WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid foods videorecording

  1. Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Alice A.; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants? initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4?35?months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-...

  2. Introduction of solid food to young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2011-11-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4-35 months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-sampled. Analyses in this report include bivariate tests and logistic regressions. 62% of parents reported introducing solids to their child between 4-6 months of age. African-American mothers (OR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]), English-speaking Latino mothers (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.7]), White mothers with more than high school education (OR=0.5 [0.2, 1.0]), and mothers who breastfed for 4 months or longer (OR=0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) were less likely to introduce solids early. Most parents (92%) of children 4-9 months of age reported that their pediatric provider had discussed introduction of solids with them since the child's birth, and provider discussion of feeding was not associated with the timing of introduction of solids. Although most parents recall discussing the introduction of solid foods with their child's physician, several subgroups of mothers introduce solid foods earlier than the AAP recommendation of 4-6 months. More effective discussion of solid food introduction linked to counseling and support of breastfeeding by the primary health care provider may reduce early introduction of solids.

  3. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  4. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Perceived creaminess of semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Prinz, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Results of sensory, physiological and physico-chemical studies from our laboratory on perceived creaminess of semi-solids foods are reviewed. Most results stem from studies using model vanilla custard desserts, allowing systematic variation of fat, flavor and thickener properties. The

  6. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC. Tropical Journal of ..... food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment ... food dyes in soft drinks containing natural pigments by.

  7. Simultaneous gastric emptying of two solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, K.; Graham, L.S.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of radionuclide-labeled, solid foods have been used to measure gastric emptying. Implicit is the idea that the nuclide label identifies the rate of emptying of meal contents. The present studies tested whether different foods empty from the human stomach at different rates. Eight volunteers were fed meals of 200 ml of water + 213 g of beef stew + 52 g of chicken liver, with half the liver as 0.25-mm particles and half as 10-mm chunks, labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 113m/In, respectively, or the reverse. Another 8 subjects ingested 200 ml of water + 75 g of noodles, labeled with /sup 123/I, + 30 g of liver, labeled with /sup 113/In. Gastric emptying of each radionuclide was determined for 3 h by measuring the decline of counts in the gastric region of interest, using an Ohio Nuclear S410 gamma camera interfaced to a DEC computer. In each case, appropriate corrections were made for nuclear decay, down-scatter from /sup 113m/In, and septal penetration. Seven of 8 subjects emptied 0.25-mm liver particles more quickly than 10-mm chunks of liver, while 1 subject emptied the two sizes of liver at the same rate. The t 1/2 for the 0.25-mm liver was 70 +/- 10 min; and for the 10-mm liver, 117 +/- 19 min (p less than 0.05). Six of 8 subjects emptied noodles much faster than liver, while 2 emptied the two foods at similar rates. The t 1/2 for the noodles was 52 +/- 8 min; and for the liver, 82 +/- 5 min (p less than 0.02). Since different foods in the same meal were found to empty at different rates, we conclude the gastric emptying of every food in a meal is not accurately represented by the emptying of a single, nuclide-labeled food. The different t 1/2s for the emptying of 10-mm liver in the two meals (p less than 0.05) probably reflected the influence of other meal components on gastric motility

  8. Simultaneous gastric emptying of two solid foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, K.; Graham, L.S.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1981-08-01

    A variety of radionuclide-labeled, solid foods have been used to measure gastric emptying. Implicit is the idea that the nuclide label identifies the rate of emptying of meal contents. The present studies tested whether different foods empty from the human stomach at different rates. Eight volunteers were fed meals of 200 ml of water + 213 g of beef stew + 52 g of chicken liver, with half the liver as 0.25-mm particles and half as 10-mm chunks, labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 113m/In, respectively, or the reverse. Another 8 subjects ingested 200 ml of water + 75 g of noodles, labeled with /sup 123/I, + 30 g of liver, labeled with /sup 113/In. Gastric emptying of each radionuclide was determined for 3 h by measuring the decline of counts in the gastric region of interest, using an Ohio Nuclear S410 gamma camera interfaced to a DEC computer. In each case, appropriate corrections were made for nuclear decay, down-scatter from /sup 113m/In, and septal penetration. Seven of 8 subjects emptied 0.25-mm liver particles more quickly than 10-mm chunks of liver, while 1 subject emptied the two sizes of liver at the same rate. The t 1/2 for the 0.25-mm liver was 70 +/- 10 min; and for the 10-mm liver, 117 +/- 19 min (p less than 0.05). Six of 8 subjects emptied noodles much faster than liver, while 2 emptied the two foods at similar rates. The t 1/2 for the noodles was 52 +/- 8 min; and for the liver, 82 +/- 5 min (p less than 0.02). Since different foods in the same meal were found to empty at different rates, we conclude the gastric emptying of every food in a meal is not accurately represented by the emptying of a single, nuclide-labeled food. The different t 1/2s for the emptying of 10-mm liver in the two meals (p less than 0.05) probably reflected the influence of other meal components on gastric motility.

  9. Ethical issues in videorecording patients lacking capacity to consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videorecording of patients requires the utmost respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the patients. Consent should be requested from patients for all videorecording. When a mental disability or mental or physical illness prevents patients from giving their permission, agreement to recording from a legal representative or from a close relative or carer are necessary. Three documents on this subject issued in the United Kingdom, the United State of America and Italy are briefly summarized and discussed. The problem of consent for videorecording is addressed particularly in reference to persons incapable of making decisions on their own, such as persons in vegetative state. The general ethical framework is outlined and a few practical proposals are given.

  10. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  11. Comparison of solid food markers in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    In studies of gastric emptying of solid foods, it is essential that the radiolabel remain firmly bound to the food to trace its behavior. Initial studies with radiolabeled solid meals suffered from the apparent dissociation of the radiolabel from the solid food and actually traced the liquid phase of the gastric contents rather than the solid phase. This problem was eventually overcome by the introduction of technetium-99m-sulfur colloid labeled in vivo chicken liver, in which the radiocolloid is believed to the trapped intracellularly in the chicken liver. Although the in vivo chicken liver gives good results clinically, many patients do not care for chicken liver, and the agent requires the housing and slaughtering of live chickens, a process for which most Nuclear Medicine departments are not equipped. Some alternative radiolabeled solid foods have been evaluated for their stability in vitro and the best of these were then compared in vivo in normal subjects. When tested in vitro, the firmest label for solid food appears to be in vivo chicken liver, although Tc-ovalbumin-egg and Tc-sulfur colloid egg are almost as stable. Evaluation of solid food labels in vitro should be done in gastric juice, not HCl. Based on the studies of normal subjects, Tc-sulfur colloid-egg is equivalent to in vivo chicken liver for gastric emptying studies. In addition, it is more convenient to prepare, and has better patient acceptance

  12. Catalogue of Videorecordings and Films, Kindergarten to Grade 6, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    This catalogue lists and indexes 2,233 videorecordings, 16mm film, and videodisc titles held by the Library, Manitoba Education and Training for borrowing; some are also available for dubbing. The catalog indexes materials intended for children in kindergarten through grade 6, and is divided into three parts: an annotated title and series index, a…

  13. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  14. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  15. Weaning onto solid foods: some of the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A E; O'Connor, A L; Canning, N; Kenny, A; Keaveney, E; Younger, K; Flynn, M A T

    2012-09-01

    Weaning--the transition from milk to solid food--influences life-long health. Dietary challenges during weaning include providing sufficient critical nutrients such as iron with minimal added sugar and fat and no added salt. This study assessed the inclusion of iron-containing red meat in infant diets before age one year, and the Irish commercial baby food environment. Of mothers with an infant under 30 months of age who were surveyed in shopping centres in Ireland (n195), 82% (n159) reported wanting more weaning information. A quarter (n24) of infants over age 12 months (n97) received no iron-containing red meat before age one year. A scan of commercial baby foods in Ireland identified 448 products. While all complied with baby food legislation, 15% (n69) were intrinsically high in sugar and fat, or contained added salt. This study indicates the need for specific guidance on best infant feeding practice in Ireland.

  16. Weaning Onto Solid foods: Some of the Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Annemarie E; O'Connor, Annalouise; Canning, Nicola; Kenny, Alice; Keaveney, Edel; Younger, Katherine; Flynn, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Weaning - the transition from milk to solid food - influences life-long health. Dietary challenges during weaning include providing sufficient critical nutrients such as iron with minimal added sugar and fat and no added salt. This study assessed the inclusion of iron-containing red meat in infant diets before age one year, and the Irish commercial baby food environment. Of mothers with an infant under 30 months of age who were surveyed in shopping centres in Ireland (n195), 82% (n159) report...

  17. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WP-200816) Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging June 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/06/2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2008 - 01/01/2015 Nanotechnology for...Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center Robin Altmeyer - AmeriQual U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering

  18. Abnormal eating behavior in video-recorded meals in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy; Steinglass, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Eating behavior during meals in anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been noted to be abnormal, but little research has been done carefully characterizing these behaviors. These eating behaviors have been considered pathological, but are not well understood. The current study sought to quantify ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors during a laboratory lunch meal, compare them to the behaviors of healthy controls (HC), and examine their relationships with caloric intake and anxiety during the meal. A standardized lunch meal was video-recorded for 26 individuals with AN and 10 HC. Duration, frequency, and latency of 16 mealtime behaviors were coded using computer software. Caloric intake, dietary energy density (DEDS), and anxiety were also measured. Nine mealtime behaviors were identified that distinguished AN from HC: staring at food, tearing food, nibbling/picking, dissecting food, napkin use, inappropriate utensil use, hand fidgeting, eating latency, and nibbling/picking latency. Among AN, a subset of these behaviors was related to caloric intake and anxiety. These data demonstrate that the mealtime behaviors of patients with AN and HC differ significantly, and some of these behaviors may be associated with food intake and anxiety. These mealtime behaviors may be important treatment targets to improve eating behavior in individuals with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  20. Retardation of gastric emptying of solid food by secretin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleibeuker, J.H.; Beekhuis, H.; Piers, D.A.; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of secretin at nearly physiologic plasma concentrations on the gastric emptying rate of solid food was studied in 12 healthy men. A /sup 99m/Tc colloid-labeled pancake was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying rate was measured during 1 h using a dual-headed gamma-camera, and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. To prevent endogenous secretin release, 400 mg of cimetidine was given before the meal. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) during infusion of saline; (2) during continuous infusion of secretin, 6.6 pmol/kg.h; and (3) during three intermittent 10-min periods of secretin infusion, 7.6 pmol/kg.h during each period. Both continuous and intermittent infusion of secretin increased half-emptying time, by 133% and 55%, respectively. The plasma secretin concentration in condition 1 was 0.8 pM; plateau concentration in condition 2 was 9.8 pM; and integrated mean concentration in condition 3 was 4.8 pM. It is concluded that secretin at approximately physiologic plasma concentrations retards gastric emptying of solid food in humans.

  1. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis

  2. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two

  3. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  4. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  5. Live lecture versus video-recorded lecture: are students voting with their feet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardall, Scott; Krupat, Edward; Ulrich, Michael

    2008-12-01

    In light of educators' concerns that lecture attendance in medical school has declined, the authors sought to assess students' perceptions, evaluations, and motivations concerning live lectures compared with accelerated, video-recorded lectures viewed online. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey study of all first- and second-year students at Harvard Medical School. Respondents answered questions regarding their lecture attendance; use of class and personal time; use of accelerated, video-recorded lectures; and reasons for viewing video-recorded and live lectures. Other questions asked students to compare how well live and video-recorded lectures satisfied learning goals. Of the 353 students who received questionnaires, 204 (58%) returned responses. Collectively, students indicated watching 57.2% of lectures live, 29.4% recorded, and 3.8% using both methods. All students have watched recorded lectures, and most (88.5%) have used video-accelerating technologies. When using accelerated, video-recorded lecture as opposed to attending lecture, students felt they were more likely to increase their speed of knowledge acquisition (79.3% of students), look up additional information (67.7%), stay focused (64.8%), and learn more (63.7%). Live attendance remains the predominant method for viewing lectures. However, students find accelerated, video-recorded lectures equally or more valuable. Although educators may be uncomfortable with the fundamental change in the learning process represented by video-recorded lecture use, students' responses indicate that their decisions to attend lectures or view recorded lectures are motivated primarily by a desire to satisfy their professional goals. A challenge remains for educators to incorporate technologies students find useful while creating an interactive learning culture.

  6. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, A.; Behrens, J.K.; Vejen-Christiansen, L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Aarhus Kommunehospital

    1992-01-01

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P [de

  7. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants: an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    introduced to solid food. Full breastfeeding at five weeks was the most influential predictor for later introduction of solid food (OR = 2.52 CI: 1.93-3.28). Among infant factors male gender, increased gestational age at birth, and higher birth weight were found to be statistically significant predictors......BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...... Danish mothers filled in a self-administered questionnaire approximately six months after birth. The questionnaire included questions about factors related to the infant, the mother, attachment and feeding known to influence time for introduction of solid food. The study population consisted of 4503...

  8. Off-the-Air Educational Videorecording and Fair Use: Achieving a Delicate Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Ancil G.

    1984-01-01

    At each stage in the history of copyright law, technological innovation has been a central problem to policy makers. Because videorecording in an instructional context is for noncommerical, educational purposes, issues involving the doctrine of fair use and the public's interest in the free dissemination of information are raised. (MLW)

  9. Beliefs and practices regarding solid food introduction among Latino parents in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Hoeft, Kristin S; Takayama, John I; Barker, Judith C

    2018-01-01

    Latino children are more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white children, and feeding patterns that begin in infancy may contribute to this disparity. The objective of this study was to elucidate beliefs and practices related to the introduction of solids and solid food feeding in the first year of life among low-income Latino parents residing in Northern California. We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews that explored the timing of introduction of solids, selection of foods to serve to infants, feeding strategies, sources of information on solid food feeding and concerns about infant weight. We found that most parents relied on traditional practices in selecting first foods for infants and had a strong preference for homemade food, which was often chicken soup with vegetables. Parents generally described responsive feeding practices; however a minority used pressuring practices to encourage infants to eat more. Very few parents practiced repeated gentle introduction of unfamiliar food to increase acceptance. High calorie low nutrient foods were typically introduced at around 12 months of age and parents struggled to limit such foods once children were old enough to ask for them. Parents were concerned about the possibility of infants becoming overweight and considered health care providers to be an important source of information on infant weight status. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions to prevent obesity in Latino children with similar demographics to our study population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tribological properties of rice starch in liquid and semi-solid food model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Stieger, M.A.; Linden, van der E.; Velde, van de Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the tribological and rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid food model systems containing micro-granular rice starch. Native (uncooked) and gelatinized rice starch dispersions, o/w emulsions and emulsion-filled gelatin gels were studied as food model systems. Native

  11. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... in microstructure and other physical properties of the food matrix. The heat and water transport inside the food is coupled in a complex way, which for some food systems it is not yet fully understood. A typical example of the latter is roasting of meat in convection oven, where the mechanism of water transport...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...

  12. Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

  13. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeser, A.; Behrens, J.K.; Vejen-Christiansen, L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). GI Motility Lab. Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology R)

    1992-02-01

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P<0.02). GER, grade II (reflux above the level of the carina), occurred equally often as a result of both types of bolus, however. The study suggests that significant, food-stimulated GER is independent of the consistency of the foodstuffs and may be detected employing a liquid bolus. This result might be used in the examination of infants for GER, using milk as a food stimulus. (orig.).

  14. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  15. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  16. Effect of decompression drying treatment on physical properties of solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takuya; Takada, Norihisa; Miura, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study used a decompression drying instrument to investigate the effects of a drying treatment on the physical properties of solid foods. Commercial tofu was used as a model food and was treated at different temperature and pressure conditions in a drying chamber. Overall, high temperatures resulted in better drying. Additionally, pressure in the chamber influenced the drying conditions of samples. Differences in physical properties, such as food texture, shrinkage, and color were observed among some samples, even with similar moisture content. This was caused by differences in moisture distribution in the food, which seems to have manifested as a thin, dried film on the surfaces of samples. It caused inefficient drying and changes in physical properties. Control of the drying conditions (i.e. pressure and heat supply) has relations with not only physical properties, but also the drying efficiency of solid foods.

  17. Self-Reflection of Video-Recorded High-Fidelity Simulations and Development of Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Michelle E

    2016-09-01

    Nurse educators are increasingly using high-fidelity simulators to improve prelicensure nursing students' ability to develop clinical judgment. Traditionally, oral debriefing sessions have immediately followed the simulation scenarios as a method for students to connect theory to practice and therefore develop clinical judgment. Recently, video recording of the simulation scenarios is being incorporated. This qualitative, interpretive description study was conducted to identify whether self-reflection on video-recorded high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios helped prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. Tanner's clinical judgment model was the framework for this study. Four themes emerged from this study: Confidence, Communication, Decision Making, and Change in Clinical Practice. This study indicated that self-reflection of video-recorded HFS scenarios is beneficial for prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):522-527.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    contains the following: Penne Pasta, Pretzel, Seasoning Blend, Toaster Pastry, Beef Snack, French Vanilla and Mocha Cappuccino, Lemon Tea, Accessory C...30 31.8 7.3 13.6 110 Chow Line 0 2.8 17.9 41.5 25.5 4.7 7.5 106 other (write in) N bring my own food 11 local cuisine 3

  19. Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity: The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Savva, Savvas C; Hunsberger, Monica; Jilani, Hannah; Michels, Nathalie; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Dénes; Siani, Alfonso; Moreno, Luis A; Hadjigeorgiou, Charis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9 years (n = 10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (≥7 months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction (associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity among children that ceased exclusive breastfeeding earlier than 4 months (OR: 0.63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.84]). Children that were introduced to solids right after 6 months exclusive breastfeeding and continued to receive breastmilk (≥12 months) were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI [0.51, 0.88]) compared to children that discontinued to receive breastmilk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, birth weight, parental education level, parental body mass index, tobacco use in pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes. Underweight mothers, overweight mothers, mothers who reported daily smoking during pregnancy, and low-educated mothers were less likely to follow recommendations on breastfeeding and timely solids introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  1. Timing of solid food introduction and obesity: Hong Kong's "children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-05-01

    Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in a developed non-Western setting, in which childhood obesity is less clearly socially patterned. We used generalized estimating equation models to estimate the adjusted associations of the timing of the introduction of solid food (8 months) with BMI z score and overweight (including obesity) at different growth phases (infancy, childhood, and puberty) in 7809 children (88% follow-up) from a Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997." We assessed if the associations varied with gender or breastfeeding. We used multiple imputation for missing exposure and confounders. The introduction of solid food at associated with lower family socioeconomic position (SEP) but was not clearly associated with BMI or overweight (including obesity) in infancy [mean difference in BMI z score: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.17], childhood (0.14; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.40), or at puberty (0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.52), adjusted for SEP and infant and maternal characteristics. In a non-Western developed setting, there was no clear association of the early introduction of solid food with childhood obesity. Together with the inconsistent evidence from studies in Western settings, this finding suggests that any observed associations might simply be residual confounding by SEP.

  2. A model stomach system to investigate disintegration kinetics of solid foods during gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, F; Singh, R P

    2008-06-01

    Knowledge of the disintegration kinetics of food particulates in the human stomach is essential for assessing the bioaccessibility of nutrients in solid foods and understanding stomach emptying. The objective of this study was to develop a model stomach system and to investigate the kinetics of food disintegration. Our system consisted mainly of a turntable and a jacketed glass chamber containing simulated gastric juice in which plastic beads were added to simulate food particulates as well as provide a suitable mechanical destructive force on food samples. The mechanical force on the samples was simultaneously measured using the load cell of a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Cylindrical carrots and ham samples were used as representative foods. The system is capable of simulating the in vivo stomach in terms of providing a wide range of continuous and periodic forces comparable to those measured in vivo. The modified power exponential function of the form y(t)= 1 - (1 -e(-kt))(beta), where y(t) is the mass retention ratio at time t, provided a reasonable description for the disintegration performance of tested foods. The mass retention curve can be either a sigmoidal decay with an initial delay or an exponential decay, which are decided largely by the hardness of the foods during digestion and the extent of physical force acting on the foods. A good match was observed between the kinetics of food disintegration and in vivo stomach emptying.

  3. Migration kinetics of four photo-initiators from paper food packaging to solid food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huimei; Ji, Shuilin; Zhang, Juzhou; Tao, Gushuai; Peng, Chuanyi; Hou, Ruyan; Zhang, Liang; Sun, Yue; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    The migration behaviour of four photo-initiators (BP, EHA, MBP and Irgacure 907) was studied by 'printing' onto four different food-packaging materials (Kraft paper, white cardboard, Polyethylene (PE)-coated paper and composite paper) and tracking movement into the food simulant: Tenax-TA (porous polymer 2,6-diphenyl furan resin). The results indicated that the migration of the photo-initiators was related to the molecular weight and log K o/w of each photo-initiator. At different temperatures, the migration rates of the photo-initiators were different in papers with different thicknesses. The amount of each photo-initiator found in the food was closely related to the food matrix. The Weibull model was used to predict the migration load into the food simulants by calculating the parameters τ and β and determining the relationship of the two parameters with temperature and paper thickness. The established Weibull model was then used to predict the migration of each photo-initiator with respect to different foods. A two-parameter Weibull model fitted the actual situation, with some deviation from the actual migration amount.

  4. Final gastric emptying of solid food in healthy subjects: Determined by X-ray examination and radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolving, L.; Noer, I.; Soegaard, P.; Christensen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Kommunehospital, Aarhus

    1990-01-01

    In ten healthy subjects final gastric emptying of solid food was measured by a new scintigraphic mehtod, employing 99m Tc labelled pellets, and compared to a radiologic method, employing food with incorporated barium suspension. Final gastric emptying of solid food, measured by the scintigraphic technique, was 5.2 hours and with the radiographic technique 5.5 hours, with no significant difference. It is concluded that significant information concerning gastric emptying of solid food can be obtained by the radiological method. (orig.) [de

  5. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA 9 ) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg -1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg -1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  7. The distinguishing motor features of cataplexy: a study from video-recorded attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Fabio; Antelmi, Elena; Vandi, Stefano; Meletti, Stefano; Erro, Roberto; Baumann, Christian R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Dauvilliers, Yves; Edwards, Mark J; Iranzo, Alex; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Tinazzi, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    To describe the motor pattern of cataplexy and to determine its phenomenological differences from pseudocataplexy in the differential diagnosis of episodic falls. We selected 30 video-recorded cataplexy and 21 pseudocataplexy attacks in 17 and 10 patients evaluated for suspected narcolepsy and with final diagnosis of narcolepsy type 1 and conversion disorder, respectively, together with self-reported attacks features, and asked expert neurologists to blindly evaluate the motor features of the attacks. Video documented and self-reported attack features of cataplexy and pseudocataplexy were contrasted. Video-recorded cataplexy can be positively differentiated from pseudocataplexy by the occurrence of facial hypotonia (ptosis, mouth opening, tongue protrusion) intermingled by jerks and grimaces abruptly interrupting laughter behavior (i.e. smile, facial expression) and postural control (head drops, trunk fall) under clear emotional trigger. Facial involvement is present in both partial and generalized cataplexy. Conversely, generalized pseudocataplexy is associated with persistence of deep tendon reflexes during the attack. Self-reported features confirmed the important role of positive emotions (laughter, telling a joke) in triggering the attacks, as well as the more frequent occurrence of partial body involvement in cataplexy compared with pseudocataplexy. Cataplexy is characterized by abrupt facial involvement during laughter behavior. Video recording of suspected cataplexy attacks allows the identification of positive clinical signs useful for diagnosis and, possibly in the future, for severity assessment.

  8. Energy supply of food processing plants and breweries from its specific solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmel, U.; Leupold, G.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of solid wastes in the food processing industry causes problems. Constant utilization as animal food is not guaranteed any longer and costs for disposal will increase. Biogas production is an alternative for disposal of brewery wastes. Recent investigations have reduced retention time for hydrolysis and total retention time. Retention time is directly proportional to fermenter size consequently resulting in drastic cost reductions. Yielded energy can be utilized in the production line so that fossil fuel use can be reduced with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. However, some problems remain: sumptous technology; highly qualified specialists; need to reduce ammonia to prevent inhibition of biogas production; cost of technology.

  9. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Stafleu, A; Mars, M; de Graaf, C

    2012-09-01

    People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. In a randomized crossover design, participants (n=27, age: 21±2.4 years, body mass index: 22.2±1.6 kg m(-2)) repeatedly consumed highly novel foods that were either low-energy-dense (LE: 30 kcal per 100 g) or high-energy-dense (HE: 130 kcal per 100 g), and either liquid or semi-solid, resulting in four product conditions. In each condition, a fixed portion of test food was consumed nine times as an obligatory part of breakfast, lunch and dinner on 3 consecutive days. All meals continued with an ad libitum buffet; food items for evening consumption were provided and the intake (kcal per day) was measured. Buffet intake depended on energy density and day of consumption of the test foods (day*energy interaction: P=0.02); daily buffet intake increased from day 1 (1745±577 kcal) to day 3 (1979±567 kcal) in the LE conditions; intake did not change in the HE conditions (day 1: 1523±429 kcal, day 3: 1589±424 kcal). Food texture did not affect the intake (P=0.56). Intake did depend on energy density of the test foods; participants increased their buffet intake over days in response to learning about the satiating capacity of the LE foods, but did not change buffet intake over days when repeatedly consuming a HE food as part of their meal. The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture.

  10. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS

  11. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  12. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  13. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  14. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  15. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  16. Observing the Testing Effect using Coursera Video-recorded Lectures: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zhihao eYONG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the testing effect in Coursera video-based learning. One hundred and twenty-three participants either (a studied an instructional video-recorded lecture four times, (b studied the lecture three times and took one recall test, or (c studied the lecture once and took three tests. They then took a final recall test, either immediately or a week later, through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying produced better recall performance than did repeated testing when the final test was administered immediately, testing produced better performance when the final test was delayed until a week after. The testing effect was observed using Coursera lectures. Future directions are documented.

  17. Individualized music played for agitated patients with dementia: analysis of video-recorded sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragneskog, H; Asplund, K; Kihlgren, M; Norberg, A

    2001-06-01

    Many nursing home patients with dementia suffer from symptoms of agitation (e.g. anxiety, shouting, irritability). This study investigated whether individualized music could be used as a nursing intervention to reduce such symptoms in four patients with severe dementia. The patients were video-recorded during four sessions in four periods, including a control period without music, two periods where individualized music was played, and one period where classical music was played. The recordings were analysed by systematic observations and the Facial Action Coding System. Two patients became calmer during some of the individualized music sessions; one patient remained sitting in her armchair longer, and the other patient stopped shouting. For the two patients who were most affected by dementia, the noticeable effect of music was minimal. If the nursing staff succeed in discovering the music preferences of an individual, individualized music may be an effective nursing intervention to mitigate anxiety and agitation for some patients.

  18. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  19. Colorectal surgery patients prefer simple solid foods to clear fluids as the first postoperative meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Sophia E; Fenton, Tanis R

    2009-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials have established that there is no benefit to withholding oral food and fluids from colorectal surgery patients postoperatively. The aim of this survey was to determine food preferences for the first postoperative meal and compare these with a traditional clear-fluid diet. One hundred forty-five elective colorectal surgery patients were surveyed about their preferences for 35 common foods within 72 hours of surgery and their levels of nausea, hunger, and pain. Preferences were examined by postoperative day (one vs. two) and levels of nausea, hunger, and pain. The survey showed that patients significantly preferred solid foods as early as the first postoperative day and their preferences had little congruency with the traditional clear-fluid diet. Foods highest in preference, such as eggs, regular broth soup (e.g., chicken noodle soup), toast, and potatoes, were significantly more preferred than common clear-fluid diet items such as gelatin, clear broth, and carbonated beverages (P clear-fluid diet as their first postoperative meal.

  20. Associations Between Breast Milk Feeding, Introduction of Solid Foods, and Weight Gain in the First 12 Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, Elizabeth A; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-10-01

    Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were to describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Data were analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011-2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 g (95% CI 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  2. A holistic approach for food waste management towards zero-solid disposal and energy/resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study developed a holistic approach which was based on the ultra-fast hydrolysis of food waste with the fungal mash rich in various hydrolytic enzymes produced in situ from food waste as well. After the 8-h hydrolytic treatment, the solid residue and liquor were separated. It was found that the produced solid residue can meet all the requirements for biofertilizer in terms of NPK and heavy metal contents, while the separated liquor with high soluble organics concentration was further subject to anaerobic digestion for enhanced biomethane production. The results showed that 0.41kg of biofertilizer with a moisture content of 76.9% and 54.4L of biomethane could be produced from 1kg of food waste. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management with the ultimate target of zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianjun; Liu, Yun; Liu, Qianping; Hui, Junfeng; Liu, Yangzi

    2017-01-01

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO 4 powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r 2  = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  4. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianjun, E-mail: bootan12@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yun [College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Qianping [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yangzi [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO{sub 4} powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r{sup 2} = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  5. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  7. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  8. High solids co-digestion of food and landscape waste and the potential for ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Margaret F; DiStefano, Thomas D

    2014-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15 g COD/L-day). At low loadings, methane yields were 232 L CH4/kg COD fed and 229 L CH4/kg VS fed, and at high loadings yields were 211 L CH4/kg COD fed and 272 L CH4/kg VS fed. Based on characterization and biodegradability studies, food waste appears to be a good candidate for HSAD at low organic loading rates; however, the development of ammonia inhibition at high loading rates suggests that the C:N ratio is too low for use as a single substrate. The relatively low biodegradability of landscape waste as reported herein made it an unsuitable substrate to increase the C:N ratio. Codigestion of food waste with a substrate high in bioavailable carbon is recommended to increase the C:N ratio sufficiently to allow HSAD at loading rates of 15 g COD/L-day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  10. High solids co-digestion of food and landscape waste and the potential for ammonia toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Margaret F.; DiStefano, Thomas D., E-mail: thomas.distefano@bucknell.edu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated co-digestion of food and landscape waste with a pilot-scale anaerobic dry digester. • We evaluated reactor performance at 35 °C under low and high organic loading rates. • Performance was stable under low organic loading rate, but declined under high organic loading rate. • Respirometry was employed to investigate potential inhibition due to ammonia. • Landscape waste was unsuitable in increasing the C:N ratio during codigestion. - Abstract: A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2 g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15 g COD/L-day). At low loadings, methane yields were 232 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 229 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed, and at high loadings yields were 211 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 272 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed. Based on characterization and biodegradability studies, food waste appears to be a good candidate for HSAD at low organic loading rates; however, the development of ammonia inhibition at high loading rates suggests that the C:N ratio is too low for use as a single substrate. The relatively low biodegradability of landscape waste as reported herein made it an unsuitable substrate to increase the C:N ratio. Codigestion of food waste with a substrate high in bioavailable carbon is recommended to increase the C:N ratio sufficiently to allow HSAD at loading rates of 15 g COD/L-day.

  11. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  12. Background analysis and comparison of two solid food markers (DTPA and HSA) in the measurement of human gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonderko, K.; Rudzki, K.; Skrzypek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The measurement of gastric emptying of radiolabelled solid food is described. A procedure enabling the assessment of background radiation, and connected with it corrections of the parameters characterizing gastric emptying curves are discussed in detail. Considering background radiation, /sup 99m/Tc/labelled DTPA and HSA are shown to be equivalent as solid meal markers in studying gastric emptying. Corrections for background radiation can be neglected, if the background to total count ratio has been sufficiently reduced. (author)

  13. Radioisotopic documentation of different solid food transit in gastrectomized patients with dumping syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, F.; Boccaletto, F.; Allegri, F.; Tommaseo, T.; Chiara, G.

    1988-01-01

    Scintigraphy was performed on a group of patients following the administration of a solid radiolabelled meal. As a tracer, human albumin microspheres were used with 99m Tc, mixed with fresh scrambled eggs, eaten as a sandwich in two slices of white bread. The analysis of transit and emptying-rate of the radiolabelled meal in the gastric or derivate loop areas was performed by means of a medium field (300 mm) gamma camera interfaced with a digital computer; the data were collected at 15'' frames for 90'-120'.Twenty-nine patients were examined who had undergone sub-total gastrectomy: 11 of them were ''dumpers'' and 18 ''non-dumpers''; moreover, 9 volounteers without any history of gastrointestinal diseases and 11 patients with different gastric disorders were checked. In the first group of gastrectomized patients the half-emptying time (T50) was significantly shorter than in the 11 people being checked (Md=27.5±10.8 versus 69.6±19 minutes); in ''non-dumpers'' T50 was even shorter (Md=24.2±13 minutes). There was no significant statistical difference between the two classes of gastroresected patients in both T50 and emptying-rate of the radioactive solid food, which excludes the accelerated transit as a factor in the functional post-prandial symptoms of the dumping syndrome. On the contrary, the dynamic selective analysis of the radiolabelled food transit through derivate afferent and efferent loops showed different patterns in the two groups of gastroresected patients: the prograssion of the propulsive wave was very irregular and constantly hyperperistaltic only in the dumpers

  14. Production and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers and solid lipid nanoparticles containing lycopene for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoond Zardini, Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Farhoosh, Reza; Bolurian, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lycopene, was loaded on nanostructured lipid carrier and solid lipid nanoparticles using combination of high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method. Effect of applied lipids types, nanocarrier's type and lycopene loading on physicochemical properties of developed nanocarriers were studied. Particle sizes of developed nanocarriers were between 74.93 and 183.40 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of nanostructured lipid carrier was significantly higher than solid lipid nanoparticles. Morphological study of developed nanocarriers using scanning electron microscopy showed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surface. Lycopene was entrapped in nanocarriers without any chemical interaction with coating material according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry thermogram. Glycerol monostearate containing nanoparticles showed phase separation after 30 days in 6 and 25 °C, whereas this event was not observed in nanosuspensions that produced by glycerol distearate. Lycopene release in gastrointestinal condition was studied by the dialysis bag method. To evaluate nanocarrier's potential for food fortification, developed lycopene-loaded nanocarriers were added to orange drink. Results of sensory analysis indicated that nanoencapsulation could obviate the poor solubility and tomato after taste of lycopene. Fortified sample with lycopene nanocarriers didn't show significant difference with blank orange drink sample except in orange odor.

  15. Evaluating Student Self-Assessment through Video-Recorded Patient Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Tammy R; Kearney, Rachel C; Kissell, Denise; Salisbury, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if the use of a video-recorded clinical session affects the accuracy of dental hygiene student self-assessment and dental hygiene instructor feedback. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. The use of the ODU 11/12 explorer was taught to students and participating faculty through video and demonstration. Students then demonstrated activation of the explorer on a student partner using the same technique. While faculty completed the student assessment in real time, the sessions were video recorded. After completing the activation of the explorer, students and faculty completed an assessment of the student's performance using a rubric. A week later, both students and faculty viewed the video of the clinical skill performance and reassessed the student's performance using the same rubric. The student videos were randomly assigned a number, so faculty reassessed the performance without access to the student's identity or the score that was initially given. Twenty-eight students and 4 pre-clinical faculty completed the study. Students' average score was 4.68±1.16 on the first assessment and slightly higher 4.89±1.45 when reviewed by video. Faculty average scores were 5.07±2.13 at the first assessment and 4.79±2.54 on the second assessment with the video. No significant differences were found between the differences in overall scores, there was a significant difference in the scores of the grading criteria compared to the expert assessment scores (p=0.0001). This pilot study shows that calibration and assessment without bias in education is a challenge. Analyzing and incorporating new techniques can result in more exact assessment of student performance and self-assessment. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  16. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of 111In-labelled polymer beads and 99mTc-Sn-colloid as solid food and semi-solid food tracers for scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of labelling a solid meal and a semi-solid meal with either 111 In-labelled polymer beads or 99m Tc-tin colloid beagle dogs were fed variously labelled meals of different consistencies and then monitored by scintigraphy for gastric motility patterns. The labelling with each tracer was either performed by thoroughly mixing it into the food before cooking, or alternatively by surface labelling after the food had been cooked. For the 99m Tc-Sn-colloid tracer no difference was found in the measured gastric emptying times resulting from either pre-cooking labelling or surface labelling of the meals. Cooking the tracer together with the ingredients does however seem to promote a firm entrapment of the 111 In-polymer beads into a solid protein, and in this manner the 111 In-labelled resin appears to be a reliable solid food tracer. Surface labelling with 111 In-polymer beads of a solid meal with a smooth texture fails totally and the tracer empties with the liquid phase. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparison of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads and /sup 99/mTc-Sn-colloid as solid food and semi-solid food tracers for scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of labelling a solid meal and a semi-solid meal with either /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads or /sup 99m/Tc-tin colloid beagle dogs were fed variously labelled meals of different consistencies and then monitored by scintigraphy for gastric motility patterns. The labelling with each tracer was either performed by thoroughly mixing it into the food before cooking, or alternatively by surface labelling after the food had been cooked. For the /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-colloid tracer no difference was found in the measured gastric emptying times resulting from either pre-cooking labelling or surface labelling of the meals. Cooking the tracer together with the ingredients does however seem to promote a firm entrapment of the /sup 111/In-polymer beads into a solid protein, and in this manner the /sup 111/In-labelled resin appears to be a reliable solid food tracer. Surface labelling with /sup 111/In-polymer beads of a solid meal with a smooth texture fails totally and the tracer empties with the liquid phase.

  19. Modelling of coupled heat and electric field distribution during ohmic heating of solid foods with varying sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Bøknæs, Niels; Nielsen, P.L.

    factors leading to variations and uncertainties in prediction of the right process parameters. The current work is focused on modelling of OH of solid food pieces of varying sizes cooked in one batch. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during OH of shrimps has been...

  20. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  1. Automated headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction to analyse the volatile fraction of food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2004-01-23

    High concentration capacity headspace techniques (headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE)) are a bridge between static and dynamic headspace, since they give high concentration factors as does dynamic headspace (D-HS), and are as easy to apply and as reproducible as static headspace (S-HS). In 2000, Chromtech (Idstein, Germany) introduced an inside-needle technique for vapour and liquid sampling, solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE), also known as "the magic needle". In SPDE, analytes are concentrated on a 50 microm film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and activated carbon (10%) coated onto the inside wall of the stainless steel needle (5 cm) of a 2.5 ml gas tight syringe. When SPDE is used for headspace sampling (HS-SPDE), a fixed volume of the headspace of the sample under investigation is sucked up an appropriate number of times with the gas tight syringe and an analyte amount suitable for a reliable GC or GC-MS analysis accumulates in the polymer coating the needle wall. This article describes the preliminary results of both a study on the optimisation of sampling parameters conditioning HS-SPDE recovery, through the analysis of a standard mixture of highly volatile compounds (beta-pinene, isoamyl acetate and linalool) and of the HS-SPDE-GC-MS analyses of aromatic plants and food matrices. This study shows that HS-SPDE is a successful technique for HS-sampling with high concentration capability, good repeatability and intermediate precision, also when it is compared to HS-SPME.

  2. Solid lipid dispersions: potential delivery system for functional ingredients in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Mensah, Aboagyewa; Smith, Kevin W; Ribeiro, Henelyta S

    2013-07-01

    Structured solid lipid (SL) systems have the advantages of long-term physical stability, low surfactant concentrations, and may exhibit controlled release of active ingredients. In this research work, the potential use of high-melting SLs for the production of the above structured SL carrier systems was investigated. Dispersions containing either SL or blend of solid lipid and oil (SL+O) were produced by a hot melt high-pressure homogenization method. Experiments involved the use of 3 different SLs for the disperse phase: stearic acid, candelilla wax and carnauba wax. Sunflower oil was incorporated in the disperse phase for the production of the dispersions containing lipid and oil. In order to evaluate the practical aspects of structured particles, analytical techniques were used including: static light scattering to measure particle sizes, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for investigating particle morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the crystallization behavior of lipids in bulk and in dispersions. Results showed different mean particle sizes depending on the type of lipid used in the disperse phase. Particle sizes for the 3 lipids were: stearic acid (SL: 195 ± 2.5 nm; SL+O: 138 ± 6.0 nm); candelilla wax (SL: 178 ± 1.7 nm; SL+O: 144 ± 0.6 nm); carnauba wax (SL: 303 ± 1.5 nm; SL+O: 295 ± 5.0 nm). TEM results gave an insight into the practical morphology, showing plate-like and needle-like structures. DSC investigations also revealed that SL dispersions melted and crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk. This decrease can be explained by the small particle sizes of the dispersion, the high-specific surface area, and the presence of a surfactant. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T; Leonards, Pim E G; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-10-01

    Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6ng/day, 11ng/day and 0.78ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than

  4. Determining chewing efficiency using a solid test food and considering all phases of mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Xinmiao; Chen, Jianshe; van der Glas, Hilbert W

    2018-07-01

    Following chewing a solid food, the median particle size, X 50 , is determined after N chewing cycles, by curve-fitting of the particle size distribution. Reduction of X 50 with N is traditionally followed from N ≥ 15-20 cycles when using the artificial test food Optosil ® , because of initially unreliable values of X 50 . The aims of the study were (i) to enable testing at small N-values by using initial particles of appropriate size, shape and amount, and (ii) to compare measures of chewing ability, i.e. chewing efficiency (N needed to halve the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)) and chewing performance (X 50 at a particular N-value, X 50,N ). 8 subjects with a natural dentition chewed 4 types of samples of Optosil particles: (1) 8 cubes of 8 mm, border size relative to bin size (traditional test), (2) 9 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, mid-size; similar sample volume, (3) 4 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, and 2 half-cubes of 9.6 mm; reduced particle number and sample volume. All samples were tested with 4 N-values. Curve-fitting with a 2nd order polynomial function yielded log(X 50 )-log(N) relationships, after which N(1/2-Xo) and X 50,N were obtained. Reliable X 50 -values are obtained for all N-values when using half-cubes with a mid-size relative to bin sizes. By using 2 or 4 half-cubes, determination of N(1/2-Xo) or X 50,N needs less chewing cycles than traditionally. Chewing efficiency is preferable over chewing performance because of a comparison of inter-subject chewing ability at the same stage of food comminution and constant intra-subject and inter-subject ratios between and within samples respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histamine delays gastric emptying of solid food in man through histamine, receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have shown that histamine (H) contracts the cat pylorus and duodenum through H/sub 1/ receptor mechanisms. The authors investigated the effect of H infusion on gastric emptying (GE) and the role of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockade in healthy volunteers. Radionuclide GE studies were performed using chicken liver labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Technetium-sulfur colloid as a marker of solid food. Study days were as follows: a baseline GE study (Day 1); H infused continuously IV at a rate of 40 μg/kg/hr during the GE study (Day 2); an IV bolus of 50 mg of diphenhydramine (Day 3), or 300 mg cimetidine (Day 4) given just prior to the continuous infusion of H; a final day when cimetidine was given alone (Day 5). GE was monitored for 2 hours on each day. The results of days 1, 2 and 3 are summarized below (+p<0.05 vs baseline or Day 1). Pretreatment with cimetidine (Day 4) augmented the delay in GE induced by H infusion, while cimetidine without H (Day 5) had no effect on GE. The authors conclude that: 1) H given at a dose which elicits maximal acid secretory response in man significantly delays GE; and 2) H/sub 1/ receptor blockade but not H/sub 2/ blockade prevented this effect. Histamine may play a modulatory role in human gastric emptying through an H/sub 1/ receptor mechanism

  6. Video-recorded simulated patient interactions: can they help develop clinical and communication skills in today's learning environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Gretchen A; Brown, Debora

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to provide real-world learning experiences for students to master clinical and communication skills. The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel instructional method using self- and peer-assessment, reflection, and technology to help students develop effective interpersonal and clinical skills. The teaching method is described by the constructivist learning theory and incorporates the use of educational technology. The learning activities were incorporated into the pre-clinical didactic curriculum. The students participated in two video-recording assignments and performed self-assessments on each and had a peer-assessment on the second video-recording. The learning activity was evaluated through the self- and peer-assessments and an instructor-designed survey. This evaluation identified several themes related to the assignment, student performance, clinical behaviors and establishing rapport. Overall the students perceived that the learning activities assisted in the development of clinical and communication skills prior to direct patient care. The use of video recordings of a simulated history and examination is a unique learning activity for preclinical PT students in the development of clinical and communication skills.

  7. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 99mTc-tagged chicken liver as a marker of solid food in the human stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J H; MacGregor, I L; Gueller, R; Martin, P; Cavalieri, R

    1976-04-01

    Past measurement of gastric emptying of solid food in man has depended on external counting of surface-absorbed isotopes without verification that isotopic labels remain attached to solid food in the stomach. In this study chicken liver was isotopically labeled with 99mTc incorporated uniformly and intracellularly throughout the liver substance. In vitro studies showed less than 10% loss of 99mTc from liver incubated with pepsin HC1. By contrast, up to 90% of 51Cr absorbed to scrambled eggs became detached under similar conditions. In feeding experiments less than 10% of 99mTc was liberated from fed 99mTc liver, while significantly more 51Cr became detached from egg under identical intragastric conditions. We conclude that 99mTc-tagged chicken liver is an adequate marker of the rate of emptying of solid food and appears to be more reliable than 51Cr-labeled scrambled eggs from which 51Cr dissociates in the stomach.

  9. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.A.; Thomson, J.B.; Jehn, D.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Deveny, C.; Meyer, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H/sub 2/O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food.

  11. Determination of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in processed food and complex lipid matrices. A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method for detection of irradiated components in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Detection of irradiated components in processed food with complex lipid matrices can be affected by two problems. First, the processed food may contain only a small amount of the irradiated component, and the radiation-induced hydrocarbons may be diluted throughout the lipid matrix of the whole food. Second, in complex lipid matrices, the detection of prior irradiation is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. In these cases, common solid phase extraction (SPE) Florisil clean-up alone is inadequate in the detection of prior irradiation. Subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate allows the measurement of small amounts of irradiated lipid-containing ingredients in processed food as well as the detection of prior irradiation in complex lipid matrices such as paprika and chilli. SPE argetation chromatography is the first method available for the selective enrichment of radiation-specific hydrocarbons from even complex lipid matrices, thus enabling the detection of irradiation does as low as 0.025 kGy. Furthermore, by using radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the detection of prior irradiation of paprika and chilli powder, a second independent method, the first being measurement of thermoluminescence, is available for the analysis of these matrices. Such analysis could be achieved by using this highly sensitive, cheap and easy to perform combined SPE Florisil/argentation chromatography method, without the need for sophisticated techniques like SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS, so that highly sensitive detection of prior irradiation colud be performed in almost every laboratory

  12. Second Order Kinetic Modeling of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction of Flavors Released from Selected Food Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME has been widely used in various fields as a simple and versatile method, yet challenging in quantification. In order to improve the reproducibility in quantification, a mathematical model with its root in psychological modeling and chemical reactor modeling was developed, describing the kinetic behavior of aroma active compounds extracted by SPME from two different food model systems, i.e., a semi-solid food and a liquid food. The model accounted for both adsorption and release of the analytes from SPME fiber, which occurred simultaneously but were counter-directed. The model had four parameters and their estimated values were found to be more reproducible than the direct measurement of the compounds themselves by instrumental analysis. With the relative standard deviations (RSD of each parameter less than 5% and root mean square error (RMSE less than 0.15, the model was proved to be a robust one in estimating the release of a wide range of low molecular weight acetates at three environmental temperatures i.e., 30, 40 and 60 °C. More insights of SPME behavior regarding the small molecule analytes were also obtained through the kinetic parameters and the model itself.

  13. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for selective extraction of bisphenol analogues in beverages and canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjia; Yu, Jianlong; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-19

    This study aimed to develop a selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven bisphenol analogues in beverage and canned food samples by using a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify the target analytes. The MIP-SPE method exhibited a higher level of selectivity and purification than the traditional SPE method. The developed procedures were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The obtained recoveries varied from 50% to 103% at three fortification levels and yielded a relative standard deviation (RSD, %) of less than 15% for all of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for the seven analytes varied from 0.002 to 0.15 ng/mL for beverage samples and from 0.03 to 1.5 ng/g for canned food samples. This method was used to analyze real samples that were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Overall, the results revealed that bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the most frequently detected bisphenols in the beverage and canned food samples and that their concentrations were closely associated with the type of packaging material. This study provides an alternative method of traditional SPE extraction for screening bisphenol analogues in food matrices.

  14. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Gay-Perret

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field.

  15. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design,

  16. 99mTc ovalbumin labelled eggs for gastric emptying scintigraphy: in-vitro comparison of solid food markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédérique; Salaun, Pierre Y; Couturier, Olivier; Querellou, Solène; Le Duc-Pennec, Alexandra; Mougin-Degraef, Marie; Bizais, Yves; Legendre, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    The reliability of solid phase gastric emptying measurements by scintigraphy requires a marker that remains within the solid component of the test meal, and which is not degraded by the gastric juice throughout the scintigraphic procedure. In Europe, foods are most often labelled with 99mTc rhenium sulfide macrocolloid (RSMC) but this solid phase marker was withdrawn from the market in January 2004. To test other potential solid phase markers and to compare them to the reference marker RSMC. These markers were rhenium sulfide nanocolloid (RSNC), tin fluoride colloid (TFC), phytates and two albumins (Alb and AlbC). All were radiolabelled with 99mTc. After quality control, each 99mTc marker was incorporated into the albumin of one egg. Then, egg white and yolk were mixed together, and a well-cooked omelette was prepared. Aliquots of the omelette were incubated with an acidic solution of pepsin at 37 degrees C which mimicked gastric juice. Unbound radioactivity in the supernatant fraction was measured at various times up to 3 h. The radiochemical purity was > 95% for all radiopharmaceuticals. During the in-vitro incubation, the percentage of 99mTc labelled colloids released from the omelette increased continuously: after 3 h, 5% for TFC and RSMC, 8% for phytates, and > 9% for the two albumins and RSNC. Considering quality controls and release of 99mTc during in-vitro incubation of the omelette, TFC showed the same behaviour as the reference marker RSMC. Thus, TFC seems to be the best candidate to replace RSMC for the radiolabelling of the solid phase of the gastric emptying test meal.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Studies using Liquid and Solid Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook; Hyun, Jin Hai; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    The author performed radionuclide esophageal transit studies(RETS) with liquid and solid boluses using the same day protocol in 90 normal controls and 164 patients with various primary esophageal motility disorders who were diagnosed by manometric criteria and clinical courses. The authors calculated mean esophageal transit time(MTT) and mean residual retention(MRR) in each of the liquid and solid studies, and classified time-activity curve(TAC) patterns. The normal criteria of RETS with liquid bolus were MTT<24 sec, MRR<9%, and the TAC pattern that showed rapid declining slope and flat low residual(Type 1). The normal criteria of RETS with solid bolus were MTT<35 sec, MRR<9% and TAC of type 1. With these normal criteria, the sensitivity and the specificity of the liquid study were 62.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 75.4% with the solid study. The author also found that the RETS was highly reproducible. The achalasia typically showed no effective emptying of both liquid and solid boluses during the whole study period, and was well differentiated by its extremely long transit time and high retention from the other motility disorders. The diffuse esophageal spasm(DES) and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder(NEMD) showed intermediate delay in transit time and increased retention. In the groups of hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter(LES), hypotensive LES and nutcracker, there noted no significant difference with the normal control group in terms of MTT and MRR. The DES and NEMD could be more easily identified by solid studies that showed more marked delay in MTT and increased MRR as compared with the liquid study. In conclusion, esophageal scintigraphy is a safe, noninvasive and physiologic method for the evaluation of esophageal emptying.

  18. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy issues in microwave food processing: A review of developments and the enabling potentials of solid-state power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuonwu, J C; Tassou, S A

    2018-01-23

    The enormous magnitude and variety of microwave applications in household, commercial and industrial food processing creates a strong motivation for improving the energy efficiency and hence, sustainability of the process. This review critically assesses key energy issues associated with microwave food processing, focusing on previous energy performance studies, energy performance metrics, standards and regulations. Factors affecting energy-efficiency are categorised into source, load and source-load matching factors. This highlights the need for highly-flexible and controllable power sources capable of receiving real-time feedback on load properties, and effecting rapid control actions to minimise reflections, heating non-uniformities and other imperfections that lead to energy losses. A case is made for the use of solid-state amplifiers as alternatives to conventional power sources, magnetrons. By a full-scale techno-economic analysis, including energy aspects, it is shown that the use of solid-state amplifiers as replacements to magnetrons is promising, not only from an energy and overall technical perspective, but also in terms of economics.

  20. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf C. de

    2012-01-01

    Background:People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake.Objective:To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption.Design:In a randomized crossover design,

  3. Development of magnetic micro-solid phase extraction for analysis of phthalate esters in packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkliang, Fonthip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Thammakhet, Chongdee

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and low cost magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes-poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel-micro-solid phase extraction (magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE) sorbent was synthesized by incorporating magnetic particles and MWCNTs into a PVA cryogel. The magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE sorbent developed, with a large surface area and macro-porous structure, provided good sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility (%RSDclear chicken soup samples in the range 0.02-0.07 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Halloysite Nanotubes as a New Adsorbent for Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Water and Food Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, A.; Amjadi, M.

    2016-07-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been introduced as a new solid phase extraction adsorbent for preconcentration of iron(II) as a complex with 2,2-bipyridine. The cationic complex is effectively adsorbed on the sorbent in the pH range of 3.5-6.0 and efficiently desorbed by trichloroacetic acid. The eluted complex has a strong absorption around 520 nm, which was used for determination of Fe(II). After optimizing extraction conditions, the linear range of the calibration graph was 5.0-500 μg/L with a detection limit of 1.3 μg/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace iron in various water and food samples, and the accuracy was assessed through the recovery experiments and analysis of a certified reference material (NIST 1643e).

  5. Long-term high-solids anaerobic digestion of food waste: Effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuya; Zhang, ShangYi; Li, Lei; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ma, Yao; Shi, Dezhi

    2018-04-22

    A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability. Accumulated acetate caused feedback inhibition at the acetogenesis stage, which resulted in considerable accumulation of propionate, valerate, and other long-chain fatty acids. This high concentration of volatile fatty acids reduced the abundance of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria and allowed hydrolytic fermentative bacteria to dominate. The normally interactive and orderly metabolic network was broken, which further exacerbated the process instability. These results improve the understanding of microbial mechanisms which contribute to process instability and provide guidance for the microbial management of anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  7. Recent Developments and Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Food and Environmental Analysis—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Merkle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME is a simple, sensitive, rapid and solvent-free technique for the extraction of analytes from gaseous, liquid and solid samples and takes a leading position among microextraction methods. Application of SPME in sample preparation has been increasing continuously over the last decade. It is most often used as an automatized fiber injection system coupled to chromatographic separation modules for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and also allows for the trace analysis of compounds in complex matrices. Since SPME was first introduced in the early 1990s, several modifications have been made to adapt the procedure to specific application requirements. More robust fiber assemblies and coatings with higher extraction efficiencies, selectivity and stability have been commercialized. Automation and on-line coupling to analytical instruments have been achieved in many applications and new derivatization strategies as well as improved calibration procedures have been developed to overcome existing limitations regarding quantitation. Furthermore, devices using tubes, needles or tips for extraction instead of a fiber have been designed. In the field of food analysis, SPME has been most often applied to fruit/vegetables, fats/oils, wine, meat products, dairy and beverages whereas environmental applications focus on the analysis of air, water, soil and sediment samples.

  8. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastric emptying of 99mTc tagged solid food in gastric and duodenal ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler-Pinto Junior, Paulo; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Lopasso, Fabio P.; Cordeiro, Anoi C.; Pinotti, Henrique W.

    1995-01-01

    This study is to analyze gastric emptying (GE) of 99m Tc tagged solid meals in 43 gastric ulcer (GU), 16 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients, and 15 normal subjects. Diagnosis of active ulcers had been made through high gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients with GU were divided in three groups according to Johnson's classification. Gastric contents were measured at 15 minutes intervals over a period of 150 minutes, with the person standing in front of a gamma-counter. The ge curve was obtained from the mean percentile of radioactive of all the groups measured at 15 minutes intervals. results were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant delay in GE in DU patients compared to normals, type II and type III group. However, GE of type I GU was not statistically different from the DU group nor of types II and III, occupying an intermediate e position. (author)

  10. Application of anaerobic digestion products of municipal solid food wastes in treating wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of biodegradable organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen or in an oxygen-starved environment.This technology is superior to the landfilling and also the aerobic composting. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the effluent Volatile Fatty Acids from the anaerobic acidogenesis of the food waste can be used du to its high value in organic elements, as an external carbon source for the denitrificationin in waste water treatment plants . The results showed that Volatile Fatty Acids concentration in mg COD/L in the fermentation was in the range between 3,300 mg COD/L and 6,560 mgCOD/L.The n-butiric acid had the highest concentration in mgCOD/L followed by the propionic and acetic acid, while the valeric acid had the lowest concentration. As well as the concentration of the acetic and valeric acid were stable over the time. Opposite to these, the propionic and n-butyric acid showed high variability in the concentration, especially the n-butyric acid. The specific denitrification rate tests tests showed that the ethanol cultivated biomass was more successful in using the effluent of the food waste digestion as carbon source than methanol cultivated biomass.The specific denitrification reta tests results of our experiment, showed that the average of 0.15 an 0.51 mg N/mg for methanol and ethanol cultivated biomass respectively.

  11. Methanosarcina plays a main role during methanogenesis of high-solids food waste and cardboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-04-07

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste is a complex process often hindered by high concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia. Methanogenic archaea are more sensitive to these inhibitors than bacteria and thus the structure of their community is critical to avoid reactor acidification. In this study, the performances of three different inocula were compared using batch digestion tests of food waste and cardboard mixtures. Particular attention was paid to the archaeal communities in the inocula and after digestion. While the tests started with inocula rich in Methanosarcina led to efficient methane production, VFAs accumulated in the reactors where inocula initially were poor in this archaea and no methane was produced. In addition, higher substrate loads were tolerated when greater proportions of Methanosarcina were initially present in the inoculum. Independently of the inoculum origin, Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens in the digestates from the experiments that efficiently produced methane. These results suggest that the initial archaeal composition of the inoculum is crucial during reactor start-up to achieve stable anaerobic digestion at high concentrations of ammonia and organic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-solid mesophilic methane fermentation of food waste with an emphasis on Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Hong; Lang, Dong-Li; Li, Yu-You

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trace metals on the mesophilic methane fermentation of high-solid food waste was investigated using both batch and continuous experiments. The continuous experiment was conducted by using a CSTR-type reactor with three run. During the first run, the HRT of the reactor was stepwise decreased from 100 days to 30 days. From operation day 50, the reactor efficiency deteriorated due to the lack of trace metals. The batch experiment showed that iron, cobalt, and nickel combinations had a significant effect on food waste. According to the results of the batch experiment, a combination of iron, cobalt, and nickel was added into the CSTR reactor by two different methods at run II, and III. Based on experimental results and theoretical calculations, the most suitable values of Fe/COD, Co/COD, and Ni/COD in the substrate were identified as 200, 6.0, and 5.7 mg/kg COD, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective determination of caffeine in foods with 3D-graphene based ultrasound-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Afshin; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Bakhtiari, Sadjad; Dehsaraei, Mohammad

    2018-10-01

    An efficient method was applied for extraction of caffeine in food samples. Three-dimensional graphene-Fe 3 O 4 (3D-G-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles was successfully synthesized and used as adsorbent in magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) step. The properties of synthesized adsorbent were characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. The influence of main parameters of extraction procedure such as ultrasound parameter, amount of nanoparticles, pH, salt concentration and desorption condition were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the figure of merit results showed excellent linear dynamic range (LDR) of 0.5-500 µg mL -1 , with determination coefficient (R 2 ) higher than 0.996 and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg mL -1 . Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.9 and 7.1%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for determination of caffeine in different food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase 1 study to evaluate effect of food on veliparib pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability in subjects with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nael M; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Rosen, Lee S; Bessudo, Alberto; Kovacs, Xenia; Giranda, Vincent L

    2014-09-01

    A phase 1 study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability and food effect of a new veliparib formulation in subjects with solid tumors. Subjects (planned: Stage I, N = 20; Stage II, N = 16) received four regimens of a single oral dose of veliparib utilizing a group-sequential design. Subjects were administered single doses of 40 mg veliparib supplied as four 10 mg current formulation, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation under fasting conditions and under non-fasting conditions. Serial blood samples were collected for the determination of veliparib pharmacokinetics. At the end of Stage I, the relative bioavailability between each pair of regimens was assessed by a two one-sided tests procedure from the analyses of the natural logarithms of C(max) and AUC. A 92.7 % confidence interval within the 0.80-1.25 range between each regimen pair determined bioequivalence. Four 10 mg current formulation capsules, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation were bioequivalent with respect to C(max) and AUC under fasting conditions. The administration of a high-fat meal did not have a significant effect on AUC and only caused a slight decrease in veliparib C(max) (17 %) and a delay of approximately 1 h in T(max). The 40 mg new capsule was bioequivalent to currently used formulation. Food had no effect on the extent of veliparib absorption and only a small (17 %) decrease in peak exposure of veliparib.

  16. A Portable Solid-State Moisture Meter For Agricultural And Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. R.; Stafford, J. V.; Weaving, G. S.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports on the development of a small, robust, battery operated near infra-red (NIR) reflectance device, designed for rapid on-farm measurement of the moisture content of forage crops without prior sample preparation. It has potential application to other agricultural or food materials. The instrument is based on two light emitting diodes (LEDs), a germanium detector and a control CMOS single chip microcomputer. The meter has been calibrated to give a direct read out of moisture content for 4 common grass varieties at 3 stages of development. The accuracy of a single point measurement on a grass sample is approximately +/- 6% over a range of 40-80% (wet basis). However, the potential accuracy on a homogeous sample may be as goon as 0.15%.

  17. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  18. Radioisotope evidence of varying transit of solid food in gastrectomized patients with and without dumping syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, F.; Boccaletto, F.; Magalini, M.; Chiara, G.; Tommaseo, T.; Dapporto, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 29 Billroth II gastrojejunostomy patients studied by scintigraphy, 11 were dumpers and 18 were non-dumpers; of 20 controls, 11 were patients with different gastric complaints and 9 volunteers with no history of gastrointestinal pathology. The tracer used was human albumin microspheres labelled with 99m Tc, mixed thoroughly with a fresh scrambled egg, cooked as an omelet and eaten as a sandwich with white toasted bread. The transit and emptying of the radiolabelled meal in the gastric and derivative loop areas were followed with a gamma camera 90-120 min. In the dumpers half emptying times were significantly shorter than in the controls; in the non-dumpers they were even shorter. Dynamic selective analysis of the radiolabelled food transit through derivative afferent and efferent loops showed, on the other hand, different patterns for the two groups of gastroresected patients: the progression of propulsive waves was very irregular and constantly hyperperistaltic only in the dumpers. (orig.) [de

  19. Radioisotope evidence of varying transit of solid food in gastrectomized patients with and without dumping syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, F.; Boccaletto, F.; Magalini, M.; Chiara, G.; Tommaseo, T.; Dapporto, L.

    1988-10-01

    Of 29 Billroth II gastrojejunostomy patients studied by scintigraphy, 11 were dumpers and 18 were non-dumpers; of 20 controls, 11 were patients with different gastric complaints and 9 volunteers with no history of gastrointestinal pathology. The tracer used was human albumin microspheres labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, mixed thoroughly with a fresh scrambled egg, cooked as an omelet and eaten as a sandwich with white toasted bread. The transit and emptying of the radiolabelled meal in the gastric and derivative loop areas were followed with a gamma camera 90-120 min. In the dumpers half emptying times were significantly shorter than in the controls; in the non-dumpers they were even shorter. Dynamic selective analysis of the radiolabelled food transit through derivative afferent and efferent loops showed, on the other hand, different patterns for the two groups of gastroresected patients: the progression of propulsive waves was very irregular and constantly hyperperistaltic only in the dumpers.

  20. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Svenja K; Hauf, Katharina; Heinrich, Stefan; Vieira, Josélio; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations. (paper)

  1. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  2. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  3. [Determination of Arsenic in Food Package Aluminum by Ultrasound Assisted Solid Phase Extraction/ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-xia; Gong, Qi; Li, Min; Deng, Li-xin; Mo, Li-shu; Li, Yan-lin

    2015-04-01

    Determination of arsenic in pure aluminum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was interfered by aluminum matrix. The experiment showed that when the mass concentration of Al was greater than or equal to 5 000 times the As in the test solution, the measurement error was greater than 5%. In order to eliminate the interference, strong acid cation exchange fiber (SACEF) was used as solid phase extraction agent to adsorb Al(3+). The extraction conditions included amount of SACEF, extraction time, temperature and pH were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were that 0.9000 g SACEF was used to extract the aluminum from the sample solution of pH 2.0 at 55 °C for 5 min with the ultrasonic assist, and in this case, the arsenic in the form of arsenic acid was not extracted and left in the solution for the determination. The results showed that after treating 10. 00 mL test solution containing 1.00 µg arsenic and 20.0 mg aluminum, arsenic did not lose. The mass concentration of residual aluminum in the raffinate was about 2,000 times the As, which had not interfered the determination of arsenic. The detection limit (3 s) was 0.027 µg · mL(-1) and quantification limit (10 s) was 0.0091 µg · mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the separation and determination of arsenic in the synthetic samples, the aluminum cans and the barbecue aluminum foil. Recovery was in the range of 98.3%-105% and RSD (n = 3) was in the range of 0.1%-4.3%. The results showed that the content of arsenic in the aluminum cans and the aluminum barbecue foil was below the limited value of national standard (GB/T 3190-2008).

  4. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  5. Sulfonated nanocellulose for the efficient dispersive micro solid-phase extraction and determination of silver nanoparticles in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-08

    This paper reports a simple approach to Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N) that integrates the nanotool, sulfonated nanocellulose (s-NC), and nanoanalyte, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the same analytical process by using an efficient, environmentally friendly dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μSPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with s-NC as sorbent material. Introducing negatively charged sulfate groups onto the surface of cellulose enhances its surface chemistry and enables the extraction and preconcentration of AgNPs of variable diameter (10, 20 and 60nm) and shell composition (citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings) from complex matrices into a cationic surfactant. In this way, AgNPs of diverse nature were successfully extracted onto the s-NC sorbent and then desorbed into an aqueous solution containing thiotic acid (TA) prior to CE without the need for any labor-intensive cleanup. The ensuing eco-friendly D-μSPE method exhibited a linear response to AgNPs with a limit of detection (LOD) of 20μg/L. Its ability to specifically recognize AgNPs of different sizes was checked in orange juice and mussels, which afforded recoveries of 70.9-108.4%. The repeatability of the method at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level was 5.6%. Based on the results, sulfonated nanocellulose provides an efficient, cost-effective analytical nanotool for the extraction of AgNPs from food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of soy proteins in food samples by dispersive solid-phase immunoextraction and dynamic long-wavelength fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Delgado, María Ángeles; Aguilar-Caballos, María Paz; Gomez-Hens, Agustina

    2013-01-01

    We report on a method for the determination of soy proteins in food samples via dispersive solid-phase immunoextraction using gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) as a support. Soy proteins were first extracted using anti-soy protein antibodies immobilized on the NPs, and then quantified by measuring the increase in fluorescence of the long-wavelength fluorophore cresyl violet in the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate at neutral pH in a flow system. The method involves the use of two standard or sample aliquots. The fluorescence intensity of one aliquot is directly measured whereas that of the other aliquot is measured after immunoextraction. The difference between the peak heights of both aliquots serves as the analytical information that is directly proportional to the protein concentration. The limit of detection is 0.35 mg L −1 , the linear range is from 1 to 15 mg L −1 , and the relative standard deviation is < 5 %. Proteins such as bovine serum albumin and globulins do not interfere at the same concentration level. The method was applied to the analysis of soy-based beverages and gave recoveries in the range between 80.0 and 107.3 %. (author)

  7. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  8. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  9. Solid fat and added sugar intake among U.S. children: The role of stores, schools, and fast food, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children's excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. The goal of this study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994 to 2010 differ across these locations. Children aged 2-18 years (N=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (1994, 38.3%; 2004, 33.2%); schools (1994, 38.7%; 2004, 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (1994, 34.6%; 2004, 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores because of shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not significantly different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made significantly greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. These findings can inform future strategies targeted to the specific locations and foods where continued progress is needed to reduce children's SoFAS consumption. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  10. A solid-phase microextraction GC/MS/MS method for rapid quantitative analysis of food and beverages for the presence of legally restricted biologically active flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousova, Katerina; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS/MS to simultaneously determine the presence of seven biologically active flavoring substances whose levels of use in processed foods is controlled by statutory limits. The method can be applied to identify and quantify the presence of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin), beta-asarone, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene (estragole), menthofuran, 4-allyl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (methyl eugenol), pulegone, and thujone at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3000 mg/kg. The method has been optimized and validated for three different generic food types categorized on the basis of composition and anticipated use levels of flavorings and food ingredients. The food categories are alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages; semisolid processed foods (e.g., soups, sauces, confectionary, etc.); and solid foods (muesli, bakery products, etc.). The method is simple, inexpensive, and rapid, and eliminates the use of flammable and toxic solvents. There is no sample preparation, and using MSIMS, unequivocal confirmation of identification is achieved even in highly complex matrixes containing many potential interfering volatiles. The method precision for spiked samples ranged from 2 to 21%, with the greatest variability associated with solid matrixes. The LOD and LOQ values were well below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, in all cases for individual substances, fulfilling requirements for enforcement purposes. The robustness of the method was demonstrated in a small survey of retail samples of four spirits, five flavored milks, three energy drinks, five liqueurs, five soups, 10 sauces, five herbal teas, and three breakfast cereals.

  11. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Colin D. Rehm; Adam Drewnowski

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm se...

  12. Analytical application of solid contact ion-selective electrodes for determination of copper and nitrate in various food products and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardak, Cecylia; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata

    2016-08-02

    A simple, fast and cheap method for monitoring copper and nitrate in drinking water and food products using newly developed solid contact ion-selective electrodes is proposed. Determination of copper and nitrate was performed by application of multiple standard additions technique. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by comparing them using the anodic stripping voltammetry or spectrophotometry for the same samples. In each case, satisfactory agreement of the results was obtained, which confirms the analytical usefulness of the constructed electrodes.

  13. Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osezua O. Ibhadode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3 and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone. The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.

  14. Post-anaerobic digestion thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge and food waste: Effect on methane yields, dewaterability and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kine; Kjørlaug, Oda; Higgins, Matthew J; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J

    2018-04-01

    Post-anaerobic digestion (PAD) treatment technologies have been suggested for anaerobic digestion (AD) to improve process efficiency and assure hygenization of organic waste. Because AD reduces the amount of organic waste, PAD can be applied to a much smaller volume of waste compared to pre-digestion treatment, thereby improving efficiency. In this study, dewatered digestate cakes from two different AD plants were thermally hydrolyzed and dewatered, and the liquid fraction was recirculated to a semi-continuous AD reactor. The thermal hydrolysis was more efficient in relation to methane yields and extent of dewaterability for the cake from a plant treating waste activated sludge, than the cake from a plant treating source separated food waste (SSFW). Temperatures above 165 °C yielded the best results. Post-treatment improved volumetric methane yields by 7% and the COD-reduction increased from 68% to 74% in a mesophilic (37 °C) semi-continuous system despite lowering the solid retention time (from 17 to 14 days) compared to a conventional system with pre-treatment of feed substrates at 70 °C. Results from thermogravimetric analysis showed an expected increase in maximum TS content of dewatered digestate cake from 34% up to 46% for the SSFW digestate cake, and from 17% up to 43% in the sludge digestate cake, after the PAD thermal hydrolysis process (PAD-THP). The increased dewatering alone accounts for a reduction in wet mass of cake leaving the plant of 60% in the case of sludge digestate cake. Additionaly, the increased VS-reduction will contribute to further reduce the mass of wet cake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  16. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colonial vs planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis N. Skandamis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces. Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate and population level are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of

  18. A compilation of correlation parameters for predicting the enthalpy and thermal conductivity of solid foods within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, N.D. [Comvita New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 1, Te Puke 3153 (New Zealand); Willix, J.; North, M.F. [AgResearch Limited, MIRINZ Centre, Ruakura Campus, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Chadderton, T. [Crop and Food Research Ltd, PO Box 5114, Nelson (New Zealand)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents thermal conductivity data for 40 foods, enthalpy data for 58 foods and density data for nine foods, along with the compositions of the foods. Measurements cover a range of solid food types (including meats, fats, offal, fish, dairy products and horticultural products). Some measurements reported are for foods that have never before been studied, others have been published elsewhere, but are included here for convenience. Thermal conductivity was measured using a guarded hot-plate apparatus, enthalpy using an adiabatic calorimeter and density using a water displacement meter. Thermal conductivity and enthalpy values were measured within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C. (author) [French] Cette publication presente des donnes sur la conductivite thermique, l'enthalpie et la densite respectivement de 40, 58 et 9 produits alimentaires, ainsi que leurs compositions. Les mesures couvrent une variete de types de produits alimentaires (viande, matieres grasses, abats, poisson, produits laitiers, produits horticoles). Certaines sont rapportees pour des produits qui n 'ant jamais ete etudie auparavant, d'autres ant ete publie ailleurs mais sont aussi inclues pour plus de commodite. La conductivite thermique a ete mesure avec un appareil a plaque electrique protegee, l'enthalpie avec un calorimetre adiabatique et la densite avec un appareil mesurant Ie deplacement d'eau. La conductivite thermique et l'enthalpie ont ete toutes les mesures pour une fourchette de temperatures allant de -40 C a 40 C. (orig.)

  19. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and advice given by health professionals to parents in Ireland about the introduction of solid foods. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Mary-Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the purposes of this paper "weaning is defined as the introduction of the first solid foods to infants". Global recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO recommend that all infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life. No global recommendations have been made for formula fed infants. In Europe it is recommended that weaning foods should be introduced between 18 weeks and 26 weeks regardless of whether infants are breast or formula fed. In the United Kingdom it is recommended that solids be introduced at around six-months for both breast and formula fed infants. In Ireland official guidelines recommend that breast fed infants should be introduced solids at 6 months of age while for formula fed infants the recommendation is for 4 months. The disparity between these global, European, UK and local recommendations may be a source of confusion for parents and health care professional based in Ireland. Emerging evidence suggests that babies in Ireland are given solid foods before the recommended age but there has been little investigation of the weaning advice provided by health professionals. Since community health professionals have routine parent interactions in the pre-weaning and early-weaning period and hence are in a unique position to positively influence parental weaning decisions, this study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes and advice practices about weaning. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used for the research, commencing with a multi-disciplinary focus group to guide and develop a questionnaire. Questionnaires were then distributed in a postal survey to General Practitioners (GPs (n 179, Practice Nurses (PNs (n 121, Public Health Nurses (PHNs (n 107 and Community Dieticians (CDs (n 8. Results The results indicate varying levels of knowledge of official weaning recommendations and a variety of advice practices. CDs and PHNs acknowledged a clear role in providing

  20. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and advice given by health professionals to parents in Ireland about the introduction of solid foods. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allcutt, Claire

    2010-04-21

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For the purposes of this paper "weaning is defined as the introduction of the first solid foods to infants". Global recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend that all infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life. No global recommendations have been made for formula fed infants. In Europe it is recommended that weaning foods should be introduced between 18 weeks and 26 weeks regardless of whether infants are breast or formula fed. In the United Kingdom it is recommended that solids be introduced at around six-months for both breast and formula fed infants. In Ireland official guidelines recommend that breast fed infants should be introduced solids at 6 months of age while for formula fed infants the recommendation is for 4 months. The disparity between these global, European, UK and local recommendations may be a source of confusion for parents and health care professional based in Ireland. Emerging evidence suggests that babies in Ireland are given solid foods before the recommended age but there has been little investigation of the weaning advice provided by health professionals. Since community health professionals have routine parent interactions in the pre-weaning and early-weaning period and hence are in a unique position to positively influence parental weaning decisions, this study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes and advice practices about weaning. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used for the research, commencing with a multi-disciplinary focus group to guide and develop a questionnaire. Questionnaires were then distributed in a postal survey to General Practitioners (GPs) (n 179), Practice Nurses (PNs) (n 121), Public Health Nurses (PHNs) (n 107) and Community Dieticians (CDs) (n 8). RESULTS: The results indicate varying levels of knowledge of official weaning recommendations and a variety of advice practices. CDs and PHNs acknowledged a clear role in providing weaning

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sanati, Mehri; Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield ...

  3. Application of zein-modified magnetite nanoparticles in dispersive magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction of synthetic food dyes in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangju, Azam; Farhadi, Khalil; Hatami, Mehdi; Amani, Samireh; Esma-Ali, Farzan; Moshkabadi, Aisan; Hajilari, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous and trace analysis of four synthetic food azo dyes including carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow, and allura red from some foodstuff samples was developed by combining dispersive μ-solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Zein-modified magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared and used for μ-solid-phase extraction of trace amounts of mentioned food dyes. The prepared modified magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The factors affecting the extraction of the target analytes such as pH, amount of sorbent, extraction time, type and volume of the desorption eluent, and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the method provided good repeatability with relative standard deviations lower than 5.8% (n = 9). Limit of detection values ranged between 0.3 and 0.9 ng/mL with relatively high enrichment factors (224-441). Comparing the obtained results indicated that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles modified by zein biopolymer show better analytical application than bare magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of target synthetic food dyes in foodstuff samples such as carbonated beverage, snack, and candy samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction method for determination of arsenic in water, food and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Majidi, Behrooz; Abdi, Khosrou

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction (UAISFSPE) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection (ET-AAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of arsenic (As) in various samples. A small amount of cationic surfactant is dissolved in the aqueous sample containing As ions, which were complexed by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate After shaking, a little volume of hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) as an ion-pairing agent was added into the solution by a microsyringe. Due to the interaction between surfactant and ion-pairing agent, solid particles are formed. The alkyl groups of the surfactant in the solid particles strongly interact with the hydrophobic groups of analytes and become bound. Sonication aids the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample solution and mass transfer of the analyte into the sorbent, thus reducing the extraction time. The solid particles are centrifuged, and the sedimented particles can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent to recover the absorbed analyte. After separation, total arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) was determined by ET-AAS. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 7 ng L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100 and relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1 µg L(-1) As(III) were 4.5% achieved. Consequently, the method was applied to the determination of arsenic in certified reference materials, water, food and biological samples with satisfactory results.

  5. High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste in comparison with mono digestions: stability and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Duan, Nina; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling

    2013-02-01

    System stability and performance of high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) in comparison with mono digestions were investigated. System stability was improved in co-digestion systems with co-substrate acting as a diluting agent to toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na(+). For high-solids digestion of DS, the addition of FW not only improved system stability but also greatly enhanced volumetric biogas production. For high-solids digestion of FW, the addition of DS could reduce Na(+) concentration and help maintain satisfactory stability during the conversion of FW into biogas. System performances of co-digestion systems were mainly determined by the mixing ratios of DS and FW. Biogas production and volatile solids (VSs) reduction in digestion of the co-mixture of DS and FW increased linearly with higher ratios of FW. A kinetic model, which aimed to forecast the performance of co-digestion and to assist reactor design, was developed from long-term semi-continuous experiments. Maximum VS reduction for DS and FW was estimated to be 44.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and first order constant k was found to be 0.17d(-1) and 0.50 d(-1), respectively. Experimental data of co-digestion were in good conformity to the predictions of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  7. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Cisse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta. A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001. There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  8. [Determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in grease food by solid phase extraction-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoling; Wang, Liyuan; Shen, Xianghong; Li, Chunsong; Shen, Jianfu; Wu, Pinggu

    2017-09-01

    To establish the method of determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol( 3-MCPD) in grease food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). 3-MCPD in grease food represented by bean paste was extracted by ultrasound,purified by alkaline earth solid phase extraction column,derivatived using phenylboronic acid( PBA) and detected by GC-MS. The linearity of 3-MCPD ranged from 1-100 ng/mL,with correlation coefficient at 0. 9993.The limits of quantitation( LOQ) in soy sauce,bean paste,pepper oil were 0. 6,0. 5 and7. 0 μg/kg and limits of detection( LOD) were 1. 9,1. 6 and 18. 8 μg/kg,respectively.Average recovery rate and relative standard deviation was 78. 3%-106. 7% and 1. 9%-11. 6%( n = 6), when 3-MCPD was added in grease food at 2. 5-1000 μg/kg. The method has good purification effect and the detection sensitivity and accuracy,and can be used for the determination of 3-MCPD in grease food.

  9. Colonial vs. planktonic type of growth: mathematical modeling of microbial dynamics on surfaces and in liquid, semi-liquid and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models are mathematical expressions that describe the growth, survival, inactivation, or biochemical processes of foodborne bacteria. During processing of contaminated raw materials and food preparation, bacteria are entrapped into the food residues, potentially transferred to the equipment surfaces (abiotic or inert surfaces) or cross-contaminate other foods (biotic surfaces). Growth of bacterial cells can either occur planktonically in liquid or immobilized as colonies. Colonies are on the surface or confined in the interior (submerged colonies) of structured foods. For low initial levels of bacterial population leading to large colonies, the immobilized growth differs from planktonic growth due to physical constrains and to diffusion limitations within the structured foods. Indeed, cells in colonies experience substrate starvation and/or stresses from the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as lactic acid. Furthermore, the micro-architecture of foods also influences the rate and extent of growth. The micro-architecture is determined by (i) the non-aqueous phase with the distribution and size of oil particles and the pore size of the network when proteins or gelling agent are solidified, and by (ii) the available aqueous phase within which bacteria may swarm or swim. As a consequence, the micro-environment of bacterial cells when they grow in colonies might greatly differs from that when they grow planktonically. The broth-based data used for modeling (lag time and generation time, the growth rate, and population level) are poorly transferable to solid foods. It may lead to an over-estimation or under-estimation of the predicted population compared to the observed population in food. If the growth prediction concerns pathogen bacteria, it is a major importance for the safety of foods to improve the knowledge on immobilized growth. In this review, the different types of models are presented taking into account the stochastic behavior of single cells

  10. Kinetics of Ultrasound-Assisted Flavonoid Extraction from Agri-Food Solid Wastes Using Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P. Makris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of Core–Shell Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Sterigmatocystin in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs, combination of outstanding magnetism with specific selective binding capability for target molecules, have proven to be attractive in separation science and bio-applications. Herein, we proposed the core–shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for food analysis, employing the Fe3O4 particles prepared by co-precipitation protocol as the magnetic core and MMIP film onto the silica layer as the recognition and adsorption of target analytes. The obtained MMIPs materials have been fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and re-binding experiments. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated Fe3O4@MIPs demonstrated fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and excellent specificity to target sterigmatocystin (ST, which have been successfully applied as highly efficient solid-phase extraction materials followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The MMIP-based solid phase extraction (SPE method gave linear response in the range of 0.05–5.0 mg·L−1 with a detection limit of 9.1 µg·L−1. Finally, the proposed method was used for the selective isolation and enrichment of ST in food samples with recoveries in the range 80.6–88.7% and the relative standard deviation (RSD <5.6%.

  12. Core-shell Fe3O4 polydopamine nanoparticles as sorbent for magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction of copper from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife; Patat, Şaban

    2018-10-15

    In the present study, core-shell Fe 3 O 4 polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized and used for the first time as an adsorbent for the vortex assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of copper from food samples. After elution, copper in the solutions was determined by FAAS. The adsorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and zeta potential measurements. Various parameters affecting the magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction were evaluated. The optimum pH and magnetic adsorbent amount were found to be 5 and 40 mg, respectively. Elution was made by 3 mL of 2 mol L -1 HNO 3 .The major advantage of the method is the fast equilibration during adsorption without the need for vortexing or shaking. The preconcentration factor and detection limit of the method were found to be 150 and 0.22 mg L -1 , respectively. The precision (as RSD%) and adsorption capacity of the method were 3.7% and 28 mg g -1 , respectively. The method was successfully verified by analyzing four certified reference materials (SPS-WW1 Batch 114 Wastewater, TMDA-53.3 Lake water, BCR-482 Lichen and 1573a Tomato Leaves) and by addition/recovery tests of copper standard solution in organic baby food, muesli, macaroni, honey, and milk samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded from Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0.25. The result is the formula which can produce best extruded food is pop corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:2:0.25 with Expansion Ratio (ER 2.22 and protein content 8.83%.

  14. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded From Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahudin, Farid; Syamsixman, Syamsixman

    2010-01-01

    Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0....

  15. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of five glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples using solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fenfang; Yu, Hong; Pan, Xinhong; Hu, Guoyuan; Wang, Qiqin; Peng, Rongfei; Tan, Lei; Yang, Zhicong

    2018-02-23

    This paper demonstrated the development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of five glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples. The target glycopeptide antibiotics were isolated from the samples by solvent extraction, and the extracts were cleaned with a tandem solid-phase extraction step using mixed strong cation exchange and hydrophilic/lipophilic balance cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with different solvents, and then quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Under optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for the five glycopeptide antibiotics in the concentration range of 1.0 μg/L to 20.0 μg/L, and with linear correlation coefficients >0.998. Employing this method, the target glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples were identified with a recovery of 83.0-102%, and a low quantitation limit of 1.0 μg/kg in food and 2.0 μg/L in biological samples with low matrix effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight loss in the first month post-gastroplasty following diet progression with introduction of solid food three weeks after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Camila Garcia da Costa; Lobo, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective tool in treating severe obesity. It provides significant weight loss in morbidly obese people accompanied by improvement in comorbidities and quality of life. To investigate the weight loss outcomes in the first month after bariatric surgery after introduction of solids three weeks postoperatively. Thirty-two charts of patients who underwent bariatric surgery were analyzed at a private nutritional clinic in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil; 93,75% of the subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 6,25% vertical gastrectomy. The subjects were 16 to 60 years. A body mass index of 30 to 69 Kg/m2 was obtained. Patients were instructed to eat small amounts several times a day, eat slowly, chew foods thoroughly, substitute sugar for sweetener, stop drinking gassy beverages, set the utensils down in between meals, drink only in between meals, avoid processed condiments and fried and greasy foods. In the first month after surgery, the mean weight loss was 9,7% and the percentage of excess weight loss was 23,9%. It was found that there was significant statistical difference in relation to initial and final weight (p=0,00; pfreedom of choice in health care once one does not have to go on food intake modifications for more than three weeks; more nutritional guidelines is followed and prospective weight loss is presented.

  19. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  20. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  1. Solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of hexanal in hazelnuts as an indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, S; Valzacchi, S; Rodriguez, A; Simoneau, C

    2006-11-01

    Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation resulting in deterioration of product quality due to the generation of off-flavours. Hexanal is a good indicator of rancidity. Therefore, a method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection was developed to determine hexanal formation in hazelnuts during storage. Optimum conditions were as follows: carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane 75 microm fibre, extraction time 10 min, equilibrium time 10 min and equilibrium temperature 60 degrees C. The effect of oxygen scavengers on the oxidation process was also evaluated by measuring hexanal formation in hazelnuts stored with/without oxygen absorber sachets. Oxygen scavengers were shown to reduce oxidation; however, analysis of the sachet revealed that other volatile compounds from the headspace were also absorbed.

  2. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  3. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  4. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction and determination of Rhodamine B in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Junjie; Liu, Min; Lei, Fuhou; Tan, Xuecai; Li, Pengfei; Luo, Weiqiang

    2015-03-15

    Core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) nanoparticles (NPs), in which a Rhodamine B-imprinted layer was coated on Fe3O4 NPs. were synthesized. First, Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a coprecipitation method. Then, amino-modified Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2) was prepared. Finally, the MIPs were coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 surface by the copolymerization with functional monomer, acrylamide, using a cross-linking agent, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate; an initiator, azobisisobutyronitrile and a template molecule, Rhodamine B. The Fe3O4@MIPs were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and re-binding experiments. The Fe3O4@MIPs showed a fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and significant selectivity; they could be used as a solid-phase extraction material and detect illegal addition Rhodamine B in food. A method was developed for the selective isolation and enrichment of Rhodamine B in food samples with recoveries in the range 78.47-101.6% and the relative standard deviation was <2%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dispersive solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis separation of food colorants in beverages using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as both extractant and pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Jie; Liu, Chuan-Ting; Li, Wei; Tang, An-Na

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the determination of food colorants in beverage samples is developed, using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles (dASNPs) as both adsorbents in dispersive solid-phase microextraction (dSPME) and pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. dASNPs were firstly used as adsorbents for the preconcentration of four colorants by the dSPME process. After that, colorants were efficiently separated by CE using 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 2 mM β-CD and 0.9 mg/mL dASNPs as additives. All factors influencing dSPME and CE separations were optimized in detail. The investigated analytes showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9932. The limits of detection for the four food colorants were between 0.030 and 0.36 mg/L, which are lower than those reported previously. The established method was also used to analyze four colorants in beverage samples with recoveries ranging from 82.7% to 114.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use NPs both as extractants in dSPME and pseudostationary phases in CE for the analytical purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of six polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jing; Song, Ge; Ai, Lian-Feng; Li, Jian-Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new method using solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of six polyether antibiotics, including lasalocid, salinomycin, monensin, narasin, madubamycin and nigericin residues, in foods of animal origin. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified by ENVI-Carb SPE columns after comparing the impurity effect and maneuverability of several SPE cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were separated on a Hypersil Gold column (2.1×150mm, 5μm) and analyzed by MS/MS detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) for milk and chicken was 0.4μg/kg, and for chicken livers and eggs, it was 1μg/kg. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.9995 at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100μg/L. The average recoveries of the analytes fortified at three levels ranged from 68.2 to 114.3%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 12.1%. The method was suitable for quantitative analysis and confirmation of polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polypyrrole nanowire as an excellent solid phase microextraction fiber for bisphenol A analysis in food samples followed by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalabadi, Mahdie; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Alizadeh, Naader

    2016-08-15

    A polypyrrole nanowire coated fiber was prepared and used in head-space solid phase microextraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (HS-SPME-IMS) to the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food samples, for the first time. This fiber was synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of the monomer in aqueous solution. The fiber characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the new fiber exhibited two-dimensional structures with a nanowire morphology. The effects of important extraction parameters on the efficiency of HS-SPME were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of 10-150ngg(-1) and limit of detection (based on S/N=3) of 1ngg(-1) were obtained in BPA analysis. The repeatability (n=5) expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was 5.8%. At the end, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in various canned food samples (peas, corns, beans). Relative recoveries were obtained 93-96%. Method validation was conducted by comparing our results with those obtained through HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). Compatible results indicate that the proposed method can be successfully used in BPA analysis. This method is simple and cheaper than chromatographic methods, with no need of extra organic solvent consumption and derivatization prior to sample introduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolith as the sorbent for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hui; Ma, Jun-Feng; Hu, Min-Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Jiang-Hua; Gao, Hao-Qi

    2014-08-01

    A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolithic capillary column was prepared and used for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of acidic food additives. The primary amino group of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was reacted with the epoxide group of glycidyl methacrylate. The as-prepared new monomer was then copolymerized in situ with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and PEG-10,000 as porogens. The extraction performance of the developed monolithic sorbent was evaluated for benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamic acid. Such a sorbent, bearing hydrophobic and anion-exchange groups, had high extraction efficiency towards the test compounds. The adsorption capacities for the analytes dissolved in water ranged from 0.18 to 1.74 μg cm(-1). Good linear calibration curves (R(2) > 0.99) were obtained, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were found to be in the range 1.2-13.5 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of five acidic food additives spiked in Coca-Cola beverage samples ranged from 85.4 % to 98.3 %, with RSD less than 6.9 %. The excellent applicability of the ionic liquid (IL)-modified monolithic column was further tested by the determination of benzoic acid content in Sprite samples, further illustrating its good potential for analyzing food additives in complex samples.

  10. Automated mini-column solid-phase extraction cleanup for high-throughput analysis of chemical contaminants in foods by low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated the application of an automated high-throughput mini-cartridge solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) cleanup for the rapid low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in QuEChERS extracts of foods. ...

  11. Utility of solid phase spectrophotometry for the modified determination of trace amounts of cadmium in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; Gouda, Ayman A

    2012-05-01

    A modified selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium which reacts with 1-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid (BTAHNA) to give a deep violet complex with high molar absorptivity (7.05×10(6)Lmol(-1) cm(-1), 3.92×10(7)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.78×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), and 4.10×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1)), fixed on a Dowex 1-X8 type anion-exchange resin for 10mL, 100mL, 500mL, and 1000mL, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.2-3.5μgL(-1) with RSD of ⩽1.14% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits were calculated. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) in food samples, water samples and some salts samples without interfering effect of various cations and anions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Porous Aromatic Framework 48/Gel Hybrid Material Coated Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber for the Determination of the Migration of Styrene from Polystyrene Food Contact Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhongyue; Yang, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Le; Li, Zhonghao; Niu, Jiajia

    2017-01-17

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by a porous aromatic framework 48 (PAF-48)/gel hybrid material through a sol-gel process. PAF-48 is a porous organic framework (POF) material that was polymerized from 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene. The uniform pore structure, high surface area, continuous conjugate network, and hydrophobicity make PAF-48 expected to have special abilities to absorb and extract styrene as well as some other harmful volatile aromatic compounds (VACs). The PAF-48/gel-coated fiber was explored for the extraction of styrene and six VACs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) from aqueous food simulants followed by gas chromatography (GC) separation. The fiber was found to be very sensitive for the determination of the target molecules with wide linear ranges (0.1-200 or 500 μg·kg -1 ), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.060 μg·kg -1 ), acceptable precisions (intraday relative standard deviation, RSD 200 times). Particularly for styrene, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber exhibited a much lower LOD (0.006 μg·kg -1 ) compared with most of the reported fibers. Moreover, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber had a high extraction selectivity for styrene and VACs over alcohols, phenols, aromatic amines, and alkanes and show a molecular sieving effect for the different molecule sizes. Finally, the PAF-48/gel-coated SPME fiber was successfully applied in GC for the determination of the specific migrations of styrene and VACs from polystyrene (PS) plastic food contact materials (FCMs).

  13. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Iodate in Food, Environmental, and Biological Samples after Solid-Phase Extraction with Ni-Al-Zr Ternary Layered Double Hydroxide as a Nanosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-aluminum-zirconium ternary layered double hydroxide was successfully applied as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of iodate in food, environmental and biological samples. An indirect method was used for monitoring of the extracted iodate ions. The method is based on the reaction of the iodate with iodide in acidic solution to produce iodine, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 352 nm. The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The effect of several parameters such as pH, sample flow rate, amount of nanosorbent, elution conditions, sample volume, and coexisting ions on the recovery was investigated. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s and enrichment factor were 0.12 μg mL−1 and 20, respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.2–2.8 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In order to validate the presented method, a certified reference material, NIST SRM 1549, was also analyzed.

  15. Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota: Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor Hugenholtz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, decreased while that of Firmicutes increased over time. Moreover, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, including the canonical Bifidobacteria as well as Collinsella, were found to be important contributors to carbohydrate fermentation and vitamin biosynthesis in the infant intestine. Finally, the expression of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-like genes was detected, likely following transfer from the mother who consumed L. rhamnosus GG. The study indicates that metatranscriptome analysis of the infant gut microbiota is feasible on infant stool samples and can be used to provide insight into the core activities of the developing community.

  16. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(Ethylene Furanoate Biobased Polyester, II: An Efficient and Facile Method to Synthesize High Molecular Weight Polyester Appropriate for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to synthesize, through a facile strategy, high molecular weight poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, which could be applicable in food packaging applications. The efficient method to generate PEF with high molecular weight consists of carrying out a first solid-state polycondensation under vacuum for 6 h reaction time at 205 °C for the resulting polymer from two-step melt polycondensation process, which is catalyzed by tetrabutyl titanate (TBT. A remelting step was thereafter applied for 15 min at 250 °C for the obtained polyester. Thus, the PEF sample was ground into powder, and was then crystallized for 6 h at 170 °C. This polyester is then submitted to a second solid-state polycondensation (SSP carried out at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. Ultimately, a significant increase in intrinsic viscosity is observed with only 5 h reaction time at 205 °C during the second SSP being needed to obtain very high molecular weight PEF polymer greater than 1 dL/g, which sufficient for manufacturing purposes. Intrinsic viscosity (IV, carboxyl end-group content (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, were measured for all resultant polyesters. Thanks to the post-polymerization process, DSC results showed that the melting temperatures of the prepared PEF samples were steadily enhanced in an obvious way as a function of reaction time and temperature increase. It was revealed, as was expected for all SSP samples, that the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF polyester increased with increasing SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-group concentration was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polyesters IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl end-groups of PEF during the SSP.

  17. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples

  18. Duration of Breastfeeding, but Not Timing of Solid Food, Reduces the Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 24 to 36 Months: Findings from an Australian Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sarah; Yew, Sarah Siau Yi; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-03-26

    This study aimed to determine whether breastfeeding duration and the timing of solid food were independently associated with being overweight or obese in early childhood. Subjects were 953 children participating in the Study of Mothers and Infants Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) birth cohort study, based in Adelaide, Australia. Socio-demographic information and data on breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of solid food were collected at birth, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months via mailed or online questionnaires completed by mothers. The weight and height of children were measured at a dental examination when children were aged between 24 and 36 months. Body mass index was calculated, and children were categorised into weight groups according to the World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for maternal age at birth, education, socio-economic status, pre-pregnancy weight, smoking in pregnancy, method of delivery, and child's birthweight. Risk of overweight/obesity was independently associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, and birthweight. Children that were breastfed for 12 months or more had a significantly lower risk of being overweight/obese than those breastfed for less than 17 weeks (AOR 0.49; 95%CI 0.27, 0.90; p for trend =0.009). Age of introduction of solid food, however, was not associated with the risk of being overweight/obese at 24 to 36 months. This study provides further evidence of an inverse relationship between breastfeeding and risk of overweight/obesity, however, no association with the timing of solid food was detected.

  19. Dynamic texture perception and oral processing of semi-solid food gels: Part 1: Comparison between QDA, progressive profiling and TDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M.; Delft, van J.M.; Velde, van de F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Texture perception of food is a dynamic phenomenon depending on food properties and oral processing. Several sensory techniques enable to measure texture perception over time. The aim of this study was to compare quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) and

  20. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t 1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of

  2. Weight loss in the first month post-gastroplasty following diet progression with introduction of solid food three weeks after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, Camila Garcia da Costa; LOBO, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective tool in treating severe obesity. It provides significant weight loss in morbidly obese people accompanied by improvement in comorbidities and quality of life. AIM: To investigate the weight loss outcomes in the first month after bariatric surgery after introduction of solids three weeks postoperatively. METHODS: Thirty-two charts of patients who underwent bariatric surgery were analyzed at a private nutritional clinic in São Sebastião do Para...

  3. Sensitive determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in canned food using a solid-phase microextraction fibre coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes before GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Yunesian, M; Baleh, L J; Mesdaghinia, A

    2010-10-01

    A reliable and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) in canned food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described after extraction and pre-concentration by a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as SPME adsorbent for the pre-concentration of environmental contaminants has been investigated in recent years. This work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of SWCNTs as a headspace SPME adsorbent for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)> or = 0.994) over the concentration range from 0.30 to 60 microg kg(-1). For both target analytes, the limit of detection (LOD) at signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 0.10 microg kg(-1). In addition, a comparative study between the SWCNT and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibre for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food was conducted. SWCNT fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times) than the commercial PDMS fibre. The method was successfully applied to determine BPA in canned food samples which were purchased from local markets. BPA was found in some of the samples within the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.2 microg kg(-1).

  4. Part 3: Solid phase extraction of Russian VX and its chemical attribution signatures in food matrices and their detection by GC-MS and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Audrey M; Vu, Alexander K; Mayer, Brian P; Hok, Saphon; Valdez, Carlos A; Alcaraz, Armando

    2018-08-15

    Chemical attribution signatures indicative of O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Russian VX) synthetic routes were investigated in spiked food samples. Attribution signatures were identified using a multifaceted approach: Russian VX was synthesized using six synthetic routes and the chemical attribution signatures identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. Three synthetic routes were then down selected and spiked into complex matrices: bottled water, baby food, milk, liquid eggs, and hot dogs. Sampling and extraction methodologies were developed for these materials and used to isolate the attribution signatures and Russian VX from each matrix. Recoveries greater than 60% were achieved for most signatures in all matrices; some signatures provided recoveries greater than 100%, indicating some degradation during sample preparation. A chemometric model was then developed and validated with the concatenated data from GC-MS and LC-MS analyses of the signatures; the classification results of the model were > 75% for all samples. This work is part three of a three-part series in this issue of the United States-Sweden collaborative efforts towards the understanding of the chemical attribution signatures of Russian VX in crude materials and in food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds for vortex-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction of ziram in food and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (VA-MSPE) method for the separation and preconcentration of ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), subsequent detection of the zinc in complex structure of ziram by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been developed. The ziram content was calculated by using stoichiometric relationship between the zinc and ziram. Magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds (MCNDs) as solid-phase extraction adsorbent was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds carrying the ziram could be easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field; no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. Some important factors influencing the extraction efficiency of ziram such as pH of sample solution, amount of adsorbent, type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time and sample volume were studied and optimized. The total extraction and detection time was lower than 10min The preconcentration factor (PF), the precision (RSD, n=7), the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 160, 7.0%, 5.3µgL(-1) and 17.5µgL(-1), respectively. The interference of various ions has been examined and the method has been applied for the determination of ziram in various waters, foodstuffs samples and synthetic mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid, non-destructive and non-contact inspection of solid foods by means of photothermal radiometry; thermal effusivity and initial heating coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbertsen, A.; Bicanic, D.; Gielen, J. L. W.; Chirtoc, M.

    2004-03-01

    CO 2-laser photothermal radiometry (PTR) was demonstrated to be suitable for the non-destructive and non-contact characterization (both optical and thermal) of solid phase agricultural commodities (fresh vegetables, fruits) and confectionery products (candy). Proper interpretation of PTR signals enable one to calculate two parameters, i.e. the well known thermal effusivity e ( e= λρc p, where λ and ρcp are the thermal conductivity and the volume specific heat, respectively) and a newly introduced physical quantity termed 'initial heating coefficient' chi ( χ= β/( ρcp), β is the absorption coefficient). Obtained values for e are in a good agreement with data reported in the literature. PTR enables one to rapidly determine e via a single measurement. As opposed to this, the knowledge of two out of three thermophysical parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and volume specific heat) is a condition sine qua non for determining effusivity in the conventional manner.

  7. Preconcentration of trace amounts of formaldehyde from water, biological and food samples using an efficient nanosized solid phase, and its determination by a novel kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, A.; Bagheri, H.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of formaldehyde. It is based on the use of modified alumina nanoparticles for its preconcentration, this followed by a new and simple catalytic kinetic method for its determination. Alumina nanoparticles were chemically modified by immobilization of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine via sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant. The formaldehyde retained on the modified adsorbent was then desorbed and determined via its catalytic effect on the oxidation of thionine by bromate ion. Factors affecting the preconcentration and determination of formaldehyde have been investigated. Formaldehyde can be detected in the range from 0. 05 to 38. 75 μg L -1 , and no serious interferences have been observed. The method has been successfully applied to the quantitation of formaldehyde in water, food, and certain biological samples. (author)

  8. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  9. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The paper focuses on complementary and supplementary foods for weaning purposes. While ... decision, which guides when to introduce semi-solid foods to infants. It considers the .... readiness of many healthy infants. ... foods. However, caution should be exercised .... Attitudes and practices of infants.

  10. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  12. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  13. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  14. Solid phase extraction of lead, cadmium and zinc on biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate diethanol amine (PHB-DEA) polymer and their determination in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Sahiner, Samet; Hazer, Baki

    2016-11-01

    A new biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate diethanol amine (PHB-DEA) polymer was used as adsorbent for the sensitive and selective separation, preconcentration and determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Diethyl dithiocarbamate was used as chelating reagent. Analytical parameters such as pH, eluent type and its volume, flow rates of sample solution, ligand amount, sample volume were optimized. Effects of some cations, anions and transition metal ions were also investigated. Enrichment factor and relative standard deviation were found to be 100 and 3%, respectively. The limits of detection based on three times standard deviation of blanks (N=21) were found 1.05μgL(-1) for Pb(II), 0.42μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.13μgL(-1) for Zn(II). Limits of quantification (10s, N=21) were found 3.47μgL(-1) for Pb(II), 1.39μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.43μgL(-1) for Zn(II). Accuracy evaluation of the method was confirmed with analyses of certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, IAEA 336 Lichen, GBW 07605 Tea). Optimized method was applied to tap water and food samples after microwave digestion method. Cadmium and lead values in some samples were found higher than legal limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of polyhydroxybutyrate-b-polyethyleneglycol (a block co-polymer) for solid phase extraction of lead and copper in different food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Tuzen, M.; Naeemullah, A.

    2014-01-01

    In present work, a new adsorbent, polyhydroxybutyrate-b-polyethyleneglycol (block copolymer) was used for the preconcentration and separation of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) ions without consuming expensive complexing reagent. The influence of various parameters like pH, adsorbent amount, and rates of flow of eluent, sample and sample volumes has been investigated. The polymer does not interact with alkaline earth metals, transition metals, alkaline, and few anions. The enrichment factor 50 was achieved in this method. The detection limit of method was found to be 0.36 micro g L/sup 1/ and 1.93 micro g L/sup 1/ for copper and lead, respectively. The recovery values of both analytes were found >96% and relative standard deviations (RSD) for all experiments were found less than 5%. The present method was validated by the analysis of Cu and Pb contents in various related certified reference materials (CRM) like; NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, IAEA -336 Lichen and GBW-07605 Tea. Found results and CRM values were precise and accurate. This developed method was then successfully applied for analysis of Cu and Pb in tap and bottled mineral water and real food samples. (author)

  17. Simultaneous determination of multiresidual phenyl acetanilide pesticides in different food commodities by solid-phase cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Wang, Meiling; Yan, Hongfei; Fu, Shanliang; Dai, Hua

    2013-03-01

    An efficient and sensitive multiresidue method has been developed for quantification and confirmation of 25 phenyl acetanilide pesticides in a wide variety of food commodities including maize, spinach, mushroom, apple, soybean, chestnut, tea, beef, cattle liver, chicken, fish, and milk. Analytes were extracted with acetone-n-hexane (1:2, v/v) followed by cleanup using SPE. Several types of adsorbents were evaluated. Neutral aluminum and graphitized carbon black cartridge showed good cleanup efficiency. The extract was determined by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode using one target and two qualitative ions for each analyte. The limits of detection were 0.01 mg/kg for all analytes. The average recoveries ranged from 66.9 to 110.6% (mean 88.8%) and RSDs were in the range 2.0-19% (mean 10.5%) across three fortification levels. The proposed method was successfully applied to real samples in routine analysis and a satisfactory result was obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  19. Solid phase extraction and trace monitoring of cadmium ions in environmental water and food samples based on modified magnetic nanoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidi, Fariborz [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadbehbahai89@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalate Bojdi, Majid [Faculty of Chemistry, Kharazmi (Tarbiat Moallem) University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been developed for trace separation/preconcentration of cadmium ions using pyridine-functionalized magnetic nanoporous silica material (called Py-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41) as a new magnetic sorbent and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Py-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41 sorbent was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41 can be easily separated from an aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field. Effects of pH, amount of functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41, extraction time, type and quantity of eluent, desorption time, and interfering ions on the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit and relative standard deviation was 0.04 μg L{sup –1} and 2.9%, respectively and the maximum adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for cadmium ions was 154 mg g{sup −1}. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, rice, onion, carrot, lettuce, parsley, basil, tap water, river water and seawater with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • The introducing of modified magnetic mesoporous silica as a novel magnetic sorbent. • Trace monitoring of cadmium ions. • The limit of detection (LOD) by the proposed solid phase extraction method was 0.04 ng mL{sup −1} for the cadmium ions. • High surface areas and magnetic characteristic of the sorbent. • Maximum adsorption capacity of the sorbent was 154 mg g{sup −1}.

  20. Deglutição e consistências alimentares pastosas e sólidas: revisão crítica de literatura Deglutition of pasty and solid food: a critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Checchinato Pansarini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Levantar artigos científicos internacionais sobre a fisiologia da deglutição de alimentos nas consistências néctar, mel, pudim, pastosa heterogênea, semissólida e sólida, nas fases oral e faríngea. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de revisão qualitativa da literatura. Para a seleção dos artigos, foi utilizada a base de dados PubMed com emprego dos descritores "Swallowing and consistency", "Swallowing and solid" e "Swallowing and pasty", limitando-se a pesquisas publicadas no idioma inglês, entre os anos de 2005 e 2010, realizadas com seres humanos maiores de 18 anos. A metodologia empregada envolveu formulação da pergunta, localização e seleção dos estudos, e avaliação crítica dos artigos, conforme os preceitos do Cochrane Handbook. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 211 estudos, dos quais 18 foram analisados, pois permitiam acesso ao texto completo e eram diretamente relacionados ao tema. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos apresentam metodologia pouco uniforme, não havendo padronização, principalmente quanto aos métodos de avaliação. Em geral, as pesquisas foram realizadas com sujeitos saudáveis ou remeteram a um tipo de patologia, sem utilização de casos-controle. A heterogeneidade dos estudos possibilita que diferentes grupos de patologias sejam avaliados, porém, a variabilidade metodológica dificulta a definição e generalização dos padrões encontrados. Sendo assim, não é possível evidenciar dados que embasem a prática clínica fonoaudiológica no que diz respeito à fisiologia normal ou alterada da deglutição de diferentes consistências alimentares, tanto para sujeitos normais quanto para os acometidos por alguma desordem.PURPOSE: To analyze published international scientific papers on the physiology of deglutition in oral and pharyngeal phases, considering different food consistencies: nectar, honey, pudding, pasty heterogeneous, semi-solid, and solid. METHODS: This is a qualitative literature reviews

  1. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  2. Chernobyl - A chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area, are shown.

  3. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodymyr, S

    1987-07-01

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project.

  4. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo.

  5. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine.

  6. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1998-01-01

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  7. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  8. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  9. Determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds in food-contact recycled-paper materials by focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Fernández-Recio, Miguel Ángel; Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-09-15

    Focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) was applied to the determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food-contact recycled-paper materials. Recycled paper is a potential source of EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and their derivatives bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) are used for the production of epoxy resins employed in the formulation of printing inks. The FUSLE of bisphenol-type EDCs from packaging is reported for the first time. First, different extraction solvents were studied and methanol was selected. Then, the main FUSLE factors affecting the extraction efficiency (solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic irradiation power) were studied by means of a central composite design. The FUSLE conditions selected for further experiments were 20 ml of methanol at ultrasonic amplitude of 100% for 5s. Finally, the number of extraction cycles necessary for complete extraction was established in two. The analysis of the FUSLE extracts was carried out by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with electrospray ionization and the determination of the four analytes took place in only 4 min. The FUSLE and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was validated and applied to the analysis of different food-contact recycled-paper-based materials and packaging. The proposed method provided recoveries from 72% to 97%, repeatability and intermediate precision under 9% and 14%, respectively, and detection limits of 0.33, 0.16, 0.65 and 0.40 μg/g for BPA, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE, respectively. The analysis of paper and cardboard samples confirmed the presence of EDCs in these packaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and optimization of a novel sample preparation method cored on functionalized nanofibers mat-solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous efficient extraction of illegal anionic and cationic dyes in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feifei; Jian, Ningge; Qian, Liangliang; Cao, Weixin; Xu, Qian; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    A simple and efficient three-step sample preparation method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous analysis of illegal anionic and cationic dyes (acid orange 7, metanil yellow, auramine-O, and chrysoidine) in food samples. A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on nanofibers mat (NFsM) was proposed after solvent extraction and freeze-salting out purification. The preferred SPE sorbent was selected from five functionalized NFsMs by orthogonal experimental design, and the optimization of SPE parameters was achieved through response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Under the optimal conditions, the target analytes could be completely adsorbed by polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile NFsM (PPy/PAN NFsM), and the eluent was directly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg kg -1 , and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients (R > 0.99) for each dye in all samples was achieved. Compared with the Chinese standard method and the published methods, the proposed method was simplified greatly with much lower requirement of sorbent (5.0 mg) and organic solvent (2.8 mL) and higher sample preparation speed (10 min/sample), while higher recovery (83.6-116.5%) and precision (RSDs < 7.1%) were obtained. With this developed method, we have successfully detected illegal ionic dyes in three common representative foods: yellow croaker, soybean products, and chili seasonings. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the process of the three-step sample preparation.

  11. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  12. Magnetic solid phase extraction using ionic liquid-coated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of Rhodamine B in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-06-01

    Three hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazole hexafluoro-phosphate ([HMIM]PF6), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM]PF6)) were used to coat Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structures to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) agents (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL). A novel method of MSPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation/analysis of Rhodamine B was then established. The results showed that Rhodamine B was adsorbed rapidly on Fe3O4@SiO2@[OMIM]PF6 and was released using ethanol. Under optimal conditions, the pre-concentration factor for the proposed method was 25. The linear range, limit of detection (LOD), correlation coefficient (R), and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be 0.50-150.00 μgL(-1), 0.08 μgL(-1), 0.9999, and 0.51% (n=3, c=10.00 μgL(-1)), respectively. The Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs could be re-used up to 10 times. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Rhodamine B in food samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Ultrafast Screening and Quantitation of Pesticides in Food and Environmental Matrices by Solid-Phase Microextraction-Transmission Mode (SPME-TM) and Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Poole, Justen; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-07-05

    The direct interface of microextraction technologies to mass spectrometry (MS) has unquestionably revolutionized the speed and efficacy at which complex matrices are analyzed. Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Transmission Mode (SPME-TM) is a technology conceived as an effective synergy between sample preparation and ambient ionization. Succinctly, the device consists of a mesh coated with polymeric particles that extracts analytes of interest present in a given sample matrix. This coated mesh acts as a transmission-mode substrate for Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), allowing for rapid and efficient thermal desorption/ionization of analytes previously concentrated on the coating, and dramatically lowering the limits of detection attained by sole DART analysis. In this study, we present SPME-TM as a novel tool for the ultrafast enrichment of pesticides present in food and environmental matrices and their quantitative determination by MS via DART ionization. Limits of quantitation in the subnanogram per milliliter range can be attained, while total analysis time does not exceed 2 min per sample. In addition to target information obtained via tandem MS, retrospective studies of the same sample via high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) were accomplished by thermally desorbing a different segment of the microextraction device.

  14. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxing; Xie, Shuyu; Ni, Tengteng; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Cheng, Guyue; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles, comprising ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, were prepared through a simple one-step synthesis method and subsequently applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The components within the nanocomposites endowed the material with high extraction performance and manipulative convenience. Compared with carbon nanotubes, the as-prepared carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles showed better extraction and separation efficiencies for polyether antibiotics and s-triazine drugs thanks to the contribution of the iron-containing magnetic nanoparticles. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency had been investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the good linearity ranging from 1 to 200 μg/kg for diclazuril, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulfone, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, nanchangmycin, and maduramicin, low limits of detection ranging from 1 to 5 μg/kg, and satisfactory spiked recoveries (77.1-91.2%, with the inter relative standard deviation values from 4.0 to 12.2%) were shown. It was confirmed that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of polyether and s-triazine drug residues in complex matrices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modified Activated Carbon Prepared from Acorn Shells as a New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent for the Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel in Food Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Bahram

    2017-03-01

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was introduced based on acidic-modified (AM) activated carbon (AC) prepared from acorn shells of native oak trees in Kurdistan. Hydrochloric acid (15%, w/w) and nitric acid (32.5%, w/w) were used to condition and modify AC. The IR spectra of AC and AM-AC showed that AM lead to the formation of increasing numbers of acidic functional groups on AM-AC. AM-AC was used in the SPE method for the extraction and preconcentration of Ni+2 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination at ng/mL levels in model and real food samples. Effective parameters of the SPE procedure, such as the pH of the solutions, sorbent dosage, extraction time, sample volume, type of eluent, and matrix ions, were considered and optimized. An enrichment factor of 140 was obtained. The calibration curve was linear with an R2 of 0.997 in the concentration range of 1-220 ng/mL. The RSD was 5.67% (for n = 7), the LOD was 0.352 ng/mL, and relative recoveries in vegetable samples ranged from 96.7 to 103.7%.

  16. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Ozdemir, Nalan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L(-)(1) and 8.8 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheology and Fracture Mechanics of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of food play an important role during manufacturing, storage, handling, and last but not least, during consumption. For an adequate understanding of the mechanical properties of liquid, liquid-like, soft solid, and solid foods, a basic understanding of relevant aspects of

  18. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  19. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  20. Food poisoning prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wash your hands before preparing or serving food. Cook eggs until they are solid, not runny. DO NOT eat raw ground beef, chicken, eggs, or fish. Heat all casseroles to ... Use a thermometer when cooking beef to at least 160°F (71.1° ...

  1. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide fiber coating coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the saponification-headspace solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fangying; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Zhou, You; Zuo, Rongjie; Dong, Youren

    2017-11-24

    In this work, the molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide (MoS 2 /RGO) composite material was synthesized as a fiber coating to extract seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) present in food via a saponification-headspace solid-phase microextraction assay (saponification-HS-SPME). The MoS 2 /RGO coating was prepared and deposited on a stainless steel wire with the help of a silicone sealant and used as an SPME fiber. The alkali solution dissolved the fat and helped in releasing the PCBs present in milk to the headspace for extraction under 100°C. Following desorption in the inlet, the targets were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of sorbent dosage, extraction time, added salts, and stirring rate on the extraction efficiency were investigated. The new coating was able to adsorb a higher amount of analytes, which was about 1.1-2.9 times in comparison with the commercially available SPME fiber (coated with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane). It also showed the highest adsorption capability toward PCBs, which was 1.5-2.7 times that of the prepared RGO modified fiber. Moreover, MoS 2 also showed a strong affinity toward PCBs in a manner similar to its affinity for graphene. The developed method is simple and environmentally friendly as it does not require any organic solvents. Furthermore, it exhibits good sensitivity with detection limits less than 0.1ngmL -1 , linearity (0.25-100ngmL -1 ), and reproducibility (relative standard deviation below 10% for n=3). The novel SPME fibers are inexpensive, reusable, and can be easily prepared and manipulated. In addition, the saponification-HS-SPME assay was also found to be suitable for screening persistent organic pollutants in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  5. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  6. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  7. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  8. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. New approaches to food safety economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Unnevehr, L.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Food-safety economics is a new research field, which needs a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision-making process in food-safety improvement. Food safety is a theme that plays at many levels in the community: at the consumer level, at the farm or business level, at

  10. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  12. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  13. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  14. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  16. Toddlers' food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anika J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne A

    2012-12-01

    Food preferences have been identified as a key determinant of children's food acceptance and consumption. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence children's liking for fruits, vegetables and non-core foods. Participants were Australian mothers (median age at delivery=31years, 18-46years) and their two-year-old children (M=24months, SD=1month; 52% female) allocated to the control group (N=245) of the NOURISH RCT. The effects of repeated exposure to new foods, maternal food preferences and child food neophobia on toddlers' liking of vegetables, fruits and non-core foods and the proportion never tried were examined via hierarchical regression models; adjusting for key maternal (age, BMI, education) and child covariates (birth weight Z-score, gender), duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction to solids. Maternal preferences corresponded with child preferences. Food neophobia among toddlers was associated with liking fewer vegetables and fruits, and trying fewer vegetables. Number of repeated exposures to new food was not significantly associated with food liking at this age. Results highlight the need to: (i) encourage parents to offer a wide range of foods, regardless of their own food preferences, and (ii) provide parents with guidance on managing food neophobia. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, J

    2001-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) uses a small volume of sorbent dispersed typically on the surface of small fibres, to isolate and concentrate analytes from sample matrix. After contact with sample, analytes are absorbed or adsorbed by the fibre phase (depending on the nature of the coating) until an equilibrium is reached in the system. The amount of an analyte extracted by the coating at equilibrium is determined by the magnitude of the partition coefficient of the analyte between the sample matrix and the coating material. After the extraction step, the fibres are transferred, with the help of a syringe-like handling device, to analytical instrument, for separation and quantitation of target analytes. This technique integrates sampling, extraction and sample introduction and is a simple way of facilitating on-site monitoring. Applications of this technique include environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, process monitoring, clinical, forensic, food, flavour, fragrance and drug analyses, in laboratory and on-site analysis.

  19. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  1. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  2. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in food applications: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in food applications is presented in this review. Some of the basic concepts of NMR pertaining to one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques, solid-state NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are discussed. Food applications dealt with encompass such diverse areas like nature and state of water in foods, detection and quantitation of important constituents of foods, intact food systems and NMR related to food biology. (author)

  5. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  6. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  7. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  9. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  10. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  12. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  14. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  15. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  16. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  2. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model st...

  3. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  4. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  5. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  6. A straightforward method to determine flavouring substances in food by GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, P.; Sisseren, van M.; Marco, De S.; Jekel, A.A.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward GC–MS method was developed to determine the occurrence of fourteen flavouring compounds in food. It was successfully validated for four generic types of food (liquids, semi-solids, dry solids and fatty solids) in terms of limit of quantification, linearity, selectivity, matrix

  7. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  8. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  9. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  10. Development of an aflatoxin B1 specific molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction sorbent for the selective pre-concentration of toxic aflatoxin B1 from child weaning food, Tsabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semong Oratile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, optimization and application of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP sorbent for the selective extraction and pre-concentration of the potent toxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, from the child weaning food, Tsabana (manufactured in Serowe, Botswana. As a food safety regulatory measure, Tsabana must be cleared of hazardous aflatoxins, especially AFB1, before consumption. This is because AFB1 is the most common and potent of the aflatoxins commonly found in cereals. Accurate analysis of AFB1 is challenging because it exists in very low concentrations in complex, ‘dirty’ matrices such as food, making it difficult to detect using analytical instruments, even if these analytical techniques have sensitivities at the femto level. The MIP extraction sorbent synthesized in this paper deals with these challenges by selectively pre-concentrating AFB1 from real Tsabana samples, successfully achieving a pre-concentration factor of 5 and therefore significantly increasing ABF1 signal intensity for easier detection. Further advantages of this system include the short time (25.0 minutes and reasonable optimal MIP dose (20.0 mg needed for maximum AFB1 extraction by the sorbent. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the prepared AFB1 powder particles have spherical geometries and reasonably small sizes (800 nm, two advantageous physical characteristics that are associated with excellent sorbent materials.

  11. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  14. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  15. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

  16. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  17. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...

  18. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  19. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Scown, Corinne D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  20. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative......HF are recommended as a substitute for cow's milk. A few high risk infants may benefit from a maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal dieting during pregnancy....

  1. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  2. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  3. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  4. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One of the best ways is to ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...

  5. Food online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Lomme C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law

  6. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  7. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  9. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  11. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  13. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  15. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  16. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Effect of Ultrasound Technology on Food and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Kumari S; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound technology has been successfully demonstrated for several food processing and preservation applications. The majority of food processing applications reported refer to liquid foods. Ultrasound has been applied to solid foods in some niche applications, e.g., tenderization of meat, mass transfer applications, and drying. Similar to any other technology, ultrasound also has some positive and negative effects on food quality depending on the application and processing conditions employed. This chapter outlines various applications of ultrasound to food and its effect on food and nutritional quality. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  19. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Bioenergy Potential from Food Waste in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Hanna M; Jin, Ling; Robinson, Alastair; Scown, Corinne D

    2017-02-07

    Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% of food waste is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. Scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction, are developed and modeled. Potential monthly electricity generation from the conversion of gross food waste using a combination of AD and combustion varies from 420 to 700 MW, averaging 530 MW. At least 66% of gross high moisture solids and 23% of gross low moisture solids can be treated using existing county infrastructure, and this fraction increases to 99% of high moisture solids and 55% of low moisture solids if waste can be shipped anywhere within the state. Biogas flaring practices at AD facilities can reduce potential energy production by 10 to 40%.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Phase 1, open-label, multicentre study to compare the capsule and tablet formulations of AZD5363 and explore the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic exposure, safety and tolerability of AZD5363 in patients with advanced solid malignancies: OAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Emma; Banerji, Udai; Schellens, Jan H M; Krebs, Matthew G; Jimenez, Begona; van Brummelen, Emilie; Bailey, Chris; Casson, Ed; Cripps, Diana; Cullberg, Marie; Evans, Stephen; Foxley, Andrew; Lindemann, Justin; Rugman, Paul; Taylor, Nigel; Turner, Guy; Yates, James; Lawrence, Peter

    2018-05-01

    AZD5363 is a potent pan-AKT inhibitor originally formulated as a capsule; a tablet was developed for patient convenience and manufacturing ease. This study assessed the PK comparability of both formulations (Part A) and the effect of food (Part B) on the PK/safety of the tablet. Adults with advanced solid tumours received AZD5363 480 mg bid in a partially fasted state by tablet (Week 1) and capsule (Week 2) in a '4-days-on/3-days-off' schedule (Part A). PK parameters were evaluated using pre-defined 90% CIs for AUCτ and C max ratios of 0.75-1.33 to assess comparability. In Part B, AZD5363 tablet was given to a new cohort of patients under the same conditions as Part A, except on the morning of PK assessment days, when it was administered after an overnight fast (Week 1) and standard meal (Week 2). In evaluable patients (N = 11), the geometric least-squares mean ratios (tablet:capsule) for AUCτ and C max were 0.90 (0.77-1.06) and 1.02 (0.86-1.20), respectively, demonstrating comparable PK in the partially fasted state. Tablet and capsule safety data were also comparable. Tablet PK profiles indicated later t max and lower C max after food versus overnight fast. Fed and fasted AUCτ and C max ratios were 0.89 (0.76-1.05) and 0.67 (0.55-0.82), respectively (N = 9). The safety/tolerability profile of the tablet was comparable between fed and fasted states. PK and safety/tolerability of AZD5363 tablet and capsule were comparable. Food did not affect the bioavailability of AZD5363, but reduced the absorption rate without discernibly affecting safety/tolerability.

  3. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  4. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  5. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  6. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  7. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  8. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  10. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  11. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  12. Safe Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.

  13. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or aluminum foil to keep the food from drying out. Eat any leftovers within 3 to 4 days or freeze them. Don't freeze any dishes that contain uncooked fruit or veggies, hard-cooked eggs, or mayonnaise. If ...

  14. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  15. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  17. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  18. Graphene oxide-based composite monolith as new sorbent for the on-line solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography determination of ß-sitosterol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Beijiao; Guo, Bin; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Doudou; Liu, Haiyan; Bai, Ligai; Yan, Hongyuan; Han, Dandan

    2018-08-15

    A composite monolithic column was prepared by redox initiation method for the on-line purification and enrichment of β-sitosterol, in which graphene oxide (GO) was embedded. The obtained monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, which indicated that the monolith possessed characteristics of porous structure and high permeability. Under the optimum conditions for extraction and determination, the calibration equation was y = 47.92 × -0.1391; the linear range was 0.008-1.0 mg mL -1 ; the linear regression coefficient was 0.998; the limit of detection (LOD) is 2.4 μg mL -1 ; the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 8 μg mL -1 ; precisions for intra-day and inter-day assays presented as relative standard deviations were less than 4.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Under the selective conditions, the enrichment factor of the method was 119. The recovery was in the range of 80.40-98.00%. Moreover, the adsorption amount of the monolith was compared with silica gel-C18 adsorbent and the monolith without graphene oxide being embedded. The polymerization monolithic column showed high selectivity and good permeability, and it was successfully used as on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for determination of β-sitosterol in edible oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  20. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  1. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  2. Food irradiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Alok; Nanjappa, C.; Chauhan, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of foods drew attention mostly in 1960s for disinfestation of food grains, spices and sprout inhibition in mainly potato and onion. γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 1 kGy dosage levels are usually used for irradiating grains, legumes, spices and sprout-prone vegetables. Irradiation of foods with in permissible dosage levels of 0.25 to 5 kGy is usually considered fairly safe from human consumption point of view not withstanding usual health concerns about its usage in foods. Irradiation of foods, in mostly solid or semi-solid form, at 5 kGy levels of γ-irradiation can achieve radicidation or, radiation equivalent of pasteurization and, if γ-irradiation is used at 10 kGy, it can achieve radappertization or, radiation equivalent of thermal commercial sterilization. However, the food industry uses γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 2 kGy only for mostly disinfestation of food grains/legumes, spices, sprout inhibition in potato and onion and, for surface sanitation of frozen fish, poultry and meat. Exposure to irradiation creates free radicals in foods that are capable of destroying some of the spoilage and pathogenic microflora but the same can also damage vitamins and enzymes besides creating some new harmful new chemical species, called unique radiolytic products (URPs), by combining with certain chemicals that a food may be laced with (like pesticides/fungicides). Exposure to high-energy electron beams are also known to create deleterious biological effects which may even lead to detection of trace amounts of radioactivity in the food. Some possible causes delineated for such harmful biological effects of irradiation include: irradiation induced vitamin deficiencies, the inactivity of enzymes in the foods, DNA damage and toxic radiolytic products in the foods. Irradiation, a non-thermal food preservation technique, has a role in salvaging enormous post harvest losses (25-30%) in developing economies to increase the per capita availability of foods. (author)

  3. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Naþ, Kþ, Mg2þ, and Ca2þ and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  4. Solid-phase extraction of copper(II) in water and food samples using silica gel modified with bis(3-aminopropyl)amine and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagirdi, Duygu; Altundag, Hüseyin; Imamoglu, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    A simple and selective separation and preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cu(ll) ions. This method is based on adsorption of Cu(ll) ions from aqueous solution on a bis(3-aminopropyl)amine modified silica gel column and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination after desorption. Various analytical parameters such as pH, type of eluent solution and its volume, flow rate of sample and eluent, and sample volume were optimized. Effects of some cation, anion, and transition metal ions on the recoveries of Cu(ll) ions were also investigated. Cu(ll) ions were quantitatively recovered at pH 6; 5.0 mL of 2 M HCI was used as the eluent. The preconcentration factor was found to be 150. The LOD was 0.12 microg/L for Cu(ll). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Fish Protein (DORM-3) certified reference materials. The optimized method was applied to various water and food samples for the determination of Cu(ll).

  5. Solid phase microextraction method using a novel polystyrene oleic acid imidazole polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system for speciation and determination of antimony in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Tuzen, Mustafa; Hazer, Baki; Kazi, Tasneem Gul

    2018-07-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive solid phase microextraction method was used for the speciation of inorganic antimony (Sb) by using a novel synthesized polymeric material in micropipette tip of syringe system. In present methodology, the specie of Sb (III) made hydrophobic complex with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC) at pH 5.5 and subsequently adsorbed on polystyrene oleic acid imidazole polymer (POIP), whereas Sb(V) did not made complex and adsorbed on the polymer, remained in aqueous solutions. The strategy of multivariate was carried out to screen out the different variables and assessed the optimum values of their experimental values for the extraction efficiency of analyte. Then the analyte was sorbed on the polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system was quantitatively eluted by different types of acids at different levels for 2-6 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Sb(III) ions with modifiers were directed into the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and preconcentration factor (PF) for Sb(III) was found to be 6 ng L -1 , 20 ng L -1 and 100. The RSD value was found to be 4.2%. The standard addition method and certified reference materials were checked for accuracy and validity of method. The developed method was effectively applied for the determination of total and inorganic species of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different types of water samples, whereas only total Sb was determined in acid digested soil, Tuna fish, rice, spinach, black tea, mixed fruit juice and ice tea samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  7. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manufacturers aren't required to include warnings about food allergens accidentally introduced during manufacturing or packaging (cross-contamination). This potentially can cause trouble if you're ...

  8. Microstructure, texture and oral processing: New ways to reduce sugar and salt in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing as the bridge between food texture, microstructure and sensory perception has gained enormous interest in the last decade. This review provides an overview of the role of the microstructure of soft- and semi-solid foods in food oral processing and sensory perception. Phase

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  12. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  13. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  14. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  15. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  16. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  18. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  19. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  20. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  1. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  3. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl

  4. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl.

  5. Composite foods: from structure to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-02-22

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties of both liquid and solid foods can be related to textural attributes such as thickness and firmness, they do not always correlate to more complex sensory attributes, such as creamy and smooth. These attributes are often a result of different contributions, including lubrication aspects and interactions between food and components present in the oral cavity. In this review, the different contributions for a variety of composite foods, such as dispersions, emulsions and emulsion-filled gels, are discussed. The rheological properties are discussed in relation to specific structural characteristics of the foods, which are then linked to lubrication aspects and sensory perception.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  7. Potentials for Commercial Production of Biogas from Domestic Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Solid waste management, food waste, anaerobic digestion, biogas ... Ministry of Environment, 2005) have not been able to ... waste management system which ensures financial returns at ... that incorporates recycling, composting, incineration.

  8. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  9. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from...

  10. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated to the right temperature Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables ... proper amount of fluids. Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you comfortable. ...

  11. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    or fertilizers. Learn more about the costs and benefits of going organic for you and your family. To Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure veggies? Federal Pesticide Regulation Pesticides and Human Health Regulating Organic Food Production

  12. Detection of irradiated frozen foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    We tried to detect whether foods were irradiated or not by the o-tyrosine method and the mtDNA method. The o-tyrosine method was applied to four kinds of meat (beef, pork, chicken and tuna). The results showed the linear relation between amount of o-tyrosine and dose (0-10 kGy). However, small amount of o-tyrosine were produced in some cases which application of the method summed to be very difficult because small difference between irradiated foods and untreated foods. Possibility of mtDNA method was investigated. Work and time for separation of mitochondria and extraction of DNA were reduced by a protease-solid phase extraction method. By PCR method, accurate mtDNA could be detected from very small amount of DNA. The irradiation effect is able to detect from 50 Gy. (S.Y.)

  13. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  14. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  15. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  16. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  17. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  18. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumney, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  19. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  20. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  1. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  2. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  3. Nano-Science-Engineering-Technology Applications to Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Wang, Zheng; Chaudhry, Qasim; Park, Hyun Jin; Juneja, Lekh R

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology are applied to Food and Nutrition. Various delivery systems include nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes. The nanoscale systems have advantages, such as higher bioavailabitity, and other physicochemical properties. The symposium will provide an overview of the formulation, characterization, and utilization of nanotechnology-based food and nutrition.

  4. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  5. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  6. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  7. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  8. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定食品中的靛蓝和亮蓝%Determination of indigo and brilliant blue in different types of food products by high performance liquid chromatography with solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静娜; 黄常刚; 梁高道; 肖永华; 革丽亚; 龚洁; 贺栋梁

    2017-01-01

    目的 建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定多种类食品中靛蓝、亮蓝的检测方法.方法 采用固相萃取技术,用乙腈水溶液提取样品中色素并经WAX小柱净化,以甲醇-0.02 mol/L乙酸铵溶液作为流动相梯度洗脱,经Waters Symmetry C18(5μm,4.6 mm×250 mm)色谱柱分离,运用高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器(HPLC-PDA)检测.结果 该方法靛蓝、亮蓝在0.50 ~ 20.00 tμg/mL范围内有较好的线性关系,均r>0.999;靛蓝和亮蓝的方法检出限分别为0.04和0.02 mg/kg;样品加标平均回收率为81.8% ~ 101.1%,相对标准偏差为2.1%~4.9%(n=6).结论 该方法具有较高的选择性和灵敏度,回收率和重现性良好,可用于GB 2760-2014食品分类系统中多种类食品中靛蓝、亮蓝含量的分析.%Objective To develop and validate a solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (SPE-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of indigo and brilliant blue in different types of food products.Methods The artificial colors in food products were extracted by acetonitrile/water and purified by WAX SPE cartridges,The separation was achieved using a Waters Symmetry C1s (5 μm,4.6 mm × 250 mm) column and a binary gradient mobile phase of methanol and 0.02mol/ L ammonium acetate solution,detected by HPLC-PDA.Results The validated analytical method showed that there was a good linearity in the range of 0.05-20.00 μμg/mL for both indigo and brilliant blue (r > 0.999).The lowest detection limits of indigo and brilliant blue were 0.04 and 0.02 mg/kg,respectively.The average recoveries were among 81.8%-101.1%,with relative standard deviation(RSD) of 2.1%-4.9% (n =6) for both artificial colors.Conclusion The method has high selectivity,high sensitivity,good recovery and reproducibility.It is suitable to simultaneously monitor indigo and brilliant blue in several types of food products based on the food classification system of GB 2760-2014.

  9. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  10. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  11. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  12. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  15. Chemistry and Properties of Slags from Navy Solid Waste Destruction in the Plasma Arc System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talmy, Inna

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Navy is currently developing a highly efficient shipboard system which employs a plasma torch to process Navy solid wastes primarily consisting of cardboard, paper, steel, aluminum, glass, and food waste...

  16. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, R U

    1986-12-31

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  17. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  18. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R. U.

    1985-01-01

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  19. Solid Foods: How to Get Your Baby Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutritional interventions. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2013;1:29. For consumers: Seven ... allergic diseases. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2013;131:78. Kiefte-de Jong JC, et ...

  20. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...... was described by means of delay, time until half emptying, mean transit time, and emptying rate. The measures all showed a significant (p less than 0.05) acceleration of pouch emptying during the first 6 months after gastroplasty. Thereafter pouch emptying was unaltered. No significant association could...

  1. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  2. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  3. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a

  4. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  5. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  6. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  7. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  8. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  9. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  10. Waste is a resource: A study on the opportunities in a new solid waste management in Iringa municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Eirin

    2012-01-01

    Master i produktdesign Municipal solid waste refers to waste in a solid form, produced in the daily day life of a society such as packaging, food scrapes, grass clippings, clothing, furniture, paper, electronics and so on. It is called municipal solid waste because it is in the responsibility of the local government and comes from our homes, schools, hospitals and businesses. It is produced 108 tons municipal solid waste in Iringa each day. Iringa district is located approximately 500...

  11. Production, properties, and applications of hydrocolloid cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Amos

    2005-02-01

    Many common synthetic and edible materials are, in fact, cellular solids. When classifying the structure of cellular solids, a few variables, such as open vs. closed cells, flexible vs. brittle cell walls, cell-size distribution, cell-wall thickness, cell shape, the uniformity of the structure of the cellular solid and the different scales of length are taken into account. Compressive stress-strain relationships of most cellular solids can be easily identified according to their characteristic sigmoid shape, reflecting three deformation mechanisms: (i) elastic distortion under small strains, (ii) collapse and/or fracture of the cell walls, and (iii) densification. Various techniques are used to produce hydrocolloid (gum) cellular solids. The products of these include (i) sponges, obtained when the drying gel contains the occasionally produced gas bubbles; (ii) sponges produced by the immobilization of microorganisms; (iii) solid foams produced by drying foamed solutions or gels containing oils, and (iv) hydrocolloid sponges produced by enzymatic reactions. The porosity of the manufactured cellular solid is subject to change and depends on its composition and the processing technique. The porosity is controlled by a range of methods and the resulting surface structures can be investigated by microscopy and analyzed using fractal methods. Models used to describe stress-strain behaviors of hydrocolloid cellular solids as well as multilayered products and composites are discussed in detail in this manuscript. Hydrocolloid cellular solids have numerous purposes, simple and complex, ranging from dried texturized fruits to carriers of vitamins and other essential micronutrients. They can also be used to control the acoustic response of specific dry food products, and have a great potential for future use in countless different fields, from novel foods and packaging to medicine and medical care, daily commodities, farming and agriculture, and the environmental, chemical

  12. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick's second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75 × 10(-11) and 8.72 × 10(-11) m(2)/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid.

  13. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  14. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  15. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  18. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  19. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  20. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  1. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  2. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  3. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t 1/2 ). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography

  4. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  5. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  6. Food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gummer, Selwyn; Campbell-Savours, D.N.; Maxwell-Hyslop, R.

    1987-01-01

    The motion is to consolidate the Food Protection (Emergency Prohibitions) (England) (No 2) Order 1987 and seven subsequent amendment orders, into one order. The orders are those under which restrictions on the movement of sheep as a result of the Chernobyl accident are carried out. A debate lasting more than two hours followed and this is reported verbatim. Much of the early part of the debate concerns a telex message allegedly from the chief scientist of the radiochemical institute saying that meat contaminated by radiation after Chernobyl was sold in Britain. Both the source and the content of the telex were found not to be as alleged. In particular, the allegation that 10kg lambs had gone to market. The minister pointed out that these lambs were not big enough to be sold. The debate broadened into a more general discussion as to levels of contamination in sheep and the government diligence or otherwise in protecting the public. The motion was agreed to. (U.K.)

  7. Mood Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  8. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  9. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  10. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  11. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  12. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  16. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  17. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  18. The effect of saliva composition on texture perception of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Keybus, P.A.M. van den; Wijk, R.A. de; Veerman, E.C.I.; Amerongen, A.V.N.; Bosman, F.; Prinz, J.F.; Bilt, A. van der

    2007-01-01

    Saliva is expected to be of significance for the perception of food stimuli in the mouth. Mixing the food with saliva, including breakdown and dilution, is considered to be of large importance for semi-solids as these products are masticated without chewing. It is known that there are large

  19. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  20. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  1. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  2. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is processed food? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans define the term "processed food" includes "any raw agricultural ... of foods , ranging from the number 1 source—breads and rolls—to eggs and omelets, which are ...

  3. Food and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue, but also food is perhaps the most important development issue, if not global issue, of our time, ... Other boxes include the pet food market, genetically modified (GM) crops, land grabs, the financialisation of food,. African bean sauces ...

  4. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  5. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share ... of the Method used to Measure Arsenic in Foods Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Arsenic, ...

  6. Food perception and food liking with age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.

    2006-01-01

    The elderly population is rapidly growing worldwide. In sensory and nutrition research, age-associated losses in sensory function are believed to change the perception of food, to decrease food liking and consequently to decrease food intake of the elderly, although data in support of this line of

  7. Food irradiation: Its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste for nutrient recovery and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Ifeolu; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Pellechia, Perry J; Darko, Samuel A; Ro, Kyoung S; Berge, Nicole D

    2017-11-01

    Food waste represents a rather large and currently underutilized source of potentially available and reusable nutrients. Laboratory-scale experiments evaluating the hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes collected from restaurants were conducted to understand how changes in feedstock composition and carbonization process conditions influence primary and secondary nutrient fate. Results from this work indicate that at all evaluated reaction times and temperatures, the majority of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium remain integrated within the solid-phase, while the majority of potassium and sodium reside in the liquid-phase. The fate of phosphorus is dependent on reaction times and temperatures, with solid-phase integration increasing with higher reaction temperature and longer time. A series of leaching experiments to determine potential solid-phase nutrient availability were also conducted and indicate that, at least in the short term, nitrogen release from the solids is small, while almost all of the phosphorus present in the solids produced from carbonizing at 225 and 250°C is released. At a reaction temperature of 275°C, smaller fractions of the solid-phase total phosphorus are released as reaction times increase, likely due to increased solids incorporation. Using these data, it is estimated that up to 0.96% and 2.30% of nitrogen and phosphorus-based fertilizers, respectively, in the US can be replaced by the nutrients integrated within hydrochar and liquid-phases generated from the carbonization of currently landfilled food wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The food we eat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the 'food we eat' includes a suggestion that food irradiation may prove invaluable to the future food industry. The use of food irradiation to inactivate or destroy micro-organisms is described - irradiation would not be used on all foods, it would complement existing methods of reducing contamination by micro-organisms. The chemical changes in spoiled food and chemical additives are also discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government.

  11. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  12. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  13. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  14. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  15. Agrofuels Production and its Relation with Food Security and Food Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vargas Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental  human  rights  protagonism  such  as  side  for  recognizing  and  developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.

  16. Food nanotechnology: water is the key to lowering the energy density of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A A

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar to a celery stalk using self-assembled, water-filled, edible nanocells or nanotubes would substantially lower its energy density (Food technologists could harness the natural turgor force to produce a firm chocolate bar, biscuit or breakfast cereal with a good bite, without altering the appearance or taste of the product. Water carries flavour with few calories, and taste sensation per mouthful could be improved by processing food on the nanoscale to increase the surface area that is in contact with taste and smell receptors. The bioavailable nutrient content (including cofactors) of processed foods could be increased by existing bioactive nanoencapsulation. This would allow people to continue to consume modern convenience food on a mass scale, while simultaneously and significantly increasing nutrient intake and reducing energy intake per day. Thus, helping to reduce mental ill health, obesity and other postprandial insults.

  17. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  18. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  20. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  1. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  2. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  3. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  4. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  5. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  6. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  7. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  8. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  9. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  10. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  11. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  12. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM...... Panel evaluated 43 419 analytical results from food commodities. AA was found at the highest levels in solid coffee substitutes and coffee, and in potato fried products. Mean and 95th percentile dietary AA exposures across surveys and age groups were estimated at 0.4 to 1.9 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) per...

  13. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  14. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  15. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  16. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  17. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  18. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  19. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  20. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  1. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  2. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  3. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han; Yingting Yan; Yiwen Shi; Jingjing Gu; Junhong Tang; Hongting Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35?g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen prod...

  4. Assessment of radionuclide contents in food in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Baseline values of concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra/ 232 Th, 210 Pb) and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co) in food and drinks (tap water, milk, and water-based drinks) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. All food and drinks were found to contain detectable 40 K contents: 0.1 to 160 Bq Kg -1 for food and 0.006 to 61 Bq L -1 for drinks. Most of the other natural radionuclides in solid food were found to have contents below the minimum detectable activities (MDA). More samples in the leafy vegetable, tomato, carrot and potato categories contained detectable amounts of 228 Ra than the meat, cereal, and fish categories, with concentrations up to 1.2 Bq kg -1 for the former categories and 0.35 Bq kg -1 for the latter categories. The 238 U and 226 Ra radionuclides were detectable in most of the water-based drink samples, and the 228 Ra and 210 Pb radionuclides were detectable in fewer water-based drink samples. The 137 Cs contents in solid food were detectable in most of the solid food samples (reaching 0.59 Bq kg -1 ), but in drinks the 137 Cs contents were very low and normally lower than the MDA values. Nearly all the 60 Co contents in food and drinks were below the MDA values and their contents were below those of 137 Cs

  5. Concentration of bisphenol A in highly consumed canned foods on the U.S. market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Gregory O; Ackerman, Luke K; Begley, Timothy H

    2011-07-13

    Metal food and drink cans are commonly coated with epoxy films made from phenolic polymers produced from bisphenol A (BPA). It is well established that residual BPA monomer migrates into can contents during processing and storage. While a number of studies have reported BPA concentrations in foods from foreign markets and specialty foods on the U.S. market, very few peer-reviewed data for the BPA concentrations in canned food from the U.S. market were available. This study quantified BPA concentrations in 78 canned and two frozen food products from the U.S. market using an adaptation of a previously reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The tested products represented 16 different food types that are from the can food classifications that constitute approximately 65% of U.S. canned food sales and canned food consumption. BPA was detected in 71 of the 78 canned food samples but was not detected in either of the two frozen food samples. Detectable BPA concentrations across all foods ranged from 2.6 to 730 ng/g. Large variations in BPA concentrations were found between different products of the same food type and between different lots of the same product. Given the large concentration ranges, the only distinguishable trend was that fruits and tuna showed the lowest BPA concentrations. Experiments with fortified frozen vegetables and brine solutions, as well as higher BPA concentrations in canned food solids over liquid portions, clearly indicated that BPA partitions into the solid portion of foods.

  6. Food, physiology and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

    2013-12-05

    Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  9. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  10. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  11. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  12. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  13. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its influ...

  14. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  15. Association between food insecurity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Melissa Luciana de; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes Filho, José Divino; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2018-03-28

    We aim to identify the prevalence of food insecurity and to ascertain the association between food insecurity and food intake. A cross-sectional survey. The study included users of a primary healthcare service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2013 to 2014. Socioeconomic, health, and food intake data were gathered using a questionnaire and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Individuals 20 years old or older (n = 2817). The prevalence of food insecurity among families with individuals under 18 years was 41.0%, and 26.4% in other households. After adjusting for potential confounders, the households in food insecurity with members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.70, 95%IC: 0.58-0.84), and fruits (RP = 0.74, 95%IC: 0.59-0.93) was lower; and consumption of beans was higher (RP = 1.49, 95%IC: 1.06-2.09) compared to those with food security. In households without members under 18 years old, the consumption of fruits and vegetables (RP = 0.68, 95%IC: 0.58-0.79), fruits (RP = 0.61, 95%IC: 0.50-0.74), and beans (RP = 0.78, 95%IC: 0.63-0.97) was lower; and the consumption of tubers (RP = 1.36, 95%IC: 1.03-1.79) was higher. However, the state of food insecurity did not affect the consumption of ultra-processed foods, independently of age, sex, marital status, educational level, and employed status. Food insecurity negatively affected the fruit and vegetable consumption in both types of families tested. The consumption of beans was higher in households with children and adolescents, and the consumption of tubers was higher in households without children and adolescents. However, food insecurity did not change the intake of ultraprocessed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  17. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  18. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates......, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity......, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than...

  19. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  20. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  1. Mood, food, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Th...

  2. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  3. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  4. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  5. Determinants of Food Heritage towards Food Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilah Md Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on traditional food and food products towards identity have been carried out, but there is insufficient study relating to heritage context. In exploring this issue, conceptual frameworks have developed and examined the relationship between the determinants of food heritage and food identity. A total of 898 self-administered questionnaires were collected from the public in Klang Valley area, Malaysia and using statistical analysis using partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM from PLS 3 software to established the validity and reliability of the model as well as the relationship between the two factors. Results revealed that there are eight construct determinants of food heritage and one construct of food identity that represent the conceptual model, and there is a moderate relationship between the two variables.

  6. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  7. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  8. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  9. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  10. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K

    1990-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  12. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  13. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  14. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  15. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  16. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  17. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  18. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  19. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  20. Home food environment factors associated with the presence of fruit and vegetables at dinner: A direct observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists about the factors influencing the foods available at family meals. This study examines the home food environment factors contributing to the presence of fruit and vegetables at family meals. Home food inventory (HFI) and survey data were collected from low-income, minority families (n = 120) with children 6-12 years old. Observations from video-recorded family dinner meals, totaling 800 videos, were used to measure the frequency at which fruit and vegetables were served. Multiple regression was used to investigate how the fruit and vegetables in the HFI and other home food environment factors were related to the number of days fruit and vegetables were served at dinner during the observation period. Availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home were each found to be significantly associated with the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners. Of the fruit and vegetable categories (i.e., fresh, canned, or frozen), having fresh fruit and vegetables available in the home was found to be most strongly associated with serving fruit and vegetables at dinner, respectively. Higher parent intake of vegetables was associated with the presence of vegetables at dinners, and parent meal planning was associated with the presence of fruit at dinners. Increasing the availability and accessibility of fresh fruit and vegetables in the home may be an effective approach to increasing the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners, especially among low-income, minority households. It is also essential to understand why families are not using all fruits and vegetables (e.g., canned and frozen) available in the home for family meals. Family meals are a place to promote the increased presence of both fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.