmental costs of conventional fuel sources so that biomass fuels can become competitive on a ''level playing field''. Policies are also required to encourage R and D and commercialisation of biomass energy programs in close co-ordination with the private sector. (author)

  4. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  5. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) and whole crop digestion (WCD) in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehle, Lutz; Stuelpnagel, R.; Wachendorf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Today's bioenergy systems are very different in cultivation, conservation, conversion of the biomass as well as in the form of the final energy. The assessment of bioenergy systems concerning environmental impacts is increasingly up for discussion. Future challenges will be the development of procedures which reconcile high-yielding and efficient approaches with environment friendly production. Against this background the system of Integrated Generation of Solid Fuel and Biogas from Biomass (IFBB) was suggested to increase net energy yields over a wide range of energy crops in order to obtain a higher biodiversity in energy crop cultivation. In the IFBB procedure the ensiled biomass is separated into a liquid phase for biogas production and into a solid fraction for combustion. This work is aimed at the assessment of the IFBB system in comparison to whole crop digestion (WCD). The assessment is based on crop production in a double-cropping system where winter rye and maize are grown subsequently within one growing season. The main parameters investigated are the efficiency of the whole process, primary energy and greenhouse gas savings as well as potentials of acidification and eutrophication according to principles of Life Cycle Assessment. The calculation of energy efficiency shows a superiority of the IFBB system due to a mainly thermal use of the biomass. Savings of fossil primary energy average at a similar level, whereas greenhouse gas savings are slightly higher for WCD. Investigations on acidification and eutrophication show that both bioenergy systems caused higher emissions compared to the fossil-based reference technique. (author)

  7. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  8. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  9. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kW e have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kW e integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  10. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  12. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  13. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  14. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... the chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...

  15. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  17. Holistic analysis of thermochemical processes by using solid biomass for fuel production in Germany; Ganzheitliche Analyse thermochemischer Verfahren bei der Nutzung fester Biomasse zur Kraftstoffproduktion in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henssler, Martin

    2015-04-28

    According to the German act ''Biokraftstoff-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung'', biofuels must show a CO{sub 2eq}-reduction compared to the fossil reference fuel (83.8 g CO{sub 2eq}/MJ{sub fuel} /Richtlinie 98/70/EG/) of 35 % beginning with 2011. In new plants, which go into operation after the 31.12.2016 the CO{sub 2eq}-savings must be higher than 50 % in 2017 and higher than 60 % in 2018 /Biokraft-NachV/. The biofuels (methyl ester of rapeseed, bioethanol and biomethane) considered in this study do not meet these requirements for new plants. To comply with these rules new processes must be deployed. Alternative thermochemical generated fuels could be an option. The aim of this work is to evaluate through a technical, ecological and economic analysis (Well-to-Wheel) whether and under what conditions the thermochemical production of Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) complies with the targets. Four different processes are considered (fast pyrolysis and torrefaction with entrained flow gasifier, CHOREN Carbo-V {sup registered} -gasifier, Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER-) gasifier). Beside residues such as winter wheat straw and residual forest wood, wood from short-rotation plantations is taken into account. The technical analysis showed that at present status (2010) two and in 2050 six plants can be operated energy-self-sufficient. The overall efficiency of the processes is in the range of 41.5 (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline) and 59.4 % (H{sub 2}). Furthermore, it was found that for 2010, all thermochemical produced fuels except the H{sub 2}-production from wood from short-rotation plantations in decentralised or central fast pyrolysis and in decentralised torrefactions with entrained flow gasifier keep the required CO{sub 2eq}-saving of 60 %. In 2050, all thermochemical produced fuels will reach these limits. The CO{sub 2eq}-saving is between 72 (H{sub 2}) and 95 % (Fischer

  18. Thermodynamic modeling and evaluation of high efficiency heat pipe integrated biomass Gasifier–Solid Oxide Fuel Cells–Gas Turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, S.; Schilt, C.; Turker, B.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of biomass Gasifier–SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)–GT (Gas Turbine) systems on a small scale (100 kW_e). Evaluation of an existing biomass Gasifier–SOFC–GT system shows highest exergy losses in the gasifier, gas turbine and as waste heat. In order to reduce the exergy losses and increase the system's efficiency, improvements are suggested and the effects are analyzed. Changing the gasifying agent for air to anode gas gave the largest increase in the electrical efficiency. However, heat is required for an allothermal gasification to take place. A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration is proposed, with heat pipes placed in between stacks in series, rather than the widely considered approach of integrating the heat pipes within the SOFC stacks. The developed system based on a Gasifier–SOFC–GT combination improved with heat pipes and anode gas recirculation, increases the electrical efficiency from approximately 55%–72%, mainly due to reduced exergy losses in the gasifier. Analysis of the improved system shows that operating the system at possibly higher operating pressures, yield higher efficiencies within the range of the operating pressures studied. Further the system was scaled up with an additional bottoming cycle achieved electrical efficiency of 73.61%. - Highlights: • A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration between SOFC and Gasifier is proposed. • Anode exhaust gas is used as a gasifying agent. • The new proposed Gasifier–SOFC–GT system achieves electrical efficiency of 72%. • Addition of steam rankine bottoming cycle to proposed system increases electrical efficiency to 73.61%.

  19. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    , carbon conversion factor in the gasifier and the efficiency of the DC/AC inverter were the most influential parameters in the model. Thus, a detailed study of the practical values of these parameters was conducted to determine the performance of the plant with the lowest possible uncertainty. The SOFC...... fuel utilization will in practice be based on a balance between efficiency and lifetime of the SOFC and is thus a decision of the plant design....

  20. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling. It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  1. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea-Goldsmith, René; Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  2. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  3. Solid TRU fuels and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Suzuki, Yasufumi

    1997-01-01

    Alloys and nitrides are candidate solid fuels for transmutation. However, the nitride fuels are preferred to the alloys because they have more favorable thermal properties which allows to apply a cold-fuel concept. The nitride fuel cycle technology is briefly presented

  4. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*10 6 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  5. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  6. Will biomass be the environmentally friendly fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; Scrase, J.I.

    1998-01-01

    Many influential organisations foresee biomass playing a key role in a future, more sustainable, global energy supply matrix. Countries such as Austria, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, India, the USA and the UK are actively encouraging the use of biomass for energy, and pushing forward the development of the necessary knowledge and technology for modern biomass energy systems. There is a growing consensus that renewable energy must progressively displace the use of fossil fuels, with fears of global climate change adding urgency to this need. Among the available types of renewable energy biomass is unique in its ability to provide solid, liquid and gaseous fuels which can be stored and transported. The potential resource for bioenergy is large, especially in forest-rich nations, in richer countries where there is a surplus of agricultural land, and in many low latitude countries where high biomass yields are possible. Therefore we expect biomass to be an important fuel of the future, but this cannot be taken for granted. The systems adopted must demonstrate clear environmental and social benefits relative to alternatives if the potential is to be realised. These benefits are not inherent to biomass energy, but depend on site- and fuel cycle-specific factors. Life-cycle analysis and evaluation of external costs are important means for assessing the social and environmental pros and cons of bioenergy systems. (author)

  7. Upgrading fuel properties of biomass by torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Shang

    2012-12-15

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal (200 - 300 UC) treatment in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the influence of torrefaction on the chemical and mechanical properties (grindability and hygroscopicity) of wood chips, wood pellets and wheat straw was investigated and compared. The mass loss during torrefaction was found to be a useful indicator for determining the degree of torrefaction. For all three biomass, higher torrefaction temperature or longer residence time resulted in higher mass loss, higher heating value, better grindability, and less moisture absorption. However, severe torrefaction conditions were found not necessary in order to save energy during grinding, since strain energy and grinding energy decreased tremendously in the first 5 - 25% anhydrous weight loss. By correlating the heating value and mass loss, it was found that wheat straw contained less heating value on mass basis than the other two fuels, but the fraction of energy retained in the torrefied sample as a function of mass loss was very similar for all three biomass. Gas products formed during torrefaction of three biomass were detected in situ by coupling mass spectrometer with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The main components were water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and methyl chloride. The cumulative releases of gas products from three biomass fuels at 300 UC for 1 h were compared, and water was found to be the dominant product during torrefaction. The degradation kinetics of wheat straw was studied in TGA by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking the mass loss during the initial heating period into account. The model and parameters were proven to be able to predict the residual mass of wheat straw in a batch scale torrefaction reactor with different heating rates well. It means the mass yield of solids

  8. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  9. Alkali slagging problems with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biomass fueled power boilers are unable to burn more than minor percentages of annually generated agricultural fuels. Determining the mechanisms of deposit formation, and developing means of increasing the proportion of these annual biofuels to be fired are the aims of the ongoing Alkali Deposit Investigation sponsored by DOE/NREL with matching funds from industry sponsors, combining Science, Engineering and Industry.

  10. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...

  11. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  12. NOx reduction using biomass as reburning fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Sheng-li; Lu Chun-mei; Gao Pan; Han Kui-hua; Geng Ping; Cheng Zhong-jie [Shandong University, Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a multiple-functional combustion test bed with several kinds of biomass as reburning fuel to reduce NOx. The character and experimental parameters are, emphasized to examine the influences on NOx reduction. The results show that biomass could get about 55% to 70% NOx reduction. Within a certain range of the parameters tested, NOx reduction increases with the increasing temperature of reburning zone and initial concentration of NOx and with decreasing excess air ratio and diameter of fuel particle. Under the same test conditions, cornstalk gets the highest NOx reduction and wheat straw, peanut shell, wood chip follow in turn. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy; Kania, John

    2018-01-23

    Methods, reactor systems, and catalysts are provided for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals, including methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  14. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  15. Biomass. A modern and environmentally acceptable fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    The energy of the sun and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are captured by plants during photosynthesis. Plant biomass can be used to absorb carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels, or it can be converted into modern energy carriers such as electricity, and liquid and gaseous fuels. Biomass supplies 13% of the world's energy consumption (55 EJ, 1990), and in some developing countries it accounts for over 90% of energy use. There is considerable potential for the modernisation of biomass fuels through improved utilisation of existing resources, higher plant productivities and efficient conversion processes using advanced technologies. The interest in bioenergy is increasing rapidly, and it is widely considered as one of the main renewable energy resources of the future due to its large potential, economic viability, and various social and environmental benefits. In particular, biomass energy is among the most favourable options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Most of the perceived problems such as land availability, environmental impact, economic viability, and efficiency can be overcome with good management. The constraints to achieving environmentally-acceptable biomass production are not insurmountable, but should rather be seen as scientific and entrepreneurial opportunities which will yield numerous advantages at local, national and international levels in the long term

  16. Utilization of gases from biomass gasification in a reforming reactor coupled to an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell: Simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costamagna Paola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the high-efficiency options currently under study for a rational employment of hydrogen are fuel cells. In this scenario, the integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell is a new concept recently proposed by Rolls-Royce. The basic unit of a modular plant is the so called "strip", containing an electro-chemical reactor formed by a number of IP-SOFC modules, and a reforming reactor. For a better under standing of the behavior of a system of this kind, a simulation model has been set up for both the electrochemical reactor and the reformer; both models follow the approach typically employed in the simulation of chemical reactors, based on the solution of mass and energy balances. In the case of the IP-SOFC electro chemical reactor, the model includes the calculation of the electrical resistance of the stack (that is essentially due to ohmic losses, activation polar is action and mass transport limitations, the mass balances of the gaseous flows, the energy balances of gaseous flows (anodic and cathodic and of the solid. The strip is designed in such a way that the reaction in the reforming reactor is thermally sustained by the sensible heat of the hot air exiting the electrochemical section; this heat exchange is taken into account in the model of the reformer, which includes the energy balance of gaseous flows and of the solid structure. Simulation results are reported and discussed for both the electrochemical reactor in stand-alone configuration (including comparison to experimental data in a narrow range of operating conditions and for the complete strip.

  17. Co-firing biomass and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In June 1989, the Alaska Energy Authority and the University of Alaska Anchorage published a monograph summarizing the technology of co-firing biomass and fossil fuels. The title of the 180 page monograph is 'Use of Mixed Fuels in Direct Combustion Systems'. Highlights from the monograph are presented in this paper with emphasis on the following areas: (1) Equipment design and operational experience co-firing fuels; (2) The impact of co-firing on efficiency; (3) Environmental considerations associated with co-firing; (4) Economic considerations in co-firing; and (5) Decision making criteria for co-firing

  18. Energetic and economical comparison for biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galins, A.; Grundulis, A.; Zihmane, K.

    2003-01-01

    The common agricultural biomass, such as wheat straw, rape straw, wheat small corn, wheat forage, rape oil cakes and other, we can use as fuel for heat production. The biomass application for burning depends on economical situation on agriculture and fuel market. Energetic and economical parameters of agricultural biomass are estimated and compared to wooden grain. As parameters for comparison used the biomass heat value Q (MJ/kg), specific cost per 1 kWh heat production C 0 (Ls/kWh) and the fuel consumption per 1 kWh heat production M 0 (kg/kWh). The rape oil cakes have best heat value (20.82 MJ/kg), but cheapest heat energy we can get from rape straw (0.0046 Ls/kWh). Expenses of heat production for forge wheat corn (0.011 Ls/kWh) are alike to wooden chip (0.0103 Ls/kWh) and wooden grain (0.0122 Ls/kWh) (authors)

  19. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  20. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  1. Solid Biomass Climate Change Interventions Examined in a Context of Inherent Safety, Media Shifting and Emerging Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2014-01-01

    benefits over safety concerns seems to run deep and not confined to the realm of only solid biomass. Danish environmental ambitions are very high and the costs to society of introducing solid biomass fuels are breathtaking. In this setting, the general failure to address safety risk s appears particularly...

  2. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  3. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  5. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  6. Recent standardisation work in Sweden related to measurement of biomass fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maansson, Margret [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    Work on Swedish standards for peat and biofuels started close to fifteen years ago. The same technical committee that has the responsibility for peat and solid biofuels is also handling the standardisation work on solid mineral fuels. Its counterpart within the ISO is TC 27 Solid mineral fuels. A number of the Swedish analysis standards are structured such that they define methods for all of the solid fuels in the same standard, with specific requirements for the type of fuel if necessary. By now, twenty Swedish biomass standards have been prepared and adopted, half of them already revised at least once. There are dedicated biofuel standards for terminology, sampling and sample preparation and for determination of parameters such as moisture, ash, size distribution, bulk density and mechanical strength. Solid fuels standards that include biomass and peat in their range of application exist for the determination of volatile matter, sulfur chlorine and calorific value. Solid fuel ash methods have been specifically developed for the determination of unburned material and sulfur content. At the present time, standard methods are being defined for the determination of total amounts of heavy metals in ash, and also methods for measuring the availability (leaching properties) of certain elements in ash, in particular ash from combustion of biomass. Ash methods are of interest because of the focus on the possibilities of returning biomass-origin ash to forest soil as a fertilizer and also to prevent depletion of trace elements caused by the increase in the utilisation of the forest growth

  7. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...

  8. Status of biomass fuels technologies research in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, R.P.; Parker, S.; Glenn, B.

    1984-07-01

    Biomass is a tremendous potential source of fuel and chemical feedstocks. The US Department of Energy has sponsored a broad spectrum of research on biomass at various US government laboratories, private installations, and universities. The status of biomass fuels technologies research in the US is discussed.

  9. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  10. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and

  11. Lignin biomass conversion into chemicals and fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra

    Second-generation biomass or lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a very important and promising feedstock for the renewable production of fuels and chemicals of the future. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, representing 30...... and show similar, although simplified, characteristics to the natural biopolymer. Among them, the most abundant structural unit is the β-O-4, representing approximately 60% of the bonds in hardwood and 45-50% of those in softwood. Oxidative depolymerization is one of the most viable methods for lignin...... valorization. It involves the cleavage of ether bonds, such as β-O-4 and other linkages present in lignin and its model compounds, giving aldehydes or carboxylic acids as products, depending on the reaction conditions used. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, the preparation, characterization and catalytic...

  12. Cost effectiveness of transportation fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Troelstra, W.P.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to investigate whether stimulation of the production and use of biofuels for transportation is worthwhile compared to the production of electricity from biomass. Several options are compared to each other and with reference technologies on the basis of the consumption or the avoided input of fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, specific costs and cost effectiveness. For each phase in the biomass conversion process (cultivation, pretreatment, transportation, conversion, distribution and final consumption) indicators were collected from the literature. Next to costs of the bioconversion routes attention is paid to other relevant aspects that are important for the introduction of the technological options in the Netherlands. 41 refs

  13. Liquid fuels from biomass in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J.

    1984-03-01

    The incorporation of solar energy into plant material through photosynthesis has the advantage that the energy is stored in a fixed form which is relatively stable, but the disadvantage is that plant biomass is not immediately compatible with the use in internal combustion engines to provide motive power. However, by choice of suitable crops, conversion technologies and engine modification it is possible to produce biomassderived liquid transport fuels; either substitutes for petroleum in the form of alcohols or replacements for diesel fuel in the form of vegetable oils or their esters. Using more complex conversion technologies it is also possible to produce hydrocarbon mixtures similar to petroleum. Some of these methodologies are available on a farm or commercial scale now; some are still at the research and development or demonstration stage, whereas others remain speculative. The purpose of this paper is to consider the present state of the art in respect of the production of liquid transport fuels from biomass and to indicate how the various possibilities might fit with present and future energy needs in the European Community.

  14. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  15. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  16. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  17. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  18. Peat classified as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    thousands of years. The report states also that peat should be classified as biomass fuel instead of biofuels, such as wood, or fossil fuels such as coal. According to the report peat is a renewable biomass fuel like biofuels, but due to slow accumulation it should be considered as slowly renewable fuel. The report estimates that bonding of carbon in both virgin and forest drained peatlands are so high that it can compensate the emissions formed in combustion of energy peat

  19. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    }) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  20. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  1. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  2. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...

  3. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  4. A review on biomass as a fuel for boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Abelaziz, E.A.; Demirbas, A.; Hossain, M.S.; Mekhilef, S. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40-50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

  5. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  6. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    Solid biomass consumption, primarily wood energy, is still largely governed by heating requirements which are climate-dependent. The main factor for the European rebound in solid biomass consumption as primary energy during the winter of 2015 is that it was not as mild across the continent as the previous winter. Leaving aside climatic variations, the use of solid biomass for producing heat or electricity has tended to increase in the European Union, spurred on by European support policies. A new consumption record of 93.8 Mtoe was posted in 2015... a rise of 3.8 Mtoe over 2014

  7. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  8. Is biomass always a renewable fuel as guaranteed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    alternative electric energy must be energy which is not produced from oil shale. TheLong-Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector includes such misleading terms as peat, wood and renewable energy resources, biofuels and peat. However, there are also quite correct phrases such as peat, wood and other renewable natural resources, as wood and other biofuels are renewable natural resources. As a rule, wood and wood waste, energy cultures, agricultural, woodpulp and paper industry waste, as well as solid animal breeding and household waste, and also peat are classified as biomass in many countries. Biomass seems to be a more convenient term instead of renewable biofuel. In most statements it is with no doubt classified as renewable resource, while biofuels are not because fossil fuels are also biofuels (or fuels of biological origin) and they are renewable only to a very limited extent. Fossil fuels originated in sapropel and peat, oil and natural gas from dispersed organic matter, too. So, their recovery depends on the speed of accumulation of organic carbon in recent sediments. The recovery should not be a question of what somebody believes in or not. It must not be a 'religious' question but a purely scientific and methodological issue. There is only one condition when a fuel (or biomass as one type of biofuel) is renewable: biomass or biofuel may be considered renewable if they are replenished at a rate which is comparable to the rate at which they are consumed in a country or part of it (on an island, for example). The overused amount is a non-renewable biomass or biofuel. So, the replenishment of biomass or biofuel is not guaranteed. Biomass and other biofuels, including fossil ones, are products of the activity of the sun. There are also other, non-fuel types of energy such as water and wind energy, as well as solar and geothermal energy. They are also considered renewable energy resources as is biomass. All these types of energy (except, may be, the

  9. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....

  10. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  11. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  12. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  13. Biomass fuel characterization for NOx emissions in cofiring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nola, G.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact of various biomass fuels and combustion conditions on the NOx emissions during biomass co-firing. Fossil fuels dominated the energy scenario since the industrial revolution. However, in the last decades, increasing concerns about their availability and

  14. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  15. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    solid biomass leaves the other renewable energy sources standing in terms of use and potential. Primary energy output from solid biomass combustion rose in 2009 yet again to a new height of 72.8 Mtoe, which equates to a 3.6% increase on 2008. The reason for this exploit, which prevailed over the tight economic context, is the resolve made by many countries to rely on this energy to achieve their European electricity or heat production target levels

  16. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.; Easterly, J.; Vence, T.

    1993-12-01

    In this report, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) intends to help utility companies evaluate biomass and wastes for power generation. These fuels may be alternatives or supplements to fossil fuels in three applications: (1) utility boiler coining; (2) dedicated combustion/energy recovery plants; and 3) dedicated gasification/combined cycle plants. The report summarizes data on biomass and waste properties, and evaluates the cost and performance of fuel preparation and power generation technologies. The primary biomass and waste resources evaluated are: (1) wood wastes (from forests, mills, construction/demolition, and orchards) and short rotation woody crops; (2) agricultural wastes (from fields, animals, and processing) and herbaceous energy crops; and (3) consumer or industrial wastes (e.g., municipal solid waste, scrap tires, sewage sludge, auto shredder waste). The major fuel types studied in detail are wood, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires. The key products of the project include the BIOPOWER model of biomass/waste-fired power plant performance and cost. Key conclusions of the evaluation are: (1) significant biomass and waste fuel resources are available; (2) biomass power technology cannot currently compete with natural gas-fired combined cycle technology; (3) coining biomass and waste fuels with coal in utility and industrial boilers is the most efficient, lowest cost, and lowest risk method of energy recovery from residual materials; (4) better biomass and waste fuel production and conversion technology must be developed, with the help of coordinated government energy and environmental policies and incentives; and (5) community partnerships can enhance the chances for success of a project

  17. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  18. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  19. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  20. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  1. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  2. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  3. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  4. Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L.; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward. PMID:24950062

  5. Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-06-19

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.

  6. Tecnored process - high potential in using different kinds of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Noldin Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of the Brazilian Tecnored ironmaking process is its flexibility to use different types of solid fuels, other than metallurgical coke, as proved in the pilot plant tests by extensively using green petroleum coke, biomasses, high ash cokes, etc. Even if new solid fuels not thus far used are envisaged for a given project, thru the bench scale simulator of the process it is possible to predict the behavior of such solid fuels in the Tecnored furnace and establish the best techno-economical-environmental equation for its use. This paper discusses the key aspects involved in the use of alternative solid fuels in the Tecnored process.

  7. 40 kW Stirling Engine for Solid Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Trærup, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilisation of solid fuels in decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only a few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project, a Stirling engine has...... been designed primarily for utilisation of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has...... been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurised crankcase so...

  8. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  9. Trade of Solid Biofuels, and Fuel Prices in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.; Hillring, B.; Nikolaisen, L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, biomass fuels are used in the same geographical region, in which they are produced. In more recent years, this pattern has been changed in Northern Europe by large-scale use of biomass for district heating and a vast supply of recycled wood and forest residues. The trade situation has come about as a result of means of control on waste and energy. Sea shipments allow bulk transports of biomass over long distances at low cost. In most countries, the customs statistics do not record trade in such a detail that the international trade of different biomass types could be identified. Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are already traded in Europe and have reached a level of almost 50 PJ/a. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international biomass trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden and Denmark, but also Finland). Some volumes are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste

  10. Trade of Solid Biofuels, and Fuel Prices in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hillring, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Nikolaisen, L.S. [Danish Technological Inst. (DTI), Aarhus (Denmark). Centre for Biomass Technology

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally, biomass fuels are used in the same geographical region, in which they are produced. In more recent years, this pattern has been changed in Northern Europe by large-scale use of biomass for district heating and a vast supply of recycled wood and forest residues. The trade situation has come about as a result of means of control on waste and energy. Sea shipments allow bulk transports of biomass over long distances at low cost. In most countries, the customs statistics do not record trade in such a detail that the international trade of different biomass types could be identified. Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are already traded in Europe and have reached a level of almost 50 PJ/a. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international biomass trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden and Denmark, but also Finland). Some volumes are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste.

  11. Combining solid biomass combustion and stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemers, W.; Senkel, N. [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], e-mail: werner.siemers@cutec.de

    2012-11-01

    Decentralised electricity production in combination with and based on biomass still finds some difficulties in real applications. One concept favoured in a recent project is the connection of a wood chip furmace with a Stirling engine. Because the direct exposure of the Stirling head causes numerous problems, the solution is sought in designing an indirect heat transfer system. The main challenge is the temperature level, which should be reached for high electrical efficiencies. Temperatures above 1000 deg C at the biomass combustion side are needed for an efficient heat transfer at some 850 deg C at the Stirling engine in theory. Measurements on both installations have been conducted and analyzed. After this, the design phase is started. However, no final choice on the design has been taken.

  12. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  13. Combustion means for solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, D.

    1987-09-23

    A combustion device for solid fuel, suitable for coal, coke, charcoal, coal-dust briquettes etc., comprising:- a base stand with an opening therein, an imperforate heat resistant holding board locatable to close said opening; a combustion chamber standing on the base stand with the holding board forming the base of the combustion chamber; a wiper arm pivoted for horizontal wiping movement over the upper surface of the holding board; an inlet means at a lower edge of said chamber above the base stand, and/or in a surrounding wall of said chamber, whereby combustion air may enter as exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber; an exhaust pipe for the exhaust gases; generally tubular gas-flow heat-exchange ducting putting the combustion chamber and exhaust pipe into communication; and means capable of moving the holding board into and out of the opening for removal of ash or other residue. The invention can be used for a heating system in a house or in a greenhouse or for a boiler.

  14. Microgasification cookstoves and pellet fuels from waste biomass: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microgasification cookstoves and pellet fuels from waste biomass: A cost and performance comparison with charcoal and natural gas in Tanzania. ... produce too much smoke and 40% stating that controlling the air vent is too much trouble.

  15. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  16. Thermal characteristics of various biomass fuels in a small-scale biomass combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shemmeri, T.T.; Yedla, R.; Wardle, D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass combustion is a mature and reliable technology, which has been used for heating and cooking. In the UK, biomass currently qualifies for financial incentives such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). Therefore, it is vital to select the right type of fuel for a small-scale combustor to address different types of heat energy needs. In this paper, the authors attempt to investigate the performance of a small-scale biomass combustor for heating, and the impact of burning different biomass fuels on useful output energy from the combustor. The test results of moisture content, calorific value and combustion products of various biomass samples were presented. Results from this study are in general agreement with published data as far as the calorific values and moisture contents are concerned. Six commonly available biomass fuels were tested in a small-scale combustion system, and the factors that affect the performance of the system were analysed. In addition, the study has extended to examine the magnitude and proportion of useful heat, dissipated by convection and radiation while burning different biomass fuels in the small-scale combustor. It is concluded that some crucial factors have to be carefully considered before selecting biomass fuels for any particular heating application. - Highlights: • Six biomass materials combustion performance in a small combustor was examined. • Fuel combustion rate and amount of heat release has varied between materials. • Heat release by radiation, convection and flue gasses varied between materials. • Study helps engineers and users of biomass systems to select right materials

  17. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of solid biomass in the European Union increased once again in 2013, this time by 2.9 Mtoe year-on-year to 91.5 Mtoe. However there was no straight-out trend as the increase in demand for solid biomass energy was particularly sharp in France and the UK and to a lesser degree in Spain and in Italy - in deep contrast with the needs of a number of major wood-energy consumers, such as Sweden and Poland, whose consumption slipped

  18. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The european Union Member states' political resolve to develop the energy potential of solid biomass has started to pay off, as in 2010 there were clear signs that growth of primary energy production had quickened pace. The output figure rose to 79.3 Mtoe in 2010, which is 8% up on 2009 and deserves comparison with the previous year's 4% rise (from 70.6 Mtoe in 2008). The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009- 2010, demonstrates that the economic downturn failed to scuttle the Member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector

  19. Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for information exchange at the interface between biomass use for energy generation and developers of fuel cells, the workshop 'Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells' was held by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe on 9 and 10 December 1998. The lectures and discussions permit to assess better the opportunities and restraints resulting from the use of biogenous fuel gas in fuel cells. (orig.) [German] Um an der Schnittstelle zwischen der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse und den Entwicklern von Brennstoffzellen einen Informationsaustausch zu ermoeglichen, wurde am 9. und 10. Dezember 1998 der Workshop 'Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren' von der FNR veranstaltet. Die Vortraege und die Diskussion erlauben eine bessere Einschaetzung der Moeglichkeiten und Restriktionen, die sich bei dem Einsatz von biogenen Brenngasen in Brennstoffzellen ergeben. (orig.)

  20. Impact of torrefaction on the grindability and fuel characteristics of forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanphanich, Manunya; Mani, Sudhagar

    2011-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment or torrefaction of biomass under anoxic condition can produce an energy dense and consistent quality solid biomass fuel for combustion and co-firing applications. This paper investigates the fuel characteristics and grindability of pine chips and logging residues torrefied at temperatures ranging from 225 °C to 300 °C and 30 min residence time. Grinding performance of torrefied biomass evaluated by determining energy required for grinding, particle size distribution and average particle size were compared with raw biomass and coal. Specific energy required for grinding of torrefied biomass decreased significantly with increase in torrefaction temperatures. The grinding energy of torrefied biomass was reduced to as low as 24 kW h/t at 300 °C torrefaction temperature. The gross calorific value of torrefied chips increased with increase in torrefaction temperature. Torrefaction of biomass clearly showed the improved fuel characteristics and grinding properties closer to coal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  2. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  3. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  4. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  5. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  6. Commercialization analysis for fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper (P-J) is a predominant forest type in the Southwestern US, and in many areas it is considered a hinderance to optimal land use management. There is only limited commercial demand for the traditional products that are produced from PJ biomass, like Christmas trees, fence poles, and firewood, and their production does not always promote overall land-management goals. This research effort, which is supported by the DOE through the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, identifies commercially feasible energy markets to promote sustainable land clearing operations for alternative land uses of P-J woodlands in Eastern Nevada. All of the woodlands under consideration are federal lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which is supportive of our concept. Three possible markets are available or could reasonably be developed to use fuels derived from PJ biomass in Nevada: (1) The existing market for biomass power-plant fuels in California. (2) The emerging market for fuels for residential pellet-burning stoves. (3) The development of a biomass-fired power plant in the Eastern Nevada Area. The study analyzes the cost of harvesting, processing, transporting, and delivering fuels derived from P-J biomass, and identifies commercialization strategies for bringing these fuels to market. The best opportunity for near term commercial conversion of P-J biomass to fuel lies in the area of entering the pellet-stove fuel market, establishing a 10,000 ton per year pelletizing facility in Lincoln County. Such a facility would have excellent access to markets in Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and Salt Lake City

  7. Anaerobic digestion of solid biomass and biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology from 23rd to 24th February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation and results of the EU project 24biomass'' (Claudia Lutsyuk); (2) The Polish biogas market (Tomasz Surowiec); (3) Presence and future of the biogas sector in Poland - EBE project (Eugeniusz Jedrysik); (4) Modern biogas generation in Poland - Case studies of the company Poldanor (Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen); (5) Low space requirement - The challenge in the integration of biogas plants in existing composting facilities - examples from real life (Michael Oertig); (6) Integration of biogas plants in composting facilities by partial-flow fermentation (Bruno Mattheeuws); (7) The significance of an efficient removal of foreign matter from biomass before fermentation in a waste incinerator for municipal wastes (Stephan Schulte); (8) Sustainable enhancement of the anaerobic degradation and increase of the biogas production by means of ultrasonic treatment - examples from real life (Silvana Velten); (9) Cultivation of energy plants on sandy soils in the northeastern part of Germany (Gunter Ebel); (10) Topinambur, a new sustainable energy crop for biogas generation (Vito Pignatelli); (11) Potential of biogas generation from reed (Vilis Dubrovskis); (12) Biogas generation from maize straw - a new procedure of harvesting and processing (Thomas Amon); (13) Generation of biogas by cofermentation of pig manure and grass silage: a pilot study (Ximmin Zhan); (14) Thermophilic dry fermentation of poultry litter and energy crops for the generation of biogas, organic fertilizer and protection of water resources from environmental damages in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA (John Intersoll); (15) Energetic utilisation of horse manure (Saskia Oldenburg); (16) Realization of the greatest and most modern Hungarian biogas plant in Szarvas (Ludwig Dinkloh); (16) Biogas in Russia - The investment program of the cooperation &apos

  8. Anaerobic digestion of solid biomass and biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology from 23rd to 24th February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation and results of the EU project 24biomass'' (Claudia Lutsyuk); (2) The Polish biogas market (Tomasz Surowiec); (3) Presence and future of the biogas sector in Poland - EBE project (Eugeniusz Jedrysik); (4) Modern biogas generation in Poland - Case studies of the company Poldanor (Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen); (5) Low space requirement - The challenge in the integration of biogas plants in existing composting facilities - examples from real life (Michael Oertig); (6) Integration of biogas plants in composting facilities by partial-flow fermentation (Bruno Mattheeuws); (7) The significance of an efficient removal of foreign matter from biomass before fermentation in a waste incinerator for municipal wastes (Stephan Schulte); (8) Sustainable enhancement of the anaerobic degradation and increase of the biogas production by means of ultrasonic treatment - examples from real life (Silvana Velten); (9) Cultivation of energy plants on sandy soils in the northeastern part of Germany (Gunter Ebel); (10) Topinambur, a new sustainable energy crop for biogas generation (Vito Pignatelli); (11) Potential of biogas generation from reed (Vilis Dubrovskis); (12) Biogas generation from maize straw - a new procedure of harvesting and processing (Thomas Amon); (13) Generation of biogas by cofermentation of pig manure and grass silage: a pilot study (Ximmin Zhan); (14) Thermophilic dry fermentation of poultry litter and energy crops for the generation of biogas, organic fertilizer and protection of water resources from environmental damages in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA (John Intersoll); (15) Energetic utilisation of horse manure (Saskia Oldenburg); (16) Realization of the greatest and most modern Hungarian biogas plant in Szarvas (Ludwig Dinkloh); (16) Biogas in Russia - The investment program of the cooperation ''Bio

  9. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  10. Biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on co-firing olive waste (0, 10%, 20% on mass basis) with two coals in an entrained flow reactor under three oxy-fuel conditions (21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2/70%CO2 and 35%O2/65%CO2) and air–fuel condition. Co-firing biomass with coal was found...... to have favourable synergy effects in all the cases: it significantly improves the burnout and remarkably lowers NOx emissions. The reduced peak temperatures during co-firing can also help to mitigate deposition formation in real furnaces. Co-firing CO2-neutral biomass with coals under oxy-fuel conditions...... the model can be used to aid in design and optimization of large-scale biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions....

  11. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...-AR55 Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. DATES: EPA's denials of the petitions... requires that EPA determine the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel to be used in setting annual...

  12. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  13. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  14. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  15. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  16. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  17. Supercritical Fluids Processing of Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Norman K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-09-28

    The main objective of this project is to develop and/or enhance cost-effective methodologies for converting biomass into a wide variety of chemicals, fuels, and products using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids will be used both to perform reactions of biomass to chemicals and products as well as to perform extractions/separations of bio-based chemicals from non-homogeneous mixtures. This work supports the Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Platform Goals. Supercritical fluids are a thermochemical approach to processing biomass that, while aligned with the Biomass Program’s interests in gasification and pyrolysis, offer the potential for more precise and controllable reactions. Indeed, the literature with respect to the use of water as a supercritical fluid frequently refers to “supercritical water gasification” or “supercritical water pyrolysis.”

  18. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  19. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass is back on the road to growth, which according to EurObserv'ER stood at about 5.4% between 2011 and 2012. Output rose to 82.3 million tons of oil equivalent, which is a 4.2 Mtoe improvement on 2011, whose exceptionally mild winter put paid to the sector's uninterrupted rise since 1999. This growth was enjoyed by all the solid biomass energy application sectors. Heat sales to heating networks increased 12.9% to 7.9 Mtoe in 2012 while electricity production, boosted by coal-fired power station conversions, gained 7.8% to produce 79.5 TWh

  20. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  1. Mathematical modeling of biomass fuels formation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaska, Krzysztof; Wandrasz, Andrzej J.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for thermal and electric energy in many branches of industry and municipal management accounts for a drastic diminishing of natural resources (fossil fuels). Meanwhile, in numerous technical processes, a huge mass of wastes is produced. A segregated and converted combustible fraction of the wastes, with relatively high calorific value, may be used as a component of formed fuels. The utilization of the formed fuel components from segregated groups of waste in associated processes of co-combustion with conventional fuels causes significant savings resulting from partial replacement of fossil fuels, and reduction of environmental pollution resulting directly from the limitation of waste migration to the environment (soil, atmospheric air, surface and underground water). The realization of technological processes with the utilization of formed fuel in associated thermal systems should be qualified by technical criteria, which means that elementary processes as well as factors of sustainable development, from a global viewpoint, must not be disturbed. The utilization of post-process waste should be preceded by detailed technical, ecological and economic analyses. In order to optimize the mixing process of fuel components, a mathematical model of the forming process was created. The model is defined as a group of data structures which uniquely identify a real process and conversion of this data in algorithms based on a problem of linear programming. The paper also presents the optimization of parameters in the process of forming fuels using a modified simplex algorithm with a polynomial worktime. This model is a datum-point in the numerical modeling of real processes, allowing a precise determination of the optimal elementary composition of formed fuels components, with assumed constraints and decision variables of the task

  2. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  3. Propellant selection for ramjets with solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, R H; Lips, H

    1976-03-11

    Ramjet propulsion using solid propellant for post-boost acceleration of missiles exhibits several favorable properties, brought about by heterogeneous combustion. A simplified theory for calculating the performance of possible propellants is presented, and they are classified with respect to maximum fuel-specific impulse. The optimal choice of fuel, from a system standpoint, must consider volume constraints, and defines the requirements for motor geometry.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  5. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  6. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  7. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  8. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  9. Research on burning of biomass fuels, KTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, U.; Zoukatas, N.; Kutscher, E.; Megas, L.

    1983-05-01

    The three main principles of combustion, namely burning over the fuel bed, under the bed, and the inverted flame have been investigated. Combustion under the fuel bed rendered the lowest emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, benzopyrene, particulates and tar. Emission is also reduced by preheating the primary incoming air. Burning of pine gives variable emissions whereas birch tree and lying log gives satisfactory combustion. High flame intensity and Reynolds number of the flame zone in the interval 5 to 8 x 10/sup 3/ also give low emission. A conventional wood burner with its flame over the fuel bed and with a water cooled combustion chamber produces 100 times more carbon monoxide than an advanced construction.

  10. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  11. Association between the use of biomass fuels on respiratory health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-05-06

    May 6, 2013 ... Biomass fuels are thus a major public health threat to workers in this sub-sector, and urgent intervention is required. ..... outdoor environment. Security could ... ventilation in them would lead to health benefits. Based on the ...

  12. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  13. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  14. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  15. Producer gas fuelling of a 20kW output engine by gasification of solid biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingdale, A C; Breag, G R; Pearce, D

    1988-11-01

    Motive power requirements in the range up to 100 kW shaft power are common in developing country processing operations. Producer gas-fuelled systems based upon a relatively cheap and simple manually operated gasifier or reactor using readily available biomass feedstock can offer in some cases an attractive alternative to fossil-fuelled power units. This bulletin outlines research and development work by the Industrial Development Department of the Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute for 20 kW shaft power output from producer gas derived from solid biomass. Biomass materials such as wood or shells can be carbonized to form charcoal or left in the natural uncarbonized state. In this work both carbonized and uncarbonized biomass fuel has been used to provide producer gas to fuel a Ford 2274E engine, an industrial version of a standard vehicle spark-ignition engine. Cross-draught and down-draught reactor designs were evaluated during trials with this engine. Also different gas cleaning and cooling arrangements were tested. Particular emphasis was placed on practical aspects of reactor/engine operation. This work follows earlier work with a 4 kW shaft power output system using charcoal-derived producer gas. (author).

  16. Commercialization of fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzes and defines energy applications and markets that could stimulate the commercial use of Eastern Nevada's Pinyon-Juniper resources. The commercialization potential for producing energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass is analyzed by examining the resource base and resource availability for a commercial harvesting and processing operation. The study considered the spectrum of available equipment and technology for carrying out harvesting and processing operations, investigated the markets that might be able to use energy products derived from Pinyon-Juniper biomass, analyzed the costs of harvesting, processing, and transporting Pinyon-Juniper fuels, and set forth a plan for developing the commercial potential of these resources. The emerging residential pellet-fuels market is a promising entry market for the commercialization of an energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass industry in Eastern Nevada, although there are serious technical issues that may render Pinyon-Juniper biomass an unsuitable feedstock for the manufacture of pellet fuels. These issues could be investigated at a moderate cost in order to determine whether to proceed with development efforts in this direction. In the longer term, one or two biomass-fired power plants in the size range of 5-10 MW could provide a stable and predictable market for the production and utilization of fuels derived from local Pinyon-Juniper biomass resources, and would provide valuable economic and environmental benefits to the region. Municipal utility ownership of such facilities could help to enhance the economic benefits of the investments by qualifying them for federal energy credits and tax-free financing

  17. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  18. Ten residual biomass fuels for circulating fluidized-bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drift, A. van der; Doorn, J. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Vermeulen, J.W. [NV Afvalzorg, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with a Dutch company (NV Afvalzorg) and the Dutch agency for energy and environment (Novem), ECN has successfully tested 10 different biomass residues in its 500 kW{sub th} circulating fluidized-bed gasification facility. Among the fuels used as demolition wood (both puree and mixed with sewage sludge and paper sludge), verge grass, railroad ties, cacao shells and different woody fuels. Railroad ties turn out to contain very little (heavy) metals. Initially, fuel feeding problems often impeded smooth operation. Contrary to feeding systems, the circulating fluidized-bed gasification process itself seems very flexible concerning the conversion of different kinds of biomass fuels. The fuel moisture content is one of the most important fuel characteristics. More moisture means that more air is needed to maintain the process temperature resulting in better carbon conversion and lower tar emission but also lower product gas heating value and lower cold gas efficiency. So, for a good comparison of the gasification behaviour of different fuels, the moisture content should be similar. However, the moisture content should be defined on an ash-free basis rather than on total mass (the usual way). Some of the ashes produced and retained in the second cyclone were analysed both for elemental composition and leaching behaviour. It turned out that the leaching rate of Mo and Br, elements only present in small concentrations, are preventing the ash to be considered as inert material according to the Dutch legislation for dumping on landfill sites. (Author)

  19. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (EURO4M) project experts report that the year 2014 was unusually hot on the European continent, with the highest temperatures on record, following on from 2013 whose winter conditions were also exceptionally mild, and ahead of 2015 which is also set to be very warm. This situation led to a fall in solid biomass consumption for heating across the European Union. In 2014 electricity output increased by 4.5% on its 2013 level to 84.8 TWh, as the vagaries of climate have less impact on demand and it was also boosted by the expansion of biomass cogeneration and new coal-fired power plant conversions

  20. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller [Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  2. From biomass to fuels: Hydrotreating of oxygenated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandarias, I.; Barrio, V.L.; Requies, J.; Arias, P.L.; Cambra, J.F.; Gueemez, M.B. [School of Engineering (UPV/EHU), c/ Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Biomass is a renewable alternative to fossil raw materials in the production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Pyrolyzed biomass derived liquids contain oxygenated molecules that need to be removed to improve the stability of these liquids. A hydrotreating process, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), is commonly used for this purpose. Thus, the aim of this work is to examine the role of advanced NiMo and NiW catalysts developed for HDS purposes in a HDO reaction. In addition, product distribution and catalyst stability are studied against changes in the feed composition, the solvent, and the catalyst pretreatment. (author)

  3. H2CAP - Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Trine Marie Hartmann; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass produces a high yield of condensable oil at moderate temperature and low pressure.This bio-oil has adverse properties such as high oxygen and water contents, high acidity and immiscibility with fossil hydrocarbons. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology...... that can be used to upgrade the crude bio-oil to fuel-grade oil. The development of the HDO process is challenged by rapid catalyst deactivation, instability of the pyrolysis oil, poorly investigated reaction conditions and a high complexity and variability of the input oil composition. However, continuous...... catalytic hydropyrolysis coupled with downstream HDO of the pyrolysis vapors before condensation shows promise (Figure 1). A bench scale experimental setup will be constructed for the continuous conversion of solid biomass (100g /h) to low oxygen, fuel-grade bio-oil. The aim is to provide a proof...

  4. Artificial neural networks application for solid fuel slagging intensity predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakietek Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slagging issues present in pulverized steam boilers very often lead to heat transfer problems, corrosion and not planned outages of boilers which increase the cost of energy production and decrease the efficiency of energy production. Slagging especially occurs in regions with reductive atmospheres which nowadays are very common due to very strict limitations in NOx emissions. Moreover alternative fuels like biomass which are also used in combustion systems from two decades in order to decrease CO2 emissions also usually increase the risk of slagging. Thus the prediction of slagging properties of fuels is not the minor issue which can be neglected before purchasing or mixing of fuels. This however is rather difficult to estimate and even commonly known standard laboratory methods like fusion temperature determination or special indexers calculated on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses, very often have no reasonable correlation to real boiler fuel behaviour. In this paper the method of determination of slagging properties of solid fuels based on laboratory investigation and artificial neural networks were presented. A fuel data base with over 40 fuels was created. Neural networks simulations were carried out in order to predict the beginning temperature and intensity of slagging. Reasonable results were obtained for some of tested neural networks, especially for hybrid feedforward networks with PCA technique. Consequently neural network model will be used in Common Intelligent Boiler Operation Platform (CIBOP being elaborated within CERUBIS research project for two BP-1150 and BB-1150 steam boilers. The model among others enables proper fuel selection in order to minimize slagging risk.

  5. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  6. Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuels in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half of the world's population relies on biomass (primarily wood and agricultural residues) or coal fuels (collectively termed solid fuels) for heating, lighting, and cooking. The incomplete combustion of such materials releases byproducts with well-known adverse health effects, hence increasing the risk of many diseases and death. Among these conditions are acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, cataracts and blindness, tuberculosis, asthma, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the indoor combustion of coal emissions as Group 1, a known carcinogen to humans. Indoor air pollution exposure is greatest in individuals who live in rural developing countries. Interventions have been limited and show only mixed results. To reduce the morbidity and mortality from indoor air pollution, countermeasures have to be developed that are practical, efficient, sustainable, and economical with involvement from the government, the commercial sector, and individuals. This review focuses on the contribution of solid fuels to indoor air pollution.

  7. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  8. 'Reference Biospheres' for solid radioactive waste disposal: the BIOMASS Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Pinedo, P.; Kessler, J.H.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Walters, B.

    2005-01-01

    The BIOMASS Theme 1 project has developed a methodology for the logical and defensible construction of 'assessment biospheres': mathematical representations of biospheres used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The BIOMASS Methodology provides a systematic approach to decision making, including decisions on how to address biosphere change. The BIOMASS Methodology was developed through consultation and collaboration with many relevant organisations, including regulators, operators and a variety of independent experts. It has been developed to be practical and to be consistent with recommendations from ICRP and IAEA on radiation protection in the context of the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive wastes. The five main steps in the methodology are described in this paper. The importance of a clear assessment context, to clarify intentions and to support a coherent biosphere assessment process within an overall repository performance assessment, is strongly emphasised. A well described assessment context is an important tool for ensuring consistency across the performance assessment as a whole. The use of interaction matrices has been found to be helpful in clarifying the interactions between different habitats within the biosphere system and the significant radionuclide transfer pathways within the biosphere system. Matrices also provide a useful means of checking for consistency

  9. Solid fuels, indoor air quality and health: a major issue in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandin, C.; Ezratty, V.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to do a synthesis of knowledge about the relationship between the indoor air pollution and the use of solid fuels ( such wood or biomass) for heating and cooking, from publications since 200 by specifying the fuels, the pollutants and the concerned geographical areas as well as the sanitary effects and more generally the impact in term of public health. (N.C.)

  10. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  11. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Laurel [LanzaTech, Inc., Skokie, IL (United States); Hallen, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lilga, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heijstra, Bjorn [LanzaTech, Inc., Skokie, IL (United States); Palou-Rivera, Ignasi [LanzaTech, Inc., Skokie, IL (United States); Handler, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2017-12-31

    LanzaTech partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Imperium Aviation Fuels, InEnTec, Orochem Technologies, the University of Delaware, Michigan Technological University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and The Boeing Company, to develop a cost-effective hybrid conversion technology for catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived syngas to sustainable alternative jet fuel (SAJF) meeting the price, quality and environmental requirements of the aviation industry. Alternative “synthetic paraffinic kerosene” (SPK) blendstock produced from syngas via “Fischer-Tropsch” (F-T) or from lipids via “hydroprocessing of esters and fatty acids” (HEFA) are currently being used in commercial jet fuel blends containing at least 50% petroleum-based fuel. This project developed an alternative route to SAJF from ethanol, a type of “alcohol to jet” (ATJ) SPK. The project objective was to demonstrate a pathway that combines syngas fermentation to ethanol with catalytic upgrading of ethanol to sustainable alternative jet fuel and shows attractive overall system economics to drive down the price of biomass-derived jet fuel. The hybrid pathway was to be demonstrated on three biomass feedstocks: corn stover, woody biomass, and third biomass feedstock, cellulosic residues. The objective also included the co-production of chemicals, exemplified by 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO), which can be converted to key chemical intermediates. The team successfully demonstrated that biomass syngas fermentation followed by catalytic conversion is a viable alternative to the Fischer-Tropsch process and produces a fuel with properties comparable to F-T and HEFA SPKs. Plasma gasification and gas fermentation were successfully integrated and demonstrated in continuous fermentations on waste wood, corn stover, and cellulosic bagasse. Gas fermentation was demonstrated to produce ethanol suitable for catalytic upgrading, isolating the upgrading from variations in biomass

  12. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  13. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    , poplar) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. For all the different biomasses, the biorefinery process concentrated silicon, aluminium, and calcium in the solid fraction, while potassium and magnesium were solubilised in the process and removed from the solid fraction. Sodium concentrations....... Based on ultimate elemental analysis of all biomasses, the formula for biomass was C6H8.4O3.5, which was used for all types of samples (raw biomass, pretreated biomass, and lignin residue) and can be used in future XRF analysis of samples of similar process and biomass feedstock as those used...

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  15. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, Farshid; Fung, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  16. Comparative evaluation of torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of solid biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambo, Harpreet Singh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comparative characterization of HTC and torrefaction is proposed. • The reaction temperature is the most governing parameter in the HTC process. • The inorganic compositions of biomass were significantly reduced via HTC. • The hydrochar produced at 260 °C shows fuel qualities comparable to that of coal. - Abstract: The work presented in this study demonstrates the potential of using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on miscanthus feedstock for the production of a carbon-rich solid fuel, referred to as hydrochar, whose physicochemical properties are comparable to that of coal. The effects of the processing conditions on the mass yield, energy yield and higher heating values (HHVs) were examined by varying the reaction temperature (190, 225, and 260 °C), the reaction time (5, 15, and 30 min) and the feedstock-to-water ratio (1:6 and 1:12). The results show that the reaction temperature is the most significant parameter governing the physicochemical properties of biomass. Increasing reaction temperature reduces the mass yield; however, it also significantly enhances the energy density of solid products. The hydrochar samples produced at 260 °C show a maximum energy density of 26–30 MJ/kg, with 66–74% of energy retained in the solid product. In comparison, the energy density, grindability, and hydrophobicity of the solid samples produced via torrefaction (a conventional thermal pre-treatment) were considerably lower than the hydrochar samples, even if the reaction time was kept much higher than HTC. Furthermore, the inorganic metallic composition of miscanthus feedstock almost remained unaffected after torrefaction; however, it was significantly reduced (30–70%) via HTC.

  17. Health and Safety Aspects of Solid Biomass Storage, Transportation and Feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppejan, J. [Procede Biomass, Enschede (Netherlands); Loennermark, A.; Persson, H.; Larsson, I.; Blomqvist, P. [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Arshadi, M.; Valencia-Reyes, E. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Melin, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Howes, Pat [AEA Group, London (United Kingdom); Wheeler, P. [Lend Lease, Sydney (Australia); Baxter, D. [Joint Research Institute JRC, European Commission EC, Brussels (Belgium); Nikolaisen, L. [Danish Technological Institute, Taastrup (Denmark)

    2013-05-15

    This publication focuses on the health and safety issues of the supply chain of solid biofuels with the objective to highlight commonly used mitigation methodologies to promote a better working environment when dealing with solid biofuels. It has been compiled as a joint effort by experts active in Tasks 32, 36, 37 and 40 of the IEA Bioenergy Agreement, with their own specific fields of expertise. Only through this cooperation, it was possible to touch upon the full range of issues in one publication that one may come across when developing projects in which solid biomass fuels are produced, traded or used. The properties of a biomass material and the intended use determine how the material should be safely transported and stored. Selfheating, off-gassing and dust explosions are significant challenges for the industry that have already resulted in significant losses of capital investments and even tragic loss of life. Likewise, exposure to biologically active material, such as moulds and spores may form a serious hazard for the health of workers involved. With the growth of the bioenergy sector, it is important not only that opportunities for bioenergy are implemented in an efficient and economic manner, but also safely.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  19. Fuel substitution - poverty impacts on biomass fuel suppliers (Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Many sub Saharan countries view the increasing use of traditional fuels (primarily charcoal and, to a lesser extent, wood) in urban areas as a major cause of environmental degradation. Governments are concerned about the effects of perceived rising costs of traditional fuels on poor households and seek to reduce those costs. Many are also concerned with the health impacts that using traditional fuels may have in households. In response to this, many governments have prompted a shift from traditional fuels for cooking to kerosene, gas and electricity as substitutes, and to energy-efficient charcoal and wood stoves to reduce these impacts. Such interventions can have major impacts on the livelihoods of people engaged in the production, transport and sale of traditional biomass supplies due to the decline in demand for wood-based fuels. This project will quantify the impact that fuel substitution will have on people engaged in traditional fuel supply, distribution and trade and develop a set of recommendations for Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda that will recommend ways to mitigate the negative effects of fuel substitution on traditional biomass fuel suppliers. At the same time, it will address how this can be accomplished while mitigating the environmental and health impacts of continued use of traditional fuels. (author)

  20. Fuel substitution - poverty impacts on biomass fuel suppliers (Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Many sub Saharan countries view the increasing use of traditional fuels (primarily charcoal and, to a lesser extent, wood) in urban areas as a major cause of environmental degradation. Governments are concerned about the effects of perceived rising costs of traditional fuels on poor households and seek to reduce those costs. Many are also concerned with the health impacts that using traditional fuels may have in households. In response to this, many governments have prompted a shift from traditional fuels for cooking to kerosene, gas and electricity as substitutes, and to energy-efficient charcoal and wood stoves to reduce these impacts. Such interventions can have major impacts on the livelihoods of people engaged in the production, transport and sale of traditional biomass supplies due to the decline in demand for wood-based fuels. This project will quantify the impact that fuel substitution will have on people engaged in traditional fuel supply, distribution and trade and develop a set of recommendations for Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda that will recommend ways to mitigate the negative effects of fuel substitution on traditional biomass fuel suppliers. At the same time, it will address how this can be accomplished while mitigating the environmental and health impacts of continued use of traditional fuels. (author)

  1. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  2. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 1: Pyrolysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Mehmet; Kirtay, Elif; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interest in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources and reduce the environmental impacts of energy production. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The methods available for energy production from biomass can be divided into two main categories: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. There are several thermo-chemical routes for biomass-based energy production, such as direct combustion, liquefaction, pyrolysis, supercritical water extraction, gasification, air-steam gasification and so on. The pyrolysis is thermal degradation of biomass by heat in the absence of oxygen, which results in the production of charcoal (solid), bio-oil (liquid), and fuel gas products. Pyrolysis liquid is referred to in the literature by terms such as pyrolysis oil, bio-oil, bio-crude oil, bio-fuel oil, wood liquid, wood oil, liquid smoke, wood distillates, pyroligneous tar, and pyroligneous acid. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in boilers, diesel engines or gas turbines for heat and electricity generation.

  3. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne

    project had as one of its’ overarching goals to improve durability and robustness of the Danish solid oxide fuel cells. The project focus was on cells and cell components suitable for SOFC operation in the temperature range 600 – 750 °C. The cells developed and/or studied in this project are intended......The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...... for use within the CHP (Combined Heat and Power) market segment with stationary power plants in the range 1 – 250 kWe in mind. Lowered operation temperature is considered a good way to improve the stack durability since corrosion of the interconnect plates in a stack is lifetime limiting at T > 750 °C...

  4. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  6. Understory biomass from southern pine forests as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T.T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Monticello, AR (United States); Baker, J.B. [USDA Forest Service, Monticello, AR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The energy crisis in the US in the late 1970s led to accelerated research on renewable energy resources. The use of woody biomass, harvested from pine forests in the southern US, as a renewable energy source would not only provide an efficient energy alternative to forest industries, but its use would also reduce understory competition and accelerate growth of overstory crop trees. This study was initiated in the early 1980s to investigate the feasibility and applicability of the use of understory vegetation as a possible energy fuel resource. All woody understory vegetation [<14 cm (<5.5 in) in dbh], on 0.2 ha (0.5 ac) plots that represented a range of stand/site conditions of pine stands located in twelve southern Arkansas counties and two northern Louisiana parishes were characterized, quantified, and harvested. Based on the biomass yield from 720 subplots nested within 40 main plots, the top five dominant species in the understory, based on number and size were: Red maple, red oaks, pines, sweetgum, and winged elm. Some other species occurring, but in smaller proportions, were flowering dogwood, beautyberry, white oaks, black gum, wax myrtle, hickories, persimmon, and ashes. Most of these species are deciduous hardwoods that provide high BTU output upon burning. The average yield of chipped understory biomass was 23.5 T/ha with no difference occurring between summer and winter harvests. A predictive model of understory biomass production was developed using a step-wise multivariate regression analysis. In relation to forest type, high density pine stands produced 53% more understory biomass than high density pine-hardwood stands. The average moisture content of biomass was significantly lower when harvested in winter than when harvested in summer.

  7. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  8. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  9. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    -chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion (which includes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion). The second model is an empirical 1D approach. The two models need input data such as composition, temperature and feeding rate of biomass and primary air. Temperature, species...... to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo...... concentrations and velocity of the producer gas leaving the fuel bed provided by the two models are compared. A sensitivity analysis with respect to mass flow rate of the primary air is also performed, as well as a further comparison regarding the dependence of the producer gas properties on the initial moisture...

  10. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  11. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  13. Complex plasmochemical processing of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of complex plasmaochemical processing of solid fuel by Ecibastuz bituminous and Turgay brown coals is presented. Thermodynamic and experimental study of the technology was fulfilled. Use of this technology allows producing of synthesis gas from organic mass of coal and valuable components (technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and silicon carbide and microelements of rare metals: uranium, molybdenum, vanadium etc. from mineral mass of coal. Produced a high-calorific synthesis gas can be used for methanol synthesis, as high-grade reducing gas instead of coke, as well as energy gas in thermal power plants.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell field trial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.; Winstanley, R.; Nietsch, T.; Smith, C.; Knight, R.; Seymore, C.

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on issues relating to a field trial of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Aspects examined include markets for SOFC systems, the choice of systems for demonstration in year 2002, the assessment of industrial interest, and evaluation and ranking of candidate systems. The identification and evaluation of interest in field trials, the estimation of the capital and running costs of a field trial, and identification of the benefits to the UK and barriers to implementation of SOFC systems are discussed. (UK)

  15. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  16. Efficient Fuel Pretreatment: Simultaneous Torrefaction and Grinding of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Combining torrefaction and grinding of biomass in one reactor may be an attractive fuel pretreatment process. A combined laboratory torrefaction and ball mill reactor has been constructed for studies of the influence of temperature and residence time on the product yields and particle size...... reductions of Danish wheat straw, spruce chips, and pine chips. On the basis of initial experiments, which evaluated the influence of reactor mass loading, gas flow, and grinding ball size and material, a standard experimental procedure was developed. The particle size reduction capability......, and ash composition, where straw has a higher alkali content. This and other studies indicate that the large difference in the alkali contents of the biomasses is the main cause for the observed difference in torrefaction characteristics. Experiments with separate particle heating and grinding showed...

  17. Liquid fuels from biomass via a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Peferoen, D.G.R. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary process studies on the conversion of various biomass types into liquid fuels have indicated that HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) is more attractive than pyrolysis or gasification. In HTU the biomass is treated at temperatures of 300-350{sup 0}C in the presence of liquid water for 5-15 min. A large proportion of the oxygen is removed as carbon dioxide. In a case study a process for the production of 3600 t/d hydrocarbons starting from wood is evaluated. Six HTU units convert wood into ''biocrude'' containing 10 %w oxygen. The biocrude is upgraded by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation in a central facility. The final products are kerosine and gas oil which may be expected to have excellent properties. The manufacturing cost is 400-450 $/t. (author).

  18. Synthesis gas from biomass for fuels and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2006-01-01

    Making H2 and CO (syngas) from biomass is widely recognised as a necessary step in the production of various second generation biofuels. There are two major ways to produce a biosyngas: fluidised bed gasification with catalytic reformer or entrained flow gasification. The latter option requires extensive pre-treatment such as flash pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis, torrefaction, or fluidized bed gasification at a low temperature. Cleaned and conditioned biosyngas can be used to synthesize second generation biofuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, methanol, DME, mixed alcohols, and even pure hydrogen. The report describes the different technical options to produce, clean and condition bio-syngas. Furthermore, issues related to scale and biomass transport are covered shortly

  19. Concentrations of inorganic elements in biomass fuels and recovery in the different ash fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.; Biedermann, F.; Widmann, W.; Riedl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic elements and compounds in biomass fuels influence the combustion process and the composition of the ashes produced. Consequently, knowledge about the material fluxes of inorganic elements and compounds during biomass combustion for different kinds of biofuels and their influencing

  20. Oil from biomass corncob tar as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, biomass corncob tar oil (B-oil I and B-oil II) was extracted and its characteristics were measured. The characterization data show some similarities and differences among B-oil I, B-oil II and the Diesel: flash point. The densities and viscosities are higher than that of Diesel fuel. The solidifying point for B-oil I and B-oil II were lower than that of Diesel. The heating value of B-oil I and B-oil II were about 85.6% and 87.3% of that ordinary Diesel fuel (OD). The distillation temperatures of B-oil I and B-oil II were lower than that of Diesel fuel, with the 50% evaporation point being as much as 10 o C and 4 o C lower and the 90% evaporation point being 10 o C and 2 o C lower, respectively. These evaporation characteristics implied better cold starting and warm up properties of B-oil I and B-oil II than that of Diesel fuel. B-oil I and B-oil II were blended with Diesel in 10% and 20% by volume. Engine tests have been conducted with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO to evaluate and compute the behavior of the Diesel engine running on the above mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions, together with the increases in torque and thermal efficiency and the reduction in specific fuel consumption made the blends of B-oil I and B-oil II a suitable alternative fuel for Diesel and could help in controlling air pollution

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  2. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  3. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  4. Wood biomass : fuel for wildfires or feedstock for bioenergy ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.S. [Miller Dewulf Corp., Studio City, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The clean conversion of woody biomass-to-energy has been touted as an alternative to fossil fuel energy and as a solution to environmental challenges. This presentation discussed the state of forest health in North America with particular reference to the higher incidence of megafires, such as recent fires in Colorado, San Diego, Lake Arrowhead, Lake Tahoe, Zaca, and Okefenokee. Federal authorities have an increased responsibility to preserve old forest stands; sustain and increase biodiversity; protect habitats; fight fires to protect real estate; and, contain and suppress wildfires. It was noted that while healthy forests absorb greenhouse gases (GHGs), burning forests release them. The Colorado Hayman fire alone emitted more carbon dioxide in one day than all the cars in the United States in one week. It was cautioned that unharvested fire residues contribute 300 per cent more GHG during decay. The problem of forest density was also discussed, noting that many forests on public lands have grown dangerously overcrowded due to a century of fire suppression and decades of restricted timber harvesting. A sustainable solution was proposed in which decaying biomass can be harvested in order to pay for forest management. Other solutions involve reforesting to historic models and mechanically thinning vulnerable forests for bioenergy. In California's Eagle Lake Ranger District, there are 8 stand-alone wood fired power plants with 171 MWh generating capacity. In addition, there are 5 small log sawmills with cogeneration facilities. A review of feedstock for bioenergy was also included in this presentation, along with an ethanol feedstock comparison of corn and woody biomass. Technologies to produce biofuels from biomass were also reviewed with reference to traditional conversion using sugar fermentation as well as biochemical enzymatic acid hydrolysis. It was concluded that woody biomass stores abundant energy that can be used to create heat, produce steam and

  5. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  6. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Rural Development and Technology

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  7. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  8. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An atlas of thermal data for biomass and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, S.; Reed, T.B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Biomass is recognized as a major source of renewable energy. In order to convert biomass energy to more useful forms, it is necessary to have accurate scientific data on the thermal properties of biomass. This Atlas has been written to supply a uniform source of that information. In the last few decades Thermal analysis (TA) tools such as thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermo mechanical analysis, etc. have become more important. The data obtained from these techniques can provide useful information in terms of reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters, thermal stability, phase transformation, heat of reaction, etc. for gas-solid and gas-liquid systems. Unfortunately, there are no ASTM standards set for the collection of these types of data using TA techniques and therefore, different investigators use different conditions which suit their requirements for measuring this thermal data. As a result, the information obtained from different laboratories is not comparable. This Atlas provides the ability to compare new laboratory results with a wide variety of related data available in the literature and helps ensure consistency in using these data.

  10. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  11. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  12. Investigation of Acute Pulmonary Deficits Associated with Biomass Fuel Cookstove Emissions in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Medgyesi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid biomass fuels in cookstoves has been associated with chronic health impacts that disproportionately affect women worldwide. Solid fuel stoves that use wood, plant matter, and cow dung are commonly used for household cooking in rural Bangladesh. This study investigates the immediate effects of acute elevated cookstove emission exposures on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function was measured with spirometry before and during cooking to assess changes in respiratory function during exposure to cookstove emissions for 15 females ages 18–65. Cookstove emissions were characterized using continuous measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5—aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm concentrations at a 1 s time resolution for each household. Several case studies were observed where women ≥40 years who had been cooking for ≥25 years suffered from severe pulmonary impairment. Forced expiratory volume in one second over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC was found to moderately decline (p = 0.06 during cooking versus non-cooking in the study cohort. The study found a significant (α < 0.05 negative association between 3- and 10-min maximum PM2.5 emissions during cooking and lung function measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC obtained during cooking intervals. This study found that exposure to biomass burning emissions from solid fuel stoves- associated with acute elevated PM2.5 concentrations- leads to a decrease in pulmonary function, although further research is needed to ascertain the prolonged (e.g., daily, for multiple years impacts of acute PM2.5 exposure on immediate and sustained respiratory impairment.

  13. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  14. Generation of transportation fuel from solid municipal waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin

    2010-09-15

    Transportation fuels derived from fossil fuels are subjected to the price fluctuations of the global marketplace, and constitute a major expense in the operation of a vehicle. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these fuels contribute to a range of environmental problems, causing poor air quality and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuels created from domestic sources have been proposed as a solution to these problems, and many fuels are being developed based on biomass and other renewable sources. Natural State Research, Inc. developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel which is produced from waste plastic materials.

  15. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  16. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  17. Experimental investigation on combustion and heat transfer characteristics in a furnace fueled with unconventional biomass fuels (date stones and palm stalks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, S.-A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The combustion of date stones and palm stalks in a small scale furnace with a conical solid fuel bed is investigated experimentally. This investigation (to the best of the knowledge of the author) is the first addressing date stones as a new renewable energy source. Different experimental conditions are investigated where different fuel feed conditions and different combustion air flow rates are considered. The major results are given in terms of the fuel reduction rates and the heat transferred to the cooling water flowing in a water jacket around the furnace as functions of time. Combustion of the biomass fuels considered here in the investigated furnace is initiated by using LPG fuel as a starter. The hot products of LPG combustion, which is taking place in a burner built prior to the investigated solid fuel furnace, are allowed to penetrate the conical fuel bed for 2-3 min from its bottom base in the upward direction, causing effective heating and gasification and pyrolysis of the solid fuel in the bed to take place. The resulting combustible gases mix with the combustion air and subsequently are ignited by an external ignition source. The results of the present study highlight date stones as a renewable energy source with a good potential

  18. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tolis, Athanasios I.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  19. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  20. Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saharjo BH, Sudo S, Yonemura S, Tsuruta H (2010 Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning. Biodiversitas 11: 40-45. Indonesian 1997/1998 forest fires resulted in forest destruction totally 10 million ha with cost damaged about US$ 10 billion, where more than 1 Gt CO2 has been released during the fire episode and elevating Indonesia to one of the largest polluters of carbon in the world where 22% of world’s carbon dioxide produced. It has been found that 80-90% of the fire comes from estate crops and industrial forest plantation area belongs to the companies which using fire illegally for the land preparation. Because using fire is cheap, easy and quick and also support the companies purpose in achieving yearly planted area target. Forest management and land use practices in Sumatra and Kalimantan have evolved very rapidly over the past three decades. Poor logging practices resulted in large amounts of waste will left in the forest, greatly elevating fire hazard. Failure by the government and concessionaires to protect logged forests and close old logging roads led to and invasion of the forest by agricultural settlers whose land clearances practices increased the risk of fire. Several field experiments had been done in order to know the quality and the quantity of trace produced during biomass burning in peat grass, peat soil and alang-alang grassland located in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Result of research show that different characteristics of fuel burned will have the different level also in trace gasses produced. Peat grass with higher fuel load burned produce more trace gasses compared to alang-alang grassland and peat soil.

  1. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinan Soottitantawat

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants. This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect are presented. Later, the current important designs of SOFC (i.e. Seal-less Tubular Design, Segmented Cell in Series Design, Monolithic Design and Flat Plate Design are exampled. In addition, the possible operations of SOFC (i.e. external reforming, indirect internal reforming, and direct internal reforming are discussed. Lastly, the research studies on applications of SOFCs with co-generation (i.e. SOFC with Combined Heat and Power (SOFC-CHP, SOFC with Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT and SOFC with chemical production are given.

  2. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Schoots, K. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Columbia Univ., New York City, NY (United States). Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy

    2010-07-01

    We present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combined heat and power (CHP) SOFC systems with an electric capacity between 1 and 250 kW. On the basis of the cost breakdown of production cost data from fuel cell manufacturers, we developed a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall manufacturing costs from their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor, and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the early pilot stage of development, we find for SOFC manufacturing a learning rate between 14% and 17%, and for total SOFC system fabrication between 16% and 19%. We argue that the corresponding cost reductions result largely from learning-by-searching effects (R and D) rather than learning-by-doing. When considering a longer time frame that includes the early commercial production stage, we find learning rates between 14% and 39%, which represent a mix of phenomena such as learning-by-doing, learning-by-searching, economies-of-scale and automation. (orig.)

  3. Medium-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, N.; Kuriakose, A.K. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Materials Technology Lab

    2000-07-01

    The Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) of Natural Resources Canada has been conducting research on the development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for the past decade. Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electric energy in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner. SOFCs are considered to be good stationary power sources for commercial and residential applications and will likely be commercialized in the near future. The research at MTL has focused on the development of new electrolytes for use in SOFCs. In the course of this research, monolithic planar single cell SOFCs based on doubly doped ceria and lanthanum gallate have been fabricated and tested at 700 degrees C. This paper compared the performance characteristics of both these systems. The data suggested the presence of a significant electronic conductivity in the SOFC incorporating doubly doped ceria, resulting in lower than expected voltage output. The stability of the SOFC, however, did not appear to be negatively affected. The lanthanum gallate based SOFC performed well. It was concluded that reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs would improve their reliability and enhance their operating life. First generation commercial SOFCs will use a zirconium oxide-based electrolytes while second generation units might possibly use ceria-based and/or lanthanum gallate electrolytes. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Canada (SOFCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Borglum, B.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: To enhance co-ordination and to ensure sustainable funding of research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells and related technologies in Canada in order to create products that serve the world. Current Research Areas of Investigation: Mission: To provide cleaner air, reduce CO 2 emissions, better utilize fuel resources, increase economic prosperity, and enhance the quality of life in Canada and the world by enabling and accelerating development of the Canadian SOFC industry. To achieve this, we will: 1. Establish national priorities for the research, development, design, demonstration, and the innovation process; commercialization of SOFC and related technologies; 2. Develop a strategy to produce commercial products within 5 years; 3. Co-ordinate activities as one integrated Canada-wide initiative; 4. Facilitate effective access to funding by providing a venue for funders to directly participate in; 5. Provide an integrating and interdisciplinary function to maximize the collective knowledge, expertise, and capacity of the alliance partners; 6. Maintain strategic relevance within an ever changing global context by providing high-quality intelligence. (author)

  6. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Tinoco, Rodrigo; Schoots, Koen; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present learning curves for fuel cells based on empirical data. ► We disentangle different cost reduction mechanisms for SOFCs. ► We distinguish between learning-by-doing, R and D, economies-of-scale and automation. - Abstract: In this article we present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). With data from fuel cell manufacturers we derive a detailed breakdown of their production costs. We develop a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall SOFC manufacturing costs with their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the R and D stage of development and diffusion, we find local learning rates between 13% and 17% and we demonstrate that the corresponding cost reductions result essentially from learning-by-searching effects. When considering periods in time that focus on the pilot and early commercial production stages, we find regional learning rates of 27% and 1%, respectively, which we assume derive mainly from genuine learning phenomena. These figures turnout significantly higher, approximately 44% and 12% respectively, if also effects of economies-of-scale and automation are included. When combining all production stages we obtain lr = 35%, which represents a mix of cost reduction phenomena. This high learning rate value and the potential to scale up production suggest that continued efforts in the development of SOFC manufacturing processes, as well as deployment and use of SOFCs, may lead to substantial further cost reductions.

  7. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Waste derived fuels such as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are increasingly being used in the cement industry as a means to reduce cost [1]. SRF is produced by separating the combustible fraction from industrial or municipal solid waste (MSW). The recovered fraction has a higher content of combustibl...

  8. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  9. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Biomass-Based Fuel-Fed Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Quynh Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and sustainable economical concerns are generating a growing interest in biofuels predominantly produced from biomass. It would be ideal if an energy conversion device could directly extract energy from a sustainable energy resource such as biomass. Unfortunately, up to now, such a direct conversion device produces insufficient power to meet the demand of practical applications. To realize the future of biofuel-fed fuel cells as a green energy conversion device, efforts have been devoted to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials with tunable electronic and surface characteristics to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts and/or as supporting matrix for metal-based electrocatalysts. We present here a mini review on the recent advances in carbon-based catalysts for each type of biofuel-fed/biofuel cells that directly/indirectly extract energy from biomass resources, and discuss the challenges and perspectives in this developing field.

  10. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  11. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2017-07-01

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  13. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  14. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for sustainable energy source that can compete with the existing one led to the discovery and acceptance of fuel cell technologies as a perfect replacement for fossil fuel. The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to capture the heat generation during the process of energy generation from electrochemical ...

  16. Evaluation of design and operation of fuel handling systems for 25 MW biomass fueled CFB power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two circulating fluidized bed, biomass fueled, 25MW power plants were placed into operation by Thermo Electron Energy Systems in California during late 1989. This paper discusses the initial fuel and system considerations, system design, actual operating fuel characterisitics, system operation during the first year and modifications. Biomass fuels handled by the system include urban/manufacturing wood wastes and agricultural wastes in the form of orchard prunings, vineyard prunings, pits, shells, rice hulls and straws. Equipment utilized in the fuel handling system are described and costs are evaluated. Lessons learned from the design and operational experience are offered for consideration on future biomass fueled installations where definition of fuel quality and type is subject to change

  17. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  18. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  19. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...

  20. The regional effects of a biomass fuel industry on US agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at the potential competitiveness of the emerging biomass-based biofuel industry in the current economic environment. A simulation model suggests that a mature biomassbased biofuel industry is potentially competitive with gasoline, and capable of filling a significant fraction of motor fuel supplies. However, the existing land policy has a narrow definition of agricultural land for a biomass-based fuel industry. A broader definition of agricultural land suitable for biomass inputs would reduce biofuel processing costs, relieve the food versus fuel conflict, and increase the net gain to fuel consumers, food consumers, and producers of food and fuel. - Highlights: • We look at the potential competitiveness of a mature biomass fuel (BF) industry in the US. • We model a land policy that allows BF-cattle competition for forage, crop residues, and pasture. • We estimate the cost reductions and welfare gains associated with modifying the land use policy

  1. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    demonstrated; >94% ammonia recovery, >75% sugar yields at high solid loading, and complete utilization of the sugars for ethanol production at the 2500 liter scale. Fermentation tests were performed using Zymomonas mobilis 8b and densified AFEX-treated corn stover at >20% solid loading. The obtained titer (~60g/l), productivity (2.5 g/L-h), and yield (330 L/tonne of biomass) exceeded the performance targets set out by NREL. The key findings from these efforts are: no contamination was observed, no cleanup of the sugar stream was required, and no major nutrient addition was required. Our economic model shows that using a packed bed design for the AFEX process and pelleted AFEX-treated biomass reduces the ethanol production cost by 24% when compared to using the traditional AFEX design.

  2. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  3. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  4. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  5. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  6. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Kab; Kim, Sun Jae; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hoh; Park, Ji Yun; Oh, Suk Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologies that use zirconium oxide as the electrolyte material were studied in this present report. SOFC exhibits a very high power generation efficiency of over 50 %, and does not discharge pollution materials such as dusts, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Zirconia, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia), and La-Sr-Mn-Oxide materials were developed for the electrolyte material, for the anode, and for the cathode, respectively. After making thin zirconia plate using tape casting process, anode and cathode powders were screen printed on the zirconia plate for fabricating unit cells. A test system composed of a vertical tube furnace, digital multimeter, DC current supplier, and measuring circuit was constructed for testing the unit cell performance. This system was controlled by a home-made computer program. Founded on this unit cell technology and system, a multi-stack SOFC system was studied. This system was composed of 10 unit cells each of them had an electrode area of 40 x 40 mm. Based on this system design, large and thin zirconia plates of 70 x 70 mm in area was fabricated for the electrolyte. Different from in the unit cell system, interconnectors are needed in the multi-stack system for connecting unit cells electrically. For this interconnectors, Inconel 750 alloy was selected, sliced into wafers, machined, surface finished, and then Pt-plated. 55 figs, 8 tabs, 51 refs. (Author).

  7. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  8. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Kab; Kim, Sun Jae; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hoh; Park, Ji Yun; Oh, Suk Jin

    1995-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologies that use zirconium oxide as the electrolyte material were studied in this present report. SOFC exhibits a very high power generation efficiency of over 50 %, and does not discharge pollution materials such as dusts, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Zirconia, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia), and La-Sr-Mn-Oxide materials were developed for the electrolyte material, for the anode, and for the cathode, respectively. After making thin zirconia plate using tape casting process, anode and cathode powders were screen printed on the zirconia plate for fabricating unit cells. A test system composed of a vertical tube furnace, digital multimeter, DC current supplier, and measuring circuit was constructed for testing the unit cell performance. This system was controlled by a home-made computer program. Founded on this unit cell technology and system, a multi-stack SOFC system was studied. This system was composed of 10 unit cells each of them had an electrode area of 40 x 40 mm. Based on this system design, large and thin zirconia plates of 70 x 70 mm in area was fabricated for the electrolyte. Different from in the unit cell system, interconnectors are needed in the multi-stack system for connecting unit cells electrically. For this interconnectors, Inconel 750 alloy was selected, sliced into wafers, machined, surface finished, and then Pt-plated. 55 figs, 8 tabs, 51 refs. (Author)

  9. Respiratory involvements among women exposed to the smoke of traditional biomass fuel and gas fuel in a district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Md Abdul; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Selim, Shahjada; Karim, Md Rizwanul; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Burning of biomass fuel (cow-dung, crop residue, dried leaves, wood, etc.) in the kitchen releases smoke, which may impair the respiratory functions of women cooking there. This paper aimed to compare the respiratory symptoms between biomass fuel users and gas fuel users in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews and chest examination of 224 adult women using biomass fuel in a rural village and 196 adult women using gas fuel in an urban area. The prevalence of respiratory involvement (at least one among nine symptoms and two diseases) was significantly higher among biomass users than among gas users (29.9 vs. 11.2 %). After adjustment for potential confounders by a logistic model, the odds ratio (OR) of the biomass users for the respiratory involvement was significantly higher (OR = 3.23, 95 % confidence interval 1.30-8.01). The biomass fuel use elevated symptoms/diseases significantly; the adjusted OR was 3.04 for morning cough, 7.41 for nasal allergy, and 5.94 for chronic bronchitis. The mean peak expiratory flow rate of biomass users (253.83 l/min) was significantly lower than that of gas users (282.37 l/min). The study shows significant association between biomass fuel use and respiratory involvement among rural women in Bangladesh, although the potential confounding of urban/rural residency could not be ruled out in the analysis. The use of smoke-free stoves and adequate ventilation along with health education to the rural population to increase awareness about the health effects of indoor biomass fuel use might have roles to prevent these involvements.

  10. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  11. Upgrading of directrly liquefied biomass to transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevert, B. (Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (SE). Dept. of Engineering Chemistry 1)

    1987-01-01

    Gasoline and diesel fuel were produced from directly liquefied biomass (the PERC process) by: * Extraction of the crude liquefied oil with a diesel fuel type solvent at the atmospheric boiling point of the solvent. * Hydroprocessing of the extracted oil at 370 degrees C and 10 MPa with a suphided cobolt-molybdenum on gamma-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (Akzo Ketjen 742). * The hydroprocessed oil was distilled to produce gas, gasoline, gas oil and an atmospheric residue. * The residue was catalytically cracked to produce lighter products with a commercial catalyst (EKZ-2). The coke is produced in the catalytic cracking step and is used as an energy source in the catalytic cracker and elsewhere in the refinery. In the proposed refinery vacuum gas oil is recirculated through the hydroprocessing unit to improve the yields of transportation fuels. The residue from the extraction step is proposed to be used to meet needs for steam, hydrogen and carbon monoxide in liquefaction and upgrading. Hydrodeoxygenation of methyl-substituted phenols over Akzo Ketjen 742 as a catalyst proceeded by two parallel paths leading to an aromatic product and a naphthenic product, respectively, at the conditions used (300 degrees C, 5 MPa). Kinetic analysis showed both paths to be inhibited by reactant, addition of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. Steric hindrance was observed, and two types of active sites were proposed to be responsible for the two paths. Oxygen in non-volatile organic materials was determined with a modified method on a LECO RO-116 oxygen determinator. (The thesis contains 8 papers and articles. 98 refs.).

  12. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ...... from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...... oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the material inlet end of rotary kilns due to the limited residence time. Several parameters control the rate of char oxidation: a) bulk oxygen concentration, b) mass transfer rate of oxygen to char particles...

  13. Expedient Prediction of the Fuel Properties of Carbonized Woody Biomass Based on Hue Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Saito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Woody biomass co-firing-based power generation can reduce CO2 emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Carbonization of woody biomass increases its calorific value and grindability, thereby improving the co-firing ratio. Carbonized biomass fuel properties depend on moisture, size and shape of feedstock, and carbonization conditions. To produce carbonized biomass with stable fuel properties, the carbonization conditions should be set according to the desired fuel properties. Therefore, we examined color changes accompanying woody biomass carbonization and proposed using them for rapid evaluation of fuel properties. Three types of woody biomasses were carbonized at a test facility with a capacity of 4 tons/day, and the fuel properties of the obtained materials were correlated with their color defined by the L*a*b* model. When fixed carbon, an important fuel property for carbonization, was 25 wt % or less, we observed a strong negative correlation, regardless of the tree species, between the hue angle, hab, and fixed carbon. The hab and fixed carbon were correlated even when the fixed carbon exceeded 25 wt %; however, this correlation was specific to the tree species. These results indicate that carbonized biomass fuel properties such as fixed carbon can be estimated rapidly and easily by measuring hab.

  14. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  15. Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillivan, K.D.; English, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

  16. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    of the syngas predicted by the two models is equal to about 7%. The application to different types of biomass shows that the difference in the predictions increases as the carbon content grows. The phenomenological model, in fact, generally considers higher conversion rates of this element to volatiles......A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...... is treated as a 0D system, where the thermo-chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion. Phenomenological laws are written to characterize the syngas release as a function of the main governing parameters. The second model is an empirical 1D approach. Temperature, species...

  17. Matsalu wetland area biomass as a bio fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, Toenu

    2000-01-01

    To preserve Matsalu as an especially interesting and specific wetland area even on the international scale, the Matsalu Nature Reserve was founded in 1957. The most natural and characteristic bio topes at Matsalu are undoubtedly the reed stands, covering almost 3000 ha. The reed is rather thin and mixed with common hay plants near the land but towards the bay it becomes increasingly abundant and thick. The characterise features of several bio topes at the Nature Reserve (water-meadows, coastal pastures and meadows etc.) can be preserved only by human activity. Without human activity the landscape encompassing coastal pastures and meadows would go through changes and these areas would be soon covered with junipers. The reed harvesting in Matsalu goes back in the Middle Ages and even before that. The reed was harvested mainly in winter and only seldom in summer. The main goal of the reed harvesting was to obtain material for hatched roofs. The reed cutting is economically justified and environmentally benign activity even now, but only less than 1% of the total area of reed stands is cut nowadays. In spite of the fact that reed harvesting is now economical undertaking (export to Germany and Denmark), it could be much more escalated if were possible to use better technical equipment to that end and get low interest loans. Unfortunately, not all the reed in the wetland of Matsalu Nature Reserve is suitable for hatched roofs. Therefore, it is needed to find some other practical usage for reed as well. The most perspective of these new choices is, indeed, to use the reed biomass as a bio fuel for space heating in the local area of Matsalu. According to Matsalu wetland protection regulation, the constant human care of reed stands and meadows is one of the priorities in nature protection for this area. One possible field of use for the cut down biomass is to use it as a bio fuel. It is not only a good chance to run Matsalu Nature Reserve in sustainable way in terms of

  18. Review of the direct thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun JIANG,Junming XU,Zhanqian SONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased demand for liquid transportation fuels, environmental concerns and depletion of petroleum resources requires the development of efficient conversion technologies for production of second-generation biofuels from non-food resources. Thermochemical approaches hold great potential for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels. Direct thermochemical processes convert biomass into liquid fuels in one step using heat and catalysts and have many advantages over indirect and biological processes, such as greater feedstock flexibility, integrated conversion of whole biomass, and lower operation costs. Several direct thermochemical processes are employed in the production of liquid biofuels depending on the nature of the feedstock properties: such as fast pyrolysis/liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass for bio-oil, including upgrading methods, such as catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. Owing to the substantial amount of liquid fuels consumed by vehicular transport, converting biomass into drop-in liquid fuels may reduce the dependence of the fuel market on petroleum-based fuel products. In this review, we also summarize recent progress in technologies for large-scale equipment for direct thermochemical conversion. We focus on the technical aspects critical to commercialization of the technologies for production of liquid fuels from biomass, including feedstock type, cracking catalysts, catalytic cracking mechanisms, catalytic reactors, and biofuel properties. We also discuss future prospects for direct thermochemical conversion in biorefineries for the production of high grade biofuels.

  19. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575 deg. C is covered for ash content.

  20. Experience of more than 1000 h of operation with oxygen carriers and solid biomass at large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo Vilches, Teresa; Lind, Fredrik; Rydén, Magnus; Thunman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • First large scale experience (MW) of biomass combustion at CLC-relevant conditions. • Manganese and ilmenite were applied successfully at semi-industrial scale. • 60% combustion under challenging conditions: 830 °C, over-bed fuel feeding. • Volatiles conversion limited by mixing to a significant extent. - Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the experience gained from operating a dual fluidized bed system with oxygen carriers and biomass for more than 1000 h. The tests were carried out in the Chalmers boiler/gasifier loop (with inputs of 12 MW_t_h and 2–4 MW_t_h, respectively), which is 2–4 orders of magnitude larger than most existing CLC units. Coarse biomass particles (i.e., commercial wood pellets) were fed as fuel onto the surface of a mild fluidized bed. This limits significantly the contacts between the volatiles and the oxygen carrier particles, as the flotsam fuel tends to remain on the surface of the bed while the volatiles are released. The oxygen carrier materials tested were ilmenite and a manganese ore. The influences on biomass conversion of fluidization velocity, fuel feeding rate, and circulation rate of the bed material were investigated. Both bed materials efficiently transported oxygen between the reactors, achieving up to 60% combustion of the gases released in the reactor at a relatively low temperature, i.e., 830 °C. The ilmenite outperformed the manganese ore under the conditions investigated. With oxygen carriers, the yield of hydrocarbons heavier than benzene was in the range of 10–11 g/N m"3, which was 70% (w/w) lower than that obtained in a reference case with silica-sand as the bed material. The conversion of volatile species to CO_2 was limited by gas-solids mixing, which could be enhanced by altering the fluidization velocity. The circulation rate of the bed material and the fuel feeding rate were found to have important influences on the rate of char gasification. Given the relatively low

  1. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO(sub x) pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  2. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  3. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  4. Solid-fuel cook stoves: Fuel efficiency and emissions testing--Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 1.6 million people prematurely die each year due to exposure to air pollutants from burning solid fuels for residential cooking and heating (WHO, 2010). Residential solid-fuel use accounts for approximately 25 percent of ...

  5. Biomass fueled closed cycle gas turbine with water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Silvia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    Direct water injection has been studied for a small scale ({approx} 8 MW fuel input) closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a biomass fueled CFB furnace. Two different working fluids have been considered (helium-water mixture and nitrogen-water mixture). The water injection could take place between the compressor stages, as an intercooler, or after the high pressure compressor, as an aftercooler. Both this options have been studied, varying the relative humidity levels after the injection and the temperatures of the injected water. The effect of water injection on thermodynamic properties of the working fluids has been studied, together with its effect on turbomachinery isentropic efficiency. A sensitivity analysis on turbomachinery efficiency and cycle base pressure has been included. The results from this study have been compared to the performance of a dry closed cycle without water injection. The wet cycle shows an electric efficiency in the range 29-32% with helium-water mixture as working fluid and 30-32% with nitrogen-water mixture as working fluid, while the total efficiency (referring to the fuel LHV) is always higher than 100%. In the non-injected cycle the electric efficiency is 30-35% with helium and 32-36 with nitrogen. The total efficiency in the dry case with two level intercooling and postcooling is 87-89%, while is higher than 100% when only one stage inter- and postcooling is present. Aside from this, the study also includes a sizing of the heat exchangers for the different cycle variations. The heat transfer area is very sensible to the working fluid and to the amount of injected water and it's always higher when a nitrogen-water mixture is used. Compared to the cycle without water injection, by the way, the number of heat exchangers is reduced. This will lead to a lower pressure drop and a simpler plant layout. The total heat transfer area, however, is higher in the wet cycle than in the dry cycle.

  6. Analysis and evalution of selected future biofuel options on the basis of solid biomass; Analyse und Bewertung ausgewaehlter zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffoptionen auf der Basis fester Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2011-12-13

    The aim of this work is starting from the investigation of the technical development prospects along the fuel delivery chain to develop a suitable reproducible tool for the analysis and evaluation of future biofuel policies and on selected fuel options from solid biomass (1. bioethanol by biochemical fermentation, 2. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel by thermochemical gasification, and 3. Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) by thermochemical gasification). For this it is necessary for these biofuels in accordance with the current technology state the essential perspectives for the practical implementation taking into account the short, medium and long term (e.g. time horizon for implementation in up to 5 years, in about 10 to 15 years, or about 20 to 25 years) to identify possible technical options. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, ausgehend von der Untersuchung der technischen Entwicklungsperspektiven entlang der Kraftstoffbereitstellungskette ein geeignetes reproduzierbares Werkzeug fuer die Analyse und Bewertung zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffkonzepte zu entwickeln und auf ausgewaehlte Kraftstoffoptionen auf Basis fester Biomasse (hier Bioethanol ueber die biochemische Fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel ueber die thermochemische Vergasung und Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) ueber die thermochemische Vergasung) anzuwenden. Dazu gilt es fuer diese Biokraftstoffe unter Beachtung des aktuellen Technikstandes die wesentlichen Perspektiven fuer die praktische Umsetzung unter Beruecksichtigung der kurz-, mittel- bis langfristig (d.h. Zeithorizont fuer die Realisierung in bis zu 5 Jahren, in etwa 10 bis 15 Jahren bzw. in etwa 20 bis 25 Jahren) denkbaren technischen Moeglichkeiten zu identifizieren.

  7. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M

    2015-04-14

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  8. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  9. THE DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF SOLID FUELS BY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    BICA Marin; SOFRONIE Sorin; CERNAIANU Corina Dana

    2014-01-01

    The volatile materials released during the heating of solid fuels ignite at relatively low temperatures releasing heat function of their quantity and quality. This heat raises the temperature of the solid residue creating the conditions for his ignition and burning. In the case of burning of the pulverized coal the phenomenon of production, ignition and burning of volatile materials are studied in different articles.

  10. Sulphur capture by co-firing sulphur containing fuels with biomass fuels - optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1992-12-01

    Previous results concerning co-firing of high sulphur fuels with biomass fuels have shown that a significant part of the sulphur can be absorbed in the ash by formation of harmless sulphates. The aim of this work has been to (i) determine the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a bench scaled fluidized bed (5 kW); (ii) determine which operating conditions will give maximum reduction; (iii) point out the importance and applicability of experimental designs and multivariate methods when optimizing combustion processes; (iv) determine if the degree of sulphur capture can be correlated to the degree of slagging, fouling or bed sintering; and (v) determine if further studies are desired. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, a total sulphur retention of 70 % can be obtained. By co-firing coal with energy-grass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced by 90 %. - Fuel feeding rate, amount of combustion air and the primary air ratio were the most important operating parameters for the reduction. Bed temperature and oxygen level seem to be the crucial physical parameters. - The NO emissions also decreased by the sulphur reducing measures. The CO emissions were relatively high (130 mg/MJ) compared to large scale facilities due to the small reactor and the small fluctuations in the fuel feeding rate. The SO 2 emissions could however be reduced without any increase in CO emissions. - When the reactor was fired with a grass, the bed sintered at a low temperature ( 2 SO 4 and KCl are formed no sintering problems were observed. (27 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs., 3 appendices)

  11. Evaluation of pulmonary changes due to biomass fuels using high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Mustafa; Tas, Fikret; Bulut, Sema; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Biomass fuels are frequently used in rural areas of the world for cooking and heating frequently. It has been reported that the use of these fuels causes hazardous effects on the lungs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary changes due to the use of biomass fuels in a female population that lives in our territory by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study analyzed three groups of women. The first group comprised those subjects who were exposed to biomass without respiratory symptoms (group 1; n=32). The second group comprised those individuals that were exposed to biomass and showed respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sputum production, and dyspnea (group 2; n=30). The third group was composed of women who were not exposed to biomass and also had no respiratory symptoms (group 3; n=30). Women with a history of concomitant pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. All groups were examined with HRCT. Groups 1 and 2 (individuals exposed to biomass fuels) had more pathologic findings than group 3 (not exposed to biomass fuels). Ground-glass appearance was seen in 71.9% in group 1, 23.3% in group 2, and 3.3% in group 3. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Fibrotic bands were seen 50% in group 1, 63.3% in group 2, and only 6.7% in group 3 (p<0.001). Exposure to biomass fuels was the cause or predisposing factor for many pulmonary diseases, ranging from chronic bronchitis to diffuse lung diseases. We believe that these pathological changes due to biomass fuels can be detected earlier by HRCT and the diseases might be prevented or treated earlier. (orig.)

  12. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...

  13. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  14. Ash related behaviour in staged and non-staged combustion of biomass fuels and fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becidan, Michaël; Todorovic, Dusan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Khalil, Roger A.; Backman, Rainer; Goile, Franziska; Skreiberg, Alexandra; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Sørum, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The fate of selected elements (with focus on the important players in corrosion i.e. Na, K, Pb, Zn, Cl and S) are investigated for three biomasses (wood, demolition wood and coffee waste) and six mixtures of these as pellets both with and without air staging in a laboratory reactor. In order to get a complete overview of the combustion products, both online and offline analytical methods are used. Information is collected about: flue gas composition, particle (fly ash) size distribution and composition, bottom ash composition and melting properties. The main findings are: (1) complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion; (2) the mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation; (3) the pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation; (4) staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation; (5) staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation. -- Highlights: ► Complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion. ► The mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation. ► The pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation. ► Staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation. ► Staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation.

  15. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  16. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  17. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/ m 2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Solid Fuels in an Inert Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Szumera, Magdalena; Środa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    The paper takes the analysis of thermal studies of different types of fuels. It allowed diversification of fuels depending on their composition and origin. Consideration of coal, biomass and waste (coal mule, sewage sludge) as fuel is nowadays an important aspect of energy in our country. It should be emphasized that Poland power engineering is based up to 95% on coal - the primary fuel. Mining industry, forced to deliver power engineering more and better fuel, must however, use a deeper cleaning of coal. This results in a continuous increase waste in the form of mule flotation. The best method of disposing these mule is combustion and co-combustion with other fuels. On the other hand, commonly increasing awareness state of the environment and the need to reduce CO2 emissions energy industry have committed to implement alternative solutions in order to gain power, through, i.a.: development technologies use of biomass, which is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Poland. The paper presents the results of research TG-DTA fuels made in an inert atmosphere.

  19. Effect of materials mixture on the higher heating value: Case of biomass, biochar and municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumanchar, Imane; Chhiti, Younes; M'hamdi Alaoui, Fatima Ezzahrae; El Ouinani, Amal; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Bentiss, Fouad; Jama, Charafeddine; Bensitel, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    The heating value describes the energy content of any fuel. In this study, this parameter was evaluated for different abundant materials in Morocco (two types of biochar, plastic, synthetic rubber, and cardboard as municipal solid waste (MSW), and various types of biomass). Before the evaluation of their higher heating value (HHV) by a calorimeter device, the thermal behavior of these materials was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The focus of this work is to evaluate the calorific value of each material alone in a first time, then to compare the experimental and theoretical HHV of their mixtures in a second time. The heating value of lignocellulosic materials was between 12.16 and 20.53MJ/kg, 27.39 for biochar 1, 32.60MJ/kg for biochar 2, 37.81 and 38.00MJ/kg for plastic and synthetic rubber respectively and 13.81MJ/kg for cardboard. A significant difference was observed between the measured and estimated HHVs of mixtures. Experimentally, results for a large variety of mixture between biomass/biochar and biomass/MSW have shown that the interaction between biomass and other compounds expressed a synergy of 2.37% for biochar 1 and 6.11% for biochar 2, 1.09% for cardboard, 5.09% for plastic and 5.01% for synthetic rubber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of optimal biomass fraction measuring cycle formunicipal solid waste incineration facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongmin; Cha, Jae Hyung; Hong, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Daekyeom; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2018-01-01

    This study estimates the optimum sampling cycle using a statistical method for biomass fraction. More than ten samples were collected from each of the three municipal solid waste (MSW) facilities between June 2013 and March 2015 and the biomass fraction was analyzed. The analysis data were grouped into monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual intervals and the optimum sampling cycle for the detection of the biomass fraction was estimated. Biomass fraction data did not show a normal distribution. Therefore, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the average values for each sample group. The Kruskal-Wallis test results showed that the average monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual values for all three MSW incineration facilities were equal. Therefore, the biomass fraction at the MSW incineration facilities should be calculated on a yearly cycle which is the longest period of the temporal cycles tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  2. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  3. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  4. Evaluation of next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector, employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eight different alternatives of fuels are considered in this paper: bio-hydrogen, bio-synthetic natural gas, bio-dimethyl ether, bio-methanol, hydro thermal upgrading diesel, bio-ethanol, algal biofuel and electricity from biomass incineration. The evaluation of alternative fuels is performed according to various criteria that include economic, technical, social and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and five alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all alternative scenarios. It is concluded that synthetic natural gas and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector. -- Highlights: •Eight alternative fuels for the transport sector have been evaluated. •The method of the AHP was used. •The evaluation is performed according to economic, technical, social and policy criteria. •Bio-SNG and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable fuels

  5. Factors Contributing to Use of Biomass as Domestic Fuel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass energy dominates household cooking energy in developing countries and Nigeria is not exceptional. However, a number of implications such as indoor air pollution, environmental degradation and social burden have been associated with the use of biomass energy. The paper discusses factors that determine the ...

  6. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, G.

    2005-01-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  7. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  8. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  9. Health impact on women using solid cooking fuels in rural area of Cuttack district, Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsa Mohapatra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 3 billion people use solid fuels (biomass and coal for cooking and heating, and this number is expected to grow until at least 2030. Around 73.7% of households in rural Odisha use wood for cooking. This current study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of solid cooking fuels on health of rural women in age group of 20–40 years and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure to cooking fuels and various health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a village which is under the field practice area of the rural health and training centre, under Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences. Universal sampling technique was adopted for sample selection. Chi-square test was used to find the association between cooking fuel usage and self-reported symptoms. Results: Dry cough was the most common presenting symptom (15.03%, followed by eye and nose irritation present in nearly 12% each among the study participants. Headache, dry cough, and hypertension (HT was found to associated with number of cooking years and was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.03, 0.02 and 0.0065, respectively. Discussion: Our study clearly indicated that the exposure to biomass fuel smoke is significantly associated with the prevalence of symptoms of headache, dry cough, and HT. Further research is required for improving information on dose-response relationships between indoor air pollution and various health effects. Conclusion: The morbidities were increased with increase in duration of cooking . Knowledge related to health effects of cooking fuels seems to be poor among the participants.

  10. Production Of Bio fuel Starter From Biomass Waste Using Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Zaid Mohamed; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic in 2010, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass of which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. The biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce activated carbon and bio fuel starter. A new type of rotary kiln, called Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) was developed in Nuclear Malaysia to utilize the large amount of the biomass to produce high value added products. This system is capable to process biomass with complete combustion to produce bio fuel starter. With this system, the produced charcoal has calorific value, 33MJ/ kg that is better than bituminous coal with calorific value, 25-30 MJ/ kg. In this research, the charcoals produced were further used to produce the bio fuel starter. This paper will elaborate the experimental set-up of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) for bio fuel starter production and the quality of the produced bio fuel starter. (author)

  11. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land: Case of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominković, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of unused agricultural land for biomass and fruit production is assessed. • Technical and energy potential of biomass from SRC and fruit pruning is calculated. • Economic feasibility of CHP plants utilizing biomass from SRC is presented for Croatia. • Sensitivity analysis and recommendations for shift toward feasibility are provided. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused for food crops, represent significant potential for growing biomass that could be used for energy. This biomass could be used to supply power plants of up to 15 MW_e in accordance with heat demands of the chosen locations. The methodology for regional energy potential assessment was elaborated in previous work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10 PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost.

  12. Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Acharya, Harish; Cui, Zhe; Furman, Anthony; Giammattei, Mark; Rader, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo

    2012-12-31

    This document is the Final Technical Report for a project supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FE0000507), GE Global Research, GE Energy, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report discusses key project accomplishments for the period beginning August 7, 2009 and ending December 31, 2012. In this project, pressurized delivery of coal/biomass mixtures using GE Posimetric* solids pump technology was achieved in pilot scale experiments. Coal/biomass mixtures containing 10-50 wt% biomass were fed against pressures of 65-450 psi. Pressure capability increased with decreasing biomass content for a given pump design, and was linked to the interaction of highly compressible coal/biomass mixtures with the pump outlet design. Biomass pretreatment specifications for particle size and moisture content were defined based on bench-scale flowability, compressibility, friction, and permeability experiments that mimic the behavior of the Posimetric pump. A preliminary economic assessment of biomass pretreatment and pump operation for coal/biomass mixtures (CBMs) was conducted.

  13. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  14. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  15. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  16. Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

    1978-06-01

    Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m 3 /GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m 3 /GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste

  17. Solid state fermentation (SSF): diversity of applications to valorize waste and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi-Jiménez, M A; Hernández-Martínez, R

    2017-05-01

    Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes. The success of applying solid state fermentation to a specific process is affected by the nature of specific microorganisms and substrates. An exhaustive number of microorganisms able to grow in a solid matrix are presented, including fungus such as Aspergillus or Penicillum for antibiotics, Rhizopus for bioactive compounds, Mortierella for biodiesel to bacteria, Bacillus for biosurfactant production, or yeast for bioethanol.

  18. Solid fuel residues inventory of fixtures and perspectives. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicocchi, S.; Tenza, A.

    2008-01-01

    The solid fuel residues, so called CSR, represent a fraction with high Lower Calorific value, with physicochemical characteristics conferring them the capacity to replace usual fuels. These last years, industrial applications seem to develop all over Europe. The present study thus sticks to draw up a panorama of the European situation in 2007. It develops the global regulation and normative context in which this waste processing channel must fit, while waiting for the presentation of the new Framework Directive of Waste during 2008, and the initiatives of certain precursory countries like Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. A scientific and technical inventory is presented being based on concrete cases identified within the Community territory. The study examines in particular a representative sample of 11 countries observed (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom) and points out the local context, the layer and the practices developed in the use of this fraction. Finally, the study tries to position the French case in the European overview and highlights certain conditions (success factors, obstacles) allowing the development of CSR channel. Until few time, the CSR channel has increased without established regulation and normative framework. The diversity of the trade names listed through Europe testifies to the absence of common framework. To date, term CSR doesn't exist in European legislation. Only nomenclature NAPFUE (support for the declaration of the emissions in atmosphere) identifies fuels including the CSR. The working group CEN TC 343 (M325 Mandate) indicates that it only acts of solid waste, non made up of biomass, resulting from waste non dangerous and intended to be used in incineration or co-incineration. Regarding to existing European directives, a global tendency for the development of the channel is identified (management of waste, energy, environment). Thus, the objectives of

  19. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  20. Redox Stable Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang eXiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs can convert chemical energy from the fuel directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and fuel flexibility. Ni-based cermets have been the most widely adopted anode for SOFCs. However, the conventional Ni-based anode has low tolerance to sulfur-contamination, is vulnerable to deactivation by carbon build-up (coking from direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, and suffers volume instability upon redox cycling. Among these limitations, the redox instability of the anode is particularly important and has been intensively studied since the SOFC anode may experience redox cycling during fuel cell operations even with the ideal pure hydrogen as the fuel. This review aims to highlight recent progresses on improving redox stability of the conventional Ni-based anode through microstructure optimization and exploration of alternative ceramic-based anode materials.

  1. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  2. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Moritz, Max A.; Williamson, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997–2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216509

  3. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-05

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...... work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...... biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost....

  5. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cells with wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N Frank; M Saule; J Karl

    2006-01-01

    The Technical University of Munich investigates the degradation effects observed on SOFCs when fired with product gases from biomass gasification processes. The TUM has concentrated its research on tubular SOFCs. For this purpose tubular electrolyte-supported SOFCs have been manufactured using commercially available electrolyte tubes, anode foil and cathode paste. The tubular SOFCs were first run with hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Once stable and reproducible results were achieved, tests with product gas from four different biomass gasifiers have started. These gasifiers have been coupled to a gas cleaning device which includes sulphur and particle removal and pre-reforming. Different operation conditions of the gasifiers and the gas cleaning device have been realized and the corresponding fuel cell degradations have been analysed. (authors)

  6. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  7. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  9. Peat is regarded as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry commissioned an investigation on the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas balance in 1999. An international scientist group, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from United Kingdom and docent Atte Korhola from Finland conducted the investigation. The scientist group made the proposition that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable biomass fuel, which is significant from the peat industry's point of view. An interesting detail of the investigation was the calculations, which showed that ditching of peatlands, have decreased the methane emissions from peatlands. Virgin peatlands bind carbon dioxide from the air, but simultaneously they emit methane, which is more harmful than CO 2 emissions. The carbon sink effect of Finnish peatlands is based on the CO 2 binding of virgin and ditched peatlands in Finland. The CO 2 emissions of peat production and combustion are smaller than the CO 2 binding. Virgin peatlands form a relative large source of methane. The investigation shows that when reviewing the effects of all the greenhouse gases on climate, the virgin peatlands may accelerate the greenhouse effect due to the methane emissions. The final conclusion is that ditching of virgin peatlands has reduced the radiation enforcement in Finland in some extent. When a virgin peatland is ditched the methane emissions from it are reduced significantly, and simultaneously more CO 2 is bound into vegetation. According to the investigation the net emissions of greenhouse gases in Finland exceed 10 million tonnes calculated as CO 2 . Of this the share of virgin peatlands is 8.4 million tonnes, which is of the same magnitude as the emissions from peat combustion. The life cycle analysis has shown that peat production should be directed to swampy fields removed from agricultural production. In most of the cases the combination of reforestation and repaludification into a functional peatland ecosystem could

  10. Estimating the fuel moisture content to control the reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striūgas, N.; Vorotinskienė, L.; Paulauskas, R.; Navakas, R.; Džiugys, A.; Narbutas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion of biomass with varying moisture content might lead to unstable operation of a furnace. • Method for automatic control of a furnace fired with wet biomass was developed. • Fuel moisture is estimated by cost-effective indirect method for predictive control. • Fuel moisture estimation methods and furnace control algorithm were validated in an industrial boiler. - Abstract: In small countries like Lithuania with a widespread district heating system, 5–10 MW moving grate biomass furnaces equipped with water boilers and condensing economisers are widely used. Such systems are designed for firing biomass fuels; however, varying fuel moisture, mostly in the range from 30% to 60%, complicates the automated operation. Without manual adjustment of the grate motion mode and other parameters, unstable operation or even extinction of the furnace is possible. To ensure stable furnace operation with moist fuel, the indirect method to estimate the fuel moisture content was developed based on the heat balance of the flue gas condensing economiser. The developed method was implemented into the automatic control unit of the furnace to estimate the moisture content in the feedstock and predictively adjust the furnace parameters for optimal fuel combustion. The indirect method based on the economiser heat balance was experimentally validated in a 6 MW grate-fired furnace fuelled by biomass with moisture contents of 37, 46, 50, 54 and 60%. The analysis shows that the estimated and manually measured values of the fuel moisture content do not differ by more than 3%. This deviation indicates that the indirect fuel moisture calculation method is sufficiently precise and the calculated moisture content varies proportionally to changes in the thermal capacity of the economiser. By smoothing the data using sliding weighted averaging, the oscillations of the fuel moisture content were identified.

  11. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  12. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  13. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  14. Improving the performance of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Halinen, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can provide power production at a high electrical efficiency and with very low emissions. Furthermore, they retain their high electrical efficiency over a wide range of output power and offer good fuel flexibility, which makes them well suited for a range of applications. Currently SOFC systems are under investigation by researchers as well as being developed by industrial manufacturers. The first commercial SOFC systems have been on the market for some...

  15. Biomass Processing using Ionic Liquids for Jet Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-09

    either water (W) or ethanol (E) as the nonsolvent and (bottom) enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulose conversion ) of the samples. PILs for Lignin Dissolution...of lignin) with IL dissolution of biomass has been demonstrated to be a highly effective pretreatment method for the conversion of raw cornstover...into glucose—this enables the rapid conversion (hydrolysis) of the biomass , while minimizing the amount of enzyme necessary (also a crucial issue for

  16. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  17. Occurrence of bromine in fluidised bed combustion of solid recovered fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainikka, P.

    2011-12-15

    Corrosive ash species are the single most important factor limiting the electric efficiency of steam boiler plants fired with waste or biomass. Chlorine has been found to have a central role in the chemistry involved as it reduces the melting temperature of ash, forms corrosive vapour and gas species in the furnace and halogenated deposits on boiler heat transfer surfaces. In this context chlorine has been extensively researched. At the time of writing this thesis there was hardly any published data available on the occurrence of bromine (Br) in the aforementioned context. The objective of this work was to review the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels and characterise the behaviour of bromine in full-scale fluidised bed combustion. The review on the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels revealed that in anthropogenic wastes bromine is mainly found in connection to flame retarded substances. Several weight percentages of bromine can be found in plastics treated with brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Bromine is typically found some 100-200 mg kg-1 in mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW). Bromine may be enriched in fuels with high share of plastics, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF) or refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 2000 mg kg-1 was found as a monthly average in SRF, typical levels being 20-200 mg kg-1. Wastewater sludge from paper mills may contain bromine 20-100 mg kg-1 due the use of bromine based biocides. In other fuels bromine may be found in significant amounts in marine influenced coal deposits and peat as well as in biomass treated with brominated pesticides. In the experimental part SRF, spruce bark and wastewater sludge from a paper mill were co-fired in a full- scale bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler, and the collected fuels, aerosols and waterwall deposits were analysed with the focus on the fate of bromine. Bromine was mainly found to form water soluble high vapour pressure alkali metal halides in the furnace - in the form of KBr(g) and NaBr(g) as

  18. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  20. Solid fuels. Coal. Economy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, F.; Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The share of coal in the world energy mix (25%) and its possible increase during the next decades is due to its specific use in steelmaking industry and to its excellent competitiveness in fossil-fuel power plants with respect to other energy sources. Its inferior energy efficiency is compensated by lower and more stable prices on international markets. This situation is explained by a strong competition and abundant reserves. However, coal is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases and would be temporarily penalized by the implementation of emission tax or trading systems before the development of carbon sequestration systems. This article presents: the main world markets (consumption per sector of activity, power generation market, coke market, start-up of a synthetic fuels market), the main international coal producers and traders (overview and typology, international trades, transport), the reserves and resources, and the worldwide perspectives (2050 scenarios, climatic risks, CO 2 prices and technological changes). (J.S.)

  1. A Systematic Review of Innate Immunomodulatory Effects of Household Air Pollution Secondary to the Burning of Biomass Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Kinney, Patrick; Chillrud, Steve; Jack, Darby

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP)-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause 455,000 deaths and a loss of 39.1 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of HAP are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of all studies examining the mechanisms underlying the relationship between HAP secondary to solid fuel exposure and acute lower respiratory tract infection to evaluate current available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities. We conducted and report on studies in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In all, 133 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely study design and outcome, including in vivo versus in vitro and pollutants analyzed. Thirty-six studies were included in a nonexhaustive review of the innate immune system effects of ambient air pollution, traffic-related air pollution, or wood smoke exposure of developed country origin. Seventeen studies investigated the effects of HAP-associated solid fuel (biomass or coal smoke) exposure on airway inflammation and innate immune system function. Particulate matter may modulate the innate immune system and increase susceptibility to infection through a) alveolar macrophage-driven inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of barrier defenses; b) alterations in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing; and c) increased susceptibility to infection via upregulation of receptors involved in pathogen invasion. HAP secondary to the burning of biomass fuels alters innate immunity, predisposing children to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Data from biomass exposure in developing countries are scarce. Further study is needed to define the inflammatory response, alterations in phagocytic function, and upregulation of receptors important in bacterial and viral

  2. Air Quality and Acute Respiratory Illness in Biomass Fuel using homes in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didn’t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modenbach, Alicia A.; Nokes, Sue E.

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the unit operation in the lignocellulose conversion process that utilizes enzymes to depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass. The saccharide components released are the feedstock for fermentation. When performed at high-solids loadings (≥15% solids, w/w), enzymatic hydrolysis potentially offers many advantages over conversions performed at low- or moderate-solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations and decreased capital and operating costs. The goal of this review is to provide a consolidated source of information on studies using high-solids loadings in enzymatic hydrolysis. Included in this review is a brief discussion of the limitations, such as a lack of available water, difficulty with mixing and handling, insufficient mass and heat transfer, and increased concentration of inhibitors, associated with the use of high solids, as well as descriptions and findings of studies that performed enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings. Reactors designed and/or equipped for improved handling of high-solids slurries are also discussed. Lastly, this review includes a brief discussion of some of the operations that have successfully scaled-up and implemented high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis at pilot- and demonstration-scale facilities. -- Highlights: •High solids enzymatic hydrolysis needed for conversion process to be cost-effective. •Limitations must be addressed before benefits of high-solid loadings fully realized. •Some success with high-solids loadings at pilot and demonstration scale

  4. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  5. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  6. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. (focus issue review)

  7. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. PMID:27877800

  8. Design of an extrusion screw and solid fuel produced from coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhiyanon, T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to design an extrusion screw to produce biomass solid fuel in a cold extrusion process, and investigate the effects of molasses used as a selected adhesive on the physical properties of extruded products. The material employed consisted of crushed coconut shell char and coconut fiber char mixed at a ratio of 40:60. The ratios of molasses in the mixture were 10:100, 15:100 and 20:100 (by weight and the extrusion die angles were 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 degrees gradation per experiment. The experimental results showed that the newly designed screw could function properly in the output range 0.75-0.90 kg/min, which is close to the design value. Regarding the molasses's effect on solid fuel properties, increasing the share of molasses was positive for both output and strength of the resulting briquettes, whereas the results of increasing die angle showed decreases in both output and strength. The compressive strength varied between 2.49-2.87 MPa in all circumstances, which was considerably higher than acceptable industrial level. Furthermore, the extruded solid fuel showed excellent resistance to impact force. Regarding energy consumption, the amount of electrical energy used in the extrusion process was insignificant, ranging between 0.040-0.079 kWh/kg.

  9. Influence of diligent disintegration on anaerobic biomass and performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyalakshmi, Palanisamy; Murugan, Devaraj; Rai, Chockalingam Lajapathi

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) by increasing the surface area of cathode and diligent mechanical disintegration of anaerobic biomass. Tannery effluent and anaerobic biomass were used. The increase in surface area of the cathode resulted in 78% COD removal, with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 675 mV, 147 mA m -2 , 33 mW m -2 and 3.5%, respectively. The work coupled with increased surface area of the cathode with diligent mechanical disintegration of the biomass, led to a further increase in COD removal of 82% with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 748 mV, 229 mA m -2 , 78 mW m -2 and 6% respectively. Mechanical disintegration of the biomass along with increased surface area of cathode enhances power generation in vertical MFC reactors using tannery effluent as fuel.

  10. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Kinetic and geometric aspects of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the main factors controlling the performance of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes, emphasizing the most widely chosen anodes and cathodes, Ni-YSZ and LSM-YSZ. They are often applied as composites (mixtures) of the electron conducting electrode material...

  12. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  13. Quantification of fusion in ashes from solid fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    The fusion of ashes produced during solid fuel combustion greatly affects the tendency of these ashes to cause operational problems in utility boilers. In this paper, a new and quantitative laboratory method for assessing the fusion of ashes based on simultaneous thermal analysis, STA, is described...

  14. ATTACK ON WATER BY CARBON OF SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a continuous method for attack of high temperature water steam by carbon of solid fuel (coke. Design of water-coal gas generator and experimental stand, methodology for  measurements of parameters of water-coal gasification are described in the paper.

  15. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  16. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  17. Biomass fuel use by the rural households in Chittagong region, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesh Miah; Romel Ahmed; Mohammad Belal Uddin [University of Chittagong (Bulgaria). Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences

    2003-05-01

    An exploratory survey was carried out to assess biomass fuel use by the rural households in the Chittagong region, Bangladesh. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to perform the study. Based on the monthly income, respondents were categorized into rich, medium and poor and a total of 45 homesteads, 15 from each category were selected randomly for the study. The study revealed that stems, branches, leaves of trees and agricultural residues were the biomass fuel used by the respondents. Market, homestead, agricultural field, secondary forests/plantation were the sources of biomass fuel identified. Male and female were identified as the major collectors of fuelwood from the nearby forests/plantations and homesteads, respectively. Six fuelwood species were identified as the most preferred in the study area. The study identified the rainy season as the woodfuel shortage period spanning between May and August. (author)

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  19. A development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hee Chun; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwy Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Kim, Ho Ki; Kim, Young Sik; Mun, Sung In; Eom, Sung Wuk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cell which was consisted of ceramics has high power density and is very simple in shape. The project named A development of SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) technology is to develop the unit cell fabrication processing and to evaluate the unit cell of solid oxide full cell. In this project, a manufacturing process of cathode by citrate method and polymeric precursor methods were established. By using tape casting method, high density thin electrolyte was manufactured and has high performance. Unit cell composed with La{sub 17}Sr{sub 13}Mn{sub 3} as cathode, 8YSZ electrolyte and 50% NiYSZ anode had a performance of O.85 W/cm{sup 2} and recorded 510 hours operation time. On the basis of these results. 100 cm{sup 2} class unit cell will be fabricated and tests in next program (author). 59 refs., 120 figs.

  20. A development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hee Chun; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwy Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Kim, Ho Ki; Kim, Young Sik; Mun, Sung In; Eom, Sung Wuk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cell which was consisted of ceramics has high power density and is very simple in shape. The project named A development of SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) technology is to develop the unit cell fabrication processing and to evaluate the unit cell of solid oxide full cell. In this project, a manufacturing process of cathode by citrate method and polymeric precursor methods were established. By using tape casting method, high density thin electrolyte was manufactured and has high performance. Unit cell composed with La{sub 17}Sr{sub 13}Mn{sub 3} as cathode, 8YSZ electrolyte and 50% NiYSZ anode had a performance of O.85 W/cm{sup 2} and recorded 510 hours operation time. On the basis of these results. 100 cm{sup 2} class unit cell will be fabricated and tests in next program (author). 59 refs., 120 figs.

  1. Combustion of biomass-derived, low caloric value, fuel gas in a gasturbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delf (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    The use of biomass and biomass/coal mixtures to produce electricity and heat reduces the net emissions of CO{sub 2}, contributes to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, helps to reduce the waste problem and saves finite fossil fuel reserves. Pressurised fluidised bed gasification followed by an adequate gas cleaning system, a gas turbine and a steam turbine, is a potential attractive way to convert biomass and biomass/coal mixtures. To develop and validate mathematical models, which can be used to design and operate Biomass-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) systems, a Process Development Unit (PPDU) with a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW{sub th}, located at the Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands is being used. The combustor forms an integral part of this facility. Recirculated flue gas is used to cool the wall of the combustor. (orig.)

  2. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Plasma Technologies of Solid Fuels Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    Use of fuel processing plasma technologies improves ecological and economical indexes of low-grade coal utilization at thermal power plants. This paper presents experimental plasma plant 70 k W of power and 11 kg per hour of coal productivity. On the base of material and heat balances integral indexes of the process of plasma gasification of Podmoskovny brown coal 48% of ash content were found. Synthesis gas with concentration 85.2% was got. Hydrogen concentration in the synthesis gas was higher than carbon monoxide one. Ratio H 2 :CO in synthesis gas was 1.4-1.5. It was shown that steam consumption and temperature of the process increase causes H 2 concentration and coal gasification degree increase. Fulfilled experiments and comparison of their result with theoretical investigations allowed creating pilot experimental plant for plasma processing of low-grade coals. The power of the pilot plant is 1000 k W and coal productivity is 300 kg/h. (author)

  6. Carbonization plant for low temperature carbonization of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-02-13

    A carbonization plant for the low-temperature carbonization of solid fuels, consists of a heat-treating retort including an outer vertical stationary tube, a second inner tube coaxial with the first tube, adapted to rotate round its axis and defining the first tube, and an annular gap where the solid fuel is treated. The inside of the inner tube is divided in two parts, the first fed with superheated steam which is introduced into the annular gap through vents provided in the wall of the inner tube, the second part communicating with the gap by means of vents provided in the wall of the inner tube through which gases and oil vapors evolved from the fuel are evacuated. A combustion furnace is provided in which the hot solid residues evacuated at the bottom of the annular gap are burned and from which hot fumes are evacuated, a conduit surrounding, in the form of a helical flue, outer cylinder of the retort, and in which flow hot fumes; a preliminary drier for the raw solid fuel heated by the whole or a part of the fumes evacuated from the combustion furnace. Means for bringing solid fuels from the outlet of the preliminary drier to the upper inlet of the gap of the retort a pipe line receiving steam and bringing it into the first inside part of the inner tube, this pipe line has portions located within the conduit for the fumes in order to superheat the steam, and an expansion chamber in which the gases and oil vapors are trapped at the bottom of the second inside part of the inner tube are included.

  7. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  8. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized ... fossil fuel in the world market is impacting negatively ... useful products that can be applied in many sectors ... at 350 µm, 250 µm and 150 µm with Octagon digital ... formula is one of the models developed to accurately.

  9. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a process that can convert woody biomass to a crude bio-oil (pyrolysis oil). However, some of these compounds : contribute to bio-oil shelf life instability and difficulty in refining. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-o...

  10. Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Magnus Zingler; Høj, Martin; Gabrielsen, Jostein

    2017-01-01

    due to coking of the catalyst is an inhibitive problem for this technology. The objective of the present work is to produce oxygen free gasoline and diesel from biomass by hydrogen assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis of beech wood has been performed in high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere...

  11. Fuel pellets from biomass - Processing, bonding, raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    2011-12-15

    The present study investigates several important aspects of biomass pelletization. Seven individual studies have been conducted and linked together, in order to push forward the research frontier of biomass pelletization processes. The first study was to investigate influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical properties of the formed pellets. The outcome of this study resulted in study four and five investigating the role of lignin glass transition for biomass pelletization. It was demonstrated that the softening temperature of lignin was dependent on species and moisture content. In typical processing conditions and at 8% (wt) moisture content, transitions were identified to be at approximately 53-63 deg. C for wheat straw and about 91 deg. C for spruce lignin. Furthermore, the effects of wheat straw extractives on the pelletizing properties and pellet stability were investigated. The sixth and seventh study applied the developed methodology to test the pelletizing properties of thermally pre-treated (torrefied) biomass from spruce and wheat straw. The results indicated that high torrefaction temperatures above 275 deg

  12. Emission of Metals from Pelletized and Uncompressed Biomass Fuels Combustion in Rural Household Stoves in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Effort of reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries may require an increasing utilization of biomass fuels. Biomass pellets seem well-suited for residential biomass markets. However, there is limited quantitative information on pollutant emissions from biomass pellets burning, especially those measured in real applications. In this study, biomass pellets and raw biomass fuels were burned in a pellet burner and a conventional stove respectively, in rural households, and metal emissions were determined. Results showed that the emission factors (EFs) ranged 3.20-5.57 (Pb), 5.20-7.58 (Cu), 0.11-0.23 (Cd), 12.67-39.00 (As), 0.59-1.31 mg/kg (Ni) for pellets, and 0.73-1.34 (Pb), 0.92-4.48 (Cu), 0.08-0.14 (Cd), 7.29-13.22 (As), 0.28-0.62 (Ni) mg/kg for raw biomass. For unit energy delivered to cooking vessels, the EFs ranged 0.42-0.77 (Pb), 0.79-1.16 (Cu), 0.01-0.03 (Cd), 1.93-5.09 (As), 0.08-0.19 mg/MJ (Ni) for pellets, and 0.30-0.56 (Pb), 0.41-1.86 (Cu), 0.04-0.06 (Cd), 3.25-5.49 (As), 0.12-0.26 (Ni) mg/MJ for raw biomass. This study found that moisture, volatile matter and modified combustion efficiency were the important factors affecting metal emissions. Comparisons of the mass-based and task-based EFs found that biomass pellets produced higher metal emissions than the same amount of raw biomass. However, metal emissions from pellets were not higher in terms of unit energy delivered.

  13. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  14. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  15. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  16. Predictors and respiratory depositions of airborne endotoxin in homes using biomass fuels and LPG gas for cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya K; Adhikari, Atin; Satapathy, Prakasini; Patra, Alok K; Chandel, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the presence of endotoxin in indoor air and its role in respiratory morbidities. Burning of household fuels including unprocessed wood and dried animal dung could be a major source of endotoxin in homes. We measured endotoxin levels in different size fractions of airborne particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1), and estimated the deposition of particle-bound endotoxin in the respiratory tract. The study was carried out in homes burning solid biomass fuel (n=35) and LPG (n=35). Sample filters were analyzed for endotoxin and organic carbon (OC) content. Household characteristics including temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels were also recorded. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate the contributing factors for airborne endotoxin. Respiratory deposition doses were calculated using a computer-based model. We found a higher endotoxin concentration in PM2.5 fractions of the particle in both LPG (median: 110, interquartile range (IQR) 100-120 EU/m 3 ) and biomass (median: 350, IQR: 315-430 EU/m 3 ) burning homes. In the multivariate-adjusted model, burning of solid biomass fuel (β: 67; 95% CI: 10.5-124) emerged as the most significant predictor followed by OC (β: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.7-6.8), RH (β: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.76-2.4), and PM2.5 (β: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) for airborne endotoxin (P<0.05). We also observed an interaction between PM organic carbon content and household fuel in predicting the endotoxin levels. The model calculations showed that in biomass burning homes, total endotoxin deposition was higher among infants (59%) than in adult males (47%), of which at least 10% of inhaled endotoxin is deposited in the alveolar region of the lung. These results indicate that fine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of endotoxin in the alveolar region of the lung. Considering the paramount role of endotoxin exposure, and the source and timing of exposure on respiratory health, additional

  17. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe - Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedinungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 14th international conference 'Energetical use of renewable fuels' at Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) at 11th and 12th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) State of the legislation procedure for the revision of the Renewable Energy Resources Act and Renewable Energy Resources Heat Act (Bernhard Dreher); (b) Power generation from biomass - A task of investigation? (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) A physical-chemical online analysis of fine dust emissions from wood furnaces (Michael Sattler, Christian Gaegauf, Nicolas Meyer, Maaren Heringa); (d) Actual state of standardization of biogenic solid fuels (Andreas Neff, Frank Baur); (e) Combined heat and power coupling with thermal gasification of biomass - State of the art and actual developments (Juergen Karl); (f) Wood power generation in the practice - Possibilities and potentials (Michael Hoeffling); (g) Biological natural gas - An analysis and evaluation (Alexander Vogel, Stephan Ramesohl); (h) Digestion of biomass ensures a high yield of biogas (Thilo Lehmann, Christina Dornack); (i) Market for wood pellets in the Federal Republic of Germany - State of the art, development, perspectives (Martin Bentele); (j) Report on the expert opinion ''Utilization of biomass for power generation'' of the Scientific Advisory Council agrarian policy at BMELV (Thomas De Witte); (k) About the ecology of short rotation plants (Heino Wolf); (l) Generation of electricity and heat on the basis of straw - The first straw-fired heating plant in Germany (Rainer Knieper); (m) Standardization of liquid fuels in European context (Thomas Brehmer, Franz Heger); (n) Bio fuels of the second generation: Production, quantities of biomass and strategies of supply (Lutz Freytag); (o) Biomass-fired heating plant Simmering (Ludwig Gockner); (p) Industrial network Renewably Energy in the Free State of Saxony (Klaus Beumler); (q) Exemplary regional conversion of an intelligent, decentralised

  18. CO2 substitution potential and CO2 reduction costs of an energetic exploitation of solid biomasses in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, S.

    1995-01-01

    For the reduction of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, the CO 2 , emissions are clearly to be reduced in future, according to the resolution made by the Federal Republic. Against the background of this objective, possible contributions of the biogenous solid fuels for the reduction of the CO 2 release of fossil origin are presented and discussed. For that, first the existing potentials of biomass in Germany and their present use are shown. Based on this, the CO 2 emissions by the present use already avoided, as well as the existing unexploited potentials of the CO 2 reduction potentials still to be exploited are determined. In accordance with an 'integral' starting point, thereby all pre- and post-positioned processes are considered. Finally, the specific CO 2 reduction costs are analysed and compared with other options. (orig.) [de

  19. Characterization of drying parameters for solid fuels; Kiinteiden polttoaineiden kuivumis-parametrien karakterisointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impola, R; Saastamoinen, J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Fagernaes, L [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Drying of solid fuel particles in hot gases (50 - 200 deg C) is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The measurements are carried out by using a thermobalance reactor constructed for drying and pyrolysis studies of particles up to 30 mm by diameter. The model is based on the solution of the conservation equations for mass and energy. The main parameters affecting the drying rate are: particle size, particle shape, initial particle moisture content, gas temperature and gas moisture content, temperature of the reactor walls and slip velocity. Also, the drying of biomass fuel particles in fixed and moving beds with hot gas or steam is considered both experimentally and theoretically. A single particle drying model is coupled with a model describing heat and moisture transfer in the gas phase of the bed. The model can be used in the dimensioning of the drying system in a larger scale. Other study subjects were the movement of wood and peat particles in a pneumatic dryer, and the drying of a single fuel particle in steam under various pressures. The aim of the research work was to present a review of recent studies on emissions from biomass drying. The work covers the emissions from different feedstocks, and from different dryers and drying tests (atmospheric, pressurised, flue gas and steam drying), and the effects of factors, such as feedstock, dryer type and drying conditions, on the emissions. The formation and effects of the emissions, and methods to reduce them are also discussed

  20. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels; Bilan provisoire 2008 des combustibles mineraux solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks.

  1. Efficient Biomass Fuel Cell Powered by Sugar with Photo- and Thermal-Catalysis by Solar Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Gong, Yutao; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Weisheng; Liu, Congmin; Deng, Yulin; Chao, Zi-Sheng

    2018-06-19

    The utilization of biomass sugars has received great interesting recently. Herein, we present a highly efficient hybrid solar biomass fuel cell that utilizes thermal- and photocatalysis of solar irradiation and converts biomass sugars into electricity with high power output. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates (POMs) as photocatalyst to decompose sugars and capture their electrons. The reduced POMs have strong visible and near-infrared light adsorption, which can significantly increase the temperature of the reaction system and largely promotes the thermal oxidation of sugars by the POM. In addition, the reduced POM functions as charge carrier that can release electrons at the anode in the fuel cell to generate electricity. The electron-transfer rates from glucose to POM under thermal and light-irradiation conditions were investigated in detail. The power outputs of this solar biomass fuel cell are investigated by using different types of sugars as fuels, with the highest power density reaching 45 mW cm -2 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with biomass fuel use in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somda, Serge M A; Meda, Nicolas; Bouland, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major and growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The global prevalence of COPD is growing faster in women than in men. Women are often exposed to indoor pollutants produced by biomass fuels burning during household activities. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to establish the association between COPD and exposure to biomass smoke in women. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched MEDLINE and Scopus databases in 31December 2016, with the terms: “wood”, “charcoal”, “biomass”, “solid fuels”, “organic fuel”, “biofuel”, “female”, “women”, “COPD”, “chronic bronchitis”, “emphysema”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. Studies were eligible if they were case–control or cross-sectional studies involving exposure to indoor biomass smoke, conducted at any time and in any geographic location. Fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled OR. Results 24 studies were included: 5 case–control studies and 19 cross-sectional studies. Biomass-exposed individuals were 1.38 times more likely to be diagnosed with COPD than non-exposed (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.57). Spirometry-diagnosed COPD studies failed to show a significant association (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.40). Nevertheless, the summary estimate of OR for chronic bronchitis (CB) was significant (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.70 to 2.52). The pooled OR for cross-sectional studies and case–control studies were respectively 1.82 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.10) and 1.05 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.30). Significant association was found between COPD and biomass smoke exposure for women living as well in rural as in urban areas. Conclusions This study showed that biomass smoke exposure is associated with COPD in rural and urban women. In many developing countries, modern fuels are more and more used alongside traditional ones, mainly

  3. Biomass measurement by flow cytometry during solid-state fermentation of basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudler, Susanne; Böhmer, Ulrike; Weber, Jost; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a robust process that is well suited to the on-site cultivation of basidiomycetes that produce enzymes for the treatment of lignocellulosics. Reliable methods for biomass quantification are essential for the analysis of fungal growth kinetics. However, direct biomass determination is not possible during SSF because the fungi grow into the substrate and use it as a nutrient source. This necessitates the use of indirect methods that are either very laborious and time consuming or can only provide biomass measurements during certain growth periods. Here, we describe the development and optimization of a new rapid method for fungal biomass determination during SSF that is based on counting fungal nuclei by flow cytometry. Fungal biomass was grown on an organic substrate and its concentration was measured by isolating the nuclei from the fungal hyphae after cell disruption, staining them with SYTOX(®) Green, and then counting them using a flow cytometer. A calibration curve relating the dry biomass of the samples to their concentrations of nuclei was established. Multiple buffers and disruption methods were tested. The results obtained were compared with values determined using the method of ergosterol determination, a classical technique for fungal biomass measurement during SSF. Our new approach can be used to measure fungal biomass on a range of different scales, from 15 mL cultures to a laboratory reactor with a working volume of 10 L (developed by the Research Center for Medical Technology and Biotechnology (fzmb GmbH)). © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  5. Thermal radiation modelling in a tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.E.; Pharoah, J.G.; Vandersteen, J.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are becoming the fuel cell of choice among companies and research groups interested in small power generation units. Questions still exist, however, about the operating characteristics of these devices; in particular the temperature distribution in the fuel cell. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) a model is proposed that incorporates conduction, convection and radiation. Both surface-to-surface and participating media are considered. It is hoped that a more accurate account of the temperature field in the various flow channels and cell components will be made to assist work on design of fuel cell components and reaction mechanisms. The model, when incorporating radiative heat transfer with participating media, predicts substantially lower operating temperatures and smaller temperature gradients than it does without these equations. It also shows the importance of the cathode air channel in cell cooling. (author)

  6. Characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel produced from sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongjin; Nam, Wonjun; Lee, Na-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Safely final disposal of sewage sludge which is being increased every year has already become serious problems. As one of the promising technologies to solve this problem, thermal drying method has been attracting wide attention due to energy recovery from sewage sludge. This paper describes several characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel, as a conventional fuel substitute, produced from sewage sludge drying and granulation plant having the treatment capacity of 10 ton/ day. This plant has been successfully operated many times and is now designing for scale-up. Average moisture content of twelve kinds of bio-solid fuels produced from the plant normally less than 10 wt% and average shape of them is mainly composed of granular type having a diameter of 2-8 mm for easy handling and transportation to the final market destinations. Average higher heating value, which is one of the important properties to estimate the possibility of available energy, of bio-solid fuels is about 3800 kcal/ kg as dry basis. So they can be utilized to supply energy in the coal power plant and cement kiln etc. as a conventional fuel substitute for a beneficial reuse. Characteristics including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, contents of heavy metals, wettability etc. of bio-solid fuels have been also analyzed for the environmentally safe re utilization. (author)

  7. Thermal use of challenging biomass fuels; Thermische Nutzung von anspruchsvollen Biomassebrennstoffen. Versuche Herbst 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, R. [Umwelt und Energie, Maschwanden (Switzerland); Hersener, J.-L. [Ingenieurbuero Hersener, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Jenni, A. [Ardens GmbH, Liestal (Switzerland); Klippel, N. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on experiments made in autumn 2006 on the thermal use of biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes. As a continuation of the tests performed in 2005, further tests were planned for 2006. The authors quote that for various reasons, only part of the planned test program could be carried out. Tests made with the fuel mixtures sedge and chipped wood as well as horse manure, sedge and chipped wood are reported on. The tests showed that, under optimal conditions, these fuel mixtures can be used as biomass fuel, leading to low emissions. Stable combustion conditions were, however, very difficult to achieve. Details on the tests performed and their results are presented and knowledge gained is discussed.

  8. Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Processing, Bonding, Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang

    in an increasing interest in biomass densification technologies, such as pelletization and briquetting. The global pellet market has developed quickly, and strong growth is to be expected for the coming years. Due to an increasing demand for biomass, the traditionally used wood residues from sawmills and pulp...... influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet...... surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding...

  9. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  12. Association between the use of biomass fuels on respiratory health of workers in food catering enterprises in Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraka, Margaret; Ochieng, Carolyne; Engelbrecht, Jacobus; Hongoro, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been found to be responsible for more than 1.6 million annual deaths and 2.7% of the global burden of disease. This makes it the second biggest environmental contributor to ill health, behind unsafe water and sanitation. The main objective of this study was to investigate if there was any association between use of bio-fuels in food catering enterprises and respiratory health of the workers. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data collected using Qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study found significantly higher prevalence of respiratory health outcomes among respondents in enterprises using biomass fuels compared to those using processed fuels. Biomass fuels are thus a major public health threat to workers in this sub-sector, and urgent intervention is required. The study recommends a switch from biomass fuels to processed fuels to protect the health of the workers.

  13. Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: the separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M B; Bates, M N; Arora, N K; Balakrishnan, K; Jack, D W; Smith, K R

    2013-08-01

    We examined the impact of maternal use of different household cooking fuels in India on low birth weight (LBWfuels for cooking - biomass, coal, and kerosene - using low-pollution fuels (gas and biogas) as the comparison "control" group. Taking socioeconomic and child-specific factors into account, we employed logistic regression to examine the impact of fuel use on fetal and infant health. The results indicate that household use of high-pollution fuels is significantly associated with increased odds of LBW and neonatal death. Compared to households using cleaner fuels (in which the mean birth weight is 2901g), the primary use of coal, kerosene, and biomass fuels is associated with significant decreases in mean birth weight (of -110g for coal, -107g for kerosene, and -78g for biomass). Kerosene and biomass fuel use are also associated with increased risk of LBW (pfuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A Model of the Effect of the Microbial Biomass on the Isotherm of the Fermenting Solids in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Celuppi Marques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare isotherms for soybeans and soybeans fermented with Rhizopus oryzae, showing that in solid-state fermentation the biomass affects the isotherm of the fermenting solids. Equations are developed to calculate, for a given overall water content of the fermenting solids, the water contents of the biomass and residual substrate, as well as the water activity. A case study, undertaken using a mathematical model of a well-mixed bioreactor, shows that if water additions are made on the basis of the assumption that fermenting solids have the same isotherm as the substrate itself, poor growth can result since the added water does not maintain the water activity at levels favorable for growth. We conclude that the effect of the microbial biomass on the isotherm of the fermenting solids must be taken into account in mathematical models of solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  15. Effect of fast pyrolysis conditions on biomass solid residues at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with corresponding data from a wire mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400)°C, biomass origin (pinewood, beechwood, wheat straw, alfalfa straw), and heating rate (103 °C/s, 104 °C...... in its half-width with respect to the parental fuel, whereas the alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered at higher temperatures. Soot particles in a range from 60 to 300 nm were obtained during fast pyrolysis. The soot yield from herbaceous fuels was lower than from wood samples, possibly due...

  16. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  17. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Non-destructive delamination detection in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I.; Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    A finite element model has been developed to simulate the steady state and impedance behaviour of a single operating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The model results suggest that electrode delamination can be detected minimally-invasively by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The presence of cathode delamination causes changes in the cell impedance spectrum that are characteristic of this type of degradation mechanism. These changes include the simultaneous increase in both the series and polarization resistances, in proportion to the delaminated area. Parametric studies show the dependence of these changes on the extent of delamination, on the operating point, and on the kinetic characteristics of the fuel cell under study. (author)

  19. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  20. Foster Wheeler experience with biomass and other CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels in large CFBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetta, E.; Kauppinen, K.; Slotte, M. (Foster Wheeler Power Group Europe, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: edgardo.coda@fwfin.fwc.com

    2009-07-01

    Foster Wheeler is a global engineering and construction contractor and a power equipment supplier. Among other products, the company offers state-of-the-art boilers for heat and electricity generation. During the past 30 years Foster Wheeler has booked over 350 circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFBs) ranging from 7 to nearly 1000 MW{sub th}. Of these, over 50 are designed for biomass (or bio-mix) and nearly 50 for waste (or waste-mix) containing biodegradable fractions, which are considered CO{sub 2}-neutral. The biggest challenges encountered in biomass (co-)firing are the tendency towards bed agglomeration and fouling of convective heat surfaces, often associated to corrosion. Such problems are marginal with certain woody biomass, but they intensify when other biomass or waste are fired, and further grow when boilers must operate at highest efficiency while firing erratic fuel mixtures. This paper describes the designs and tools developed at Foster Wheeler to fire different types of biomass and wastes in large CFB boilers. Latest references are then described, showing the ever growing performances achievable when firing CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, but also highlighting the challenges of boilers that must maintain high performance throughout unprecedentedly broad fuel ranges. (orig.)

  1. Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A multi-fuel approach for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Tarkeshwar C.; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the oxygen ion transport properties at the electrode–electrolyte interface (EEI) of the SOFC for the first time. • This ion transport plays a key role in the overall performance of SOFCs with different fuels. • The GIIB mechanism is also studied for the first time. • GIIB is assumed to be the prime reason for low power density and ion conductivity at the EEI when using hydrocarbon fuels. • Due to its scalability, a fuel cell can serve as a power source for on-chip applications and all portable equipment. - Abstract: The impact of oxygen ion transport at the electrolyte–electrode interface of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell using different fuels is investigated. Model validation is performed to verify the results versus the reported values. Furthermore, as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreases, the diffusivity of the oxygen ion increases. This increase in diffusivity is observed because the number of hydrogen atoms available as the reacting species increases in fuels with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The oxygen ion conductivity and output power density decrease as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the fuels decreases. The reason behind this impact is the formation of a gas-induced ion barrier at the electrode–electrolyte interface by the CO_2 molecules formed during the reaction at the interface, thus blocking the flow of oxygen ions. As the oxygen ions become blocked, the output current contribution from the reaction also decreases and thereby affects the overall performance of the micro-solid oxide fuel cell. The experimental verification confirms this because of a significant decrease in the output power density. Furthermore, as per the application in portable devices, the appropriate choice of fuel can be chosen so that the micro-solid oxide fuel cell operates at the maximum power density.

  2. A novel direct carbon fuel cell by approach of tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Renzhu; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Junliang; Zeng, Fanrong; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Tinglian; Wen, Zhaoyin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Inorganic Energy Materials and Power Source Engineering Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A direct carbon fuel cell based on a conventional anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell, which consisted of a NiO-YSZ anode support tube, a NiO-ScSZ anode functional layer, a ScSZ electrolyte film, and a LSM-ScSZ cathode, has been successfully achieved. It used the carbon black as fuel and oxygen as the oxidant, and a preliminary examination of the DCFC has been carried out. The cell generated an acceptable performance with the maximum power densities of 104, 75, and 47 mW cm{sup -2} at 850, 800, and 750 C, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility for carbon directly converting to electricity in tubular solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  3. Handbook for inventorying surface fuels and biomass in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Rick D. Oberheu; Cameron M. Johnston

    1982-01-01

    Presents comprehensive procedures for inventorying weight per unit area of living and dead surface vegetation, to facilitate estimation of biomass and appraisal of fuels. Provides instructions for conducting fieldwork and calculating estimates of downed woody material, forest floor litter and duff, herbaceous vegetation, shrubs, and small conifers. Procedures produce...

  4. Preference and consumption pattern of biomass fuel in some disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jashimuddin, M.; Masum, K.M.; Salam, M.A. [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2006-05-15

    Consumer's preference and consumption pattern of biomass fuel, fuel types and energy use category has been studied in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh. The study was conducted both in the inland and island areas. Biomass energy in the study area was used in domestic cooking, tea stalls, brickfields, bakeries, paddy parboiling and pottery. Assessment of consumption in domestic cooking was done by means of multistage random sampling and that in the tea stalls, brickfields, bakeries, paddy parboiling and pottery by means of complete enumeration of the sampling unit. Based on the homestead size respondents were categorized into small, medium and large and a total of 60 homesteads (30 from inland and another 30 from island areas), 20 from each category were selected randomly for the study. The study revealed that natural gas was quite absent and stems, branches and twigs, leaves of trees, agricultural residues, shell and coir of coconut, saw dust, brush wood, rhizomes of bamboo, and cowdung were the biomass fuel used by the respondent. Nine fuelwood species were identified as the most preferred in the study area. Consumption pattern was mostly traditional. Each year preceding the rainy season cyclonic action damages a large quantity of biomass energy sources. Though at the initial stage of rainy season (April-May) there remain a more or less good collection of fuelwood to the user as the byproduct of cyclones and storms, the last part of the rainy season (July-August) was identified as the fuel shortage period. (author)

  5. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  6. A strategic assessment of forest biomass and fuel reduction treatments in Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service; Bob Rummer; Jeff Prestemon; Dennis May; Pat Miles; John Vissage; Ron McRoberts; Greg Liknes; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dennis Ferguson; William Elliot; Sue Miller; Steve Reutebuch; Jamie Barbour; Jeremy Fried; Bryce Stokes; Edward Bilek; Ken Skog

    2005-01-01

    This assessment characterizes, at a regional scale, forest biomass that can potentially be removed to implement the fuel reduction and ecosystem restoration objectives of the National Fire Plan for the Western United States. The assessment area covers forests on both public and private ownerships in the region and describes all standing tree volume including stems,...

  7. Woody and non-woody biomass utilisation for fuel and implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biomass is a major source of energy for households in eastern Africa. Unfortunately, the heavy reliance on this form of energy is a threat to forest ecosystems and a recipe for accelerated land resource degradation. Due to the increasing scarcity of traditional fuel wood resources, rural communities have shifted to ...

  8. Differential Mutagenicity and Lung Toxicity of Smoldering Versus Flaming Emissions from a Variety of Biomass Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke properties change with combustion conditions and biomass fuel types. However the specific role of wildfire conditions on the health effects following smoke exposure are uncertain. This study applies a novel combustion and smoke-collection system to examine emission...

  9. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays

  10. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass co-firing in pulverised fuel boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghtaderi, B.; Meesri, C. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The present study is concerned with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass blends co-fired under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel (PF) boilers. The attention is particularly focused on the near burner zone to examine the impact of biomass on the flame geometry and temperature. The predictions are obtained by numerical solution of the conservation equations for the gas and particle phases. The gas phase is solved in the Eulerian domain using steady-state time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations while the solution of the particle phase is obtained from a series of Lagrangian particle tracking equations. Turbulence is modelled using the {kappa}-{epsilon} and Reynolds Stress models. The comparison between the predictions and experimental measurement reported in the literature resulted in a good agreement. Other influences of biomass co-firing are observed for fuel devolatilisation and burnout. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  12. New techniques for the characterization of refuse-derived fuels and solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Marzi, Thomas; Möhle, Edda; Schingnitz, Daniel; Hoffmann, Gaston

    2011-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) today refers to a waste-derived fuel meeting defined quality specifications, in terms of both origin (produced from non-hazardous waste) and levels of certain fuel properties. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) nowadays is more used for unspecified waste after a basic processing to increase the calorific value and therefore this term usually refers to the segregated, high calorific fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial or industrial wastes. In comparison with conventional fuels, both types of secondary fuel show waste of inherently varying quality and an increased level of waste-specific contaminants.The transition from RDF to SRF in the emerging national and European market requires a quality assurance system with defined quality parameters and analytical methods to ensure reliable fuel characterization. However, due to the quality requirements for RDF and SRF, the current standardized analysis methods often do not meet these practical demands. Fast test methods, which minimize personnel, financial and time efforts and which are applicable for producers as well as users can be an important supporting tool for RDF- and SRF-characterization. Currently, a fast test system based on incineration and correlation analyses which enable the determination of relevant fuel parameters is under development. Fast test methods are not aimed at replacing current standardized test methods, but have to be considered as practical supporting tools for the characterization of RDF and SRF.

  13. Materials for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells show great promise for economical production of electricity. These cells are based upon the ability of stabilized zirconia to operate as an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures. The design of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell being pursued at Westinghouse is illustrated. The cell uses a calcia-stabilized zironcia porous support tube, which acts both as a structural member onto which the other cell components are fabricated in the form of thin layers, and as a functional member to allow the passage, via its porosity, of air (or oxygen) to the air electrode. This paper summarizes the materials and fabrication processes for the various cell components

  14. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  15. Modelling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakova, Nadezhda; Petkov, Venko; Mihailov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an essential preliminary step in a gasifier. The first step in modelling the pyrolysis process of biomass is creating a model for the chemical processes taking place. This model should describe the used fuel, the reactions taking place and the products created in the process. The numerous different polymers present in the organic fraction of the fuel are generally divided in three main groups. So, the multistep kinetic model of biomass pyrolysis is based on conventional multistep devolatilization models of the three main biomass components - cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Numerical simulations have been conducted in order to estimate the influence of the heating rate and the temperature of pyrolysis on the content of the virgin biomass, active biomass, liquid, solid and gaseous phases at any moment. Keywords: kinetic models, pyrolysis, biomass pyrolysis.

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  17. Avoided emissions of a fuel-efficient biomass cookstove dwarf embodied emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of “The Berkeley–Darfur Stove,” disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17 kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it “costs” to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1 without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2 improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.

  18. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  19. Strength of Anode‐Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faes, A.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Nickel oxide and yttria doped zirconia composite strength is crucial for anode‐supported solid oxide fuel cells, especially during transient operation, but also for the initial stacking process, where cell curvature after sintering can cause problems. This work first compares tensile and ball....... Even though the electrolyte is to the tensile side, it is found that the anode support fails due to the thermo‐mechanical residual stresses....

  20. Current status of Westinghouse tubular solid oxide fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W.G. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the last ten years the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development program at Westinghouse has evolved from a focus on basic material science to the engineering of fully integrated electric power systems. Our endurance for this cell is 5 to 10 years. To date we have successfully operated at power for over six years. For power plants it is our goal to have operated before the end of this decade a MW class power plant. Progress toward these goals is described.

  1. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  2. Microgasification cookstoves and pellet fuels from waste biomass: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lotter;Msola Hunter;Straub

    Biochar production averaged 59 and 29% of total fuel in the ND and Philips, respectively. Interviews of 30 ND TLUD stove users showed that 60% abandoned use within one month, 80% stating that they produce too much smoke and 40% stating that controlling the air vent is too much trouble. Seventy five percent said that ...

  3. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required...

  4. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The depletion of fossil fuels impacts on the increase of petroleum price and has triggered the finding of alternative and renewable energy. Biofuel has attracted the attention of researchers all over the world due to reducing the environmental impacts of elevated carbon monoxide. Abundant of fruits waste can be reused in the ...

  5. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW(th) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decoupled numerical simulation of a solid fuel fired retort boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryfa, Arkadiusz; Buczynski, Rafal; Chabinski, Michal; Szlek, Andrzej; Bialecki, Ryszard A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical simulation of the retort boiler fired with solid fuel. Such constructions are very popular for heating systems and their development is mostly based on the designer experience. The simulations have been done in ANSYS/Fluent package and involved two numerical models. The former deals with a fixed-bed combustion of the solid fuel and free-board gas combustion. Solid fuel combustion is based on the coal kinetic parameters. This model encompasses chemical reactions, radiative heat transfer and turbulence. Coal properties have been defined with user defined functions. The latter model describes flow of water inside a water jacked that surrounds the combustion chamber and flue gas ducts. The novelty of the proposed approach is separating of the combustion simulation from the water flow. Such approach allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom and thus lowering the necessary numerical effort. Decoupling combustion from water flow requires defining interface boundary condition. As this boundary condition is unknown it is adjusted iteratively. The results of the numerical simulation have been successfully validated against measurement data. - Highlights: • New decoupled modelling of small scale boiler is proposed. • Fixed-bed combustion model based on kinetic parameters is introduced. • Decoupling reduced the complexity of the model and computational time. • Simple and computationally inexpensive coupling algorithm is proposed. • Model is successfully validated against measurements

  7. Structural design considerations for micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikar, V. T.; Turner, Kevin T.; Andrew Ie, Tze Yung; Spearing, S. Mark

    Micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) are among a class of devices being investigated for portable power generation. Optimization of the performance and reliability of such devices requires robust, scale-dependent, design methodologies. In this first analysis, we consider the structural design of planar, electrolyte-supported, μSOFCs from the viewpoints of electrochemical performance, mechanical stability and reliability, and thermal behavior. The effect of electrolyte thickness on fuel cell performance is evaluated using a simple analytical model. Design diagrams that account explicitly for thermal and intrinsic residual stresses are presented to identify geometries that are resistant to fracture and buckling. Analysis of energy loss due to in-plane heat conduction highlights the importance of efficient thermal isolation in microscale fuel cell design.

  8. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S

    1997-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  11. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  12. Assessment on steam gasification of municipal solid waste against biomass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Nuno Dinis; Silva, Valter Bruno; Rouboa, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam gasification as an alternative for MSW treatment was studied. • A previously developed numerical model for MSW gasification was used. • Results were validated with data gathered from the literature. • Results were compared with previously studied biomass substrates. • Environment and economic assessment based on the results was conducted. - Abstract: Waste management is becoming one of the main concerns of our time. Not only does it takes up one of the largest portions of municipal budgets but it also entails extensive land use and pollution to the environment using current treatment methods. Steam gasification of Portuguese municipal solid wastes was studied using a previously developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and experimental and numerical results were found to be in agreement. To assess the potential of Portuguese wastes, these results were compared to those obtained from previously investigated Portuguese biomass substrates and steam-to-biomass ratio was used to characterize and understand the effects of steam in the gasification process. The properties of syngas produced from municipal solid waste and from biomass substrates were compared and results demonstrated that wastes present the lowest carbon conversion, gas yield and cold gas efficiency with the highest tar content. Nevertheless, the pre-existing collection and transportation infrastructure that is currently available for municipal waste does not exist for the compared biomass resources which makes it an interesting process. In addition a detailed economic study was carried out to estimate the environmental and economic benefits of installing the described system. The hydrogen production cost was also estimated and compared with alternative methods.

  13. Emission performance and combustion efficiency of a conical fluidized-bed combustor firing various biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permchart, W.; Kouprianov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on combustion of three distinct biomass fuels (sawdust, rice husk and pre-dried sugar cane bagasse) in a single fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a conical bed using silica sand as the inert bed material. Temperature, CO, NO and O 2 concentrations along the combustor height as well as in flue (stack) gas were measured in the experimental tests. The effects of fuel properties and operating conditions (load and excess air) on these variables were investigated. Both CO and NO axial profiles were found to have a maximum whose location divides conventionally the combustor volume into formation (lower) and reduction (upper) regions for these pollutants. Based on CO emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash, the combustion efficiency of the conical FBC was quantified for the selected biomass fuels fired under different operating conditions. (Author)

  14. The market for fuel pellets produced from biomass and waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppejan, J.; Meulman, P.D.M.

    2001-12-01

    Several initiatives are currently being developed in the Netherlands for the production of fuel pellets from waste and biomass. This report presents an overview of the current producers and (potential) users of these pellets in the Netherlands. It also outlines the Dutch and European policies and legislations concerned. Furthermore, important barriers to market development of fuel pellets are defined and future expectations are summarized. The study covers fuel pellets made from different feedstock, varying from clean biomass to waste with traces of contaminants. In each project, pellets are produced that are unique as to their product specifications, as they are usually designed for a single application. It is therefore impossible to generalize characteristics and end use. 27 refs

  15. OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2000-01-01

    The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  17. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 μm, 250 μm and 150 μm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 ...

  18. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  19. Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Meena; Rizwan, Suliankatchi Abdulkader; Krishnan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass cooking fuel use is an important risk factor for a range of diseases, especially among adult women who are primary cooks, in India. About 80% of rural households in India use biomass fuel for cooking. The aim of this study is to estimate the attributable cases (AC) for four major diseases/conditions associated with biomass cooking fuel use among adult Indian women. We used the population attributable fraction (PAF) method to calculate the AC of chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis (TB), cataract, and stillbirths due to exposure to biomass cooking fuel. A number of data sources were accessed to obtain population totals and disease prevalence rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) for strength of association. Using this, PAF and AC were calculated using a standard formula. Results were presented as number of AC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The fixed effects pooled OR obtained from the meta-analysis were 2.37 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.54) for chronic bronchitis, 2.33 (1.65, 3.28) for TB, 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) for cataract, and 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for stillbirths. PAF varied across conditions being maximum (53%) for chronic bronchitis in rural areas and least (1%) for cataract in older age and urban areas. About 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.1) of 5.6 m cases of chronic bronchitis, 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) of 0.76 m cases of TB, 5.0 (2.8, 6.7) of 51.4 m cases of cataract among adult Indian women and 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) of 0.15 m stillbirths across India are attributable to HAP due to biomass cooking fuel. These estimates should be cautiously interpreted in the light of limitations discussed which relate to exposure assessment, exposure characterization, and age-specific prevalence of disease. HAP due to biomass fuel has diverse and major impacts on women's health in India. Although challenging, incorporating the agenda of universal clean fuel access or cleaner technology within the broader framework of rural

  20. Hybrid discrete PSO and OPF approach for optimization of biomass fueled micro-scale energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-González, M.; López, A.; Jurado, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Method to determine the optimal location and size of biomass power plants. ► The proposed approach is a hybrid of PSO algorithm and optimal power flow. ► Comparison among the proposed algorithm and other methods. ► Computational costs are enough lower than that required for exhaustive search. - Abstract: This paper addresses generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and sizing of biomass fueled gas micro-turbine power plants, taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, biomass transportation and extraction costs, operation and maintenance costs, power losses costs, network operation costs, and technical constraints. In this paper a hybrid method is introduced employing discrete particle swarm optimization and optimal power flow. The approach can be applied to search the best sites and capacities to connect biomass fueled gas micro-turbine power systems in a distribution network among a large number of potential combinations and considering the technical constraints of the network. A fair comparison among the proposed algorithm and other methods is performed.

  1. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  2. High temperature fuel cell with ceria-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Eguchi, K.; Yahiro, H.; Baba, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cation-doped ceria is investigated as an electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cell. As for application to the fuel cells, the electrolyte are desired to have high ionic conductivity in deriving a large electrical power. A series of cation-doped ceria has higher ionic conductivity than zirconia-based oxides. In the present study, the basic electrochemical properties of cation-doped ceria were studied in relation to the application of fuel cells. The performance of fuel cell with yttria-doped ceria electrolyte was evaluated. Ceria-based oxides were prepared by calcination of oxide mixtures of the components or calcination of co-precipitated hydroxide mixtures from the metal nitrate solution. The oxide mixtures thus obtained were sintered at 1650 0 C for 15 hr in air into disks. Ionic transference number, t/sub i/, was estimated from emf of oxygen concentration cell. Electrical conductivities were measured by dc-4 probe method by varying the oxygen partial pressure. The fuel cell was operated by oxygen and hydrogen

  3. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  4. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Xing, Li

    2009-01-01

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  5. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia [Center for Biomass Resource Utilization, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (East Campus), 17 Qing-Hua-Dong-Lu, Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xing, Li [Service Center for Trading Technology Service, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  6. Waste activated sludge fermentation: effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory scale, room temperature, semi-continuous reactors were set-up to investigate the effect of solids retention time (SRT, equal to HRT hydraulic retention time) and biomass concentration on generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the non-methanogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) originating from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. It was found that VFA yields increased with SRT. At the longest SRT (10d), improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield from the influent COD (0.14g VFA-COD/g TCOD). It was also observed that under the same SRT, VFA yields increased when the biomass concentration decreased. At a 10d SRT the VFA yield increased by 46%, when the biomass concentration decreased from 13g/L to 4.8g/L. Relatively high nutrient release was observed during fermentation. The average phosphorus release was 17.3mg PO(4)-P/g TCOD and nitrogen release was 25.8mg NH(4)-N/g TCOD.

  7. Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Fuel Oxygenate Production from California Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E. (Ecobalance Inc.); Forrest, L. H.; Jacobson, W. A. (TSS Consultants); Simeroth, D. C. (California Air Resources Board); Blackburn, W. J. (California Energy Commission); Nehoda, K. C. (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection)

    1999-05-20

    Historically, more than 90% of the excess agricultural residue produced in California (approximately 10 million dry metric tons per year) has been disposed through open-field burning. Concerns about air quality have prompted federal, state, and local air quality agencies to tighten regulations related to this burning and to look at disposal alternatives. One use of this biomass is as an oxygenated fuel. This report focuses on quantifying and comparing the comprehensive environmental flows over the life cycles of two disposal scenarios: (1) burning the biomass, plus producing and using MTBE; and (2) converting and using ETBE.

  8. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 1.2 kg Danish wheat straw (Jutland, 1997) prepared for suspension firing in a PF boiler has been analyzed for the purpose of generating size and shape distribution functions applicable to numerical modelling of combustion processes involving biomass, characterised by highly anisotropic...... shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  9. Rural household biomass fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen, A. [Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia). Dept. of Economics and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1999-04-01

    Over 90 percent of energy consumption in Ethiopia comes from biomass fuels and this pattern is a major cause of land degradation and deforestation in the country. This paper examines biomass fuel collection and consumption behaviour of a sample of rural households in Ethiopia. We use a non-separable agricultural household model to take into account imperfections in, or absence of, markets for fuel and labour used in collection. The method of instrumental variables (2SLS) is used in the estimation of demand functions to take care of endogeneity of virtual (shadow) fuel prices and wages. Negative own-price elasticities indicate advantages of forest policies that can reduce fuel collection time and make more time available for other activities. The results also suggest that fuel choice and mix are influenced by scarcity which indicate a possibility of policy interventions directed at reducing the relative price of wood and encouraging increased dung use as fertilizer and hence reduced land degradation. While income elasticities of demand give indications of increasing viability of such interventions with growth, the absence of evidence of substitutability and the effects of household resource endowment indicate the importance of cooking habits and culture 36 refs, 3 tabs

  10. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  11. Effects of fuel properties on the natural downward smoldering of piled biomass powder: Experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fang; Yi, Weiming; Li, Yongjun; Zha, Jianwen; Luo, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To validate the modeling of one-dimensional biomass smoldering and combustion, the effects of fuel type, moisture content and particle size on the natural downward smoldering of biomass powder have been investigated experimentally. A cylindrical reactor (inner size Φ26 cm × 22 cm) was constructed, and corn stalk, pine trunk, pyrolysis char and activated char from corn stalk were prepared as powders. The smoldering characteristics were examined for each of the four materials and for different moisture contents and particle sizes. The results revealed the following: 1) The maximum temperature in the fuel bed is only slightly affected by the fuel type and particle size. It increases gradually for original biomass and decreases slowly for chars with the development of the process. 2) The propagation velocity of the char oxidation front is significantly affected by the carbon density and ash content and nearly unaffected by moisture content and particle size. 3) The propagation velocity of the drying front is significantly affected by the moisture content, decreasing from over 10 times the propagation velocity of char oxidation front to about 3 times as the moisture content increased from 3 to 21%. - Highlights: • Natural downward smoldering of four materials, different moisture contents, and different particle sizes were investigated. • Propagation velocity of the char oxidation front differs significantly from that of the drying front. • Carbon density and ash content of fuel significantly affect propagation velocity of the char oxidation front

  12. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  13. Strategies for Lowering Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tarancón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs to the intermediate range (500–700 ºC has become one of the main SOFC research goals. High operating temperatures put numerous requirements on materials selection and on secondary units, limiting the commercial development of SOFCs. The present review first focuses on the main effects of reducing the operating temperature in terms of materials stability, thermo-mechanical mismatch, thermal management and efficiency. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs, attention is focused on emerging oxide-ionic conductors with high conductivity in the intermediate range of temperatures with an introductory section on materials technology for reducing the electrolyte thickness. Finally, recent advances in cathode materials based on layered mixed ionic-electronic conductors are highlighted because the decreasing temperature converts the cathode into the major source of electrical losses for the whole SOFC system. It is concluded that the introduction of alternative materials that would enable solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate range of temperatures would have a major impact on the commercialization of fuel cell technology.

  14. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on the Biomass Solid Residues at High Temperatures (1000-1400°C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    to the parental fuel, whereas alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered with the higher temperatures. In this study, the retained shape of beechwood and herbaceous biomass samples is related to the presence of extractives and formation of silicates. Soot yield from herbaceous fuels occurs lower than...

  15. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel – Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of producing liquid fuels, particularly jet fuel, from lignocellulosic materials, such as corn stover. This project was led by Virent, Inc. (Virent) which has developed a novel chemical catalytic process (the BioForming® platform) capable of producing “direct replacement” liquid fuels from biomass-derived feedstocks. Virent has shown it is possible to produce an advantaged jet fuel from biomass that meets or exceeds specifications for commercial and military jet fuel through Fuel Readiness Level (FRL) 5, Process Validation. This project leveraged The National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL) expertise in converting corn stover to sugars via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. NREL had previously developed this deconstruction technology for the conversion of corn stover to ethanol. In this project, Virent and NREL worked together to condition the NREL generated hydrolysate for use in Virent’s catalytic process through solids removal, contaminant reduction, and concentration steps. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was contracted in this project for the procurement, formatting, storage and analysis of corn stover and Northwestern University developed fundamental knowledge of lignin deconstruction that can help improve overall carbon recovery of the combined technologies. Virent conducted fundamental catalytic studies to improve the performance of the catalytic process and NREL provided catalyst characterization support. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) was conducted at each stage of the project, with results from these analyses used to inform the direction of the project.

  16. Discrete-continuum multiscale model for transport, biomass development and solid restructuring in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nadja; Rupp, Andreas; Prechtel, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Upscaling transport in porous media including both biomass development and simultaneous structural changes in the solid matrix is extremely challenging. This is because both affect the medium's porosity as well as mass transport parameters and flow paths. We address this challenge by means of a multiscale model. At the pore scale, the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method is used to solve differential equations describing particularly the bacteria's and the nutrient's development. Likewise, a sticky agent tightening together solid or bio cells is considered. This is combined with a cellular automaton method (CAM) capturing structural changes of the underlying computational domain stemming from biomass development and solid restructuring. Findings from standard homogenization theory are applied to determine the medium's characteristic time- and space-dependent properties. Investigating these results enhances our understanding of the strong interplay between a medium's functional properties and its geometric structure. Finally, integrating such properties as model parameters into models defined on a larger scale enables reflecting the impact of pore scale processes on the larger scale.

  17. Biomass fuels - effects on the carbon dioxide budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.; Hallsby, G.

    1992-02-01

    It is highly desirable that the effects on the carbon dioxide balance of alternative energy sources are evaluated. Two important alternatives studied in Sweden are the extraction of logging residues left in the forest and willow production on farmland. Considered in isolation, a conversion from stem-wood harvest to whole-tree harvest has a negative effect on the carbon dioxide balance, because the amount of soil organic matter decreases. With the assumption that it takes 20 years for the logging residues to decompose, the net decrease in emissions that would result from the replacement of fossil fuels by logging residues appear moderate after 20 years. However, it will grow significantly as time passes. After 100 years with an annual combustion of logging residues the emissions are 12% of those associated with the production of an equivalent amount of energy through oil combustion. Corresponding values for 300 and 500 years are 4% and 2.5% respectively. In less than 100 years there should be a considerable reduction in the Swedish CO 2 -C emissions even if only every second new logging residue-produced TWH replaces a fossil-fuel-produced TWh. From a long-term perspective, effects on carbon reservoirs in Sweden, caused by conversions to whole-tree harvesting in forestry and to willow production on redundant farmland, can be considered negligible in terms of their influence on the carbon dioxide budget of Sweden. The orders of magnitude of influencing fluxes is exemplified in the following: The annual production of 50 TWh, whereof 40 TWh from logging residues, 8 TWh from willow and 2 TWh from annual crops is estimated to cause a total net decrease of the carbon reservoirs within Sweden corresponding to 32 Tg CO 2 -C, whereas the annual production of 50 TWh from oil combustion should emit 1200 Tg CO 2 -C in 300 years, 2000 Tg CO 2 -C in 500 years and so on. (au). 17 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by th eir use it is possible to reduce the waste...... studied to optimize the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification......, waste is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called “Syngas” which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor...

  19. Ignition and combustion phenomena on a moving grate: with application to the thermal conversion of biomass and municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion can be defined as a fast oxidation process of a solid, gaseous or liquid fuel at elevated temperatures. In any combustion process, ignition plays an essential role. Not only to initiate the combustion process, but also to maintain it. Especially in solid fuel combustion on a grate, where

  20. A new method to quantify fluidized bed agglomeration in the combustion of biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The present licentiate thesis is a summary and discussion of four papers, dealing with the development, evaluation and use of a new method to quantify bed agglomeration tendencies for biomass fuels. An increased utilization of biomass related fuels has many environmental benefits, but also requires careful studies of potential new problems associated with these fuels such as bed agglomeration/defluidization during combustion and gasification in fluidized beds. From a thorough literature survey, no suitable methods to determine bed agglomeration tendencies of different fuels, fuel combinations or fuels with additives appeared to be available. It therefore seemed of considerable interest to develop a new method for the quantification of fluidized bed agglomeration tendencies for different fuels. A bench scale fluidized bed reactor (5 kW), specially designed to obtain a homogeneous isothermal bed temperature, is used. The method is based on controlled increase of the bed temperature by applying external heat to the primary air and to the bed section walls. The initial agglomeration temperature is determined by on- or off-line principal component analysis of the variations in measured bed temperatures and differential pressures. Samples of ash and bed material for evaluation of agglomeration mechanisms may also be collected throughout the operation. To determine potential effects of all the process related variables on the determined fuel specific bed agglomeration temperature, an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed according to a statistical experimental design. The results showed that the process variables had only relatively small effects on the agglomeration temperature, which could be determined to 899 deg C with a reproducibility of {+-} 5 deg C (STD). The inaccuracy was determined to be {+-} 30 deg C (STD). The method was also used to study the mechanism of both bed agglomeration using two biomass fuels and prevention of bed agglomeration by co

  1. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  2. Application of mathematical modelling when determining the parameters effect of biomass densification process on solid biofuels quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Križan Peter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present the design of experiment (DOE and evaluation methodology for this experimental plan in order to determine the parameters effect of biomass densification process on final solid biofuels quality. One of the recovery possibilities for waste biomass raw materials is production of solid biofuels. Using a variety combination of influencing variables can be improve the final quality of solid biofuels. Raw biomass material variables influence, especially (type of raw material, particle size, moisture content, compression pressure and compression temperature can be recognized during the production of solid biofuels. Their effect can be seen through the quality indicators; especially mentioned variables significantly influence the mechanical quality indicators of solid biofuels. In this experimental research authors would like to investigate properties and behaviour of wood raw waste biomass during densification. This contribution discusses the analysis and design of experimental process, its individual steps and their subsequent DOE leading to the development of a mathematical model that will describe this process. This paper also presents the research findings regarding the effect of influencing variables on final density of solid biofuels during densification. Aim of the experimental process is to determine the mutual interaction between solid biofuels density and influencing variables during densification. Effect of compression pressure, compression temperature, moisture content and particle size on solid biofuels density from wood sawdust was determined.

  3. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  4. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass for sustainable aviation fuel/fuel additives

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyono, Dirgarini Julia Nurlianti

    2017-01-01

    Research in renewable energy is essential because of the limited supply of fossil fuel, particularly liquids, and the problem resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases, NOx and H₂S. For aviation/jet fuel, organic liquids cannot yet be replaced by electricity, solar cells, or gas. Currently, CO₂ emission from aviation fuels appears to be a small problem compared to that from road transport, but CO₂ emissions per passenger from fossil derived aviation fuel is actually higher than that from a...

  5. Impacts of Particulate Pollution from Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burnings on the Air Quality and Human Health in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Iraqui, O.; Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia have attracted the attention of governments and the general public in recent years, due to their impact on local economies, air quality and public health. Widespread biomass burning activities are a major source of severe haze events in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning also play an important role in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. These pollutants can be locally produced or brought in from neighboring regions by long-range transport. A better understanding of the respective contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality degradation becomes an urgent task in forming effective air pollution mitigation policies in Southeast Asia. In this study, to examine and quantify the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality and visibility degradation over Southeast Asia, we conducted three numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem). These simulations were driven by different aerosol emissions from: (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. By comparing the simulation results, we examined the corresponding impacts of fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, separately and combined, on the air quality and visibility of the region. The results also showed that the major contributors to low visibility days (LVDs) among 50 ASEAN cities are fossil fuel burning aerosols (59%), while biomass burning aerosols provided an additional 13% of LVDs in Southeast Asia. In addition, the number of premature mortalities among ASEAN cities has increased from 4110 in 2002 to 6540 in 2008, caused primarily by fossil fuel burning aerosols. This study suggests that reductions in both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions are necessary to improve the air quality in Southeast Asia.

  6. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid

  7. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  8. Planar solid oxide fuel cells: the Australian experience and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Bruce; Föger, Karl; Gillespie, Rohan; Bolden, Roger; Badwal, S. P. S.

    Since 1992, Ceramic Fuel Cells (CFCL) has grown to what is now the largest focussed program globally for development of planar ceramic (solid oxide) fuel cell, SOFC, technology. A significant intellectual property position in know-how and patents has been developed, with over 80 people involved in the venture. Over $A60 million in funding for the activities of the company has been raised from private companies, government-owned corporations and government business-support programs, including from energy — particularly electricity — industry shareholders that can facilitate access to local markets for our products. CFCL has established state-of-the-art facilities for planar SOFC R&D, with their expansion and scaling-up to pilot manufacturing capability underway. We expect to achieve commercial introduction of our market-entry products in 2002, with prototype systems expected to be available from early 2001.

  9. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

    1996-10-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass

  10. Thermal stress analysis of sulfur deactivated solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Yu, Guangsen; Xu, Min; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in fuels can deactivate catalyst for solid oxide fuel cells, which has become one of the most critical challenges to stability. The reactions between sulfur and catalyst will cause phase changes, leading to increase in cell polarization and mechanical mismatch. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is thus used to investigate the polarization, temperature and thermal stress in a sulfur deactivated SOFC by coupling equations for gas-phase species, heat, momentum, ion and electron transport. The results indicate that sulfur in fuels can strongly affect the cell polarization and thermal stresses, which shows a sharp decrease in the vicinity of electrolyte when 10% nickel in the functional layer is poisoned, but they remain almost unchanged even when the poisoned Ni content was increased to 90%. This investigation is helpful to deeply understand the sulfur poisoning effects and also benefit the material design and optimization of electrode structure to enhance cell performance and lifetimes in various hydrocarbon fuels containing impurities.

  11. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  12. Biomass based energy combines with motor fuel production; Biobraenslebaserade energikombinat med tillverkning av drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    In the report the state of development of production processes for various motor fuels, such as FT diesel, methanol , DME and ethanol, from biomass is reviewed. Biomass and black liquor gasification processes as well as processes for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass are discussed. The processes are complicated and still not very well tried in their whole context. The gas cleaning steps, which are necessary to reach acceptable catalyst lifetimes in the motor fuel production processes based on gasification, have been tested in the oil industry and to some extent in coal gasification plants, but not with syngas from biomass or black liquor gasification. For black liquor gasification particularly, also material selection and material lifetime issues remain to be solved. For ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass process development is needed, to increase the yield in the pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation steps. The energy yields of the processes are dependent on the degree of complexity of the processes, as well as on the integration and balancing of energy demanding steps and steps with energy surplus. This is especially valid for the processes based on gasification, due to high temperatures in the gasifier and some of the catalytic steps, but also for the ethanol process, which benefit from optimal steam integration in the evaporation and distillation steps. Also steam integration with cogeneration plants, or for black liquor gasification with pulp mills, improves the overall energy balance. In addition, the energy yield when motor fuels are produced by gasification is dependent on the usage of the off-gas. The efficiency is improved when the off-gas is burned in a boiler or gas turbine, than when it is flared. In the report examples are given of processes with and without integration.

  13. Mathematical model for solid fuel combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostikj, Zvonimir; Noshpal, Aleksandar

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model for computation of the combustion process of solid fuel in fluidized bed is presented in this work. Only the combustor part of the plant (the fluidized bed and the free board) is treated with this model. In that manner, all principal, physical presumption and improvements (upon which this model is based) are given. Finally, the results of the numerical realisation of the mathematical model for combustion of minced straw as well as the results of the experimental investigation of a concrete physical model are presented. (author)

  14. Lanthanum Manganate Based Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Juhl

    Composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aim was to study the oxygen reduction process in the electrode in order to minimise the voltage drop in the cathode. The electrodes contained...... five processes were found to affect the impedance of LSM/YSZ composite electrodes. Two high frequency processes were ascribed to transport of oxide ions/oxygen intermediates across LSM/YSZ interfaces and through YSZ in the composite. Several competitive elementary reaction steps, which appear as one...

  15. Solid polymer fuel cell stationary power generation design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Wood, A.; Williams, G.J.; Kearney, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating potential markets for solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) stationary power generating systems and evaluating design options for grid connected and stand-alone systems. The specification of potential application for SPFC systems, initial modelling and economic analysis of twelve candidate SPFC applications, and the ranking and evaluation of candidate applications are examined. Details are given of performance modelling and economic analysis of four preferred SPFC systems (domestic, commercial, light industrial, and transportable generation), and comparison of SPFC with competing technologies. The economics of SPFC and conventional technologies for commercial applications are compared and market opportunities and potential barriers to commercialisation are identified.

  16. Trends for Methane Oxidation at Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleis, Jesper; Jones, Glenn; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict a plausible reaction pathway for the methane oxidation reaction. In turn, this pathway is used to obtain trends in methane oxidation activity at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode materials. Reaction energetics and barriers for the elementary...... the Ni surfaces to other metals of interest. This allows the reactivity over the different metals to be understood in terms of two reactivity descriptors, namely, the carbon and oxygen adsorption energies. By combining a simple free-energy analysis with microkinetic modeling, activity landscapes of anode...

  17. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...... partial pressure range 0.028-1.00 atm. The recorded impedance spectra were successfully analyzed using the developed impedance model in the investigated temperature and oxygen partial pressure range. It is also demonstrated that the model can be used to predict how impedance spectra evolve with different...

  18. Global radiative effects of solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxian; Unger, Nadine; Storelvmo, Trude; Harper, Kandice; Zheng, Yiqi; Heyes, Chris

    2018-04-01

    We apply the NCAR CAM5-Chem global aerosol-climate model to quantify the net global radiative effects of black and organic carbon aerosols from global and Indian solid fuel cookstove emissions for the year 2010. Our assessment accounts for the direct radiative effects, changes to cloud albedo and lifetime (aerosol indirect effect, AIE), impacts on clouds via the vertical temperature profile (semi-direct effect, SDE) and changes in the surface albedo of snow and ice (surface albedo effect). In addition, we provide the first estimate of household solid fuel black carbon emission effects on ice clouds. Anthropogenic emissions are from the IIASA GAINS ECLIPSE V5a inventory. A global dataset of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA) measurements from surface sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET is used to evaluate the model skill. Compared with observations, the model successfully reproduces the spatial patterns of atmospheric BC and OA concentrations, and agrees with measurements to within a factor of 2. Globally, the simulated AOD agrees well with observations, with a normalized mean bias close to zero. However, the model tends to underestimate AOD over India and China by ˜ 19 ± 4 % but overestimate it over Africa by ˜ 25 ± 11 % (± represents modeled temporal standard deviations for n = 5 run years). Without BC serving as ice nuclei (IN), global and Indian solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions have net global cooling radiative effects of -141 ± 4 mW m-2 and -12 ± 4 mW m-2, respectively (± represents modeled temporal standard deviations for n = 5 run years). The net radiative impacts are dominated by the AIE and SDE mechanisms, which originate from enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations for the formation of liquid and mixed-phase clouds, and a suppression of convective transport of water vapor from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere that in turn leads to reduced ice cloud formation. When BC is allowed

  19. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  1. Biomass fuels business in Central Finland; Kiinteisiin biomassapolttoaineisiin liittyvae liiketoiminta Keski-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelli, P.

    2010-09-15

    The study is based on interviews among enterprises and experts in the biomass field. The study shows that woodchips have the highest potential to increase the use of biomass fuels in Central Finland. The consumption of woodchips may be doubled or even tripled from the present 1,5 TWh. Potential of the reed canary grass will be limited to 0,4 TWh or less, and the production is totally dependent on agricultural subsidies. Peat has big challenges with permission procedure and there are new threats with increasing taxes and emission trades. Production costs of woodchips are often on the same level or even higher than the current average price of woodchips delivered to plant. According to interviews, there are many challenges in order to reach 200 km range in shipment. Competition for the profitable raw-materials will be increased. Lack of proper statistics on raw-material markets is a big problem for the stable development of the markets. Low profitableness of timber harvesting can damage the availability of woodchips. At the moment cultivation and harvesting of reed canary grass is profitable due to high level of agricultural subsidies. The situation may change due to agricultural policy. Contracting in the peat production is quite stable and the tariffs are based on the produced energy. Biomass fuel business models are heterogeneous. Enterprises competing even in same operations differ both in size and, alike in main business. Companies expand from their core competence to gain profit from other operations in the value chain of biomass fuels. Co-operation is common way to expand operations outside of core competence, especially in the case of woodchips. Energy production and raw-material markets are the most interesting areas. Paper and mass industry employ more per used natural resources than energy production or use in biorefinery. All three sectors uses the same supply chains. According to interviews major problems related to the availability of qualified

  2. Cooking with Fire: The Mutagenicity- and PAH-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. We evaluated two categories of solid...

  3. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  4. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken....... This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other corrosion mechanisms...... appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment...

  5. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been...... undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure...

  6. Coming on stream: Financing biomass and alternative-fuel projects in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, E.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass-energy and alternative-fuels projects make environmental sense, but do they make economic sense? In the current project-finance environment, moving ideas off the drawing board and transforming them into reality takes more than vision and commitment; it takes the ability to understand and address the financial markets' perception of risk. This paper examines the state of the project-finance market, both as it pertains to biomass and alternative-fuels projects and in more general terms, focusing on what project sponsors and developers need to dot to obtain both early-state and construction/term financing, and the role a financial adviser can play in helping ensure access to funds at all stages

  7. OxyFuel combustion of Coal and Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension-fired po......The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension......-fired power plants burning coal or other fuels during the period of transition to renewable energy sources. The oxyfuel combustion process introduces several changes to the power plant configuration. Most important, the main part of the flue gas is recirculated to the boiler and mixed with pure oxygen....... The oxidant thus contains little or no nitrogen and a near-pure CO2 stream can be produced by cooling the flue gas to remove water. The change to the oxidant composition compared to combustion in air will induce significant changes to the combustion process. This Ph.D. thesis presents experimental...

  8. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  9. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  10. Kinetics of Enzymatic High-Solid Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Studied by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; McFarland, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    analysis of the interrelationships of enzyme load and the rate, time, and extent of the reaction. The results suggest that the hydrolysis rate of pretreated corn stover is limited initially by available attack points on the substrate surface (conversion) but becomes proportional to enzyme dosage......Enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid biomass (>10% w/w dry mass) has become increasingly important as a key step in the production of second-generation bioethanol. To this end, development of quantitative real-time assays is desirable both for empirical optimization and for detailed kinetic analysis...... rate with a detection limit of about 500 pmol glucose s−1. Hence, calorimetry is shown to be a highly sensitive real-time method, applicable for high solids, and independent on the complexity of the substrate. Dose–response experiments with a typical cellulase cocktail enabled a multidimensional...

  11. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A.; Sanchez Toro, O.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol

  12. Re-thinking china's densified biomass fuel policies: Large or small scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Ming; Li, Dingkai; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Current policies and strategies related to the utilization of densified biomass fuel (DBF) in China are mainly focused on medium- or large-scale manufacturing modes, which cannot provide feasible solutions to solve the household energy problems in China's rural areas. To simplify commercial processes related to the collection of DBF feedstock and the production and utilization of fuel, a novel village-scale DBF approach is proposed. Pilot demonstration projects have shown the feasibility and flexibility of this new approach in realizing sustainable development in rural China. Effective utilization of DBF in rural China will lead to gains for global, regional, and local energy savings, environmental protection, sustainable development, and related social benefits. It could also benefit other developing countries for better utilization of biomass as a viable household energy source. This proposal therefore delivers the possibility of reciprocal gains, and as such deserves the attention of policy makers and various stakeholders. - Highlights: •A field survey of Chinese densified biomass fuel (DBF) development is conducted. •The current situation and problems related to China's DBF industry are analyzed. •A novel and viable village-scale DBF utilization mode is proposed. •Further actions are suggested to boost the utilization of DBF in rural China.

  13. Energy consumption analysis of integrated flowsheets for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona Alzate, C.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia)]. E-mail: ccardonaal@unal.edu.co; Sanchez Toro, O.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra. 27 No. 64-60, Manizales (Colombia); Department of Engineering, University of Caldas, Calle 65 No. 26-10, Manizales (Colombia)

    2006-10-15

    Fuel ethanol is considered one of the most important renewable fuels due to the economic and environmental benefits of its use. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for producing bioethanol due to its global availability and to the energy gain that can be obtained when non-fermentable materials from biomass are used for cogeneration of heat and power. In this work, several process configurations for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied through process simulation using Aspen Plus. Some flowsheets considering the possibilities of reaction-reaction integration were taken into account among the studied process routes. The flowsheet variants were analyzed from the energy point of view utilizing as comparison criterion the energy consumption needed to produce 1 L of anhydrous ethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation process with water recycling showed the best results accounting an energy consumption of 41.96 MJ/L EtOH. If pervaporation is used as dehydration method instead of azeotropic distillation, further energy savings can be obtained. In addition, energy balance was estimated using the results from the simulation and literature data. A net energy value of 17.65-18.93 MJ/L EtOH was calculated indicating the energy efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol.

  14. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  15. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  16. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedingungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Authors of the conference reported on recent developments in utilization of renewable energy sources: resource potential of biomass, wood fuels, pollution limits, dedusting and purification of flue gas, heat recovery, straw combustion in small boilers, logistics and market of wood fuels, fluidized bed steam gasification, design of biomass-fueled power plants, organic Rankine cycle, operating experience in pilot plants. (uke)

  17. Cofiring biomass and coal for fossil fuel reduction and other benefits–Status of North American facilities in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; John. Zerbe

    2012-01-01

    Cofiring of biomass and coal at electrical generation facilities is gaining in importance as a means of reducing fossil fuel consumption, and more than 40 facilities in the United States have conducted test burns. Given the large size of many coal plants, cofiring at even low rates has the potential to utilize relatively large volumes of biomass. This could have...

  18. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or

  19. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  20. A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Florian; Lu, Yixin; Schaefer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption heating and cooling system used for buildings. The integrated system can provide heating/cooling and/or hot water for buildings while consuming natural gas. The aim of this study is to give an overall description of the system. The possibility of such an integrated system is discussed and the configuration of the system is described. A system model is presented, and a specific case study of the system, which consists of a pre-commercial SOFC system and a commercial LiBr absorption system, is performed. In the case study, the detailed configuration of an integrated system is given, and the heat and mass balance and system performance are obtained through numerical calculation. Based on the case study, some considerations with respect to system component selection, system configuration and design are discussed. Additionally, the economic and environmental issues of this specific system are evaluated briefly. The results show that the combined system demonstrates great advantages in both technical and environmental aspects. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating and cooling systems, it is very likely that such a combined system will become increasingly feasible within the following