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Sample records for solid fiber z-pinch

  1. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  2. Instability heating of solid-fiber Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.A. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Los Alamos High Density Z Pinch-II (HDZP-II) facility is used to study the dynamics of z-pinch plasmas generated from solid fibers of deuterated polyethylene CD 2 with a range in radii of 3--60 μm. HDZP-II is a pulsed-power generator that delivers a current that rises to 700 kA in 100 ns through an inductive load. A multiframe circular schlieren records the evolution of the shape and size of the plasma on seven images taken at 10-ns intervals. These circular-schlieren images show very strong m=0 instability at the onset of current and a rapid radial expansion of the plasma. No higher-order instabilities are observed. An interferometer is used to infer the electron density and electron line density, giving a measure of the fraction of plasma contained within the outline of the circular-schlieren image at one time during the multiframe sequence. A three-channel x-ray crystal-reflection spectrometer provides the time-resolved, spatially-averaged electron temperature. The magnitude of the x-ray emission at these energies also gives qualitative information about the electron temperature and density at late times. A lower bound on the ion temperature is inferred from the particle pressure needed to balance the magnetic field pressure. The ion temperature rose above that of the electrons, strongly suggesting an additional heating term that puts energy directly into the ions. An ion heating term is proposed to explain the observed rapid radial expansion and elevated ion temperatures. This heating term is based on the assumption that the observed m=0 instabilities reconnect, enclosing magnetic flux which degenerates into turbulence in the plasma. A 0-D simulation is developed to investigate the relevance of different physical models to the data presented

  3. Instability heating of solid-fiber Z pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Jr., Ronald Alan [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The Los Alamos High Density Z Pinch-II (HDZP-II) facility is used to study the dynamics of z-pinch plasmas generated from solid fibers of deuterated polyethylene CD2 with a range in radii of 3--60 μm. HDZP-II is a pulsed-power generator that delivers a current that rises to 700 kA in 100 ns through an inductive load. A multiframe circular schlieren records the evolution of the shape and size of the plasma on seven images taken at 10-ns intervals. These circular-schlieren images show very strong m=0 instability at the onset of current and a rapid radial expansion of the plasma. No higher-order instabilities are observed. An interferometer is used to infer the electron density and electron line density, giving a measure of the fraction of plasma contained within the outline of the circular-schlieren image at one time during the multiframe sequence. A three-channel x-ray crystal-reflection spectrometer provides the time-resolved, spatially-averaged electron temperature. The magnitude of the x-ray emission at these energies also gives qualitative information about the electron temperature and density at late times. A lower bound on the ion temperature is inferred from the particle pressure needed to balance the magnetic field pressure. The ion temperature rose above that of the electrons, strongly suggesting an additional heating term that puts energy directly into the ions. An ion heating term is proposed to explain the observed rapid radial expansion and elevated ion temperatures. This heating term is based on the assumption that the observed m=0 instabilities reconnect, enclosing magnetic flux which degenerates into turbulence in the plasma. A 0-D simulation is developed to investigate the relevance of different physical models to the data presented.

  4. Plasma dynamics studies on the Los Alamos Solid Fiber Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.A.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos High Density Z Pinch-II (HDZP-II) experiments is being used to study the dynamics of z-pinch plasmas generated from thin solid fibers of deuterated polyethylene (CD 2 ). A model has been developed which incorporates anomalous heating due to instability-generated turbulence. HDZP-II uses a pulsed-power generator that delivers a current of up to 1 MA with a 100 ns rise-time through an inductive load. The surface of the solid fiber, with a 5-cm length and 3-50μm radius, immediately ionizes and rapidly expands in radius. As the plasma is heated, more and more of the fiber is ablated until the entire fiber is ionized. The fully ionized fiber continues to expand radially. Diagnostics include a multi-frame shadowgraph, a three channel X-ray crystal reflection monochromometer, a single frame point-diffraction interferometer, neutron detectors, and generator monitors. The shadowgraph provides the plasma shape in seven frames taken at 10-ns intervals. This has shown very strong m=0 instability at the onset of current, even for small pre-pulse currents. The interferometer provides the plasma line density and, assuming cylindrical symmetry, the electron density. This is used to open-quotes calibrateclose quotes how much of the plasma is contained in the shape given by the shadowgraphs. The author have chosen a small enough aperture to have most of the plasma in the shadowgraph. The X-ray monochromometer provides the electron temperature as a function of time. The temperature generally rises to 90 eV at 40 ns into the current and remains very flat until near the end of the current ramp. The results from these diagnostics and their bearing on anomalous turbulent heating will be presented

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehey, P.T.

    1994-02-01

    Solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments are numerically simulated using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, which includes many important experimental details, such as ''cold-start'' initial conditions, thermal conduction, radiative energy loss, actual discharge current vs. time, and grids of sufficient size and resolution to allow realistic development of the plasma. The alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique used meets the substantial demands presented by such a computational task. Simulations of fiber-initiated experiments show that when the fiber becomes fully ionized rapidly developing m=0 instabilities, which originated in the coronal plasma generated from the ablating fiber, drive intense non-uniform heating and rapid expansion of the plasma column. The possibility that inclusion of additional physical effects would improve stability is explored. Finite-Larmor-radius-ordered Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms in the magnetic field evolution equation, corresponding energy equation terms, and separate ion and electron energy equations are included; these do not change the basic results. Model diagnostics, such as shadowgrams and interferograms, generated from simulation results, are in good agreement with experiment. Two alternative experimental approaches are explored: high-current magnetic implosion of hollow cylindrical deuterium shells, and ''plasma-on-wire'' (POW) implosion of low-density plasma onto a central deuterium fiber. By minimizing instability problems, these techniques may allow attainment of higher temperatures and densities than possible with bare fiber-initiated Z-pinches. Conditions for significant D-D or D-T fusion neutron production may be realizable with these implosion-based approaches

  6. Fiber Z-pinch experiments and calculations in the finite Larmor radius regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Dangor, A.E.; Coppins, M.

    1996-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch project at Imperial College is aimed at achieving radiative collapse to high density in a hydrogen plasma, and also to study plasmas close to controlled fusion conditions. To this end, the MAGPIE generator (2.4 MV, 1.25 Ω, and 200 ns) has been built and tested, and is now giving preliminary experimental data at 60% of full voltage for carbon and CD 2 fibers. These discharges are characterized by an initial radial expansion followed by the occurrence of m = 0 structures with transient X-ray emission from bright spots. Late in the discharge a disruption can occur, accompanied by hard X-ray emission from the anode due to an energetic electron beam and, in the case of CD 2 fibers, a neutron burst. Concomitant theoretical studies have solved the linear stability problem for a Z-pinch with large ion Larmor radii, showing that a reduction in growth rate of m = 0 and m = 1 modes to about 20% of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) value can occur for a parabolic density profile when the Larmor radius is optimally 20% of the pinch radius. Two-dimensional MHD simulations of Z-pinches in two extremes of focussed short-pulse laser-plasma interactions and of galactic jets reveal a nonlinear stabilizing effect in the presence of sheared flow. One-dimensional simulations show that at low line density the lower hybrid drift instability can lead to coronal radial expansion of a Z-pinch plasma. (Author)

  7. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  8. Plasma-erosion-enhanced neutron emission in fiber-generated dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Colombant, D.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in which dense z-pinches are created from high-current discharges through frozen deuterium fibers have reported neutron yields far in excess of those expected from thermal processes. A simple analysis based on pinch collapse due to the sausage instability has successfully predicted the relative variation of neutron yield with discharge current, but model assumptions precluded prediction of absolute values of the yield. A pinch-collapse model derived from a 2-dimensional, nonlinear treatment of the sausage instability, combined with space-charged-limited (SCL) ion orbital dynamic for the vacuum region above the pinches and between the expanding flares, leads to neutron yields four or more orders-of-magnitude below experimental values. Here, the same pinch-collapse model is used in conjunction with a low-density plasma background above the collapsing pinches. Ions are accelerated across the space-charge sheath separating the background plasma from the flares, which electron emission from the flares is strongly insulated by the z-discharge magnetic field. The sheath gap increases in time, i.e., the background plasma erodes, at a rate determined by its density and the SCL ion current density which, in turn, depends on the z-discharge dynamics and the associated induced electromagnetic fields. A model incorporating the above processes is used to determine the accelerated ion energy spectrum and associated neutron yield as functions of the discharge, instability, and background parameters

  9. Neutron emission generated during wire array Z-pinch implosion onto deuterated fiber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Ananev, S.S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kazakov, E.D.; Korolev, V. D.; Meshcherov, B.R.; Ustroev, G. I.; Juha, Libor; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2008), 32701/1-32701/13 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fusion plasmas * d-d reaction * neutron yield * Z pinch * high-current discharges Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008

  10. Neutron and soft X-ray emission from wire array Z-pinch imploding onto deuterated fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.

    2005-01-01

    The implosion of a wire array Z-pinch onto a deuterated fiber was studied. The peak power of soft X-rays exceeded 200 GW and the total emitted energy was 2-8 kJ. The radiation was close to the radiation of the blackbody with the temperature of 40 eV. The neutron yield from the D-D reaction reached 2x10 8 per shot. The mean energy of neutrons determined in the axial direction was shifted from 2.45 MeV towards higher energies [ru

  11. A high impedance mega-ampere generator for fiber z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.H.; Bayley, J.M.; Chittenden, J.P.; Worley, J.F.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.; Choi, P.

    1996-01-01

    At Imperial College a mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments has been designed, built, and commissioned. With a final line impedance of 1.25 Ω this terawatt class generator has been designed primarily to drive a maximum current of 1.8 MA with a rise time of 150 ns into high inductance z-pinch loads of interest to radiative collapse studies. This article describes the design and tests of the generator which has a novel configuration of lines and a new design of a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). In summary, the generator consists of four Marx generators each of the Hermes III type (2.4 MV, 84 kJ), each connected to 5 Ω pulse forming lines and trigatron gas switches. The power is fed into the matched 1.25 Ω vertical transfer line which feeds a diode stack and a short conical MITL in vacuum which concentrates the power into the z-pinch load. At 80% charge a current rising to 1.4 MA in 150 ns has been measured in a 15 nH inductive short. Similar results are obtained when using a plasma load. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Compression of an Applied Bz field by a z-pinch onto a Tamped DT Fiber for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Simulations of a z-pinch compressing an applied 100 kG Bz field onto an on-axis DT fiber tamped with beryllium show the field reaching over 100 MG in the tamp, sufficient to confine DT alpha particles and to form a thermal barrier. The barrier allows the DT plasma to burn at a rho*r value as low as 0.045 g/cm^2, and at temperatures over 50 keV for a 63 MA drive current. Driving currents between 21 and 63 MA are considered with cryogenic DT fiber diameters between 600 μm and 1.6 mm. Pinch implosion times are 120 ns with a peak implosion velocity of 35 cm/μs. 1D simulations are of a foil pinch, but for improved stability we propose a nested wire-array. Simulated fusion yields with this system scale as the sixth power of the current, with burn fractions scaling as the fourth power of the current. At 63 MA the simulated yield is 521 MJ from 4.2 mg/cm of DT with a 37% burn fraction at a rho*r of only 0.18 g/cm^2.

  13. Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan'kov, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches and dense Z-pinches are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the physics of sausage instability development. Theoretical questions are discussed in more detail that the experimental ones, recent works - to a fuller extent than the fundamental pioneer ones which are included in the textbooks. The Soviet works are given a greater coverage as compared to the foreign ones. An emphasis is made on the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion

  14. Dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlachter, J.S.; Hammel, J.E.; Scudder, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Early researchers recogniZed the desirable features of the linear Z-pinch configuration as a magnetic fusion scheme. In particular, a Z-pinch reactor might not require auxiliary heating or external field coils, and could constitute an uncomplicated, high plasma β geometry. The simple Z pinch, however, exhibited gross MHD instabilities that disrupted the plasma, and the linear Z pinch was abandoned in favor of more stable configurations. Recent advances in pulsed-power technology and an appreciation of the dynamic behavior of an ohmically heated Z pinch have led to a reexamination of the Z pinch as a workable fusion concept

  15. Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan'kov, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    Although pinches, unlike tokamaks, have not occupied a central position in fusion research, their structural simplicity and the wealth of physical processes associated with plasma foci have maintained a steady interest. The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches, and dense Z-pinches, is reviewed. Attention is focused on theoretical as opposed to experimental questions, and on recent work rather than the basic results now found in textbooks. Finally, Soviet work is discussed more fully than work done abroad, and applications to controlled fusion are emphasized

  16. Fusion with Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    1998-06-01

    In the past thirty-six months, great progress has been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA-II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have the potential to drive high-yield ICF reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. In this paper, the recent technical progress with Z-pinches will be described, and a technical strategy for achieving high-yield ICF with z-pinches will be presented

  17. The Magpie dense z-pinch project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a design study on the Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE), a project currently under construction at Imperial College London, to study radiative collapse of a dense Z-pinch plasma created from a 20 um diameter cryogenic hydrogen fiber. The 2 TW generator is composed of four individual 2.4 MV Marx banks of the HERMES III type design with a maximum stored energy of 336 kJ. They drive four 5 ohm Pulse Forming Lines which are combined into a single 1.25 MA in 150 ns to a 150 nH load

  18. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  19. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPIELMAN, RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999

  20. The Physics of Fast Z Pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH

    1999-10-25

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.

  1. The physics of fast Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D.D.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizes the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z-pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 52 figures and nearly 300 references

  2. D-D fusion experiments using fast z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1994-01-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides us with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I 2 and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast ( 2 fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia's Saturn facility generating up to 3 x 10 12 D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, we intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices

  3. D-D fusion experiments using fast Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1998-03-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides the authors with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I 2 and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast ( 2 fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia's Saturn facility generating up to 3 x 10 12 D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, the authors intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices

  4. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-07-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility.

  5. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility

  6. Radiation hydrodynamics of z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the years there has been a sustained interest in and fascination with Z-pinch plasmas. Whether the interest is in radiation source development, fusion plasmas, or basic research there exits an extensive bibliography of literature promulgating and perpetuating a variety of claims regarding the performance of Z-pinch plasmas. In this paper an attempt will be made to present a coherent picture of the documented and commonly held views for a class of Z-pinch plasmas concerned primarily with soft x-ray radiation source development. Many of the issues and findings are common to Z-pinch plasmas in general but the attention here will be focused on gas puffs and multiple wire arrays. The role and importance of radiation on the dynamics and the interplay between the radiation and the dynamics will also be presented and discussed. A number of comparisons with experimental results will be made with 0-, 1-, and 2-D numerical simulations for several pulsed power drivers ranging in current from several mega-amps to 10's of mega-amps for a variety of risetimes and load materials

  7. Plasma focus - dense Z pinch and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    1986-02-01

    ''Workshop on the possibility of Z-pinch as a intense pulse light source'' in 1983 and ''Research meeting on plasma focus and Z-pinch'' in 1984 were held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University under a collaborating research program. Research activities reported at the meetings on plasma focus, dense Z-pinch, and related phenomena are summerized. (author)

  8. History of the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovberg, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The plasma Z-Pinch occupies a unique position in the history of controlled fusion research as the first confinement and heating scheme to be tried experimentally. In contrast to the sophistication of programs being conducted today, in which extensive theoretical and experimental forces are in close collaboration, early pinch experiments were designed on quite elementary theoretical grounds. Indeed, these systems and the results from them provided the focus for much of the rapid development of theoretical plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics during the 1950's. In comparison to present programs, these early experiments had the considerable advantage of small size and minimal managerial encumbrance. After nearly three decades of abandonment because of difficulties with MHD instabilities, the Z-pinch is arising once again in a new incarnation characterized by microscopic size and time scales, and very high density. Uniquely in the history of the pinch, the new experimental surprises seem encouraging, rather than discouraging, to the goal of thermonuclear fusion

  9. ZAPP: Z-pinch atomic physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, K.

    1983-01-01

    High-density and high-temperature plasmas have been produced in a z-pinch with a hollow gas puff. A number of interesting atomic-physics phenomena occur in these plasmas and some of these phenomena provide important diagnostic information for characterizing the plasmas. We have been interested in collisions of high-energy electrons with highly stripped ions in these plasmas. Such collisions may produce a population inversion which could result in stimulated emission in the x-ray regime

  10. Stabilization of long wavelength sausage and kink modes of a Z-pinch by nonlinear radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Karlson, E.T.; Liberman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments with fiber-initiated dense Z-pinches, with compressional and gas-embedded Z-pinches, with imploding gas-puff Z-pinches and the straight Extrap configuration performed in the last decade demonstrated sufficiently improved stability of Z-pinch configurations. The striking stability with respect to the sausage modes can be explained, in principle, by ideal MHD theory as well as by finite plasma conductivity effects. The global kink mode can not be stabilized by the appropriate choice of the unperturbed profiles neither within the scope of the ideal MHD nor taking into account finite ion Larmor radius and viscous damping effects. In this report we shall demonstrate that stabilization of the global kink modes can be explained by the assumption that pinch is not in a stationary but in a dynamic equilibrium. (author) 12 refs., 2 figs

  11. Electron temperature measurement in Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.; Orlov, M.M.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of temperature of emitting plasma sheath in noncylindrical Z-pinch in neon at the stage of convergence to the axis, based on comparing the intensity of spectral lines belonging to Ne1, Ne2, is performed. Line intensity relation dependence was determined using calculations according to emitting-collision model. Spectra were recorded by electron-optical converter and relative intensity was determined by subsequent photometry of photolayer. Cylindric symmetrical MHD-calculations during which temperature and the observed line intensity relation were determined, are conducted

  12. The stability of the High-Density Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m = 0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler. 14 refs., 8 figs

  13. The stability of the high-density z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m=0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler

  14. The fabrication techniques of Z-pinch targets. Techniques of fabricating self-adapted Z-pinch wire-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Longhui; Wei Yun; Liu Debin; Sun Zuoke; Yuan Yuping

    2002-01-01

    In order to fabricate wire arrays for use in the Z-pinch physical experiments, the fabrication techniques are investigated as follow: Thickness of about 1-1.5 μm of gold is electroplated on the surface of ultra-fine tungsten wires. Fibers of deuterated-polystyrene (DPS) with diameters from 30 to 100 microns are made from molten DPS. And two kinds of planar wire-arrays and four types of annular wire-arrays are designed, which are able to adapt to the variation of the distance between the cathode and anode inside the target chamber. Furthermore, wire-arrays with diameters form 5-24 μm are fabricated with tungsten wires, respectively. The on-site test shows that the wire-arrays can self-adapt to the distance changes perfectly

  15. Deuterated fibre Z-pinch on the S-300 generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Bakshaev, Yu L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Danko, S. A.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Ivanov, M. I.; Cai, Hongchun

    2006-01-01

    Dense Z-pinch experiments were carried out on the S-300 generator (3.5 MA, 100 ns, 0.15 Omega) at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. The experiments were performed at a peak current of 2 MA with a rise time of about 100 ns. The Z-pinch was formed from a deuterated polyethylene fibre of 100 mu m

  16. Z-pinch driven fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Olson, Craig L.; Rochau, Gary E.; Dezon, Mark S.; Peterson, P.F.; Degroot, J.S.; Jensen, N.; Miller, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the most powerful multi-module synchronized pulsed-power accelerator in the world. Rapid development of z-pinch loads on Z has led to outstanding progress in the last few years, resulting in radiative powers of up to 280 TW in 4 ns and a total radiated x-ray energy of 1.8 MJ. The present goal is to demonstrate single-shot, high-yield fusion capsules. Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology, which should be well suited for Inertial Fusion Energy, but a rep-rated capability is needed. Recent developments have led to a viable conceptual approach for a rep-rated z-pinch power plant for IFE. This concept exploits the advantages of going to high yield (a few GJ) at low rep-rate (approximately 0.1 Hz), and using a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to provide the necessary standoff between the fusion target and the power plant chamber. In this approach, a portion of the transmission line near the capsule is replaced after each shot. The RTL should be constructed of materials that can easily be separated from the liquid coolant stream and refabricated for a subsequent shots. One possibility is that most of the RTL is formed by casting FLiBe, a salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium, which is an attractive choice for the reactor coolant, with chemically compatible lead or tin on the surface to provide conductivity. The authors estimate that fusion yields greater than 1 GJ will be required for efficient generation of electricity. Calculations indicate that the first wall will have an acceptable lifetime with these high yields if blast mitigation techniques are used. Furthermore, yields above 5 GJ may allow the use of a compact blanket direct conversion scheme

  17. On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.

  18. The physics of the high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Hammel, J.E.; Lewis, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fiber-initiated High-Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) is a novel concept in which fusion plasma could be produced by applying 2 MV along a thin filament of frozen deuterium, 20-30 μm in diameter, 5-10 cm long. The megamp-range currents that result would ohmically heat the fiber to fusion temperatures in 100 ns while maintaining nearly constant radius. The plasma pressure would be held stably by the self-magnetic field for many radial sound transit times during the current-rise phase while, in the case of D-T, a significant fraction of the fiber undergoes thermonuclear fusion. This paper presents results of Los Alamos HDZP studies. Existing and new experiments are described. A succession of theoretical studies, including 1D self-similar and numerical studies of the hot plasma phase, 1D and 2D numerical studies of the cold startup phase, and 3D numerical studies of stability in the hot regime, are then presented. 9 refs., 4 figs

  19. Electrostatic turbulence in the Z pinch corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The microstability of electrostatic waves in the periphery of a Z pinch is formulated and resolved for a new class of Vlasov meta-equilibria admitting self-similar solutions in the electron gyrokinetic limit. These equilibria are subject to strong radial motions, and a mild deviation from charge neutrality arises to maintain ion acceleration close to that of the magnetized electrons. A unique class of profiles in density, axial current, temperature, and drift speed defines these equilibria. They are characterized by (i) the interior pinch current, (ii) the interior number density, (iii) the parallel and perpendicular temperatures, (iv) the exterior axial electric field value at the initial time, and (v) the radial ion acceleration relative to that of the electrons. Unstable ion sound waves arise in this medium by coupling radial and axial free energy to azimuthal longitudinal oscillations. The waves grow only for a limited range of radial or axial Exb/B drift speeds and electron temperatures. The growth rate, which can be as large as 0.115ω pi , is found to scale proportional to plasma frequency over the density range from 10 12 to 10 18 ions cm -3

  20. Progress on z-pinch inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.; Rochau, G.; Matzen, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented. (author)

  1. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.

    2005-01-01

    The results from the ZaP experiment are consistent with the theoretical predictions of sheared flow stabilization. Z pinches with a sheared flow are generated in the ZaP experiment using a coaxial accelerator coupled to an assembly region. The current sheet in the accelerator initially acts as a snowplow. As the Z pinch forms, plasma formation in the accelerator transits to a deflagration process. The plasma exits the accelerator and maintains the flow in the Z pinch. During the quiescent period in the magnetic mode activity at z=0 cm, a stable Z pinch is seen on the axis of the assembly region. The evolution of the axial velocity profile shows a large velocity shear is measured at the edge of the Z pinch during the quiescent period. The velocity shear is above the theoretical threshold. As the velocity shear decreases towards 0.1kV A , the predicted stability threshold, the quiescent period ends. The present understanding of the ZaP experiment shows that it may be possible for the Z pinch to operate in a steady state if the deflagration process can be maintained by constantly supplying neutral gas or plasma to the accelerator

  2. Measurement of emission diameter as a function of time on foam z- pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazier, S.E.; Barber, T.L.; Derzon, M.S.; Kellogg, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a streaked imaging capability to make time-resolved measurements of the emission size for low density foam z-pinches. By lens coupling visible emission from the z-pinch target to an array of fiber optics we obtained the emission profile in the visible as a function of time with radial resolution of 300 μm. To measure the emission at temperatures greater than ∼40 eV the source was slit-imaged or pin-hole imaged onto an x-ray filtered scintillator. Non-uniformities in both visible and x-ray emission were observed. We describe the diagnostics, the image unfold process, and results from the instrument for both visible and x-ray measurements

  3. Ramp discharge in Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)

  4. Design of the PST: A Diagnostic for 1-D Imaging of Fast Z-Pinch Power Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, Gregory A.; Derzon, Mark S.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Lazier, Steven Earl

    2000-01-01

    Fast Z-pinch technology developed on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories can produce up to 230 TW of thermal x-ray power for applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and weapons physics experiments. During implosion, these Z-pinches develop Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities which are very difficult to diagnose and which functionally diminish the overall pinch quality. The Power-Space-Time (PST) instrument is a newly configured diagnostic for measuring the pinch power as a function of both space and time in a Z-pinch. Placing the diagnostic at 90 degrees from the Z-pinch axis, the PST provides a new capability in collecting experimental data on R-T characteristics for making meaningful comparisons to magneto-hydrodynamic computer models. This paper is a summary of the PST diagnostic design. By slit-imaging the Z-pinch x-ray emissions onto a linear scintillator/fiber-optic array coupled to a streak camera system, the PST can achieve ∼100 microm spatial resolution and ∼1.3 ns time resolution. Calculations indicate that a 20 microm thick scintillating detection element filtered by 1,000 angstrom of Al is theoretically linear in response to Plankian x-ray distributions corresponding to plasma temperatures from 40 eV to 150 eV, By calibrating this detection element to x-ray energies up to 5,000 eV, the PST can provide pinch power as a function of height and time in a Z-pinch for temperatures ranging from ∼40 eV to ∼400 eV. With these system pm-meters, the PST can provide data for an experimental determination of the R-T mode number, amplitude, and growth rate during the late-time pinch implosion

  5. Cryogenic deuterium Z-pinch and wire array Z-pinch studies at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Beg, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    Z-pinch experiments using cryogenic deuterium fibre loads have been carried out on the MAGPIE generator at currents up to 1.4MA. M=0 instabilities in the corona caused plasma expansion and disruption before the plasma could enter the collisionless Large ion Larmor radius regime. For the last 12 months we have studied Aluminium wire array implosions using laser probing, optical streaks and gated X-ray images. Plasma from the wires in accelerated to the axis as radial plasma streams with uncorrelated m=0 instabilities superimposed. Later in the discharge a global Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability develops. Single and double aluminium and tungsten wire shots were conducted at 150kA. 2-D and 3-D simulations and a heuristic model of wire arrays will be presented along with theories on the combined MHD/R-T instability and sheared axial flow generation by large ion Larmor radius effects. (author)

  6. Cryogenic deuterium Z-pinch and wire array Z-pinch studies at imperial college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Beg, F.N.

    1999-01-01

    Z-pinch experiments using cryogenic deuterium fibre loads have been carried out on the MAGPIE generator at currents up to 1.4MA. M=0 instabilities in the corona caused plasma expansion and disruption before the plasma could enter the collisionless Large ion Larmor radius regime. For the last 12 months we have studied Aluminium wire array implosions using laser probing, optical streaks and gated X-ray images. Plasma from the wires in accelerated to the axis as radial plasma streams with uncorrelated m=0 instabilities superimposed. Later in the discharge a global Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability develops. Single and double aluminium and tungsten wire shots were conducted at 150kA. 2-D and 3-D simulations and a heuristic model of wire arrays will be presented along with theories on the combined MHD/R-T instability and sheared axial flow generation by large ion Larmor radius effects. (author)

  7. The dense Z-pinch project at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Dangor, A.E.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Coppins, M.; Chittenden, J.P.; Culverwell, I.D.; Bayley, J.; Power, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Science and Engineering Research Council has recently awarded a grant of over L0.8M to build a large new Z-pinch driven by a high voltage pulsed power generator. The generator will be 4 Marx generators in parallel which together will supply up to 2MA at 2.85MV for 200ns. When the load is a frozen fibre of hydrogen, it is predicted that radiative collapse above the Pease-Bragniskii current will lead to ultra high density (10 4 x solid density) at 10 to 20 KeV temperature. Deuterium-tritium fibres would lead to conditions close to thermonuclear breakeven. Scaled experiments at lower currents reveal anomalous stability due to finite Larmor radius effects in one case or to a low magnetic Lundquist number in another. The theory of stability has been extensively studied in many regimes, and it is found the ideal MHD occupies a small fraction of parameter space. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Ouart, Nicholas D.; LePell, Paul David; Safronova, Alla S.; Shrestha, I.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jones, B.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Yilmaz, M. Faith; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher; Pokala, S.; Nalajala, V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.

  9. Mechanism of neutron generation in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    The review of experimental and theoretical investigations in a mechanism of neutron generation in Z-pinches is presented. Special attention is paid to the thermonuclear mechanism of neutron generation occuring due to the formation of high-temperature plasma regions in Z-pinch sausage-type instabilities. This mechanism is shown to be predominant in charges with the neutron yield more than 10 9 per a charge. Experimental data, which are considered to be contradicting to thermonuclear nature of neutron radiation, are explained

  10. Numerical investigations of Z-pinch plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yaoyong; Guo Yonghui; Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional, radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the simulation of Z-pinch plasma sausage instability. Different implosion mechanisms in the cases of the existence and the non-existence of instability are analyzed, and the effects of various initial density perturbation levels on the x-ray power and energy are investigated. Numerical results show that x-ray energy output is not susceptive to sausage instabilities in a certain extent but x-ray power versus time is evidently dependent on the instabilities. In addition, this paper also studies the effects of numerical treatment of extreme low density in Z-pinch simulations on numerical results

  11. High-density fusion and the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Munger, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of a Z-pinch in dense gas is investigated using numerical modeling in one and two dimensions. Hot, dense Z-pinches are calculated with n approximately 2 x 10 21 cm 3 and T = 10 keV. Relaxation by sausage instability of an unstable pinch profile to a marginally stable one is calculated along with end losses in 2 dimensions to show that, if plasma is confined for N = 50 to 200 sound transits across the radius a, pinches with length L = Na are of interest for fusion power. A conceptual, ''no-wall'' fusion reactor is discussed. (author)

  12. Flow effects on the stability of z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumlak, U.; Hartman, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of an axial flow on the m = 1 kink instability in z-pinches is studied numerically by reducing the linearized ideal MHD equations to a one-dimensional eigenvalue equation for the radial displacement. The derivation of the displacement equation for equilibria with axial flows will be presented. A diffuse z-pinch equilibrium is chosen that is made marginally stable to the m = 0 sausage mode by tailoring the pressure profile. The principle result reveals that a sheared axial flow does stabilize the kink mode when the shear exceeds a threshold value. Additionally, the m = 0 sausage mode is driven from marginal stability into the stable regime which suggests that the equilibrium pressure profile control can be relaxed. Fast z-pinches such as liner implosions are plagued by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which destroys the liner and disrupts the current path before the liner arrives on axis. A sheared axial flow in a liner may quench the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the same way that it quenches MHD instabilities in a diffuse z-pinch. Simulation results will be presented showing the effect of a sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a fast liner implosion

  13. Migration of plasma points in the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the generation of a spontaneous magnetic field in Z-pinch sausage-type instability plasma and the effect of magnetic field on sausage-type instability movement. The presented evaluations of spontaneous magnetic fields and their role in the migration of plasma points are in a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. 8 refs

  14. Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.

  15. Collapse of Z-pinch necks for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan'kov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The ignition is possible under the condition of collapring z-pinch neck up to the diameter 10 -4 cm. The current pulse with duration 10 -7 s and 10 7 A must be applied to a cylinder of condensed D-T mixture in order to obtain the parameter ρr≥0.4 g/cm 2 . 22 refs

  16. On finite larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1982-12-01

    Finite Larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches is discussed. Stability criteria can be derived for a class of equilibria having constant mass and current density. The internal modes can be stabilized provided the line density not exceed a critical value of the order of 10 18 ions/m. (Author)

  17. Classical transport in a non-circular z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, G.

    1987-05-01

    A method is devised, in which particle and heat fluxes are found by solving the heat balance equation self-consistently for specified profiles. The procedure is applied to an equilibrium which corresponds to a non-circular z-pinch. (author)

  18. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  19. ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs

  20. Experimental studies of an Extrap Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies of the formation, equilibrium and stability of a linear Extrap Z-pinch are reported on. The Z-pinch discharge is generated between electrodes along the Z-axis of a linear octupole field produced by currents in four Z-directed rods. The combined discharge current and rod currents produce a magnetic field having a separatrix with four null X-points which define the corners of a square shaped region where the high beta plasma discharge is contained. Bounding the pinch discharge with a separatrix produces equilibria which are stable against global kink modes for the 50-μsec duration of the discharge which corresponds to about 100 Alfven transit times. The equilibria, with line densities of about 3 x 10 18 m - 1 , are consistent in magnitude and scaling with the Bennet relation. (Author)

  1. Seeded perturbations in wire array z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Safronova, Alla S.; Maxwell, J.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Jones, Brent Manley; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 3D structure on wire array z-pinch dynamics is a topic of current interest, and has been studied by the controlled seeding of wire perturbations. First, Al wires were etched at Sandia, creating 20% radial perturbations with variable axial wavelength. Observations of magnetic bubble formation in the etched regions during experiments on the MAGPIE accelerator are discussed and compared to 3D MHD modeling. Second, thin NaF coatings of 1 mm axial extent were deposited on Al wires and fielded on the Zebra accelerator. Little or no axial transport of the NaF spectroscopic dopant was observed in spatially resolved K-shell spectra, which places constraints on particle diffusivity in dense z-pinch plasmas. Finally, technology development for seeding perturbations is discussed

  2. On the dynamics of cylindrical z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The stationary configurations of cylindrical plasma flow in the framework of two-liquid relativistic electromagnetic gas dynamics (REMG)) and nonlinear radial oscillations of the plasma cylinder with longitudinal current in the framework of classical monoliquid MGD are considered. It is shown that at sufficiently high conductivity Z-pinch is stable relative to one-dimensional radial perturbations and its motion represents respectively nonlinear radial oscillations. In case of a rather low conductivity or low particle concentration there is in cross section a stability also in relation to the development of sausage type instability. The performed investigations of cylindrical equilibrium and radial oscillations give a qualitative representation on plasma behaviour in Z-pinch at the initial stage of it compression and expansion as well as on motion in an average plane of the developing sausage type instability

  3. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  4. Self-similar oscillations of a Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new analytic, self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics describes cylindrically symmetric plasmas conducting constant current. The solution indicates that an adiabatic Z pinch oscillates radially with a period typically of the order of a few acoustic transit times. A stability analysis, which shows the growth rate of the sausage instability to be a saturating function of wavenumber, suggests that the oscillations are observable

  5. Electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Baronova, E.O. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Numerical modelling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column and the zigzag drift current motion through the plasma have accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression and it is not related with the current break effect. (author)

  6. Optical Spectroscopy Measurements of Shock Waves Driven by Intense Z-Pinch Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.; Bernard, M.; Bailey, J.E.; Carlson, A.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Hall, C.A.; Hanson, D.; Johnston, R.; Lake, P.; Lawrence, J.

    1999-01-01

    Z-pinches created using the Z accelerator generate approximately220 TW, 1.7 MJ radiation pulses that heat large (approximately10 cm 3 ) hohlraums to 100-150 eV temperatures for times of order 10 nsec. We are performing experiments exploiting this intense radiation to drive shock waves for equation of state studies. The shock pressures are typically 1-10 Mbar with 10 nsec duration in 6-mm-diameter samples. In this paper we demonstrate the ability to perform optical spectroscopy measurements on shocked samples located in close proximity to the z-pinch. These experiments are particularly well suited to optical spectroscopy measurements because of the relatively large sample size and long duration. The optical emission is collected using fiber optics and recorded with a streaked spectrograph. Other diagnostics include VISAR and active shock breakout measurements of the shocked sample and a suite of diagnostics that characterize the radiation drive. Our near term goal is to use the spectral emission to obtain the temperature of the shocked material. Longer term objectives include the examination of deviations of the spectrum from blackbody, line emission from lower density regions, determination of kinetic processes in molecular systems, evaluation of phase transitions such as the onset of metalization in transparent materials, and characterization of the plasma formed when the shock exits the rear surface. An initial set of data illustrating both the potential and the challenge of these measurements is described

  7. The stability of Z-pinches with equilibrium flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    According to Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory the Z-pinch is an inherently unstable magnetic configuration. However it is possible that there exist regimes of operation whereby the predicted instabilities may be reduced or even eliminated. We must look to effects normally ignored in the Ideal MHD model in order to predict such regimes. In this thesis various non-ideal effects will be studied, namely the inclusion of equilibrium flow and finite Larmor radius effects. Astrophysical jets, for example those seen to be emitted from active galactic nuclei, are seen to persist for a greater time than suggested by Ideal MHD before the onset of instabilities. It is postulated that one of the contributing factors to this enhanced stability is the presence of a sheared axial flow. In this thesis we study the stability properties of the Z-pinch where flow is present in the equilibrium. It is found that a sheared axial flow generally has a stabilising effect, the degree of which is determined by the equilibrium and flow profiles, but that absolute stability cannot be achieved due to the onset of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The effect of adding rotation has also been studied. It is found that adding rotation changes the equilibrium density profiles from the static case, and that it always has a destabilising effect. Another postulated method of stabilising the Z-pinch is by increasing the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to the pinch radius, and it is seen to have a stabilising effect for some equilibria in the collisionless regime. In this thesis we study the effects of increasing the Larmor radius in the collisional regime using the Hall fluid model. It is found that for free boundary modes the stability properties are unchanged for experimentally realistic values of the Larmor radius, but for fixed boundary modes a small stabilising effect is noted for some equilibria. (author)

  8. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  9. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m{sup 2}B{sup 2}/{mu}{sub 0}{ge}0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths {lambda}/{alpha}{le}1, where {alpha} denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N''{sub max}=5x10{sup 18}m{sup -1} is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10{sup 20} m{sup -1}. (author).

  10. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 ≥0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/α≤1, where α denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N'' max =5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (author)

  11. Optimization of gas target production for Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semushin, S.; Etlicher, B.; Rouille, C.

    1996-01-01

    Optimization of shell parameters for further imploding in a Z-pinch has been done. The nozzle shape was selected with the help of two-dimensional gas dynamics computer simulation. The influence of the electrode configuration was taken into account during the optimization. Two types of nozzle are presented. The advanced design with three gaseous shells may use different gases. The other design is based on aluminium vapor jet. The designs were tested by interferometry. The resulting mass distributions are analyzed by a real experiment and by means of 2D MHD computer simulations. The new nozzles provide smaller zippering, higher radiation power and better reproducible results. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  12. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  13. Energy Conversion in Imploding Z-Pinch Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, V.I.; Gregorian, L.; Davara, G.; Kroupp, E.; Bernshtam, V.A.; Ralchenko, Yu. V.; Starobinets, A.; Maron, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Due to important applications, Z-pinches became a subject of extensive studies. In these studies, main attention is directed towards improvement in efficiency of electric energy conversion into high-power radiation burst. At present, knowledge available on physics of Z-pinch operation, plasma motion, atomic kinetics, and energy conversion is mainly knowledge of numerical simulation results. We believe further progress require (i) experimental determination of spatial distribution and time history of thermodynamic parameters and magnetic field, as well as (ii) utilization of this data for experiment-based calculation of r,t-distribution of driving forces, mass and energy fluxes, and local energy deposition rates due to each of contributing mechanisms, what provides an insight into a process of conversion of stored electric energy into radiation burst. Moreover, experimentally determined r, t-distribution of parameters may serve for verification of computer programs developed for simulation of Z-pinch operation and optimization of radiation output. Within this research program we performed detailed spectroscopic study of plasmas imploding in modest-size (25 kV, 5 kJ, 1.2 μs quaterperiod) gas-puff Z-pinch. This facility has reasonably high repetition rate and provides good reproducibility of results. Consistent with plasma ionization degree in the implosion period, measurements are performed in UV-visible spectral range. Observation of spectral lines emitted at various azimuthal angles f showed no dependence on f. Dependence on axial coordinate z is found to be weak in near-anode half of the anode-cathode gap. Based on these observations and restricting the measurements to near-anode half of the gap, an evolution of parameters is studied in time and radial coordinate r only. In present talk we report on determination of radial component of plasma hydrodynamic velocity u r (r,t), magnetic field B ζ (r,t), electron density n e (r,t), density of ions in various

  14. Architecture of petawatt-class z-pinch accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stygar, William A.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Ives, H.C.; Headley, D.I.; Wagoner, Tim C.; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an accelerator architecture that can serve as the basis of the design of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. The architecture has been applied to the design of two z-pinch accelerators, each of which can be contained within a 104-m-diameter cylindrical tank. One accelerator is driven by slow (∼1 (micro)s) Marx generators, which are a mature technology but which necessitate significant pulse compression to achieve the short pulses ( 4 capacitors, store 98 MJ, and erect to 5 MV; (ii) 600 water-dielectric triplate intermediate-store transmission lines, which also serve as pulse-forming lines; (iii) 600 5-MV laser-triggered gas switches; (iv) three monolithic radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, with triplate geometries and exponential impedance profiles; (v) a 6-level 5.5-m-diameter 15-MV vacuum insulator stack; (vi) six magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs); and (vii) a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute that adds the output currents of the six MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a z-pinch load. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 52 MA to a 10-mm-length z pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 57 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. The LTD-driven accelerator includes monolithic radial transformers and a MITL system similar to those described above, but does not include intermediate-store transmission lines, multimegavolt gas switches, or a laser trigger system. Instead, this accelerator is driven by 210 LTD modules that include a total of 1 x 10 6 capacitors and 5 x 10 5 200-kV electrically triggered gas switches. The LTD accelerator stores 182 MJ and produces a peak electrical power of 1000 TW. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 68 MA to a pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 75 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. Conceptually straightforward upgrades to these designs would deliver even higher pinch currents and faster implosions

  15. Preliminary study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Feng Kaiming; Li Qiang; Gao Chunming

    2000-01-01

    It is important to research into the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed in Z-pinch implosion. A snowplough model of the single wire Z-pinch is presented. The perturbation amplitude of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the wire-array Z-pinch is analyzed quantitatively. Sheared axial flow is put forward to mitigate and reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. And other approaches used to mitigate MHD instability in such a super-fast process are explored

  16. X-ray sources by Z-pinch for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hidenori; Katsuki, Sunao; Lisitsyn, Igor

    1999-01-01

    Inertial confinement nuclear fusion driven by X-ray from Z-pinch plasmas has been developed. Recently, extremely high X-ray power (290 TW) and energy (1.8 MJ) were produced in fast Z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories). Wire arrays are used to produce the initial plasma. The X-ray from Z-pinch plasmas produced by pulsed power has great potential as a driver of inertial confinement nuclear fusion. (author)

  17. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, Uri [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Nelson, Brian A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project is a project to extend the performance of the flow Z-pinch experiment at the University of Washington to investigate and isolate the relevant physics of the stabilizing effect of plasma flow. Experimental plasmas have exhibited an enhanced stability under certain operating parameters which generate a flow state (axial flows in Z-pinches and VH mode in tokamaks). Flow has also been suggested as the stabilizing mechanism in astrophysical jets.

  18. Metal Wire-array Load for Z-pinch Used as X-ray Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    <正> The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has evident minatory applications becasuse ICF ignites the fusion fuel with high energy media. As a method of ICF, Z-pinch has obtained evidently increased X-ray power PX-ray and energy EX-ray. The scientists have noticed this promising achievement. The Z-accelerator which is an operating Z-pinch device in Sandia national laboratory (SNL) in USA achieved 290 TW Px-ray in 1997 and the energy and defense departments of USA will finance SNL for a larger Z-pinch device. The early Z-pinch aimed to obtain high tempera

  19. Reconsideration of the m=0 Z-pinch stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Coppins, M.

    1993-01-01

    Possible paths for obtaining linear stability against the m=0 mode in the Z-pinch are studied. Using a generalized energy principle, the necessary and sufficient Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) m=0 stability criterion is derived. This criterion is less restrictive than that of ideal MHD, although it also requires the boundary plasma pressure to be finite. It is shown that the edge pressure cannot be stably upheld by a surface current. By instead assuming a finite pressure external gas, it is found that an edge pressure to on-axis pressure ratio of 0.5 is required for stability of a constant current density profile. A parabolic current density profile lowers the limit to the value 0.17. The growth rates are shown to be monotonically decreasing as a function of the external gas pressure. Detailed derivations of the boundary conditions are also given. The results aid in clarifying the experimental stability of four major Z-pinch experiments. Finite Larmor radius stabilization is hence required to maintain stability in future fibre pinch experiments in vacuum, implying line densities less than 10 19 m -1 . (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  20. Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-01-01

    Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results

  1. Finite Larmor radius effects on Z-pinch stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1987-10-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m=1 small axial wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the Incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model which consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 >=0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density becomes singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall terms have a damping, however not stabilizing, effect, in agreement with earlier work. Specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m=1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/a max =3-5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (authors)

  2. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-01-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  3. The Role of Strong Coupling in Z-Pinch-Driven Approaches to High Yield Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEHLHORN, THOMAS A.; DESJARLAIS, MICHAEL P.; HAILL, THOMAS A.; LASH, JOEL S.; ROSENTHAL, STEPHEN E.; SLUTZ, STEPHEN A.; STOLTZ, PETER H.; VESEY, ROGER A.; OLIVER, B.

    1999-01-01

    Peak x-ray powers as high as 280 ± 40 TW have been generated from the implosion of tungsten wire arrays on the Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The high x-ray powers radiated by these z-pinches provide an attractive new driver option for high yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The high x-ray powers appear to be a result of using a large number of wires in the array which decreases the perturbation seed to the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability and diminishes other 3-D effects. Simulations to confirm this hypothesis require a 3-D MHD code capability, and associated databases, to follow the evolution of the wires from cold solid through melt, vaporization, ionization, and finally to dense imploded plasma. Strong coupling plays a role in this process, the importance of which depends on the wire material and the current time history of the pulsed power driver. Strong coupling regimes are involved in the plasmas in the convolute and transmission line of the powerflow system. Strong coupling can also play a role in the physics of the z-pinch-driven high yield ICF target. Finally, strong coupling can occur in certain z-pinch-driven application experiments

  4. Architecture of petawatt-class z-pinch accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an accelerator architecture that can serve as the basis of the design of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. The architecture has been applied to the design of two z-pinch accelerators, each of which can be contained within a 104-m-diameter cylindrical tank. One accelerator is driven by slow (∼1   μs Marx generators, which are a mature technology but which necessitate significant pulse compression to achieve the short pulses (≪1   μs required to drive z pinches. The other is powered by linear transformer drivers (LTDs, which are less mature but produce much shorter pulses than conventional Marxes. Consequently, an LTD-driven accelerator promises to be (at a given pinch current and implosion time more efficient and reliable. The Marx-driven accelerator produces a peak electrical power of 500 TW and includes the following components: (i 300 Marx generators that comprise a total of 1.8×10^{4} capacitors, store 98 MJ, and erect to 5 MV; (ii 600 water-dielectric triplate intermediate-store transmission lines, which also serve as pulse-forming lines; (iii 600 5-MV laser-triggered gas switches; (iv three monolithic radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, with triplate geometries and exponential impedance profiles; (v a 6-level 5.5-m-diameter 15-MV vacuum insulator stack; (vi six magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs; and (vii a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute that adds the output currents of the six MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a z-pinch load. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 52 MA to a 10-mm-length z pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 57 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. The LTD-driven accelerator includes monolithic radial transformers and a MITL system similar to those described above, but does not include intermediate-store transmission lines, multimegavolt gas switches, or a laser trigger system. Instead, this accelerator is driven by 210

  5. Nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.; Mosher, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a 2d envelope model is described for the nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches. Numerical solutions for various cases of interest are provided which lay the foundation for a quantitative model of nonthermal neutron emission in dense Z-pinches by determining the induced electric fields associated with the development of the instability

  6. Z-pinch driven hohlraums design for the 100 nanoseconds current time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, F.

    2003-12-01

    This work estimates Z-pinch driven hohlraums capabilities to obtain high temperatures (>200 eV). Simple models are proposed to calculate the performances offered by currents of 5 to 100 MA in 100 ns. The one dimensional physics of the Z-pinch at the length scale of its thickness and the hydrodynamics instabilities are studied. Then the enhancement of hohlraums performances with double nested Z-pinches or the use of an axial magnetic field is analysed. Z-pinch direct drive approach for inertial confinement fusion is finally considered. All the presented results are based on theoretical and 2D numerical approach and on the analysis of experimental results which were obtained on the american 'Z' generator. Annexes recall radiation MHD equations and check their validity for Z-pinch implosion. (author)

  7. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  8. Measurements of VUV lines on dense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, G.

    1980-01-01

    The transition n = 1 to n = 2 has the most simple structure of all hydrogen transitions and the corresponding spectralline Ly-α is therefore very appropriate to reveal discrepancies between theory and experiment. In this work mainly the Ly-α spectral line of neutral hydrogen has been studied. The electron density of the Z-pinch amounts to 1.5 x 10 24 m -3 with an electron temperature of about 1.2 x 10 5 K. In this parameter range the plasma can still be studied with spectroscopic methods in the visible spectral region. Based on a space and time resolved measurement of the continuous emission spectra the plasma parameters can be determined independent of line broadening. (orig./HT) [de

  9. Nonlinear stage of a Z-pinch instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.F.; Chernyshev, Y.D.

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability is analyzed for a Z-pinch with a fully developed skin effect in the current. Two-dimensional numerical calculations carried out on the sausage instability show that its occurrence leads to a stage describable by a self-similar solution when the length of the neck is fixed and the plasma compression is isentropic. At a perturbation wavelength small in comparison with the pinch radius, this stage is preceded by a stage which reduces to a nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The dynamics of the motion of magnetic field ''bubbles'' and of plasma ''jets'' is analyzed in this case. The plasma jets emerging from the pinch do not block the pinch from the current source

  10. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

    2004-12-10

    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Tungsten Z-Pinch Long Implosions on the Saturn Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; DEENEY, Christopher; SPIELMAN, RICK B.; COVERDALE, CHRISTINE A.; RODERICK, N.F.; HAINES, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Recent success on the Saturn and Z accelerators at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated the ability to scale z-pinch parameters to increasingly larger current pulsed power facilities. Next generation machines will require even larger currents (>20 MA), placing further demands on pulsed power technology. To this end, experiments have been carried out on Saturn operating in a long pulse mode, investigating the potential of lower voltages and longer implosion times while still maintaining pinch fidelity. High wire number, 25 mm diameter tungsten arrays were imploded with implosion times ranging from 130 to 240 ns. The results were comparable to those observed in the Saturn short pulse mode, with risetimes on the order of 4.5 to 6.5 ns. Experimental data will be presented, along with two dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations used to explain and reproduce the experiment

  12. Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made

  13. The effect of sheared axial flow on nonlinear Z-pinch dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassapakis, N.

    2000-01-01

    A two dimensional Eulerian fluid code has been used to study three problems related to Z-pinch and laser produced plasmas. a) The nonlinear evolution of a localised m=0 MHD mode neck is studied in order to extract some scaling laws for the size and form of the artificial neck. We examine whether the ubiquitous m=0 instability could be beneficially used to assist in the formation of a transient localised dense plasma. The results obtained were in satisfactory agreement with experiments and other theoretical work where available. b) The development of the m=0 instability on a Z-pinch although beneficial in the previous case, is detrimental from a stability point of view and thus to the utilisation of the device as a fusion reactor by itself. This is because the timescales of the instability development are faster than the confinement time needed for fusion to occur. Sheared axial flow is a proposed mechanism for the non-linear saturation of this particular instability. Indeed the linear growth rate also can be substantially reduced. It is hoped that it can inhibit the growth of the instabilities or at least delay their development sufficiently for fusion to take place. The numerical study of the effect of sheared axial flow on the nonlinear dynamics of the Z-pinch carried out, demonstrates that sheared flow with velocity u z z >4 Alfven speed other modes, of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type, are excited which take over from the fastest growing mode in the static case. c) The expansion of the ablated plasma in laser-solid interactions is an important phenomenon for a plethora of reasons one of which is ICF. The simulations were in direct agreement with previous experimental work regarding the bulk properties of the ablation surface. They also provided justification for some assumptions made during the analysis of the observations and helped to confirm the calibration of the diagnostics timewise. The most striking feature of the experiments, namely the density dip on the

  14. Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Porter, J.L. Jr.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity

  15. Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, M E; Porter, Jr, J L; Vesey, R A [and others

    1999-07-01

    Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity.

  16. Progress in symmetric ICF capsule implosions and wire-array z-pinch source physics for double z-pinch driven hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, David Emery; Vesey, Roger Alan; Rambo, Patrick K.; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Hanson, David L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Afeyan, Bedros B.; Smith, Ian Craig; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Bennett, Guy R.; Campbell, Robert B.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several years, rapid progress has been made evaluating the double-z-pinch indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) high-yield target concept (Hammer et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2129). We have demonstrated efficient coupling of radiation from two wire-array-driven primary hohlraums to a secondary hohlraum that is large enough to drive a high yield ICF capsule. The secondary hohlraum is irradiated from two sides by z-pinches to produce low odd-mode radiation asymmetry. This double-pinch source is driven from a single electrical power feed (Cuneo et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 215004) on the 20 MA Z accelerator. The double z-pinch has imploded ICF capsules with even-mode radiation symmetry of 3.1 ± 1.4% and to high capsule radial convergence ratios of 14-21 (Bennett et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 245002; Bennett et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 3717; Vesey et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 1854). Advances in wire-array physics at 20 MA are improving our understanding of z-pinch power scaling with increasing drive current. Techniques for shaping the z-pinch radiation pulse necessary for low adiabat capsule compression have also been demonstrated.

  17. Plasma dynamics in aluminium wire array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    The wire array Z-pinch is the world's most powerful laboratory X-ray source. An achieved power of ∼280TW has generated great interest in the use of these devices as a source of hohlraum heating for inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, the physics underlying how wire array Z-pinches implode is not well understood. This thesis presents the first detailed measurements of plasma dynamics in wire array experiments. The MAGPIE generator, with currents of up to 1.4MA, 150ns 10-90% rise-time, was used to implode arrays of 16mm diameter typically containing between 8 and 64 15μm aluminium wires. Diagnostics included: end and side-on laser probing with interferometry, schlieren and shadowgraphy channels; radial and axial streak photography; gated X-ray imaging; XUV and hard X-ray spectrometry; filtered XRDs and diamond PCDs; and a novel X-ray backlighting system to probe high density plasma. It was found that the plasma formed from the wires consisted of cold, dense cores, which ablated producing hot, low density coronal plasma. After an initial acceleration around the cores, coronal plasma streams flowed force-free towards the axis, with an instability wavelength determined by the core size. At ∼50% of the implosion time, the streams collided on axis forming a precursor plasma which appeared to be uniform, stable, and inertially confined. The existence of core-corona structure significantly affected implosion dynamics. For arrays with <64 wires, the wire cores remained in their original positions until ∼80% of the implosion time before accelerating rapidly. At 64 wires a transition in implosion trajectories to 0-D like occurred indicating a possible merger of current carrying plasma close to the cores - the cores themselves did not merge. During implosion, the cores initially developed uncorrelated instabilities that then transformed into a longer wavelength global mode of instability. The study of nested arrays (2 concentric arrays, one inside the other

  18. Confined discharge plasma sources for Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Mehlman, G.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report their investigation Z-pinch implosions on the NRL Gamble II generator using metallic sources of sodium and aluminum, and non-metallic source of sodium (NaF), magnesium (MgF 2 ), and aluminum (Al 2 0 3 ). For 1 MA driving currents, peak Κ-shell radiated powers of about 100 GW and energies of about 1.5 kj have been obtained with both pure aluminum and NaF implosions. The aluminum results are comparable to those in previous Gamble II experiments with aluminum wire arrays. Confined discharge sources have been used to generate tens of GW in the Na Heα pump line and flourescence of the neon has been observed. The effects of nozzle shape and size, chamber diameter, amount of fuse material, and confined discharge current have been investigated in Gamble II implosion experiments. These studies indicate that confined discharge sources are capable of supplying significantly more material than required for implosions at the 1 MA level, so that this technique could be extended to higher current generators

  19. Study of gas-puff Z-pinches on COBRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, N.; Rosenberg, E. W.; Gourdain, P. A.; Grouchy, P. W. L. de; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Potter, W. M.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A. D.; Evans, M.; Greenly, J. B.; Hoyt, C. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kroupp, E.; Fisher, A.; Maron, Y. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were conducted on the 1 MA, 200 ns pulse duration Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator in order to achieve an understanding of the dynamics and instability development in the imploding and stagnating plasma. The triple-nozzle gas-puff valve, pre-ionizer, and load hardware are described. Specific diagnostics for the gas-puff experiments, including a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence system for measuring the radial neutral density profiles along with a Laser Shearing Interferometer and Laser Wavefront Analyzer for electron density measurements, are also described. The results of a series of experiments using two annular argon (Ar) and/or neon (Ne) gas shells (puff-on-puff) with or without an on- (or near-) axis wire are presented. For all of these experiments, plenum pressures were adjusted to hold the radial mass density profile as similar as possible. Initial implosion stability studies were performed using various combinations of the heavier (Ar) and lighter (Ne) gasses. Implosions with Ne in the outer shell and Ar in the inner were more stable than the opposite arrangement. Current waveforms can be adjusted on COBRA and it was found that the particular shape of the 200 ns current pulse affected on the duration and diameter of the stagnated pinched column and the x-ray yield.

  20. Sausage mode of a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N.; Rostoker, N.

    1983-01-01

    In Z-pinch experiments at Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., growth rates have been measured by observing optical emission along the pinch axis. Growth rates estimated by means of the usual model of a pinch involving an incompressible fluid and a surface current are too large by a factor of 2-4. X-ray pinhole photographs generally have the appearance of a series of beads that would be expected from instability of the sausage mode. In some cases, particularly the implosion of large diameter wire arrays with BLACKJACK 5, the beads disappear and only the kink instability is apparent. Generalizing the pinch model to include compressibility does not significantly alter the predictions. A further generalization to include distributed current has therefore been considered. It seems likely that the current can penetrate significantly during the lifetime of the pinch. We consider a model of the pinch that is initially an infinite cylinder. For the sausage mode, stability is determined by a simple second order differential equation together with the boundary condition that follows from the wave number and the frequency of the instability

  1. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, X. D., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Zhou, S. T., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Zhang, S. Q., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Dan, J. K., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Li, J., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, K. L., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Ouyang, K., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Xu, Q., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Duan, S. C., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Chen, G. H., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, M., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Feng, S. P., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Yang, L. B., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Xie, W. P., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Deng, J. J., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com [Key Lab of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  2. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.

    2009-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  3. Radiative collapse of a Bennett-relaxed z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    The global evolution of a z-pinch has been studied with the assumption of a relaxed state consisting of ions and electrons, each in a rigidly drifting isothermal Maxwellian distribution. This speculative approach has the pragmatic feature of possessing phenomenologically useful global parameters such as drift velocity and temperature that vary in accordance with global physical quantities such as energy and entropy. The plasma gains energy from a time-dependent electric field by means of Poynting's vector. Coulomb collisions between electrons and ions is calculated with a Fokker-Planck treatment analogous to that used by Dreicer to calculate runaways. For a variety of initial conditions and time-independent applied electric fields, the pinch evolution always culminates in a time-independent (attractor) state whose current is the Pease-Braginskii current and whose final radius is proportional to (line density)/sup 3/4//(electric field)/sup 1/2/. Before the final state is attained, the pinch may bounce toward and away from a highly collapsed state. For the case of a Bennett pinch, the classical limit of the resistivity is attained when the line density is much greater than 4πm/sub e//e 2 μ/sub o/; i.e., 3.55 /times/ 10 14 m/sup /minus/1/. 6 refs., 2 figs

  4. Phenomenological modeling of turbulence in Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    A phenomenological investigation into the effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on the initial stagnation dynamics of aluminum wire array and argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions is performed. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled by using multipliers for these quantities in one-dimensional (1-D) MHD calculations. The major effect of these increases is to soften the 1-D implosions by decreasing the densities that are achieved on axis at stagnation. As a consequence, a set of multipliers can be found that reasonably duplicates the average electron temperatures, ion densities, and mass of the K-shell emission region that were measured at stagnation for a variety of Physics International aluminum wire array and argon gas puff experiments. It is determined that the dependence of these measured quantities on the multipliers is weak once a level of enhancement is reached, where agreement between calculations and experiments is attained. The scaling of K-shell yield with load mass for a fixed implosion velocity is then reexamined, and the minimum load mass needed to efficiently produce K-shell emission by thermalization of kinetic energy is calculated for aluminum and argon using this phenomenological soft implosion modeling. The results show an upward shift in the minimum mass by a factor of 6 when compared to the original nonturbulent hard implosion calculations

  5. A tentative opinion of modeling plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning

    2002-01-01

    Numerous experiments in both single wire and in wire arrays have attracted much attention. For the wire array Z-pinch implosions the plasma formation in the metallic wire Z pinches is a key question. By means of analyzing a number of single-wire and multi-wire experiments, two models to describe the behavior of a wire array Z-pinch in initial phase are suggested. In this phase each wire carries a rising current and behaves independently in a way similar to that found in single wire Z-pinch experiments in which a comparable current in one wire is employed. Based on one- or/and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, one model is used to simulate the electrical explosion stage of the metallic wire, another is used to simulate the wire-plasma formation stage

  6. Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N

    2013-07-01

    The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.

  7. Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici

    2018-05-01

    The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.

  8. Reduction of thermal expansion in Z-pinches by electron beam assisted magnetic field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Karttunen, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Weak radial expansion of a Z-pinch plasma column during its strong initial ohmic heating phase is expected when the generation of a confining magnetic field is assisted by a correctly formed electron beam pulse. Appropriate one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations are numerically solved, and the observed increase of plasma radius as a function of time for various discharge parameters is compared to a normal Z-pinch discharge initiation. (author)

  9. Gas-puff Z-pinch experiment on the LIMAY-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Akiyama, H.; Shimomura, N.; Sato, M.; Tazima, T.

    1989-01-01

    A gas-puff z-pinch plasma has been produced on the pulsed power generator LIMAY-I at IPP Nagoya University. The stored energy of the generator is 13 kJ, and it generates 600 kV-70 ns-3 Ω power pulse. Ar or He gas is puffed from a hollow nozzle with 18 mm diameter, and a z-pinch plasma is produced by a discharge between 3 mm gap electrodes

  10. Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Qiu, Aici

    2017-10-01

    As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications.

  11. Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Li, Xingwen; Qiu, Aici

    2017-01-01

    As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications. (topical review)

  12. PBFA Z: A 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Breeze, S.F.; Deeney, C.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing a major modification to the PBFA-II facility. PBFA Z will be a z-pinch driver capable of delivering up to 20 MA to a z-pinch load. It optimizes the electrical coupling to the implosion energy of z pinches at implosion velocities of ∼ 40 cm/μs. Design constraints resulted in an accelerator with a 0.12-Ω impedance, a 10.25-nH inductance, and a 120-ns pulse width. The design required new water transmission lines, insulator stack, and vacuum power feeds. Current is delivered to the z-pinch load through four, self-magnetically-insulated vacuum transmission lines and a double post-hole convolute. A variety of design codes are used to model the power flow. These predict a peak current of 20 MA to a z-pinch load having a 2-cm length, a 2-cm radius, and a 15--mg mass, coupling 1.5 MJ into kinetic energy. We present 2-D Rad-Hydro calculations showing MJ x-ray outputs from tungsten wire-array z pinches

  13. Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)

  14. A moving finite element model of the high density z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of computations of the behavior of the fiber-initiated high density Z-pinch (HDZP). It purpose is twofold. One is to study the behavior of the physical system itself as an interesting controlled fusion experiment. The main result of this study is a demonstration of the relaxation of the full inertial behavior of the pinch to simplified self-similar behavior in which the forces on the system are in near balance. The moving free boundary and violent initial behavior of this configuration require carful treatment. This leads to the other purpose of the work, to use this realistic physical system as a test-bed for a general-purpose 1-dimensional code based on moving finite elements. A key step in accomplishing this goal has been the recognition that numerical stability of the discretized equations has required the use of nonconservative quantities as the fundamental dependent variables to be discretized. The main result of this work is a code which is capable of treating a very general class of nonlinear, time-dependent fluid equations. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Experimental studies of Z-pinches of mixed wire array with aluminum and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Li Zhenghong; Hua Xinsheng; Xu Rongkun; Peng Xianjue; Xu Zeping; Yang Jianlun; Guo Cun; Jiang Shilun; Feng Shuping; Yang Libing; Yan Chengli; Song Fengjun; Smirnov, V.P.; Kalinin, Yu.G.; Kingsep, A.S.; Chernenko, A.S.; Grabovsky, E.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the form of joint experiment between China and Russia, the experimental studies of Z-pinches of mixed wire array of aluminum (A1) and tungsten (W) were carried out on S-300 generator, which was located on Kurchatov Institute of Russia. The experimental results were compared with those of single A1 array and single W array, respectively. There are obvious difference between mixed one and single one in their photon spectral distributions. The intensity of K-series emission lines from the mixed wire array Z-pinch is lower than that from single A1 array. The radiated lines with wavelengths less than 1.6 nm were not found in single W array Z-pinches. In the Z-pinch processes, the area radiating x-rays in mixed wire array is smaller than that of single A1 array, but is slightly lower than that from single W array. The FWHM of x-ray pulse with a maximal power 0.3-0.5 TW and total energy 10-20 kJ is about 25 ns, which radiated from Z-pinches with a radial convergence of 4-5 on S-300 generator. The shadow photograph of the mixed wire-array Z-pinch plasma by laser probe shows that the core-corona configuration was formed and the corona was moving toward the center axis during the wire-array plasma formation, that the interface of the plasma is not clear, and that there are a number structures inside. They also suggests that there was an obvious development of Magneto Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the Z-pinch process as well

  16. Wire-array initiation and interwire-plasma merger concerns in PBFA-Z tungsten z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Experiments with annular wire-array loads to generate high quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on Saturn have shown the importance of maintaining azimuthal symmetry and how the individual wire plasmas merge to form a plasma shell. Here the authors discuss the impact of current symmetry, current prepulse, interwire spacing, and wire size on generating high-quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on PBFA-Z, with annular tungsten wire loads. B-dot monitors measured the current as a function of azimuth in the MITLs and 4.5 cm upstream of the load. Bolometers and filtered XRDs and PCDs, spanning the energy range {approximately} 0 eV to 6 keV, monitored the temporal characteristics of the radiation. Time-integrated and time-resolved, filtered, fast-framing, x-ray pinhole cameras, and a crystal spectrometer monitored the spatial and spectral structure of the radiation. The radial dynamics of single-wire plasmas from the solid-state, using the measured current, was calculated by 1D radiation magnetohydrodynamics code (RMHC) and used as input to an xy RMHC. These calculations together with 2D RMHC simulations in the rz plane are discussed and correlated with the measurements.

  17. Wire-array initiation and interwire-plasma merger concerns in PBFA-Z tungsten z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with annular wire-array loads to generate high quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on Saturn have shown the importance of maintaining azimuthal symmetry and how the individual wire plasmas merge to form a plasma shell. Here the authors discuss the impact of current symmetry, current prepulse, interwire spacing, and wire size on generating high-quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on PBFA-Z, with annular tungsten wire loads. B-dot monitors measured the current as a function of azimuth in the MITLs and 4.5 cm upstream of the load. Bolometers and filtered XRDs and PCDs, spanning the energy range ∼ 0 eV to 6 keV, monitored the temporal characteristics of the radiation. Time-integrated and time-resolved, filtered, fast-framing, x-ray pinhole cameras, and a crystal spectrometer monitored the spatial and spectral structure of the radiation. The radial dynamics of single-wire plasmas from the solid-state, using the measured current, was calculated by 1D radiation magnetohydrodynamics code (RMHC) and used as input to an xy RMHC. These calculations together with 2D RMHC simulations in the rz plane are discussed and correlated with the measurements

  18. The Z-pinch as plasma lens for the focusing of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfers, M.

    1992-04-01

    In the present thesis the influence of a Z-pinch plasma on the shape of heavy-ion beams and the for the understanding of this interaction most important plasma parameters were studied. For this the Z-pinch at the heavy-ion accelerator UNILAC was operated. The magnet field gradients of up to (25 ± 3) T/m occuring in the Z-pinch lead to the plasma-lens effect - the focusing of a charged-particle beam traversing axially the Z-pinch. In this thesis for the first time the focusing of a heavy-ion beam by the azimutal magnetic field of a Z-pinch is described. Different beams with an original diameter of 10 mm were focused. The smallest measured beam diameter amounts to 1 mm half-width. The beam energy amounts to 11.4 MeV/u, which leads at gold as projectile matter to a beam energy of 2.25 GeV. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. PBFA Z: A 20-MA Z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Breeze, S.F.; Deeney, C.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing a major modification to the PBFA-II facility. PBFA Z will be capable of delivering up to 20 MA to a z-pinch load. It optimizes the electrical coupling to the implosion energy of z pinches at implosion velocities of ∼ 40 cm/μs. Design constraints resulted in an accelerator with a 0.12-Ω impedance, a 10.25-nH inductance, and a 120-ns pulse width. The design required new water transmission lines, insulator stack, and vacuum power feeds. Current is delivered to the z-pinch load through four self-magnetically-insulated vacuum transmission lines and a double post-hole convolute. A variety of design codes are used to model the power flow. These predict a peak current of 20 MA to a z-pinch load having a 2-cm length, a 2-cm radius, and a 15-mg mass, coupling 1.5 MJ into kinetic energy. Calculations are presented showing MJ x-ray outputs from tungsten wire-array z pinches. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs

  20. PBFA Z: A 60-TW/5-MJ Z-pinch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Chandler, G.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Fehl, D.L.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.; Nash, T.J.; Porter, J.L.; Sanford, T.W.; Seamen, J.F.; Stygar, W.A.; Struve, K.W.; Breeze, S.P.; McGurn, J.S.; Torres, J.A.; Zagar, D.M.; Gilliland, T.L.; Jobe, D.O.; McKenney, J.L.; Mock, R.C.; Vargas, M.; Wagoner, T.; Peterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    PBFA Z, a new 60-TW/5-MJ electrical accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories, is now the world's most powerful z-pinch driver. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in its 36 Marx generators, couples 5 MJ into a 60-TW/105-ns FWHM pulse to the 120-mΩ water transmission lines, and delivers 3.0 MJ and 50 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on load parameters, we attain peak load currents of 16-20 MA with a current rise time of ∼105ns with wire-array z-pinch loads. We have extended the x-ray performance of tungsten wire-array z pinches from earlier Saturn experiments. Using a 2-cm-radius, 2-cm-long tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-μm diameter wires (4.1-mg mass), we achieved an x-ray power of 210 TW and an x-ray energy of 1.9 MJ. Preliminary spectral measurements suggest a mostly optically-thick, Planckian-like radiator below 1000 eV. Data indicate ∼100kJ of x rays radiated above 1000 eV. An intense z-pinch x-ray source with an overall coupling efficiency greater than 15% has been demonstrated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. PBFA Z: A 20-MA Z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R B; Breeze, S F; Deeney, C [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing a major modification to the PBFA-II facility. PBFA Z will be capable of delivering up to 20 MA to a z-pinch load. It optimizes the electrical coupling to the implosion energy of z pinches at implosion velocities of {approx} 40 cm/{mu}s. Design constraints resulted in an accelerator with a 0.12-{Omega} impedance, a 10.25-nH inductance, and a 120-ns pulse width. The design required new water transmission lines, insulator stack, and vacuum power feeds. Current is delivered to the z-pinch load through four self-magnetically-insulated vacuum transmission lines and a double post-hole convolute. A variety of design codes are used to model the power flow. These predict a peak current of 20 MA to a z-pinch load having a 2-cm length, a 2-cm radius, and a 15-mg mass, coupling 1.5 MJ into kinetic energy. Calculations are presented showing MJ x-ray outputs from tungsten wire-array z pinches. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  2. Computational modeling of z-pinch-driven hohlraum experiments on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R.A.; Porter, J.L. Jr.; Cuneo, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The high-yield inertial confinement fusion concept based on a double-ended z-pinch driven hohlraum tolerates the degree of spatial inhomogeneity present in z-pinch plasma radiation sources by utilizing a relatively large hohlraum wall surface to provide spatial smoothing of the radiation delivered to the fusion capsule. The z-pinch radiation sources are separated from the capsule by radial spoke arrays. Key physics issues for this concept are the behavior of the spoke array (effect on the z-pinch performance, x-ray transmission) and the uniformity of the radiation flux incident on the surface of the capsule. Experiments are underway on the Z accelerator at Sandia National laboratories to gain understanding of these issues in a single-sided drive geometry. These experiments seek to measure the radiation coupling among the z-pinch, source hohlraum, and secondary hohlraum, as well as the uniformity of the radiation flux striking a foam witness ball diagnostic positioned in the secondary hohlraum. This paper will present the results of computational modeling of various aspects of these experiments

  3. Soft X-Ray Measurements of Z-Pinch-Driven Vacuum Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, Chris; Varas, M.; Moats, Ann; Struve, Ken; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Simpson, W.W.; Fehl, D.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Matuska, W.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the experimental characterization of a z-pinch driven-vacuum hohlraum. The authors have measured soft x-ray fluxes of 5 x 10 12 W/cm 2 radiating from the walls of hohlraums which are 2.4--2.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm tall. The x-ray source used to drive these hohlraums was a z-pinch consisting of a 300 wire tungsten array driven by a 2 MA, 100 ns current pulse. In this hohlraum geometry, the z-pinch x-ray source can produce energies in excess of 800 kJ and powers in excess of 100 TW to drive these hohlraums. The x-rays released in these hohlraums represent greater than a factor of 25 in energy and more than a factor of three in x-ray power over previous laboratory-driven hohlraums

  4. Theory of wire number scaling in wire-array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed-power-driven Z pinches, produced by imploding cylindrical arrays of many wires, have generated very high x-ray radiation powers (>200 TW) and energies (2 MJ). Experiments have revealed a steady improvement in Z-pinch performance with increasing wire number at fixed total mass and array radius. The dominant mechanism acting to limit the performance of these devices is believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which broadens the radially imploding plasma sheath and consequently reduces the peak radiation power. A model is presented which describes an amplification over the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate brought about by kink-like forces on the individual wires. This amplification factor goes to zero as the number of wires approaches infinity. This model gives results which are in good agreement with the experimental data and provides a scaling for wire-array Z pinches. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Development of sausage-type instability in a Z-pinch plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of sausage-type instabilities in an initially homogeneous Z-pinch plasma column has been investigated by means of numerical modelling. It is shown that in the presence of short-wave perturbations of a Z-pinch boundary and a rarefied plasma surrounding the pinch, cavities filled with a rarefied plasma and with a magnetic field are formed in the plasma column. As a result of this cavity growth, small columns of dense plasma form on the axis in the Z-pinch which have a temperature substantially higher than the average plasma temperature in the plasma column. When deuterium is present in the pinch, these dense high temperature bunches can become a source of intensive neutron radiation. (author). 24 refs, 7 figs

  6. Experimental studies of the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianbin; Yang Libing; Gu Yuanchao; Deng Jianjun; Zhou Rongguo; Zou Jie; Zhou Shaotong; Zhang Siqun; Chen Guanghua; Chang Lihua; Li Fengping; Ouyang Kai; Li Jun; Yang Liang; Wang Xiong; Zhang Zhaohui

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary experiment for studying the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process has been performed on the Yang accelerator. The ten-frame nanosecond temporal and spatial gated camera, visible high-speed scanning camera, differential laser interferometer, X-ray time integration pinhole camera and X-ray power system have been used to investigated the evolution of the argon-puff Z-pinch. Some typical results of argon-puff Z-pinch during implosion and pinch phase, including the 'zipper' effect, necking phenomenon, sausage instability, temperature changes and the effect of load current rise time, are given and analyzed as examples, and some relevant conclusions are drawn. (authors)

  7. Development of fast pulsed power driver for radiography and Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Aici; Sun Fengju

    2008-01-01

    Z-pinch and flash X-ray radiography have an important application in inertial confine fusion (ICF) and nuclear radiation effects simulation and high performance hydrodynamic test, etc. Z-pinch ICF and multi-pulse multi-axis high energy X-ray radiography put forward a huge challenge for pulsed power driver, so the direct-driven-load fast pulsed power driver are developed actively in home and abroard. The paper summarized the recent advances and developing trends of the fast pulsed power driver based on fast Marx(FMG) and fast linear transformer driver (LTD), and analysized the advantages and disadvantages and restricting factors about FMG and FLTD and their key technologies, then introduced the state-of-arts on the investigation in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology. In the end, the paper presented some advices and views about studying fast pulsed power driver applied to Z-pinch and flash X-ray radiography in home. (authors)

  8. Scintillator power meter applied on Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siqun; Huang Xianbin; Li Jing; Dan Jiakun; Li Jun; Yang Libing; Cui Mingqi; Zhao Yidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration and measuring parameters of scintillator power meter applied in Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement on Yang accelerator. It also introduces the calibration experiment on BSRF, and analyzes the defect of the power meter from calibration results, the possible errors and feasible method for correcting the errors. The measuring results are revised according to spectrum acquired from Dante spectrometer. The revised discrepancy of two instruments is decreased from over 30% to subter-15%. Finally, the result of yield measurement of the puff Z-pinch X-ray radiation is reported as well, i.e., hundreds of Joule, multigigawatt levels of soft X ray radiation were produced by puff Z-pinch on Yang accelerator. (authors)

  9. 3D modeling of instabilities in multi-wire Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haill, T.A.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.; Robinson, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Recent success in generating large x-ray energies and powers from large wire-number Z pinch arrays has revived a strong interest in MHD and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. Two-dimensional r-z simulations of Z pinches typically start calculations with a preformed plasma sheath and seed RT instabilities with a random density perturbation. The magnitude of the random density perturbation is tuned so that the calculated x-ray radiation pulse matches the amplitude and pulse-width of experimentally measured data. While these calculations have been extremely useful in understanding the effect of RT instabilities on experiments, they do not capture all of the three-dimension structure seen in experimental images and are not truly predictive in nature. To remedy this shortcoming Sandia is developing a 3D nature of Z pinch dynamics, namely the merger of arrays of wires into a plasma sheath

  10. Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics, magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution 20 MG, suggested in micropinches, Cotton-Mouton and cutoff diagnostics will be applied. A picosecond optical Kerr shutter will be tested to increase a sensitivity of UV methods for application at multi-MA Z pinches. The proposal is based on the experimental capability of NTF. The Zebra generator produces 1-1.7 MA Z-pinches with electron plasma density of 10"2"0-10"2"1cm"-"3, electron temperature of 0.5-1 keV, and magnetic fields >10 MG. The Leopard laser was upgraded to energy of 90-J at 0.8 ns. This regime will be used for laser initiation

  11. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  12. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C.A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057

  13. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' = 0.

  14. The effects of preionization level on a 'stabilized' z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silawatshananai, C.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Brennan, M.H.; Durance, G.; Jones, I.R.; Murray, E.L.; Tendys, J.

    1980-02-01

    The influence of the degree of preionization on the formation and properties of a conventional 'stabilized' Z-pinch has been studied experimentally for preionization levels ranging from 2% to 35%. It is concluded that there exists the possibility of using varying levels of preionization to tailor radial profiles of density and pressure, and hence to influence the value of βsub(theta)

  15. Dynamics of sausage instabilities of a gas-puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopkin, Yu.V.; Dorokhin, L.A.; Koshelev, K.N.; Sidelnikov, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    The early stage of the sausage instability in a gas-puff Z-pinch has been registered in VUV and soft X-rays with a 10 ns framing camera. We hypothesize that the rings of plasma expanding from the sausage instability enable an alternative current path to dominate the formation of 'micropinches'. (orig.)

  16. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  17. Los Alamos compact toroid, fast-liner, and high-density Z-pinch programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.; Hammel, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    The Compact Toroid (CT) and High Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. The purpose of these two programs, plus the recently terminated (May 1979) Fast Liner (FL) program, is summarized in this section along with a brief description of the experimental facilities. The remaining sections summarize the recent results and the experimental status.

  18. Studies of implosion processes of nested tungsten wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Liu Quan; Yang Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    Nested wire-array is a kind of promising structured-load because it can improve the quality of Z-pinch plasma and enhance the radiation power of X-ray source. Based on the zero-dimensional model, the assumption of wire-array collision, and the criterion of optimized load (maximal load kinetic energy), optimization of the typical nested wire-array as a load of Z machine at Sandia Laboratory was carried out. It was shown that the load has been basically optimized. The Z-pinch process of the typical load was numerically studied by means of one-dimensional three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD) code. The obtained results reproduce the dynamic process of the Z-pinch and show the implosion trajectory of nested wire-array and the transfer process of drive current between the inner and outer array. The experimental and computational X-ray pulse was compared, and it was suggested that the assumption of wire-array collision was reasonable in nested wire-array Z-pinch at least for the current level of Z machine. (authors)

  19. A simplified MHD model of capillary Z-Pinch compared with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapolov, A.A.; Kiss, M.; Kukhlevsky, S.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    The most accurate models of the capillary Z-pinches used for excitation of soft X-ray lasers and photolithography XUV sources currently are based on the magnetohydrodynamics theory (MHD). The output of MHD-based models greatly depends on details in the mathematical description, such as initial and boundary conditions, approximations of plasma parameters, etc. Small experimental groups who develop soft X-ray/XUV sources often use the simplest Z-pinch models for analysis of their experimental results, despite of these models are inconsistent with the MHD equations. In the present study, keeping only the essential terms in the MHD equations, we obtained a simplified MHD model of cylindrically symmetric capillary Z-pinch. The model gives accurate results compared to experiments with argon plasmas, and provides simple analysis of temporal evolution of main plasma parameters. The results clarify the influence of viscosity, heat flux and approximations of plasma conductivity on the dynamics of capillary Z-pinch plasmas. The model can be useful for researchers, especially experimentalists, who develop the soft X-ray/XUV sources. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. High-energy electron acceleration in the gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasugi, Keiichi, E-mail: takasugi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Miyazaki, Takanori [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan and Dept. Innovation Systems Eng., Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Nishio, Mineyuki [Anan National College of Technology, 265 Aoki, Minobayashi, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The characteristics of hard x-ray generation were examined in the gas-puff z-pinch experiment. The experiment on reversing the voltage was conducted. In both of the positive and negative discharges, the x-ray was generated only from the anode surface, so it was considered that the electrons were accelerated by the induced electromagnetic force at the pinch time.

  1. 0-d energetics scaling models for Z-pinch-driven hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CUNEO, MICHAEL E.; VESEY, ROGER A.; HAMMER, J.H.; PORTER, JOHN L.

    2000-01-01

    Wire array Z-pinches on the Z accelerator provide the most intense laboratory source of soft x-rays in the world. The unique combination of a highly-Planckian radiation source with high x-ray production efficiency (15% wall plug), large x-ray powers and energies ( >150 TW, ge1 MJ in 7 ns), large characteristic hohlraum volumes (0.5 to >10 cm 3 ), and long pulse-lengths (5 to 20 ns) may make Z-pinches a good match to the requirements for driving high-yield scale ICF capsules with adequate radiation symmetry and margin. The Z-pinch driven hohlraum approach of Hammer and Porter [Phys.Plasmas, 6, 2129(1999)] may provide a conservative and robust solution to the requirements for high yield, and is currently being studied on the Z accelerator. This paper describes a multiple region, 0-d hohlraum energetic model for Z-pinch driven hohlraums in four configurations. The authors observe consistency between the models and the measured x-ray powers and hohlraum wall temperatures to within ±20% in flux, for the four configurations

  2. UV Laser Diagnostics of the 1-MA Z-pinch Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altemara, S. D.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Haboub, A.

    2009-01-01

    The 532 nm laser diagnostic set at the Zebra generator shows the details of the ablation and stagnation phases in cylindrical, planar, and star-like wire arrays but it cannot show the structure of the stagnated z-pinch and the implosion in small diameter loads, 1-3 mm in diameter. The absorption increment and the refraction angle of the 532 nm laser, when passing through the plasma, are too great to obtain quality images. An ultraviolet probing beam at the wavelength of 266 nm was developed to study small-diameter loads and to investigate the structure of the 1-MA z-pinch. The UV radiation has a much smaller absorption increment and refraction angles in plasmas than the 532 nm light and allows for better imaging of the z-pinch plasmas. Estimates showed that UV probing would be able to probe the high-density z-pinch plasma in experiments on the Zebra generator, and the early results of UV probing on the Zebra generator have shown promise.

  3. Numerical simulation of a Z-pinch compressed by imploding liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Linhart, J.G.; Verri, G.; Bernal, L.

    2001-01-01

    The spark created in a neck of a dense Z-pinch can ignite a fusion detonation in the adjacent D-T plasma channel. Using an appropriate transition between the ignited D-T plasma and an inertially confined cylinder of highly compressed advanced fuel plasma it is possible to amplify the spark energy to a level adequate for the ignition of a detonation wave in the advanced fuel. An m=0 instability of a Z-pinch carrying a current of the order of 10 MA, with a rise time inferior to 10 ns can generate a spark capable of igniting a fusion detonation in the adjacent D-T plasma channel. Such μZ-pinch may be produced by a fast implosion of a cylindrical liner, while a conical channel properly chosen can amplify the spark energy. In order to derive some general rules for the parameters of the spark, the transition, the cylinder of advanced fuel and the liner different numerical models were used. We present here a review of these results and an outline of a possible experimental arrangement for obtaining such a Z-pinch compression

  4. Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce-Marquez, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of ~ 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 1017 cm-3 peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the

  5. Target design for high fusion yield with the double Z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Cuneo, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Campbell, R. B.; Christenson, P. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A key demonstration on the path to inertial fusion energy is the achievement of high fusion yield (hundreds of MJ) and high target gain. Toward this goal, an indirect-drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target involving two Z-pinch x-ray sources heating a central secondary hohlraum is described by Hammer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)]. In subsequent research at Sandia National Laboratories, theoretical/computational models have been developed and an extensive series of validation experiments have been performed to study hohlraum energetics, capsule coupling, and capsule implosion symmetry for this system. These models have been used to design a high-yield Z-pinch-driven ICF target that incorporates the latest experience in capsule design, hohlraum symmetry control, and x-ray production by Z pinches. An x-ray energy output of 9 MJ per pinch, suitably pulse-shaped, is sufficient for this concept to drive 0.3-0.5 GJ capsules. For the first time, integrated two-dimensional (2D) hohlraum/capsule radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have demonstrated adequate hohlraum coupling, time-dependent radiation symmetry control, and the successful implosion, ignition, and burn of a high-yield capsule in the double Z-pinch hohlraum. An important new feature of this target design is mode-selective symmetry control: the use of burn-through shields offset from the capsule that selectively tune certain low-order asymmetry modes (P 2 ,P 4 ) without significantly perturbing higher-order modes and without a significant energy penalty. This paper will describe the capsule and hohlraum design that have produced 0.4-0.5 GJ yields in 2D simulations, provide a preliminary estimate of the Z-pinch load and accelerator requirements necessary to drive the system, and suggest future directions for target design work

  6. Measurements of hot spots and electron beams in Z-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.

    1988-04-01

    Hot spots and Electron Beams have been observed in different types of Z-pinches. There is, however, no conclusive evidence on how either are formed although there has been much theoretical interest in both these phenomena. In this thesis, nanosecond time resolved and time correlated, X-ray and optical diagnostics, are performed on two different types of Z-pinch: a 4 kJ, 30 kV Gas Puff Z-pinch and a 28 kJ, 60 kV Plasma Focus. The aim being to study hot spots and electron beams, as well as characterise the plasma, two different Z-pinch devices. Computer codes are developed to analyse the energy and time resolved data obtained in this work. These codes model both, X-ray emission from a plasma and X-ray emission due to electron beam bombardment of a metal surface. The hot spot and electron beam parameters are measured, from the time correlated X-ray data using these computer codes. The electron beams and the hot spots are also correlated to the plasma behaviour and to each other. The results from both devices are compared with each other and with the theoretical work on hot spot and electron beam formation. A previously unreported 3-5 keV electron temperature plasma is identified, in the gas puff Z-pinch plasma, prior to the formation of the hot spots. it is shown, therefore, that the hot spots are more dense but not hotter than the surrounding plasma. Two distinct periods of electron beam generation are identified in both devices. (author)

  7. Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics, magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of stagnated

  8. DT ignition in a Z pinch compressed by an imploding liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bernal, L.; Linhart, J.G.; Verri, G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that an m=0 instability of a Z pinch carrying a current of the order of 10 MA with a rise time of less than 10 ns can generate a spark capable of igniting a fusion detonation in the adjacent DT plasma channel. A possible method for generating such currents, necessary for the implosion of an initial large radius, low temperature Z pinch, can be a radial implosion of a cylindrical fast liner. The problem has been addressed in previous publications without considering the role played by an initially impressed m=0 perturbation, a mechanism indispensable for the generation of a spark. The liner-Z pinch dynamics can be solved at several levels of physical model completeness. The first corresponds to a zero dimensional model in which the liner has a given mass per unit length and a zero thickness, the plasma is compressed adiabatically and is isotropic, and there are no energy losses or Joule heating. The second level is one dimensional. The Z pinch plasma is described by the full set of MHD, two-fluid equations. The liner is treated first as thin and incompressible, and subsequently it is assumed that it has a finite thickness and is composed of a heavy ion plasma, having an artificial but realistic equation of state. Both plasma and liner are considered uniform in the Z direction and only DT reactions are considered. It is shown that, given sufficient energy and speed of the liner, the Z pinch can reach a volume ignition. The third level is two dimensional. Plasma and liner are treated as in the second level but either the Z pinch or the liner is perturbed by an m=0 non-uniformity. Provided the liner energy is high enough and the initial m=0 perturbation is correctly chosen, the final neck plasma can act as a spark for DT ignition. It is also shown that the liner energy required for generating a spark and the subsequent detonation propagation are considerably less than in the case of volume ignition. (author)

  9. Numerical studies of neon gas-puff Z-pinch dynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Yang Zhenhua; Ding Ning

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic processes of neon gas-puff Z-pinch are studied numerically in this paper. A high temperature plasma with a high density can be generated in the process. Based on some physical analysis and assumption, a set of equations of one-dimensional Lagrangian radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) and its code are developed to solve the problem. Spatio-temporal distributions of plasma parameters in the processes are obtained, and their dynamic variations show that the major results are self-consistent. The duration for the plasma pinched to centre, as well as the width and the total energy of the x-ray pulse caused by the Z-pinch are in reasonable agreement with experimental results of GAMBLE-II. A zipping effect is also clearly shown in the simulation

  10. Time resolved observations of helical disruptions in a gas embedded Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Bruzzone, H.; Soto, L.; Wyndham, E.

    1990-01-01

    Multiframe holographic interferometry has been applied to a gas embedded Z-pinch driven by a 1.5 ω, 100 kV coaxial line generator. The Z-pinch is triggered by a 1.06 μm, 10 ns laser pulse, at the onset of the applied voltage. A hydrogen background pressure of 0.33 atmospheres, with a 3 cm interelectrode separation is used. The laser output is also doubled and it is passed through an optical system giving two or more pulses separated by up to 10 ns for the optical diagnostics. The complete evolution of the helical instability is observed and the main features are discussed. (Author)

  11. Radiative cooling of a cilindrical Z-pinch in the stage of plasma shett motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.; Imshennik, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Dinamics of a cylindrically symmetric Z-pinch in deiterium-neon mixture on the motion stage with volume radiation losses of energy of neon ions is considered. A two-temperature MHD model of Z-pinch is numerically calculated with various percentage of gases in mixture. It is found that radiation losses are essential in the dynamics of the discharqe. They decrease distribution of magnetic field and curreqt density. The temoerature of anode surface heated by absorbtion of radiation from the plasma sheath which forms in the discharge is obtained. The value of anode surface temperature prior to the arrival of the shock front is insufficient for operating of previously proposed mechanism of X-ray plasma focus regime. Another mechanism leading to X-ray regime being due to radiative cooiang as aiso suggested

  12. Progress in Z-pinch research driven by the mega-ampere device SPEED2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, Jose; Sylvester, Gustavo; Tarifeno, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Several pinch configurations have being studied at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission using the SPEED2 generator: plasma focus, gas embedded z-pinch and wire arrays. SPEED2 is a generator based on Marx technology (4.1 μF equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt∼10 13 A/s). Currently the device is being operated at 70kJ stored energy producing a peak current of 2.4 MA in short circuit. In this work results related to studies in gas embedded z-pinch in deuterium and studies in wire arrays are presented.

  13. Progress in Z-pinch research driven by the mega-ampere device SPEED2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, Jose; Tarifeno, Ariel; Sylvester, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Several pinch configurations have being studied at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission using the SPEED2 generator: plasma focus, gas embedded z-pinch and wire arrays. SPEED2 is a generator based on Marx technology (4.1 μF equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt∼10 13 A/s). Currently the device is being operated at 70kJ stored energy producing a peak current of 2.4 MA in short circuit. In this work results related to studies in gas embedded z-pinch in deuterium and studies in wire arrays are presented

  14. X-ray backlighting of two-wire Z-pinch plasma using X-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhao; Xiao-Bing, Zou; Ran, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two 50-μm Mo wires in parallel used as a Z-pinch load are electrically exploded with a pulsed current rising to 275 kA in 125 ns and their explosion processes are backlighted using an X-pinch as an x-ray source. The backlighting images show clearly the processes similar to those occurring in the initial stages of a cylindrical wire-array Z-pinch, including the electric explosion of single wires characterised by the dense wire cores surrounded by a low-density coronal plasma, the expansion of the exploding wire, the sausage instability (m = 0) in the coronal plasma around each wire, the motion of the coronal plasma as well as the wire core toward the current centroid, the formation of the precursor plasma column with a twist structure something like that of higher mode instability, especially the kink instability (m = 1). (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  15. Preliminary results from the flow-through z-pinch experiments: ZaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B.A.; Goilingo, R.P.; Tang, D.; Crawford, E.; Hartog, D.J.D.; Holly, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of an axial flow on the m = 1 kink instability in z-pinches has been studied numerically by reducing the linearized ideal MHD equations to a one-dimensional eigenvalue equation for the radial displacement. A diffuse z-pinch equilibrium is chosen that is made marginally stable to the m = 0 sausage mode by tailoring the pressure profile. The principal result reveals that a sheared axial flow does stabilize the kink mode when the shear exceeds a threshold value which is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the mode. This threshold value can be satisfied with a peak flow which is less than the Alfven speed for certain wavelengths. Additionally, the m = 0 sausage mode is driven from marginal stability into the stable regime which suggests that the equilibrium pressure profile control can be relaxed. The flow stabilization agrees with experimental observations. The details of the theoretical development will be presented

  16. Kinetic theory of the sausage instability of a z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Kulyabin, K.L.; Yan'kov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A linear problem of z-pinch sausage development is considered taking into account the influence of kinetic effects for ideal scanning current. Plasma electrons are considered to be cold and ions - collisionless. It is also supposed that the magnetic field inside a pinch doesn't affect the motion of ions, which are reflected like in a mirror from a jump of an electric potential arising on the plasma boundary. In case of long-wave perturbations ka >1 the acount of kinetics leads to considerable decrease of the increment [(ka) 1/2 times] in comparison with the hydrodynamic description, that permits to explain the increased instability of z-pinches observed in experiments

  17. Los Alamos Compact Toroid, fast liner, and High-Density Z-Pinch programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Hammel, J.E.; Sherwood, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The compact Toroid and High Density Z-Pinch are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. This paper summarizes these two programs along with the recently terminated Fast Liner Program. Included in this discussion is an analysis of compact Toroid formation techniques showing the tearing and reconnection of the fields that separate the spheromak from the radial fields of the coaxial source, and the final equilibrium state of the elongated FRC in the theta-pinch coil. In addition the typical dimensions of the geometry of the Fast Liner experiments are delineated Z-pinch and electrode assembly is displayed as is a graphic of the temporal behavior of the current required for radial equilibrium. Spheromak is examined in terms of formation, gross stability, and equilibrium and field reversed configuration is discussed in terms of gross stability, equilibrium, and confinement scaling

  18. Application of 2-D Simulations to Z-Pinch Experiment Design and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, C.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.

    1998-01-01

    The successful 2-D simulations of z-pinch experiments (reproducing such features as the measured experimental current drive, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy) can lead to a better understanding of the underlying physics in z-pinch implosions and to the opportunity to use such simulations in the analysis of experimental data and in the design of new experiments. Such use has been made with LANL simulations of experiments on the Sandia Saturn and Z accelerators. Applications have included ''vacuum'' and ''dynamic'' hohlraum experiments; variations in mass, radius and length; and ''nested'' array configurations. Notable examples include the explanation of the power/length results in reduced length pinches and the prediction of the current best power and pulsewidth nested array experiment. Examples of circumstances where the simulation results do not match the experiments will be given along with a discussion of opportunities for improved simulation results

  19. Experimental study on gas-puff Z-pinch load characteristics on yang accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiaodong; Huang Xianbin; Yang Libing; Dan Jiakun; Duan Shuchao; Zhang Zhaohui; Zhou Shaotong

    2010-01-01

    A supersonic single-shell gas-puff load has been developed for Z-pinch experiments on 'Yang' accelerator. Using a fast responding pressure probe to measure the supersonic gas flow, impact pressure at different position and plenum pressure were acquired, which were combined with gas dynamics formulas to determine gas pressures and densities. The radial density profile displays that positions of gas shell varies with axial position, and the gas densities on axis increases as the distance from nozzle increases. Integral radial densities indicates that the linear mass density peaks at nozzle exit and decreases as increasing the distance from nozzle. Using single-shell supersonic gas-puff load, Z-pinch implosion experiments were performed on 'Yang' accelerator. Primary analysis of implosion process was presented, and computational trajectories of imploding plasma shell using snowplow model are in agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  20. Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion target physics research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Alberts, T.E.; Asay, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Three hohlraum concepts are being pursued at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to investigate the possibility of using pulsed power driven magnetic implosions (z-pinches) to drive high gain targets capable of yields in the range of 200-1000 MJ. This research is being conducted on SNL's Z facility that is capable of driving peak currents of 20 MA in z-pinch loads producing implosion velocities as high as 7.5x10 7 cm/s, x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ, and x-ray powers exceeding 200 TW. This paper will discuss each of these hohlraum concepts and will overview the experiments that have been conducted on these systems to date. (author)

  1. Opacity measurements of tamped NaBr samples heated by z-pinch X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.E.; Arnault, P.; Blenski, T.; Dejonghe, G.; Peyrusse, O.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mancini, R.C.; Cuneo, M.E.; Nielsen, D.S.; Rochau, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory measurements provide benchmark data for wavelength-dependent plasma opacities to assist inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics, and atomic physics research. There are several potential benefits to using z-pinch radiation for opacity measurements, including relatively large cm-scale lateral sample sizes and relatively-long 3-5 ns experiment durations. These features enhance sample uniformity. The spectrally resolved transmission through a CH-tamped NaBr foil was measured. The z-pinch produced the X-rays for both the heating source and backlight source. The (50±4) eV foil electron temperature and (3±1)x10 21 cm -3 foil electron density were determined by analysis of the Na absorption features. LTE and NLTE opacity model calculations of the n=2 to 3, 4 transitions in bromine ionized into the M-shell are in reasonably good agreement with the data

  2. Physics and applications of micro and fast z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2003-07-01

    This is the proceedings of symposium on 'Physics and Application of Micro and Fast z-Pinch Plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. Recent progress of experimental and theoretical works on high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power is presented. Separate abstracts were presented for 4 of the papers in this report. The remaining 14 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  3. Imploding process and x-ray emission of shotgun z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Ryusuke; Takasugi, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tetsu

    2001-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed on the surface of a contracting z-pinch plasma. Wavelength of the instability was analyzed from the envelope of the profile, and it increased with implosion. Analysis with finite Larmor radius effect shows that there is some acceleration of ions during the contraction process. A suggestion to obtain macroscopically uniform plasma is to increase plasma current without heating the plasma. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation of the hot point generation in the Z pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.I.; Podgornov, V.A.; Litvin, D.N.; Senik, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments to explode thin composite (W-Al-W, W-SiO 2 -W) wires in SIGNAL fast high-current generator diode under about 200 kA load current amplitude and about 50 ns rise duration were carried out to study the possibility to control generation of hot point in Z pinch plasma. The parameters of generated hot points were studied using X-ray techniques. Analysis of the experiment results shows the possibility to control this process [ru

  5. Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel

    2002-01-01

    The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes

  6. Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loverich, J.; Shumlak, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear full five-moment two-fluid model is used to study axisymmetric instabilities in a Z pinch. When the electron velocity due to the current J is greater than the ion acoustic speed, high wave-number sausage instabilities develop that initiate shock waves in the ion fluid. This condition corresponds to a pinch radius on the order of a few ion Larmor radii

  7. Measurement of soft X-ray power from high-power Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengrong; Luo Jianhui; Zhou Haisheng; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    A Ni-film bolometer driven by the pulsed constant-voltage supply was developed for measuring soft X-ray energy under 1 keV generated from the Qiang-Guang-I, while the measuring system of the soft X-ray power was established with an X-ray diode detector. Results of the soft X-ray energy and power measurements were obtained at the experiment of Kr gas-puff high-power Z-pinch plasma

  8. GIT 16: megajoule pulsed generator with plasma opening switch for Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Volkov, A.M.; Kim, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Megajoule complex GIT 16 reserved for perfecting technology of forming powerful impulse with the help of intermediate inductive storage and break contact in the form of plasma opening switches and for investigating of irradiating loading of Z-pinch type is presented. The characteristics of isolated complex elements are given and basic results characterizing microsecond plasma opening switches at the current level of same M A are described

  9. Maximum compression of Z-pinch in a gas with high atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    An ideal system of equations with shock heating is used for describing of a Z pinch in a gas with high atomic number. In this case equations do not depend from the installation parameters. The approximate simple solution of such a system is presented. Numerical calculations of equations with radiative cooling and various dissipative effects have determined the employment conditions of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equation system. 10 refs

  10. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigations in experiments on Z-pinch stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopic methods were used to investigate the spatial distribution of Z-pinch plasma parameters. Experiments were carried out on the GAEL pulse line generator in Ecole Polytechnique (France) with different types of load. Obtained results for the concentration of electrons and plasma temperature showed that higher plasma homogeneity was obtained in experiments with complex load. Spectrograms demonstrate the stabilization effect of the A1-jet. (orig.)

  11. Optical and EUV studies of laser triggered Z-pinch discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with two geometries of laser assisted discharge plasma. Both devices are designed for fast Z-pinch discharge, triggered by laser produced plasma generated by ablation of one or both electrodes. The laser plasma parameters are adjusted to control the plasma load while the discharge parameters are adjusted to yield a rate of rise of current greater than 1010 A/s. The expansion dynamics and emission characteristics of the plasma were analysed, wit...

  12. Determination of plasma Z-pinch effect by intrinsic stimulated emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.T.; Liang, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The plasma Z-pinch behavior has been observed in a relatively small-bore diameter tube and low bank voltage discharge system. The instant of the occurrence of the laser line at 4880 A coincides with the plasma pinch time calculated by using a one-fluid snow-plow model. A determination of plasma pinch parameters by measuring the intrinsic stimulated emission of the ions is described

  13. Use of Z pinch radiation sources for high pressure shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Trott, W.M.; Chandler, G.A.; Holland, K.G.; Fleming, K.J.; Trucano, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in pulsed power technology demonstrate use of intense radiation sources (Z pinches) for driving planar shock waves in samples with spatial dimensions larger than possible with other radiation sources. Initial indications are that the use of Z pinch sources can be used to produce planar shock waves in samples with diameters of a few millimeters and thicknesses approaching one half millimeter. These dimensions allow increased accuracy of both shock velocity and particle velocity measurements. The Z pinch radiation source uses imploding metal plasma induced by self-magnetic fields applied to wire arrays to produce high temperature x-ray environments in vacuum hohlraum enclosures. Previous experiments have demonstrated that planar shock waves can be produced with this approach. A photograph of a wire array located inside the vacuum hohlraum is shown here. Typically, a few hundred individual wires are used to produce the Z pinch source. For the shock wave experiments being designed, arrays of 120 to 240 tungsten wires with a diameter of 40 mm and with individual diameters of about 10 microm are used. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the Z pulsed radiation source to demonstrate the ability to obtain VISAR measurements in the Z accelerator environment. Analysis of these results indicate that another effect, not initially anticipated, is an apparent change in refractive index that occurs in the various optical components used in the system. This effect results in an apparent shift in the frequency of reflected laser light, and causes an error in the measured particle velocity. Experiments are in progress to understand and minimize this effect

  14. Imploding process and x-ray emission of shotgun z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Ryusuke [Nihon University, College of Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takasugi, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tetsu [Nihon University, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed on the surface of a contracting z-pinch plasma. Wavelength of the instability was analyzed from the envelope of the profile, and it increased with implosion. Analysis with finite Larmor radius effect shows that there is some acceleration of ions during the contraction process. A suggestion to obtain macroscopically uniform plasma is to increase plasma current without heating the plasma. (author)

  15. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigations in experiments on Z-pinch stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, S.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Shelkovenko, T.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Romanova, V.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Etlicher, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaseau (France). Lab. de Phys. des Mililux Ionises; Attelan, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaseau (France). Lab. de Phys. des Mililux Ionises; Chuvatin, A.S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaseau (France). Lab. de Phys. des Mililux Ionises; Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC VNIIFTRI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Skobelev, I.Yu. [MISDC VNIIFTRI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    X-ray spectroscopic methods were used to investigate the spatial distribution of Z-pinch plasma parameters. Experiments were carried out on the GAEL pulse line generator in Ecole Polytechnique (France) with different types of load. Obtained results for the concentration of electrons and plasma temperature showed that higher plasma homogeneity was obtained in experiments with complex load. Spectrograms demonstrate the stabilization effect of the A1-jet. (orig.).

  16. Analysis of staged Z-pinch implosion trajectories from experiments on Zebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mike P.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    The Staged Z-pinch plasma confinement concept relies on compressing an annular liner of high-Z plasma onto a target plasma column of deuterium fuel. The interface between the liner and target is stable against the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, which leads to effective fuel compression and makes the concept interesting as a potential fusion reactor. The liner initiates as a neutral gas puff, while the target plasma is a partially ionized (Zeff coaxial plasma gun. The Zebra pulsed power generator (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) provides the discharge that ionizes the liner and drives the Z-pinch implosion. Diverse diagnostics observe the 100-300 km/s implosions including silicon diodes, photo-conducting detectors (PCDs), laser shadowgraphy, an XUV framing camera, and a visible streak camera. The imaging diagnostics track instabilities smaller than 0.1 mm, and Z-pinch diameters below 2.5 mm are seen at peak compression. This poster correlates the data from these diagnostics to elucidate implosion behavior dependencies on liner gas, liner pressure, target pressure, and applied, axial-magnetic field. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  17. An ICF system based on Z-pinch radiation produced by an explosive magnetic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.G.; Ivanovsky, A.V.; Mkhitariyan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a thermonuclear target can be ignited by an implosion accomplished with X-radiation generated by means of laser radiation conversion or by a Z pinch formed by a high-power current pulse. For these purposes laser facility NIF has been constructed in the USA, 'Megajoule' is being constructed in France and there is a project of laser facility UFL in Russia. The project of stationary facility X has been developed in SNL USA to produce a Z pinch capable of generating an x-ray pulse with parameters close to the ignition threshold. There is a great chance, however, that the already tested technologies, including disc explosive magnetic generators (DEMG), systems of current peaking based on electrically exploded foil opening switches and high-voltage switching devices, allow the intriguing problem of the ignition feasibility to be solved and the quickest and cheapest way to accomplish this to be provided. To explore this possibility, the paper will sequentially analyse the ignition conditions. The required parameters of Z pinch X-radiation and the size of the DEMG-based facility to obtain these parameters will be evaluated. Capabilities of the new current sources based on the DEMG and of the devices shaping a current pulse will be presented and compared with those required for the ignition.

  18. Characterization of diagnostic hole-closure in Z-pinch driven hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K. L.; Porter, J. L.; Ruggles, L. E.; Chandler, G. A.; Deeney, Chris; Vargas, M.; Moats, Ann; Struve, Ken; Torres, J.; McGurn, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we investigate the partial closure of diagnostic holes in Z-pinch driven hohlraums. These hohlraums differ from current laser-driven hohlraums in a number of ways such as their larger size, greater x-ray drive energy, and lower temperature. Although the diameter of the diagnostic holes on these Z-pinch driven hohlraums can be much greater than their laser-driven counterparts, 4 mm in diameter or larger, radiation impinges on the wall material surrounding the hole for the duration of the Z pinch, nearly 100 ns. This incident radiation causes plasma to ablate from the hohlraum walls surrounding the diagnostic hole and partially obscure this diagnostic hole. This partial obscuration reduces the effective area over which diagnostics view the hohlraum's radiation. This reduction in area can lead to an underestimation of the wall temperature when nonimaging diagnostics such as x-ray diodes and bolometers are used to determine power and later to infer a wall temperature. In this article we describe the techniques used to characterize the hole-closure in these hohlraums and present the experimental measurements of this process. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Characterization of diagnostic hole-closure in Z-pinch driven hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Porter, J. L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ruggles, L. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chandler, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Deeney, Chris [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Vargas, M. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Moats, Ann [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Struve, Ken [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Torres, J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); McGurn, J. S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-02-01

    In this article we investigate the partial closure of diagnostic holes in Z-pinch driven hohlraums. These hohlraums differ from current laser-driven hohlraums in a number of ways such as their larger size, greater x-ray drive energy, and lower temperature. Although the diameter of the diagnostic holes on these Z-pinch driven hohlraums can be much greater than their laser-driven counterparts, 4 mm in diameter or larger, radiation impinges on the wall material surrounding the hole for the duration of the Z pinch, nearly 100 ns. This incident radiation causes plasma to ablate from the hohlraum walls surrounding the diagnostic hole and partially obscure this diagnostic hole. This partial obscuration reduces the effective area over which diagnostics view the hohlraum's radiation. This reduction in area can lead to an underestimation of the wall temperature when nonimaging diagnostics such as x-ray diodes and bolometers are used to determine power and later to infer a wall temperature. In this article we describe the techniques used to characterize the hole-closure in these hohlraums and present the experimental measurements of this process. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  1. Study of soft X-ray energy spectra from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Zhang Guixin; Han Min; Luo Chengmu

    2006-01-01

    A ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer in the spectral range of 0.28 keV-1.56 keV was developed to study the soft X-ray radiation emitted from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma. It is composed of five channels covering the energy interval of interest without gaps. Soft X-ray spectral energy cuts were determined by the L absorption edges of selected filter elements (K absorption edges being used for light filter elements), and the optimum thickness of filter material was designed using computer code. To minimize the residual sensitivity outside the sensitivity range of each channel, element of the first filter was added into the second filter of all the Ross pair. To diminish the area of each filter, PIN detector with small sensitive area of 1 mm 2 was adopted for the spectrometer. A filter with small area is easy to fabricate and would be helpful to withstand the Z-pinch discharge shock wave. With this ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer, the energy spectra of soft X-ray from a small gas-puff Z-pinch were investigated, and the correlation between the soft X-ray yield and the plasma implosion state was also studied. (authors)

  2. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays in Static-Wall Hohlraum Geometry Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERS,RICHARD; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSLKA,WALTER; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,BOB; PETERSON,DARRELL; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; VESEY,ROGER A.

    1999-11-01

    Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch magnet on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-{micro}m-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm{sup 3} CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of {approx}85 eV for a duration of {approx}10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm{sup 3} CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of {approx}122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to {approx}150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation T{approx}(P/A){sup 1/4}. P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less.

  3. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays in Static-Wall Hohlraum Geometry Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandord, T.W.L.; Olson, R.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Mock, R.C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; Peterson, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch target on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-microm-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm 3 CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of minus85 eV for a duration of approximately 10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm 3 CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of approximately 122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to approximately 150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation (T-(P/A) 1/4 ). P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less

  4. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays in Static-Wall Hohlraum Geometry Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandord, T.W.L.; Olson, R.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Mock, R.C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; Peterson, R.R.

    1999-08-25

    Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch target on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-{micro}m-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm{sup 3} CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of {minus}85 eV for a duration of {approximately} 10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm{sup 3} CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of {approximately} 122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to {approximately} 150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation (T-(P/A){sup 1/4}). P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less.

  5. Z-pinch generated X-rays in static-wall-hohlraum geometry demonstrate potential for indirect-drive ICF studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Olson, R.E.; Mock, R.C.; Chandler, G.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; Peterson, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch target on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry [Fusion Technol. 35, 260 (1999)]. A 2-μm-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm 3 CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of ∼85 eV for a duration of ∼10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm 3 CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of ∼122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to ∼150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation T∼(P/A) 1/4 . P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of 10 -3 g/cm 3 or less. (authors)

  6. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays in Static-Wall Hohlraum Geometry Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Thomas W.L.; Bowers, Richard; Chandler, Gordon A.; Hebron, David E.; Leeper, Ramon J.; Matulska, W Alter; Mock, Raymond Cecil; Nash, Thomas J.; Olson, Craig L.; Peterson, Bob; Peterson, Darrell; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Simpson, Walter W.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Vesey, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch magnet on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-microm-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm 3 CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of ∼85 eV for a duration of ∼10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm 3 CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of ∼122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to ∼150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation T∼(P/A) 1/4 . P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less

  7. Investigation of energy and current concentration in composite Z-pinch through its soft X-ray emission on Angara-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Zakharov, S V; Zurin, M V; Olejnik, G M; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Slavnov, Yu K; Usov, Yu K [Scientific Reseacrh Inst. of Impulse Technique, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The Z-pinch of thin dense fiber with gas shell (composite pinch) was investigated at current levels of 2-3 MA on the ``Angara-5-1`` generator. High efficiency of generator power transfer into the pinch of 0.6-1 mm diameter was achieved when the masses of the gas and wire were comparable (20-40 {mu}g/cm). At the time of increase of a current {approx} 90 ns, powerful (0.5-1 TW) pulses of soft X-radiation with font rise times up to 1 ns were obtained. Up to a maximum of a pulse of radiation, the current from an external plasma shell penetrates mainly into the plasma corona of the fiber. The corona consists of a small part of fiber substance which is evaporated by radiation during compression of the external shell. (author). 3 figs., 11 refs.

  8. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  9. Study of X-ray emission in aluminium z-pinches; Etude de l'emission X dans les plasmas d'aluminium de type Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosch, R [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. de Conception et Realisation des Experimentations (DCRE), 91 - Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    Previous experiments, at 0.1. TX level, have shown that stability and x-ray emission of fast Z-pinches, could be strongly increased by imploding an aluminium vapor jet onto a very thin coaxial wire. We present here first results of an aluminium Z-pinch, using a similar liner, but at mega-ampere level. The pinch is driven by AMBIORIX high-power facility, a 2 TW,0.5 {omega}, 2 MA, 50 ns pulse-line generator. We study the effect of an aluminium wire and its diameter (20-50 {mu}m) on the implosion dynamics, on x-ray yield on MHD stability of the column at stagnation. Analysis of A1 jet on A1 wire shots demonstrates that x-ray yield due to emission processes in the H- and He- like ionization stages (i.e. the K-shell) is significantly enhanced, relative to that of A1 jet only ones. The wire also leads to better symmetry of the implosion, and to better reproducibility of shots. X-ray signals exhibit two similar pulses, 10 ns in width, 15 ns spaced. To discern spectral origin of both pulses, experiments are realized with stainless steel wire (25 {mu}m in diameter). Results show that liner and wire radial simultaneously and contribute to both pulses. Analysis of a typical A1 jet on A1 wire shot, using detailed collisional-radiative equilibrium (CRE) model is also given in this thesis. View o the pinch at stagnation as a cola-dense core surrounded by a hot-low density corona reproduces all features of the X-ray data. (author)

  10. Characterization of energy flow and instability development in two-dimensional simulations of hollow z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; McLenithan, K.D.; Deeney, C.; Chandler, G.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Matzen, M.K.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) Eulerian Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) code has been used to simulate imploding z pinches for three experiments fielded on the Los Alamos Pegasus II capacitor bank [J. C. Cochrane et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Third International Conference, London, United Kingdom 1993 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), p. 381] and the Sandia Saturn accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Second International Conference, Laguna Beach, 1989 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] and Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. These simulations match the experimental results closely and illustrate how the code results may be used to track the flow of energy in the simulation and account for the amount of total radiated energy. The differences between the calculated radiated energy and power in 2-D simulations and those from zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) Lagrangian simulations (which typically underpredict the total radiated energy and overpredict power) are due to the radially extended nature of the plasma shell, an effect which arises from the presence of magnetically driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities. The magnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities differ substantially from hydrodynamically driven instabilities and typical measures of instability development such as e-folding times and mixing layer thickness are inapplicable or of limited value. A new measure of global instability development is introduced, tied to the imploding plasma mass, termed open-quotes fractional involved mass.close quotes Examples of this quantity are shown for the three experiments along with a discussion of the applicability of this measure. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Improved Symmetry Greatly Increases X-Ray Power from Wire-Array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, J.F.; McGurn, J.S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Matzen, M.K.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Eddleman, J.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Maron, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire Z-pinches on a 20-TW electrical generator shows that the measured spatial characteristics and emitted x-ray power agree more closely with rad-hydro simulations when large numbers of wires are used. The measured x-ray power increases first slowly and then rapidly with decreasing interwire gap spacing. Simulations suggested that this increase reflects the transition from implosion of individual wire plasmas to one of an azimuthally symmetric plasma shell. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers of 40TW are achieved. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Three-fluid MHD-model of a current shell in Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazdenkov, S.V.; Vikhrev, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Formation and motion of the current shell in a power pulsed discharge (Z-pinch) are discussed. One-dimmensional nonstationary problem about a discharge in deuterium is solved in the three-liquid magnetohydrodynamic approximation with regard for gas ionization and motion of neutral atoms. It is shown that after the shell removal there remains a large quantity of an ionized gas near an isolating chamber wall. The quantity is sufficient that a secondary breakdown may take place in the ionized gas. The moving current shell has a double structure, i.e. a current ''piston'' and a current layer in the shock wave front

  13. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. of Plasma Physics and Fusion Research)

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (r{SIGMA}B{sup 2})' {le} 0, where {SIGMA} = 1 - (P{sub parallel} - P{sub perpendicular} {sub to})/B/sup 2/. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition {SIGMA} {ge} 0.

  14. Effects of pressure anisotropy on the M=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1986-05-01

    A new model is used to investigate the effect of the pressure anisotropy on the internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collision- less and cylindrical plasma is performed. A comparison of the derived stability criterion with that of ideal MHD is made. The conclusion is that the stability criterion (rSigmaB/sp2/) ' 0, where Sigma=1-(P/sb/(parall)-P/sb/(perpend)/ B/sp/2. (author)

  15. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB 2 )' ≤ 0, where Σ = 1 - (P parallel - P perpendicular to )/B 2 . It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ ≥ 0. (orig.)

  16. Characteristics of x-ray radiation from a gas-puff z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, N.; Takasugi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of x-ray radiation from Ar gas-puff z-pinch plasma have been investigated by changing delay time of discharge from gas puffing. Intense cloud structure of x-ray image was observed at small delay time region, but the total x-ray signal was not so intense. The x-ray signal increased with increasing the delay time, and hot spots of x-ray image also became intense. Electron temperature was evaluated from x-ray spectroscopic data, and no significant difference in temperature was observed. (author)

  17. Sausage instability of the z-pinch in InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, M.; Huebner, K.

    1975-01-01

    A differential equation for the perturbations of a stationary equilibrium, which takes into account the effects of extrinsic carriers, degeneration, induction of electric field, generation and recombination of carriers is used to study the z-pinch in n-InSb at 77 K. The calculations for the azimuthal wave number m = 0 lead to three oscillating modes, one of which is unstable above a certain threshold of the axial wavelength. This instability is caused by the nonconservation of plasma carriers. (orig.) [de

  18. Physical features of the wire-array Z-pinch plasmas imploding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Feng Kaiming

    2001-01-01

    In the process of research on controlled fusion reactors, scientists found that the Z-pinch plasma can produce very strong X-rays, comparing with other X-ray sources. In researching the process of imploding, the snowplow model and Haines model are introduced and proved. About amassing X-rays, several ways of discharging X-rays are carefully analyzed and the relative theories are proved. In doing simulations, the one dimension model is used in writing codes, the match relationships are calculated and the process of imploding is also simulated. Some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  19. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays Demonstrate Indirect-Drive ICF Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Derzon, M.S.; Hebron, D.E.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Olson, R.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-06-16

    Hohlraums (measuring 6-mm in diameter by 7-mm in height) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch. Over measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from {approximately}55 to {approximately}130 eV, and is in agreement with the Planckian relation P-T{sup 4}. The results suggest that indirect-drive ICF studies involving NIF relevant pulse shapes and <2-mm diameter capsules can he studied using this arrangement.

  20. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERS,R.L.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSKA,W.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; PETERSON,D.L.; PETERSON,R.R.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; RUIZ,CARLOS L.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; VESEY,ROGER A.

    1999-11-03

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed.

  1. Flow-through Z-pinch study for radiation generation and fusion energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Moir, R.; Shumlak, U.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a high-density fusion reactor which utilizes a flow-through Z pinch magnetic confinement configuration. Assessment of this reactor system is motivated by simplicity and small unit size (few hundred MWe) and immunity to plasma contamination made possible at high density. The type reactor discussed here would employ a liquid Li vortex as the first wall/blanket to capture fusion neutrons with minimum induced radioactivity and to achieve high wall loading and a power density of 200 w/cm 3

  2. An experimental study on Kr gas-puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Cong Peitian; Zeng Zhengzhong; Qiu Aici; Qiu Mengtong; Chen Hong; Liang Tianxue; He Wenlai; Wang Liangping; Zhang Zhong

    2002-01-01

    Kr gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed recently on Qiang-guang I pulsed power generator is reported. The generator has a 1.5 MA current with a pulse width of 100 ns. The total X-ray energy as well as its spectrum has been obtained, and the average power of X-ray radiation in 50 - 700 eV measured by XRDs is 2 TW. The generator configuration, gas-puff load assembly and diagnostic system for the experiments are described

  3. Investigation of intense XUV emission of nitrogen-puff Z-pinch with small energy input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raus, J.; Krejci, A.; Piffl, V.

    1992-01-01

    Light elements like nitrogen or carbon are suggested as optimum working media for small Z-pinches (several kJ energy input). It is shown that such elements can be ionized up to K-shell ionization stages not only in hot-spots, but also in the bulk plasma. The yield of nitrogen K-shell radiation (about 10 J/shot) is therefore substantially higher than that of the conventionally used neon. In addition to pinch physics and radiation dynamics, such radiation could be of interest for applications in the 'water window' spectral region. (author) 1 tab., 4 figs., 8 refs

  4. Interferometric characterization of density dynamics of an ultradense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackenhusen, J.G.; Bach, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have measured the spatially and temporally resolved density in a Z-pinch plasma by holographic interferometry. The high electron density (4 x 10 19 e/cm 3 ), short density scale length (100 μm), and low temperature (about 20 eV) make the plasma source suitable for simulation of laser-pellet interaction experiments at 10.6-μm laser wavelengths. A cinema of density evolution, indicating plasma pinching and subsequent relaxation, provides an experimental view of plasma dynamics which is then compared to simple theoretical models

  5. Modelling of capillary Z-pinch recombination pumping of boron extreme ultraviolet laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Vrbová, M.; Hübner, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2009), 073105 1-073105 11 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/0275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Boron * capillary * discharges (electric * laser ablation * optical pumping * plasma heating by laser * plasma kinetic theory * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * Z pinch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/? PHP /16/073105

  6. Mapping return currents in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas using proton deflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Sinenian, N.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Beg, F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic return currents and electromagnetic field structure in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas have been measured using proton deflectometry. Experiments were modeled to accurately interpret deflections observed in proton radiographs. Current flow is shown to begin on axis and migrate outwards with the expanding coronal plasma. Magnetic field strengths of ∼1 T are generated by currents that increase from ∼2 kA to ∼7 kA over the course of the laser pulse. Proton deflectometry has been demonstrated to be a practical alternative to other magnetic field diagnostics for these types of plasmas.

  7. Characteristics of the magnetic wall reflection model on ion acceleration in gas-puff z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, M.; Takasugi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic wall reflection model was examined with the numerical simulation of the trajectory calculation of particles. This model is for the ions accelerated by some current-independent mechanism. The trajectory calculation showed angle dependency of highest velocities of accelerated particles. This characteristics is of the magnetic wall reflection model, not of the other current-independent acceleration mechanism. Thomson parabola measurements of accelerated ions produced in the gas-puff z-pinch experiments were carried out for the verification of the angle dependency. (author)

  8. Finite Larmor radius effects on the stability properties of internal modes of a z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerstedt, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    From the Vlasov-fluid model a set of approximate stability equations describing the stability of a cylindrically symmetric z-pinch is derived. The equations are derived in the limit of small gyroradius and include first order kinetic effects such as finite ion Larmor radius effects and resonant ion effects. Neglecting the resonant ion terms, we explicitly solve this set of equations for a constant current density profile leading to a dispersion relation. FLR effects are shown for the case of m=1 internal mode to be stabilizing and for large wavenumbers k, using a trial function approach, absolute stabilization is found. (author)

  9. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays Demonstrate Indirect-Drive ICF Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Derzon, M.S.; Hebron, D.E.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Olson, R.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums (measuring 6-mm in diameter by 7-mm in height) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch. Over measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from approximately55 to approximately130 eV, and is in agreement with the Planckian relation P-T 4 . The results suggest that indirect-drive ICF studies involving NIF relevant pulse shapes and <2-mm diameter capsules can he studied using this arrangement

  10. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWERS, R.L.; CHANDLER, GORDON A.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATUSKA, W.; MOCK, RAYMOND CECIL; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; PETERSON, R.R.; RUGGLES, LAURENCE E.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON, WALTER W.; VESEY, ROGER A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed

  11. Stability properties of a toroidal z-pinch in an external magnetic multipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    MHD stability of m=1, axisymmetric, external modes of a toroidal z-pinch immersed in an external multipole field (Extrap configuration) is studied. The description includes the effects of a weak toroidicity, a non-circular plasma cross-section and the influence of induced currents in the external conductors. It is found that the non-circularity of the plasma cross-section always has a destabilizing effect but that the m=1 mode can be stabilized by the external feedback if the non-circularity is small. (author)

  12. Investigation of layered Z-pinches on ANGARA-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Zakharov, S V; Zurin, M V; Nedoseev, S L; Olejnik, G M; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Experimental results of layered Z-pinch investigations on Angara-5-1 are presented. The level of current was 3-4 MA through a load with a 70-90 ns rise time. The initial-to-final radius ratio increased from 10-15 for a conventional single pinch, up to 30-50 for the double layered design. A power flux of about 8-12 TW/cm{sup 2} was achieved with front rise time about 3 ns. The final pinch diameter was down to 0.5-1 mm. (author). 4 figs., 1 ref.

  13. Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the microscopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)

  14. Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the micro-scopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)

  15. A conceptual fusion reactor based on the high-plasma-density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Carlson, G.; Hoffman, M.; Werner, R.

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual DT and DD fusion reactors are discussed based on magnetic confinement with the high-plasma-density Z-pinch. The reactor concepts have no ''first wall'', the fusion neutrons and plasma energy being absorbed directly into a surrounding lithium vortex blanket. Efficient systems with low re-circulated power are projected, based on a flow-through pinch cycle for which overall Q values can approach 10. The conceptual reactors are characterized by simplicity, small minimum size (100MW(e)) and by the potential for minimal radioactivity hazards. (author)

  16. Z -Pinch-Generated X Rays Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Bowers, R. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Derzon, M. S.; Hebron, D. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Mock, R. C.; Nash, T. J.; Peterson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums measuring 6 mm in diameter by 7 mm in height have been heated by x rays from a Z pinch. Over the measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from ∼55 to ∼130 eV , and is in agreement with the Planckian relation T∼P 1/4 . The results suggest that indirect-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments involving National Ignition Facility relevant pulse shapes and <2 mm diameter capsules can be studied using this arrangement. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Spectroscopic determination of the magnetic field distribution in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorian, L; Davara, G; Kroupp, E; Maron, Y [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics

    1997-12-31

    The time dependent radial distribution of the magnetic field in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma has been determined by observing the Zeeman effect on emission lines, allowed for by polarization spectroscopy and high accuracy line-profile measurements. A modeling scheme, based on a 1-D magnetic diffusion equation, is used to fit the experimental data. The plasma conductivity inferred from the field distribution was found to be consistent with the Spitzer conductivity. The current density distribution and the time dependent plasma region in which the entire circuit current flows were determined. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs.

  18. A study of Z-pinch in capillary filled by boron vapours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2009), s. 481-486 ISSN 1434-6079. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/23rd./. Praha, 16.06.2008-19.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/0275; GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Z-pinches * plasma focus and other pinch devices * Plasma devices for generation of coherent radiation * Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid equation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers www.edpsciences.org/epjd nebo www.epj.org

  19. Data processing for elliptical crystal spectrometer used in Z-pinch diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Xie Weiping; Huang Xianbin; Yang Libing; Cai Hongchun; Xiao Shali

    2010-01-01

    Elliptical crystal spectrometers are key instruments to detect the line spectra of soft X-rays in Z-pinch diagnostics. This paper deals with the data processing for an elliptical crystal spectrometer. Taking the diagnostic results obtained in a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment as an example, the detailed processes, such as changing the optical density to X-ray intensity according a calibrated film response curve, determining the X-ray energy of the measured spectrum using the energy and the order number of scanned point of identified spectral lines, and correcting the intensity of spectrum using the formula given by Henke are discussed. In the Henke's formula, the effect of nonuniform dispersion, integrated reflectivity of crystals and transmission of X-ray filters are considered. The final unfolding results are presented, including the relative intensities of several neon K-shell lines (H α , He α and He β , etc.) given by Lorentz fitting. The relative errors of the spectral intensities are also briefly discussed. (authors)

  20. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  1. Experimental studies of the MHD stability of non-circular Extrap Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Extrap Z-pinches, which can be sustained for many Alfven times, can be characterized as non-circular Z-pinch discharges bounded by a magnetic separatrix acting somewhat like a limiter. The magnetic separatrix is produced when a vacuum magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The separatrix deforms the pinch cross-section and affects the equilibrium at the pinch boundary; both effects improve stability. Experiments have been performed which indicate that both effects are necessary for the successful generation of sustained Extrap discharges. In one experiment, the importance of the non-circularity of the cross-section was investigated. The deformation provided by the vacuum field can provide regions in the discharge where field lines have good curvature, which improves the stability of the configuration against internal modes. In configurations apparently lacking good curvature, discharges could not be sustained. In a second experiment, the dependence of the amplitude of global kink instabilities on the discharge current density profile were studied. The behaviour of the modes was consistent with that which would be expected for surface current-driven modes. (orig.)

  2. Experimental studies of the MHD stability of non-circular extrap Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Extrap Z-pinches, which can be sustained for many Alfven times, can be characterized as non-circular Z-pinch discharges bounded by a magnetic separatrix acting somewhat like a limiter. The magnetic separatrix is produced when a vacuum magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The separatrix deforms the pinch cross-section and affects the equilibrium at the pinch boundary; both effects improve stability. Experiments have been performed which indicate that both effects are necessary for the successful generation of sustained Extrap discharges. In one experiment, the importance of the non-circularity of the cross-section was investigated. The deformation provided by the vacuum field can provide regions in the discharge where field lines have good curvature, which improves the stability of the configuration against internal modes. In configurations apparently lacking good curvature, discharges could not be sustained. In a second experiment, the dependence of the amplitude of global kink instabilities on the discharge current density profile were studied. The behaviour of the modes was consistent with that which would be expected for surface current-driven modes. (Author)

  3. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  4. Particle orbits and non-ideal MHD stability of Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Particle orbits in a linear EXTRAP vacuum magnetic field configuration are computed. The results indicate that, with an applied electric field along the axis, the particles starting near the magnetic stagnation line would gain substantial energy in the 'free fall', and are the most efficient ones to participate in the ionization process. The acquired energy depends on the electric field strength; the required value of the field is determined. The influence of the pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch, using a generalization of Freidbergs perpendicular MHD model, is investigated. It is found that the stability criterion can not be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition. This investigation is also performed using the double-adiabatic theory. A finite Larmor radius treatment of the small wavelength kink instabilities for a Z-pinch geometry is presented. It is shown that, when the gyroviscosity is included in the perpendicular MHD model, exponentially growing Alfven waves are predicted even in a homogeneous static equilibrium with isotropic plasma pressure. The Hall effect in the incompressible Hall fluid model is considered. It is found that the Hall parameter reduces the growth rates of the kink modes, but it does not yield complete stabilization (author)

  5. Particle orbits and non-ideal MHD stability of Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Particle orbits in a linear EXTRAP vacuum magnetic field configuration are computed. The results indicate that, with an applied electric field along the axis, the particles starting near the magnetic stagnation line would gain substantial energy in the 'free fall', and are the most efficient ones to participate in the ionization process. The acquired energy depends on the electric field strength; the required value of the field is determined. The influence of the pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch, using a generalization of Freidbergs perpendicular MHD model, is investigated. It is found that the stability criterion can not be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition. This investigation is also performed using the double-adiabatic theory. A finite Larmor radius treatment of the small wavelength kink instabilities for a Z-pinch geometry is presented. It is shown that, when the gyroviscosity is included in the perpendicular MHD model, exponentially growing Alfven waves are predicted even in a homogeneous static equilibrium with isotropic plasma pressure. The Hall effect in the incompressible Hall fluid model is considered. It is found that the Hall parameter reduces the growth rates of the kink modes, but it does not yield complete stabilization

  6. Spatially and temporally resolved EUV emissions from SATURN z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Breeze, S.; Mock, R.; Jobe, D.

    1995-01-01

    EUV emissions can be used to measure several z-pinch parameters. The authors have measured implosion velocity from Doppler splitting of lines and estimated electron temperature during run-in from the mean ionization state of line emissions. In an argon pinch they measure an electron temperature of 100 eV before stagnation. To date Doppler split lines have measured implosion velocities less than 40 cm/microsecond. They are presently attempting to measure magnetic field or load current from Zeeman splitting and it may be possible to measure electron density from a Stark-broadened line. Opacity and ion thermal broadening may also contribute to line width information. The spectrometer utilizes a variable line space grating to give a flat focal field. Spectral resolution with a 60 micron detector resolution is up to 3,000 and generally increases with wavelength. This is sufficient to detect several plasma line broadening mechanisms. The spectrometer may detect lines above 100 angstrom and below 1,400 angstrom. Spectral range across a microchannel plate stripline detector decreases with increasing wavelength setting. The authors may gate two striplines with 1 to 12 nsec gates at any time during the pinch discharge. Each stripline spatially images the pinch diameter perpendicular to the direction of dispersion. Spatial resolution in the pinch diameter is 1 mm. Spatial acquisition along the z axis is also 1 mm. Data are presented from argon, krypton, and aluminum z-pinch discharges on the SATURN accelerator

  7. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    2013-04-01

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next, the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.

  8. Development of pulsed high current drivers for fast Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Zeng Zhengzhong; Zeng Jiangtao; Kuai Bin; Yang Hailiang

    2006-01-01

    It is required that the peak current of high power pulsed drive for fast Z-pinch reaches 60 MA to realize inertial confine fusion (ICF) and high yield (HY). With the conventional technological methods similar to the Z or Saturn apparatus, increasing driver current further is impractical and difficult according to the cost, structure complexity and reliability of the driver, so it is necessary to develop novel fast pulsed high current driver. The present art-of-state and trends of fast Z-pinch driver are summarized, and the typical conceptual designs and technological methods on ICF/HY PRS (plasma radiation source) and destroying-level super X-ray simulators in USA and Russia are outlined, such as HCEI's UGXX1 driver and new Saturn driver based on fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) and novel driver based on fast Marx generator (FMG) with current of 15 MA. The crucial technological problems and requirements to investigate in the future are presented. (authors)

  9. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X. B., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Zhou, S. T., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Ren, X. D., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Dan, J. K., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Wang, K. L., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Zhang, S. Q., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Li, J., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Xu, Q., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Duan, S. C., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Ouyang, K., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Chen, G. H., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Ji, C., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Wang, M., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Feng, S. P., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Yang, L. B., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Xie, W. P., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Deng, J. J., E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com [Key Lab of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132∼276 tungsten wires with 5∼10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ∼3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3∼5×10{sup 7} cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  10. Physical analysis for designing nested-wire arrays on Z-pinch implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Liu Quan; Ding Ning; Ning Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Z-pinch experiments have demonstrated that the X-ray power increases 40% with a nested-wire array compared with that with a single-layered wire array. The design of the nested-wire array on Z accelerator is studied through the implosion dynamics and the growth of RT instabilities. The analysis shows that the nested-wire array does not produce more total X-ray radiation energy than the single-layered wire array, but it obviously increases the X-ray power. The radius of the outer array of the nested-wire array could be determined based on the radius of the optimized single-layered. The masses of the outer and inner arrays could be determined by the implosion time of the nested-wire array, which is roughly the same as that of the single-layered wire array. Some suggestions are put forward which may be helpful in the nested-wire array design for Z-pinch experiments. (authors)

  11. High performance capsule implosions driven by the Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G A [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Bailey, J E [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Chandler, G A [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Cooper, G [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Dunham, G S [K-tech Corporation, 10800 Gibson S E, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Lake, P W [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Leeper, R J [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Lemke, R W [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Mehlhorn, T A [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Nikroo, A [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Peterson, K J [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ruiz, C L [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Schroen, D G [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Slutz, S A [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Steinman, D [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Stygar, W A [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Varnum, W [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800 MS 1196, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum (ZPDH) is a high-power x-ray source that has been used in a variety of high energy-density experiments including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies. The system consists of a tungsten wire-array Z pinch that implodes onto a low-density CH{sub 2} foam converter launching a radiating shock that heats the hohlraum to radiation temperatures >200 eV. Through time-gated pinhole camera measurements, the mean shock speed is measured from 28 experiments to be 326 {+-} 4 {mu}m ns{sup -1} with a shot-to-shot standard deviation of 7%. Broad-band x-ray measurements indicate that the shot-to-shot reproducibility in the power emission and pulse-shape of the source shock is <15% and {approx}5%, respectively. Calculations have shown that an ICF capsule placed at the center of the foam in the ZPDH can absorb >40 kJ of x-ray energy, within a factor of 4 of the energy believed sufficient for ICF ignition. The capsule types imploded by the ZPDH have evolved over four years culminating in a design that produces record indirect-drive DD thermonuclear neutron yields of up to 3.5E11.

  12. Effect of discrete wires on the implosion dynamics of wire array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S. V.; Beg, F. N.; Bland, S. N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Dangor, A. E.; Haines, M. G.; Kwek, K. H.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    A phenomenological model of wire array Z-pinch implosions, based on the analysis of experimental data obtained on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) generator [I. H. Mitchell , Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)], is described. The data show that during the first ∼80% of the implosion the wire cores remain stationary in their initial positions, while the coronal plasma is continuously jetting from the wire cores to the array axis. This phase ends by the formation of gaps in the wire cores, which occurs due to the nonuniformity of the ablation rate along the wires. The final phase of the implosion starting at this time occurs as a rapid snowplow-like implosion of the radially distributed precursor plasma, previously injected in the interior of the array. The density distribution of the precursor plasma, being peaked on the array axis, could be a key factor providing stability of the wire array implosions operating in the regime of discrete wires. The modified ''initial'' conditions for simulations of wire array Z-pinch implosions with one-dimension (1D) and two-dimensions (2D) in the r--z plane, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes, and a possible scaling to a larger drive current are discussed

  13. Space and time resolved observations of plasma dynamics in a compressional gas embedded Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, L.; Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Saavedra, R.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Mitchell, I.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experiments in a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch are presented. The experiments have been carried out in H 2 at 1/3 atm, using a pulse power generator capable of delivering a dl/dt > 10 12 A/s. The pinch is initiated by a focused laser pulse, which is coaxial with a cylindrical DC microdischarge. This configuration results in double column pinch at early times, which at current rise evolves into a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch. Diagnostics used are Rogowski coil, single frame holographic interferometry, and holographic shadowgraphy, visible streak camera images from which current, density, line density, pinch radius and plasma motion are obtained. The pinch is characterized by a maximum on axis density which is much higher than the expected value from the filling pressure, with a Bennett temperature of 40 eV at 130 kA. The results shown confirm the high degree of compression achievable with the composite preionization scheme. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  14. Three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the pulsed-power Z-pinch accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic model of the principal pulsed-power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator [D. H. McDaniel et al., in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches (AIP, New York, 2002, p. 23] has been developed. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the accelerator’s intermediate-storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, triplate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The insulator-stack electrodes are coupled to a transmission-line circuit model of the four-level magnetically insulated vacuum-transmission-line section and double-post-hole convolute. The vacuum-section circuit model is terminated by a one-dimensional self-consistent dynamic model of an imploding z-pinch load. The simulation results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator, and are in good agreement with the data, especially for times until peak load power. This modeling effort demonstrates that 3D electromagnetic models of large-scale, multiple-module, pulsed-power accelerators are now computationally tractable. This, in turn, presents new opportunities for simulating the operation of existing pulsed-power systems used in a variety of high-energy-density-physics and radiographic applications, as well as even higher-power next-generation accelerators before they are constructed.

  15. Multi-Dimensional Radiation Transport in Dense Z-pinch Wire Array Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, C. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Sherlock, M.; Lebedev, S. V.

    2004-11-01

    Z-pinch wire arrays have proven to be an extremely efficient high yield, short pulse x-ray source with potential application to ICF. The characteristics of the x-ray pulse produced have been shown to be largely determined by non-uniform break up of the wires leading to a highly irregular distribution of mass which implodes towards the axis. Modelling the inherent 3D nature of these plasmas is already computationally very expensive, and so energy exchange through radiation is frequently neglected, assuming instead an optically thin radiation loss model. With a significant fraction of the total energy at late stages being radiated through a dense, optically thick plasma this approach is potentially inadequate in fully describing the implosion. We analyse the effects of radiative cooling and radiation transport on stagnation and precursor development in wire array z-pinch implosions. A three temperature multidimensional MHD code using a single group radiation diffusion model is used to study radiation trapping in the precursor, and the effects of preheating on the implosion dynamics. Energy exchange in the final stagnated plasma and its effects on the x-ray pulse shape is also discussed. This work was partially supported by the SSAA program of the NNSA through DoE cooperative agreement DE-F03-02NA00057.

  16. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  17. Neutron yield in experiments with Z-pinches in frozen deuterium filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.; Sukhorukov, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments on the properties of the neutron yield and stability of dense Z-pinches in frozen deuterium filaments two years ago have still not received a proper explanation. A discharge in a dielectric deuterium filament differs qualitatively in its behavior from one in a metal conductor. The authors assert attempts to interpret the experiment have not taken this fact properly into account. The enhanced stability and substantial neutron yield do not follow from the classical picture of a Bennett equilibrium in the current channel. The most important experimental characteristic of a discharge in frozen deuterium is the dependence of the neutron yield on the current strength at a given stage. The spread in the experimental points is quite large so one naturally prefers t describe the experimental data by means of a physically simple model and not go to a full-scale simulation of all the processes. When the deuterium is fully ionized the electron drift velocity is smaller than the thermal velocity, enabling calculation of the neutron yield by means of a self-similar model of the Z-pinch compression which treats electron degeneracy. To find the neutron yield it suffices to consider only the first half-period of the self-similar oscillations including the state of maximum compression. The subsequent evolution of the current channel, which is associated with radial expansion, does not contribute significantly to the neutron yield

  18. Evidence of flow stabilization in the ZaP Z pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumlak, U.; Crawford, E.; Golingo, R.P.; Nelson, B.A.; Zyrmpas, A.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Holly, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of an axial flow on the m = 1 kink instability in Z pinches has been studied numerically with a linearized ideal MHD model to reveal that a sheared axial flow stabilizes the kink mode when the shear exceeds a threshold. The sheared flow stabilizing effect is investigated with the flow-through Z pinch experiment, ZaP. An azimuthal array of surface mounted magnetic probes located at the midplane of the 50 cm long pinch plasma measures the fluctuation levels of the azimuthal modes m=1, 2, and 3. After pinch formation a quiescent period is found where the mode activity is reduced to a few percent of the average field. Optical images from a fast framing camera and a HeNe interferometer also indicate a stable pinch plasma during this time. Doppler shift measurements of a C-III line correspond to an axial flow velocity of 9.6x10 4 m/s internal to the pinch. During the time when the axial plasma flow is high, the plasma experiences a quiescent period which lasts approximately 800 exponential growth times predicted by linear theory for a static plasma. (author)

  19. Determining the temperature and density distribution from a Z-pinch radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, W.; Lee, H.

    1997-01-01

    High temperature radiation sources exceeding one hundred eV can be produced via z-pinches using currently available pulsed power. The usual approach to compare the z-pinch simulation and experimental data is to convert the radiation output at the source, whose temperature and density distributions are computed from the 2-D MHD code, into simulated data such as a spectrometer reading. This conversion process involves a radiation transfer calculation through the axially symmetric source, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and folding the radiation that reaches the detector with the frequency-dependent response function. In this paper the authors propose a different approach by which they can determine the temperature and density distributions of the radiation source directly from the spatially resolved spectral data. This unfolding process is reliable and unambiguous for the ideal case where LTE holds and the source is axially symmetric. In reality, imperfect LTE and axial symmetry will introduce inaccuracies into the unfolded distributions. The authors use a parameter optimization routine to find the temperature and density distributions that best fit the data. They know from their past experience that the radiation source resulting from the implosion of a thin foil does not exhibit good axial symmetry. However, recent experiments carried out at Sandia National Laboratory using multiple wire arrays were very promising to achieve reasonably good symmetry. For these experiments the method will provide a valuable diagnostic tool

  20. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  1. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here

  2. Evaluation of Turner relaxed state as a model of long-lived ion-trapping structures in plasma focus and Z-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2011-03-01

    Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.

  3. Pinch me - I'm fusing. Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DERZON, MARK S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind

  4. Actively doped solid core Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Solid photonic bandgap fibers offer distributed spectral filtering with extraordinary high suppression. This opens new possibilities of artificially tailoring the gain spectrum of fibers. We present record-performance of such fibers and outline their future applications....

  5. Effects of Mass Ablation on the Scaling of X-Ray Power with Current in Wire-Array Z Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, R. W.; Sinars, D. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Cuneo, M. E.; Yu, E. P.; Haill, T. A.; Hanshaw, H. L.; Brunner, T. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray production by imploding wire-array Z pinches is studied using radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulation. It is found that the density distribution created by ablating wire material influences both x-ray power production, and how the peak power scales with applied current. For a given array there is an optimum ablation rate that maximizes the peak x-ray power, and produces the strongest scaling of peak power with peak current. This work is consistent with trends in wire-array Z pinch x-ray power scaling experiments on the Z accelerator

  6. Z-pinch driven hohlraums design for the 100 nanoseconds current time scale; Conception de cavites radiatives chauffees par plasma de striction magnetique en regime 100ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, F

    2003-12-15

    This work estimates Z-pinch driven hohlraums capabilities to obtain high temperatures (>200 eV). Simple models are proposed to calculate the performances offered by currents of 5 to 100 MA in 100 ns. The one dimensional physics of the Z-pinch at the length scale of its thickness and the hydrodynamics instabilities are studied. Then the enhancement of hohlraums performances with double nested Z-pinches or the use of an axial magnetic field is analysed. Z-pinch direct drive approach for inertial confinement fusion is finally considered. All the presented results are based on theoretical and 2D numerical approach and on the analysis of experimental results which were obtained on the american 'Z' generator. Annexes recall radiation MHD equations and check their validity for Z-pinch implosion. (author)

  7. Modeling x-ray data for the Saturn z-pinch machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.; Deeney, C.; Derzon, M.

    1997-01-01

    A wealth of XRD and time dependent x-ray imaging data exist for the Saturn z-pinch machine, where the load is either a tungsten wire array or a tungsten wire array which implodes onto a SiO 2 foam. Also, these pinches have been modeled with a 2-D RMHD Eulerian computer code. In this paper the authors start with the 2-D Eulerian results to calculate time and spatially dependent spectra using both LTE and NLTE models. Then using response functions, these spectra are converted to XRD currents and camera images, which are quantitatively compared with the data. Through these comparisons, areas of good and lesser quality agreement are determined, and areas are identified where the 2-D Eulerian code should be improved

  8. Development of an all-optical framing camera and its application on the Z-pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Peng, Bodong; Wang, Hong-Xing; Song, Guzhou; Li, Binkang; Yue, Zhiqin; Li, Yang; Sun, Tieping; Xu, Qing; Ma, Jiming; Sheng, Liang; Han, Changcai; Duan, Baojun; Yao, Zhiming; Yan, Weipeng

    2017-12-11

    An all-optical framing camera has been developed which measures the spatial profile of photons flux by utilizing a laser beam to probe the refractive index change in an indium phosphide semiconductor. This framing camera acquires two frames with the time resolution of about 1.5 ns and the inter frame separation time of about 13 ns by angularly multiplexing the probe beam on to the semiconductor. The spatial resolution of this camera has been estimated to be about 140 μm and the spectral response of this camera has also been theoretically investigated in 5 eV-100 KeV range. This camera has been applied in investigating the imploding dynamics of the molybdenum planar wire array Z-pinch on the 1-MA "QiangGuang-1" facility. This framing camera can provide an alternative scheme for high energy density physics experiments.

  9. Development of Z-pinch optical guiding for laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed optical guiding of intense laser pulse by fast Z-pinch for channel guided laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). It has been developed based on capillary discharge-pumped X-ray laser technique. The discharge driven by current of 4.8 kA with a rise time of 15 ns through preionized helium gas could produce an uniform guiding channel with good reproducibility. With this new guiding method an intense Ti-Sapphire laser pulse (λ=790 nm, 2.2 TW, 90 fs, 1 x 10 17 W/cm 2 ) was transported through the channel over a distance of 2 cm corresponding to 12.5 times the Rayleigh length. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the 'NOVA' Z-pinch equipment working as vacuum-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna, H.; Bernal, L.; Cortazar, D.; Iglesias, G.; Pouzo, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Z-pinch device 'NOVA' (2 kjoule, 10 kV, 250 kA) is operated as a vacuum gap. The plasma is generated in high vacuum (10 -5 mb) by the material let loose from the copper electrodes. Many strong compressions (micro pinches) are produced in the pinch column over the first quarter of the current period. This is detected by the observable pulses in the dI/dt signal. Hard X-rays generated in coincidence with the micro pinches are detected using a scintillator-photomultiplier system. This work studies the plasma evolution, by taking pictures of the pinch with obturation times of about 15 ns, temporally correlated with the dI/dt signal. Instabilities of types m=0 and m=1 are observed. (Author). 3 refs., 6 figs

  11. 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Springer, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile

  12. Effect of gyroviscosity on the small axial wavelength internal kink instability in the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of ion gyroviscosity on the stability of m=1 small axial wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated by normal mode methods. We use the Incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model introduced to include Finite Larmor Radius effects. For vanishing Larmor radius, a stability criterion which coincides with that of ideal MHD is found; the Kadomtsev criterion 2rdp/dr+m/sp2/B/sp2///my//sb0/> or = 0. This criterion predicts instability unless the current density becomes singular at the centre of the pinch. When the Larmor radius terms of the ion pressure tensor are included, we find that marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized. (authors)

  13. Prepulse suppression and allowable prepulse voltage in Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Minghe; Xie Weiping; Li Hongtao

    2004-01-01

    The causes of prepulse origin in pulse power machine especially in Blumlein pulser are analyzed in this paper. A method that can reduce the prepulse by an inductance between Marx and zero voltage node has been presented while a calculation example used Pspice is provided. The prepulse switches can be used to reduce the prepulse effects in many fields. The prepulse requests for wire arrays in Z-pinch experiments are analyzed and explained by means of specific reaction quantity and vaporization heat, the results of the calculations are similar. In fact, the results of experiments indicate that the energy deposited in the wires is sufficient to bring the aluminium wires to partial or total vaporization. Because the value of prepulse current is larger than that of calculation, this indicates the calculation method is right

  14. Departures from thermal equilibrium in a dense Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents on analysis of several features of the emission spectrum obtained from a dense hydrogen Z-pinch plasma. The spectrum is characterized by an extremely broad H/sub β/ line and by the absence of an emission line at the H/sub b/ wavelength. Comparison with theory shows that the spectrum is inconsistent with the assumption of a thermal or collision-dominated plasma. The assumption of a substantial overpopulation of the atomic-hydrogen excited levels, ascribed to a rising degree of plasma ionization, provides a satisfactory description of the observed spectrum. This result illustrates the difficulty of establishing valid equilibrium criteria for transient plasmas, even in the case of plasma densities as high as 10 19 cm -3

  15. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  16. Wire array z-pinch insights for high X-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Marder, B.M.; Desjarlais, M.P. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  17. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-31

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X-ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  18. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured. (author). 5 figs., 16 refs

  19. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1996-08-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4+1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 {+-}0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured.

  20. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-08-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4+1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 ±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured

  1. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays.

  2. Development of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas in the presence of nonideal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Fiala, V.

    2004-01-01

    The development of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas has been studied with a three-dimensional hybrid simulation model. Plasma equilibria without and with axial sheared flow, and with different values of the parameter ε H , which appears as a coefficient before the Hall term in dimensionless nonideal MHD equations, have been considered. Increasing the parameter ε H leads to larger simulation growth rates for both m=0 sausage and m=1 kink modes. The hybrid simulations do however show that axial sheared flow severely curtails the linear and nonlinear development of both sausage and kink instabilities. In these respects, the hybrid simulations are in qualitative agreement with linear Hall MHD results. Moreover, in the nonlinear stage, long wavelength modes dominate the excited wave spectrum when the parameter ε H is small. For the larger value of the parameter ε H , small-scale structures do however develop nonlinearly in the excited wave spectrum at late times

  3. Developments of sausages in a z-pinch with short-wave perturbation of a boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A numeric simulation of sausage evolution in z-pinch during short-wave excitation of the boundary of plasma column pinch is carried out. The simulation has shown that due to nonlinear development of sausages in a pinch plasma colomn the cavities filled with a magnetic field in a rarefied pinch plasma are formed. Simultaneously compact column of tense plasma whose temperature is much higher than the average temperature of pinch plasma column are formed on the pinch axis. In the region of inlet in the cavity plasma is radially directed due to ponderomotoric force 1/2 x jB up to velocities greatly increasing the thermal velocity of ions in a plasma column

  4. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  5. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 ''bricks,'' to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility.Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  6. Exact self-similar solutions for the magnetized Noh Z pinch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardiner, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    A self-similar solution is derived for a radially imploding cylindrical plasma with an embedded, azimuthal magnetic field. The plasma stagnates through a strong, outward propagating shock wave of constant velocity. This analysis is an extension of the classic Noh gasdynamics problem to its ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) counterpart. The present exact solution is especially suitable as a test for MHD codes designed to simulate linear Z pinches. To demonstrate the application of the new solution to code verification, simulation results from the cylindrical R-Z version of Mach2 and the 3D Cartesian code Athena are compared against the analytic solution. Alternative routines from the default ones in Athena lead to significant improvement of the results, thereby demonstrating the utility of the self-similar solution for verification.

  7. Kinetic simulation of neutron production in a deuterium z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostrom, C.; Stygar, William A.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale Robert; Clark, R.E.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Rose, David V.

    2010-01-01

    We have found computationally that, at sufficiently high currents, half of the neutrons produced by a deuterium z pinch are thermonuclear in origin. Early experiments below 1-MA current found that essentially all of the neutrons produced by a deuterium pinch are not thermonuclear, but are initiated by an instability that creates beam-target neutrons. Many subsequent authors have supported this result while others have claimed that pinch neutrons are thermonuclear. To resolve this issue, we have conducted fully kinetic, collisional, and electromagnetic simulations of the complete time evolution of a deuterium pinch. We find that at 1-MA pinch currents, most of the neutrons are, indeed, beam-target in origin. At much higher current, half of the neutrons are thermonuclear and half are beam-target driven by instabilities that produce a power law fall off in the ion energy distribution function at large energy. The implications for fusion energy production with such pinches are discussed.

  8. The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Sheng, L.; Wang, L. P.; Zhao, C.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, M.; Peng, B. D.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. G.; Qiu, M. T. [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Li, X. W. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and the x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.

  9. Fast commutation of high current in double wire array Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.; Gondarenko, N.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model of multi-MA current commutation in a double wire array Z-pinch load is proposed and studied theoretically. Initially, the load is configured as nested concentric wire arrays, with the current driven through the outer array and imploding it. Once the outer array or the annular plasma shell formed from it approaches the inner array, the imploded plasma might penetrate through the gaps between the wires, but the azimuthal magnetic field is trapped due to both the high conductivity of the inner wires and the inductive coupling between the two parts of the array, causing a rapid switching of the total current to the inner part of the array. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array Z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T W.L.; Allshouse, G O; Marder, B M [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured. (author). 5 figs., 16 refs.

  11. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth

  12. 3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.

  13. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  14. Behavior of a plasma in a high-density gas-embedded Z-pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlachter, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of a high density Z-pinch (HDZP) begins with an examination of the steady state energy balance between ohmic heating and bremsstrahlung radiation losses for a plasma column in pressure equilibrium. The model is then expanded to include the time-varying internal energy and results in a quasi-equilibrium prescription for the load current through a constant radius plasma channel. This set of current waveforms is useful in the design of experimental systems. The behavior of a plasma for physically realizable conditions is first examined by allowing adiabatic changes in the column radius. A more complete model is then developed by incorporating inertial effects into the momentum equation, and the resultant global MHD computational model is compared with more sophisticated, and costly, one- and two-dimensional computer simulations. These comparisons demonstrate the advantages of the global MHD description over previously developed zero-dimensional models

  15. Proposal for the ZT-40 reversed-field Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Machalek, M.D.

    1977-08-01

    A next-generation, toroidal, reversed-field Z-pinch experiment to be constructed at LASL is proposed. On the basis of encouraging ZT-I and ZT-S experimental results, a larger device with a 40-cm bore and a 114-cm major radius is proposed, to extend the confinement time by about an order of magnitude. The new experiment will explore the physics of programming reversed-field pinches in a size range unexplored by previous reversed-field pinch experiments. Model reversed-field pinch reactor calculations show that, if stability is assumed, small fusion reactors are possible if the pinch current density is high. A basic aim will be to delineate the plasma and current density ranges in which stable reversed-field pinches can be produced. Improved vacuum techniques will be used to overcome the radiation losses that probably kept electron temperatures low in the earlier, smaller experiments

  16. Z-Pinch at extreme energies: Nanofocus of less than 1J. Plasma Focus of 400 J. Gas embedded Z-pinch operating at MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavez Morales, Cristian A

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is in relation with an experimental study developed in three different pulsed plasma generators. Two of them were already operating in the plasma laboratory of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN ) at the beginning of this thesis and they are: a) plasma focus PF-40OJ ((880nF, 30kV, 120kA, 400J, 300ns maximum current, dl/dt4x10 11 A/s) which is one of the first plasma focus devices at low energy that produces neutron pulses of fusion and b) the pulsed power generator SPEED-2 (4.1μF equivalent capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns at maximum current, dl/dt∼10 13 A/s) designed to operate in a plasma focus configuration. The third experiment corresponds to a plasma focus device at energy lower than 1J (Nanofocus), which was designed, constructed and characterized during the development of this thesis. The performed work can be summarized in two general aspects: the experimental study of the scaling in plasma focus devices at low energy and the development of a linear Z-pinch configuration using the SPEED-2 generator. In this last situation, a mechanism of preionization was developed in order to create a gas embedded Z-pinch discharge (Deuterium in the case of our experiment) that was conveniently coupled to the electrical characteristics of the generator. In every experiment, the plasma properties were studied (density, dynamics, size, radiation emission) and they reported the state of it. In the plasma focus device PF-40OJ, the electronic density was characterized for discharges in H 2 by using optical refractive techniques, measuring density values in the pinch ∼10 25 m -3 , similar to those reported in plasma focus devices at higher energies. The anisotropy was measured in the distribution of the intensity in the neutron emission for discharges in D 2 using track detector techniques CR-39. A distribution for the neutron flux characterized by an isotropic contribution of 57.5% and also by other

  17. Study of X-ray emission in aluminium z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experiments, at 0.1. TX level, have shown that stability and x-ray emission of fast Z-pinches, could be strongly increased by imploding an aluminium vapor jet onto a very thin coaxial wire. We present here first results of an aluminium Z-pinch, using a similar liner, but at mega-ampere level. The pinch is driven by AMBIORIX high-power facility, a 2 TW, 0.5 Ω, 2 MA, 50 ns pulse-line generator. We study the effect of an aluminium wire and its diameter (20-50 μm) on the implosion dynamics, on x-ray yield on MHD stability of the column at stagnation. Analysis of A1 jet on A1 wire shots demonstrates that x-ray yield due to emission processes in the H- and He- like ionization stages (i.e. the K-shell) is significantly enhanced, relative to that of A1 jet only ones. The wire also leads to better symmetry of the implosion, and to better reproducibility of shots. X-ray signals exhibit two similar pulses, 10 ns in width, 15 ns spaced. To discern spectral origin of both pulses, experiments are realized with stainless steel wire (25 μm in diameter). Results show that liner and wire radial simultaneously and contribute to both pulses. Analysis of a typical A1 jet on A1 wire shot, using detailed collisional-radiative equilibrium (CRE) model is also given in this thesis. View o the pinch at stagnation as a cola-dense core surrounded by a hot-low density corona reproduces all features of the X-ray data. (author)

  18. Effects of boundary conditions on temperature and density in an EXTRAP Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.; Karlsson, P.

    1985-08-01

    Using the fluid equations, we examine transport in an Extrap configuration by carrying out calculations incorporating model profiles for the density and temperature. The goal of this analysis is to examine the scaling of the pinch equilibrium plasma density, temperature and radius with parameters that are characteristic for Extrap Z-pinches. These parameters include the discharge current, the neutral hydrogen filling density, an oxygen impurity fractional concentration and the condition at the pinch boundary. An Extrap Z-pinch is a pinch discharge where the current channel has a characteristic non-circular cross-section achieved by bounding the discharge by a magnetic separatrix produced when a vacuum octupole magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The pinch boundary is changed from a plasma-vacuum boundary to an interface between a high-beta pinch plasma and a low-beta plasma contained in the vacuum magnetic field. The energy that is lost from the pinch region sustains this boundary layer. The introduction of a separatrix boundary around the pinch with four X-point nulls deteriorates the containment of the pinch somewhat. However the presence of the warm, low-beta plasma scrape-off layer, which provides a boundary condition on the pinch, tends to counteract the negative effects of the poorer confinement. Thus the equilibrium parameters that characterize the pinch may not be severely deteriorated by the introduction of the separatrix when the entire configuration, including the scrape-off layer, is considered. (author)

  19. Investigation of trailing mass in Z-pinch implosions and comparison to experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund

    2007-11-01

    Wire-array Z pinches represent efficient, high-power x-ray sources with application to inertial confinement fusion, high energy density plasmas, and laboratory astrophysics. The first stage of a wire-array Z pinch is described by a mass ablation phase, during which stationary wires cook off material, which is then accelerated radially inwards by the JxB force. The mass injection rate varies axially and azimuthally, so that once the ablation phase concludes, the subsequent implosion is highly 3D in nature. In particular, a network of trailing mass and current is left behind the imploding plasma sheath, which can significantly affect pinch performance. In this work we focus on the implosion phase, electing to model the mass ablation via a mass injection scheme. Such a scheme has a number of injection parameters, but this freedom also allows us to gain understanding into the nature of the trailing mass network. For instance, a new result illustrates the role of azimuthal correlation. For an implosion which is 100% azimuthally correlated (corresponding to an azimuthally symmetric 2D r-z problem), current is forced to flow on the imploding plasma sheath, resulting in strong Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. If, however, the implosion is not azimuthally symmetric, the additional azimuthal degree of freedom opens up new conducting paths of lower magnetic energy through the trailing mass network, effectively reducing RT growth. Consequently the 3D implosion experiences lower RT growth than the 2D r-z equivalent, and actually results in a more shell-like implosion. A second major goal of this work is to constrain the injection parameters by comparison to a well-diagnosed experimental data set, in which array mass was varied. In collaboration with R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, M. Cuneo, C. Jennings, D. Sinars, E. Waisman

  20. A compact soft X-ray microscope using an electrode-less Z-pinch source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, S. F.; Silterra, J.; Holber, W.

    2009-09-01

    Soft X-rays (medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. (Supported by NIH grants 5R44RR022488-03 and 5R44RR023753-03)

  1. The high-density Z-pinch as a pulsed fusion neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Sethian, J.D.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch (DZP) is one of the earliest and simplest plasma heating and confinement schemes. Recent experimental advances based on plasma initiation from hair-like (10s μm in radius) solid hydrogen filaments have so far not encountered the usually devastating MHD instabilities that plagued early DZP experiments. These encouraging results along with debt of a number of proof-of principle, high-current (1--2 MA in 10--100 ns) experiments have prompted consideration of the DZP as a pulsed source of DT fusion neutrons of sufficient strength (/dot S//sub N/ ≥ 10 19 n/s) to provide uncollided neutron fluxes in excess of I/sub ω/ = 5--10 MW/m 2 over test volumes of 10--30 litre or greater. While this neutron source would be pulsed (100s ns pulse widths, 10--100 Hz pulse rate), giving flux time compressions in the range 10 5 --10 6 , its simplicity, near-time feasibility, low cost, high-Q operation, and relevance to fusion systems that may provide a pulsed commercial end-product (e.g., inertial confinement or the DZP itself) together create the impetus for preliminary considerations as a neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testings. The results of a preliminary parametric systems study (focusing primarily on physics issues), conceptual design, and cost versus performance analyses are presented. The DZP promises an expensive and efficient means to provide pulsed DT neutrons at an average rate in excess of 10 19 n/s, with neutron currents I/sub ω/ /approx lt/ 10 MW/m 2 over volumes V/sub exp/ ≥ 30 litre using single-pulse technologies that differ little from those being used in present-day experiments. 34 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Chamber and Wall Response to Target Implosion in Inertial and Z-Pinch Fusion and Lithography Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, V.

    2006-01-01

    The chamber walls, both solid and liquid, in inertial fusion energy (IFE) and Z-pinch reactors and Lithography devices are exposed to harsh conditions following each target implosion or pinching of plasma. Key issues of the cyclic IFE operation include intense photon and ion deposition, wall thermal and hydrodynamic evolution, wall erosion and fatigue lifetime, and chamber clearing and evacuation to ensure desirable conditions prior to target implosion. Detailed models have been developed for reflected laser light, emitted photons, neutrons, and target debris deposition and interaction with chamber components and have been implemented in the comprehensive HEIGHTS software package. The hydrodynamic response of chamber walls in bare or in gas-filled cavities and the photon transport of the deposited energy has been calculated by means of new and advanced numerical techniques for accurate shock treatment and propagation. These models include detail media hydrodynamics, non-LTE multi-group for both continuum and line radiation transport, and dynamics of eroded debris resulting from the intense energy deposition. The focus of this study is to critically assess the reliability and the dynamic response of chamber walls in various proposed protection methods for IFE systems. Key requirements are that: (i) the chamber wall accommodates the cyclic energy deposition while providing the required lifetime due to various erosion mechanisms, such as vaporization, chemical and physical sputtering, melt/liquid splashing and explosive erosion, and fragmentation of liquid walls, and (ii) after each shot the chamber is cleared and returned to a quiescent state in preparation for the target injection and the firing of the driver for the subsequent shot. This paper investigates in details these two important issues and found that the required operating frequency of the IFE reactors for power production may be severely limited due to these two requirements. (author)

  3. Soldered Contact and Current Risetime Effects on Negative Polarity Wire Array Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalenski, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Greenly, J. B.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Hammer, D. A.; Knapp, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Cornell University COBRA pulser is a nominal 1 MA machine, capable of driving up to 32 wire cylindrical Z-pinch arrays. COBRA can operate with variable current risetimes ranging from 100 ns to 200 ns (short and long pulse, respectively). Wires are typically strung with a ''press'' contact to the electrode hardware, where the wire is loosely pulled against the hardware and held there to establish electrical contact. The machine is normally negative, but a bolt-on convolute can be used to modify the current path and effectively produce positive polarity operation at the load.Previous research with single wires on a 1-5 kA pulser has shown that soldering the wire, thereby improving the wire/electrode contact, and operating in positive polarity can improve the energy deposition into the wire and enhance wire core expansion. Negative polarity showed no difference. Previous experiments on the negative polarity, 20 MA, 100 ns Z accelerator have shown that improving the contact improved the x-ray yield.Cornell data were collected on 16-wire Aluminum Z-pinch arrays in negative polarity. Experiments were conducted with both short and long current pulses with soldered and no-soldered wire/electrode contacts. The initiation, ablation, implosion and stagnation phases were compared for these four conditions. Time dependent x-ray signals were measured using diodes and diamond detectors. An inductive voltage monitor was used to infer minimum current radius achieved, as defined by a uniform shell of current moving radially inward, producing a time dependent inductance. Total energy data were collected with a metal-strip bolometer. Self-emission data were collected by an XUV 4-frame camera and an optical streak camera.In negative polarity and with short pulses, soldering appeared to produce a smaller radius pinch and decrease variations in the x-ray pulse shape. The bolometer, laser backlighter, 4-frame and streak cameras showed negligible differences in the initiation ablation

  4. A heuristic model for the nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability in fast Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Shumlak, U.; Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, heuristic model for the early nonlinear phase of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability (RTI) in thin-cylindrical-shell Z-pinch implosions has been developed. This model is based on the fact that, as the field--plasma interface is deformed, there is a component of the applied force that acts to move mass from the low mass per unit area bubble region into the higher mass per unit area spike region. The resulting reduced mass per unit area of the bubble causes it to be preferentially accelerated ahead of the spike. The pinch begins to radiate as the bubble mass first reaches the axis, and it continues to radiate while the mass that is entrained within the spikes and within unperturbed parts of the shell also arrives on axis. This model relates the time at which the bubble arrives on axis to an initial wavelength and amplitude of a single mode of the RTI. Then, by comparing this to the time at which the unperturbed mass reaches the axis, one estimates pinch thermalization time, a quantity that is determined experimentally. Experimental data, together with analytic models, have been used to choose appropriate initial wavelength and amplitude both for foils and for certain gas puff implosions. By noting that thermalization time is a weak function of these parameters, it is argued that one may use the same values for an extrapolative study of qualitatively similar implosions

  5. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  7. Multipoint Thomson scattering system for the EXTRAP Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1986-03-01

    A Thomson scattering system for simultaneous measurements of the electron temperature and density at three different positions at two different times during a single plasma shot has been developed for the EXTRAP-L1 Z-pinch. The plasma in the present version of EXTRAP-L1 is characterized by densities in the range from 10 21 to 10 22 m -3 , temperatures up to 50 eV and a pinch radius of the order of 1 cm. A spatial resolution down to 3 mm between positions is obtained by imaging the plasma onto an array of quartz optical fibres at the output slit of the spectrometer. Fifteen PM-tubes are used to detect the scattered radiation as well as the background radiation. Due to the relatively dense plasma prevailing in the present version of EXTRAP-L1 the number of scattered photons in large and the photon to electron conversion noise is small. The background radiation is the most important factor limiting the accuracy of the measurements. (author)

  8. Computational investigation of the limits to Pease-Braginskii collapse of a Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.D.

    1981-06-01

    This dissertation investigates the one-dimensional limits to such a radiation enhanced collapse through the use of a Lagrangian simulation code, LASNEX. The code includes the effects of a wide range of phenomena - opacity, ionization, experimentally determined equations of state, magnetic effects on transport coefficients, and external electrical circuits. Special attention was given to the magnetic field subroutines. They were revised to include ion acoustic and lower hybrid drift induced resistivity and to increase accuracy and efficiency. The magnetic pressure term was differenced in a manner that eliminates any influence of zone size, allowing large, low density zones outside the plasma column. In these large zones, magnetic flux and energy were determined by direct integration instead of summation to increase overall conservation. With these changes, the computational timesteps were determined by phenomena in the plasma instead of the Alfven velocity in the low density region. These modifications improved the accuracy of the code on Z-pinch problems by a factor of 10-100 depending on the minimum pinch radius reached

  9. Nonthermal x-ray emission from a tungsten z-pinch at 5 MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Nash, T.J.; Marder, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of intense bursts of warm x rays with power in the 1-TW regime are of interest for the study of in-depth nuclear radiation effects. Results from high-atomic-number single-wire experiments carried out at 0.8 MA on Gamble II in the 1970s showed 0.25% efficient production of nonthermal, bremsstrahlung-like lines and continuum in the 5- to 100-keV regime. This high efficiency in combination with suggested Z 2 and I 2 scaling of the nonthermal radiation motivated the present experiment to measure and model the radiation from the z pinch formed from compact high-Z wire arrays at high current. In the experiment, tungsten wire arrays of length 20 mm on a mounting radius of 2 mm were imploded over the mass range 1 to 16 mg on the Saturn accelerator operating with a peak discharge current of 5 MA. As in the Gamble-II experiments, bright spots were observed to form at ∼1-mm intervals along the z axis at the time of a first implosion and to be the source of the hard radiation measured. Maximum radiation occurred for masses less than or approximately equal to 4 mg. The experiment was simulated using the LASNEX and TIP numerical codes with a nonthermal model. The timing of the multiple implosions, owing to compression and expansion of the resulting plasma are observed to be in agreement with predictions from both codes and analytic modeling

  10. Detailed spectral simulations in support of PBFA-Z dynamic hohlraum Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P.; Derzon, M.S.; Haill, A.; Nash, T.J.; Peterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    In PBFA-Z dynamic hohlraum Z-pinch experiments, 16--18 MA of current is delivered to a load comprises of a tungsten wire array surrounding a low-density cylindrical CH foam. The magnetic field accelerates the W plasma radially inward at velocities ∼ 40--60 cm/micros. The W plasma impacts into the foam, generating a high T R radiation field which diffuses into the foam. The authors are investigating several types of spectral diagnostics which can be used to characterize the time-dependent conditions in the foam. In addition, they are examining the potential ramifications of axial jetting on the interpretation of axial x-ray diagnostics. In the analysis, results from 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations are post-processed using a hybrid spectral analysis code in which low-Z material is treated using a detailed collisional-radiative atomic model, while high-Z material is modeled using LTE UTA (unresolved transition array) opacities. They will present results from recent simulations and discuss ramifications for x-ray diagnostics

  11. X-ray Power Increase from Symmetrized Wire-Array z-Pinch Implosions on Saturn.*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Allshouse, G. O.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Mock, R. C.; Douglas, M. R.; Spielman, R. B.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J. S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T. L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Hammer, J. H.; Degroot, J. S.; Eddleman, J. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Pulsifer, P. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Maron, Y.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories shows that, for the first time, many of the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can be correlated to 1D and 2D, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code (RMHC) simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray power has been more than tripled over that generated in the wire-plasma regime. In the full paper, measured characteristics in the plasma-shell regime are compared with 2D, 1- and 20-mm axial length simulations of the implosion using a multi-photon-group Lagrangian RMHC^1 and a three-temperature Eulerian RMHC,^2 respectively. ^1J.H. Hammer, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2063 (1996). ^2D.L. Peterson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996). Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Soft X-ray images of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Mengtong; Kuai Bin; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lu Min; Wang Kuilu; Qiu Aici; Zhang Mei; Luo Jianhui

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on Qiang-guang I generator to study the dynamics of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches. The generator was operated at a peak current of 1.5 MA with a rise-time of 80 ns. The specific linear mass of gas liner was about 20 μg/cm in these experiments. In the diagnostic system, a four-frame x-ray framing camera and a pinhole camera were employed. A novel feature of this camera is that it can give time-resolved x-ray images with four frames and energy-resolved x-ray images with two different filters and an array of 8 pinholes integrated into one compact assemble. As a typical experimental result, an averaged radial imploding velocity of 157 km/s over 14 ns near the late phase of implosion was measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. From the time-integrated x-ray image an averaged radial convergence of 0.072 times of the original size was measured. An averaged radial expansion velocity was 130 km/s and the maximum radial convergence of 0.04 times of the original size were measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. The dominant axial wavelengths of instabilities in the plasma were between 1 and 2 mm. The change in average photons energy was observed from energy spectrum- and time-resolved x-ray images

  13. EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.

  14. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10 10 cm −2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region

  15. Experimental investigation of dd reaction in range of ultralow energies using Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Parzhitskij, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the experiments to measure the dd reaction cross section in the range of deuteron collision energies from 0.1 keV to 1.5 keV using Z-pinch technique are presented. The experiment was performed at the Pulsed Ion Beam Accelerator of the High-Current Electronics Institute in Tomsk. The dd fusion neutrons were registered by scintillation detectors using time-of-flight method and BF 3 detectors of thermal neutrons. At 90% confidence level, the upper limits of the neutron producing dd reaction cross sections are obtained for average deuteron collision energies of 0.11, 0.34, 0.37 and 1.46 keV. The results demonstrate that high-intensity pulsed accelerators with a generator current of 2-3 MA allow the dd reaction cross sections to be measured in the range of deuteron collision energies from 0.8 keV to 3 keV

  16. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  17. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  18. Investigation of magnetic flux transport and shock formation in a staged Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-10-01

    Target preheating is an integral component of magnetized inertial fusion in reducing convergence ratio. In the staged Z-pinch concept, it is achieved via one or more shocks. Previous work [Narkis et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122706 (2016)] found that shock formation in the target occurred earlier in higher-Z liners due to faster flux transport to the target/liner interface. However, a corresponding increase in magnitude of magnetic pressure was not observed, and target implosion velocity (and therefore shock strength) remained unchanged. To investigate other means of increasing the magnitude of transported flux, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation from the 1-D single-fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations is obtained. Solutions to the nondispersive (i.e., Burgers) equation depend on nondimensional coefficients, whose dependence on liner density, temperature, etc., suggests an increase in target implosion velocity, and therefore shock strength, can be obtained by tailoring the mass of a single-liner gas puff to a double-liner configuration. In the selected test cases of 1-D simulated implosions of krypton on deuterium, the peak Mach number increased from ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 . While a notable increase was seen, Mach numbers exceeding 10 (implosion velocities exceeding ˜25 cm/μs) are necessary for adequate shock preheating.

  19. Model of enhanced energy deposition in a Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Davis, J.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L. Jr.; Rudakov, L. I.; Deeney, C.

    2000-01-01

    In numerous experiments, magnetic energy coupled to strongly radiating Z-pinch plasmas exceeds the thermalized kinetic energy, sometimes by a factor of 2-3. An analytical model describing this additional energy deposition based on the concept of macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent pinch heating proposed by Rudakov and Sudan [Phys. Reports 283, 253 (1997)] is presented. The pinch plasma is modeled as a foam-like medium saturated with toroidal ''magnetic bubbles'' produced by the development of surface m=0 Rayleigh-Taylor and MHD instabilities. As the bubbles converge to the pinch axis, their magnetic energy is converted to thermal energy of the plasma through pdV work. Explicit formulas for the average dissipation rate of this process and the corresponding contribution to the resistance of the load, which compare favorably to the experimental data and simulation results, are presented. The possibility of using this enhanced (relative to Ohmic heating) dissipation mechanism to power novel plasma radiation sources and produce high K-shell yields using long current rise time machines is discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Computational investigation of single mode vs multimode Rayleigh endash Taylor seeding in Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.R.; Deeney, C.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations have been carried out to investigate single and multimode growth and mode coupling for magnetically-driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities in Z pinches. Wavelengths ranging from 5.0 mm down to 1.25 mm were considered. Such wavelengths are comparable to those observed at stagnation using a random density open-quotes seedingclose quotes method. The calculations show that wavelengths resolved by less than 10 cells exhibit an artificial decrease in initial Fourier spectrum amplitudes and a reduction in the corresponding amplitude growth. Single mode evolution exhibits linear exponential growth and the development of higher harmonics as the mode transitions into the nonlinear phase. The mode growth continues to exponentiate but at a slower rate than determined by linear hydrodynamic theory. In the two and three mode case, there is clear evidence of mode coupling and inverse cascade. In addition, distinct modal patterns are observed late in the implosion, resulting from finite shell thickness and magnetic field effects. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics. thinsp

  1. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  2. Z-pinch implosion for ICF physics study on Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitsky, A. V.; Fedulov, M. V.; Grabovsky, E. V.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Olejinik, G. M.; Smirnov, V. P.; Zakharov, S. V.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of soft X-ray sources based on super-fast Z-pinch implosion has demonstrated the great promise of pulsed power for ICF physics study. The main direction of the 'Angara-5-1' program is oriented toward using the double liner scheme to confine radiation inside a cavity in order to enhance its intensity significantly. Collision of the external liner shell onto the inner leads to radiation penetration through the inner liner and a decrease in the radiation pulse duration to 3-5 ns. Testing this scheme on 'Angara-5-1' with current 3.5-5 MA demonstrates a flux intensity up to 3 TW/cm 2 . In spite of the fact that results of the experiment and a 1D-simulation are close, there are many issues with external liner stability during current sheath formation and implosion. Recent experimental efforts on Angara-5-1 focused on the 'cold start' problem and on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for thick (gas-puff) and thin (doped foam) shells. Preionization makes the liner's plasma more homogeneous. The method also works in a plasma focus, according to the first results of a joint Polish-Russian experiment. A high current convolute increases ANGARA-5's load current from about 4 MA to 5.8 MA, which moves the radiation temperature toward the region of interest. We also outline a new approach to a generator intended to produce tens of MA, ANGARA-5-2

  3. Self-Organization Observed in Numerical Simulations of a Hard-Core Diffuse Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhin, V; Siemon, R E; Bauer, B S; Esaulov, A; Lindemuth, I R; Ryutov, D D; Sheehey, P T; Sotnikov, V I

    2005-04-01

    The evolution of an unstable plasma profile into a stable profile, which we term self-organization, appears to be a robust process. Although it was not termed self organization, the same effect has been noted in past simulations with the same code. The result has been made easier to discern by the introduction of z-averaged profiles. A recent report of PIC simulations in the hard-core z-pinch configuration also shows self-organization. Figures 3 and 4 in Reference 21 show how pressure profiles in a low-β PIC simulation relax from unstable to stable. The non-linear evolution of the interchange motion has been studied under controlled initial conditions that result in exponential growth of a mode with a prescribed axial wavelength. An interesting feature of such growth is an abrupt transition from coherent to incoherent motion, after which the z-averaged pressure, current, and temperature profiles become quasi stationary. According to our understanding of MAGO experiments, the observed plasma behavior is consistent with the expectation of self-organization, but the diagnostics are not sufficiently detailed thus far to make a definite conclusion. The results of this simulations reported in this paper add motivation to planned experiments on an inverse pinch at UNR

  4. Deuterium Liner and Multiparameter Investigation of the Inverse Z-Pinch Formation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritskii, Vyach M; Grebenyuk, V M; Parzhitsky, S S; Penkov, F M; Stolupin, V A; Boznyak, J; Gula, E; Dudkin, G N; Nechaev, B A; Padalko, V M; Mesyats, G A; Ratakhin, N A; Sorokin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A description of the methods and results of the measurements of the ion energy distribution of the deuterium liner accelerated in the inverse Z-pinch configuration are presented - the liner plasma is radially accelerated from the outward small radius. The knowledge of the experiment deuteron energy distribution is crucially important for correct interpretation of the results on the study of the dd-reaction at infralow collision energies using the liner plasma. Experiments were fulfilled in the HCEI (Tomsk, Russia) at a nanosecond pulsed high current generator (I=950 kA, pulse duration \\tau=80 ns). The hollow deuterium liner of 20 mm length was accelerated from the initial radius of \\sim 15 mm to 45 mm. Measurement of the liner characteristics was produced by means of the light detectors (detection of H_\\alpha and H_\\beta deuterium lines) and magnetic B-dot probes, placed on the various radii of the expanding liner. Besides, the measurement of the neutron radiation intensity due to reaction d+d\\to^{3}He+n was ...

  5. Soft X-ray Images of Krypton Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱孟通; 蒯斌; 曾正中; 吕敏; 王奎禄; 邱爱慈; 张美; 罗建辉

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on Qiang-guang Ⅰ generator to study the dynamics of krypton gas-puff Z-pinches. The generator was operated at a peak current of 1.5 MA with a rise-time of 80 ns. The specific linear mass of gas liner was about 20 μg/cm in these experiments. In the diagnostic system, a four-frame x-ray framing camera and a pinhole camera were employed. A novel feature of this camera is that it can give time-resolved x-ray images with four frames and energy-resolved x-ray images with two different filters and an array of 8 pinholes integrated into one compact assemble. As a typical experimental result, an averaged radial imploding velocity of 157 km/s over 14 ns near the late phase of implosion was measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. From the time-integrated x-ray image an averaged radial convergence of 0.072 times of the original size was measured. An averaged radial expansion velocity was 130 km/s and the maximum radial convergence of 0.04 times of the original size were measured from the time-resolved x-ray images. The dominant axial wavelengths of instabilities in the plasma were between 1 and 2 mm. The change in average photons energy was observed from energy spectrum- and time-resolved x-ray images.

  6. An analytic model of radiative collapse of a Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    There is a critical current I PB of about 1 MA (the Pease-Braginskii current) at which Ohmic heating and bremsstrahlung losses balance in a Z-pinch under pressure equilibrium. An analytic zero-dimensional model shows the process of radiative collapse when the prescribed current exceeds the critical current. In particular for a linearly rising current radiative collapse is complete when the current is 3 I PB . However, in practice the voltage limitation imposed by an external circuit prevents such a total collapse, and by including this in the model a maximum density (10 30 -10 32 m -3 )can occur followed by an expansion and damped oscillation about an equilibrium at which the current equals the Pease-Braginskii current. In the absence of alpha-particle pressure the maximum density is limited by the resistance of the narrow column, the large voltage across which (∼10 8 V) is balanced essentially bu a large negative LI; it occurs when the current is I PB [(δ-1)/(δ-2)] 1/2 where δ=7/3+4/3 In(R/a), where a is the pinch radius and R is the radius of the current return. The minimum current following maximum density is shown to be greater than I PB /√2. Degeneracy effects can be included in the model. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig

  7. An analytic model of radiative collapse of a Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    There is a critical current I PB of about 1 MA (the Pease-Braginskii current) at which Ohmic heating and Bremsstrahlung losses balance in a Z-pinch under pressure equilibrium. An analytic zero-dimensional model shows the process of radiative collapse when the prescribed current exceeds the critical current. In particular for a linearly rising current radiative collapse is complete when the current is √3 I PB . However in practice the voltage limitation imposed by an external circuit prevents such a total collapse, and by including this in the model a maximum density (∼ 10 30 -10 32 m -3 ) can occur followed by an expansion and damped oscillation about an equilibrium at which the current equals the Pease-Braginskii current. In the absence of alpha-particle pressure the maximum density is limited by the resistance of the narrow column, the large voltage across which (∼ 10 8 V) is balanced essentially by a large negative LI radical; it occurs when the current is I PB [(δ-1)/(δ-2)] 1/2 where δ = 7/3+4/3 1n (R w /a), where a is the pinch radius and R w is the radius of the current return. The minimum current following maximum density is shown to be greater than I PB /√2. Degeneracy effects can be included in the model. (author)

  8. Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team

    2015-11-01

    Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.

  9. Staged Z-pinch Experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator: Neutron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskov, Emil; Darling, T.; Glebov, V.; Wessel, F. J.; Anderson, A.; Beg, F.; Conti, F.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H.; Ross, M.; Valenzuela, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on neutron measurements from the latest Staged Z-pinch experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator. In these experiments a hollow shell of argon or krypton gas liner, injected between the 1 cm anode-cathode gap, compresses a deuterium plasma target of varying density. Axial magnetic field Bz neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) detectors are augmented with a large area ( 1400 cm2) liquid scintillator detector to which fast gatedPhotek photomultipliers are attached. Sample data from these neutron diagnostics systems is presented. Consistently high neutron yields YDD >109 are measured, with highest yield of 2.6 ×109 . A pair of horizontally and vertically placed plastic scintillator nTOFs suggest isotropic i.e. thermonuclear origin of the neutrons produced. nTOF data from the liquid scintillator detector was cross-calibrated with the silver activation detector, and can be used for accurate calculation of the neutron yield. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  10. Quasi-steady accelerator operation on the ZAP flow Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, M. C., E-mail: mchugs@uw.edu; Shumlak, U., E-mail: mchugs@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: mchugs@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: mchugs@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: mchugs@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment utilizes sheared flows to stabilize an otherwise unstable equilibrium. The sheared flows are maintained by streaming high velocity plasma parallel to the pinch. Previous operations of the machine show depletion of the accelerator’s neutral gas supply late in the pulse leading to pinch instability. The current distribution in the accelerator exhibits characteristic modes during this operation, which is corroborated by interferometric signals. The decrease in density precipitates a loss of plasma quiescence in the pinch, which occurs on a timescale related to the flow velocity from the plasma source. To abate the depletion, the geometry of the accelerator is altered to increase the neutral gas supply. The design creates a standing deflagration front in the accelerator that persists for the pulse duration. The new operating mode is characterized by the same diagnostics as the previous mode. The lessons learned in the accelerator operations have been applied to the design of a new experiment, ZaP-HD. This work was supported by grants from the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  11. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  12. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.

  13. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., 'Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology'] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140 mm and maximum current from 3.5 to 5 MA. 700 to 800 ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3 TW radial total power, 100-300 kJ total yield, and 20-30 kJ energy above 1 keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ∼10 kA and 50 μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse

  14. Growth of the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in an imploding Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, J.S.; Toor, A.; Golberg, S.M.; Liberman, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh endash Taylor (RT) instability of cylindrical, imploding plasma liners in a Z-pinch is analyzed. The reduction in total perturbation growth for multicascade systems (multiple imploding shells) is presented. This reduction is effective if the pressure produced by the impacting shell exceeds the magnetic pressure at the time of impact. Analytical and numerical solutions are also obtained for the RT instability of an imploding plasma liner accelerated into undisturbed plasma. The snowplow model is used in which the mass encountered by the imploding magnetic piston is swept into an infinitely thin sheath. A shock front launched ahead of the liner is shown to reduce the growth rate. It is also shown that accumulating the mass increases the growth rate. However, the total perturbation growth can be reduced if the liner accumulates the mass during the implosion compared to a liner with the same mass imploding into vacuum. Finally, it is shown that the final kinetic energy density for a given shell nonuniformity is largest if the final liner mass is accumulated during the implosion. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. The role of Z-pinches and related configurations in magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of a magnetic field within a fusion target is now known as Magnetized Target Fusion in the US and as MAGO (Magnitnoye Obzhatiye, or magnetic compression) in Russia. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (e.g., ICF), MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm, magnetized, wall-confined plasma of intermediate density within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression and heating of the plasma by imploding the confining wall, or pusher. In many ways, MTF can be considered a marriage between the more mature MFE and ICF approaches, and this marriage potentially eliminates some of the hurdles encountered in the other approaches. When compared to ICF, MTF requires lower implosion velocity, lower initial density, significantly lower radial convergence, and larger targets, all of which lead to substantially reduced driver intensity, power, and symmetry requirements. When compared to MFE, MTF does not require a vacuum separating the plasma from the wall, and, in fact, complete magnetic confinement, even if possible, may not be desirable. The higher density of MTF and much shorter confinement times should make magnetized plasma formation a much less difficult step than in MFE. The substantially lower driver requirements and implosion velocity of MTF make z-pinch magnetically driven liners, magnetically imploded by existing modern pulsed power electrical current sources, a leading candidate for the target pusher of an MTF system

  16. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Astanovitsky, A. L.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Cooper, M. C. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rudakov, L. I. [Icarus Research Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, MD 20824-0780 (United States); Velikovich, A. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubled the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.

  17. The mitigation effect of sheared axial flow on the rayleigh-taylor instability in Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang

    2005-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic formulation is derived to investigate the mitigation effects of the sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in Z-pinch plasma. The dispersion relation of the compressible model is given. The mitigation effects of sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of Z-pinch plasma in the compressible and incompressible models are compared respectively, and the effect of compressible on the instability of system with sheared axial flow is discussed. It is found that, compressibility effects can stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor/Kelvin-Helmholtz (RT/KH) instability, and this allows the sheared axial flow mitigate the RT instability far more effectively. The authors also find that, at the early stage of the implosion, if the temperature of the plasma is not very high, the compressible model is much more suitable to describing the state of system than the incompressible one. (author)

  18. Theory of neutron spectra from d-d-reactions in the linear z-pinch and the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1982-05-01

    Because of a finite gyroradius effect, the equilibrium probability density function of the ions in the azimuthal magnetic field of a linear z-pinch becomes anisotropic. This density function was derived by solving the Vlasov equation and used to determine the neutron spectra produced in the deuterium plasma of a z-pinch. The neutron spectra were calculated for two models, differing in the energy distribution of the fast ions. A background plasma with 'slow' ions was also considered. The interactions of the fast ions with the slow ions and 'beam-beam' interactions between fast ions were considered. Typical spectra for arbitrary directions to the cylindrical axis are given. The anisotropy factors were calculated. Considering the influence of the azimuthal magnetic field on the equilibrium density function of the deuterons, the well known particularities of the neutron spectra are obtained without any of the contradictions typical of the traditional models. (orig.)

  19. Development and characterization of a Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion target concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, Michael E.; Vesey, Roger A.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Fehl, David L.; Gilliland, Terrance L.; Hanson, David L.; McGurn, John S.; Reynolds, Paul G.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Seamen, Hans; Spielman, Rick B.; Struve, Ken W.; Stygar, William A.; Simpson, Walter W.; Torres, Jose A.; Wenger, David F.; Hammer, James H.; Rambo, Peter W.; Peterson, Darrell L.

    2001-01-01

    Initial experiments to study the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept of Hammer, Tabak, and Porter [Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] are described. The relationship between measured pinch power, hohlraum temperature, and secondary hohlraum coupling ('hohlraum energetics') is well understood from zero-dimensional semianalytic, and two-dimensional view factor and radiation magnetohydrodynamics models. These experiments have shown the highest x-ray powers coupled to any Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum (26±5 TW), indicating the concept could scale to fusion yields of >200 MJ. A novel, single-sided power feed, double-pinch driven secondary that meets the pinch simultaneity requirements for polar radiation symmetry has also been developed. This source will permit investigation of the pinch power balance and hohlraum geometry requirements for ICF relevant secondary radiation symmetry, leading to a capsule implosion capability on the Z accelerator [Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)

  20. Anisotropy of energy losses in high-current Z-pinches produced by the implosion of cylindrical tungsten wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Lakhtyushko, N. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Oleinik, G. M.; Svetlov, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    Results are presented from measurements of the anisotropy of energy losses in high-current Z-pinches produced by the implosion of wire arrays at the ANGARA-5-1 facility at load currents of up to 4MA. The energy losses were measured in the radial direction and along the pinch axis from the anode side. The main diagnostics were time-integrated thermocouple calorimeters, nanosecond X-ray diodes (XRDs) with different filters, and a foil radiation calorimeter with a time resolution of 2 μs. The azimuthal anisotropy of energy losses was measured for different wire array configurations and different shapes of the high-voltage electrode. The presence of strong initial azimuthal inhomogeneity of the wire mass distribution (sectioned arrays), as well as the use of conical electrodes instead of plane ones, does not increase the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the total energy losses. For cylindrical wire arrays, energy losses in the radial direction are compared with those along the pinch axis. According to XRD and calorimetric measurements, the radiation yield per unit solid angle along the pinch axis is two to three times lower than that in the radial direction. In the axial direction, the energy flux density of the expanding plasma is two to three times lower than the radiation intensity. The measured radiation yield across the pinch is 2.5-5 kJ/sr, while that along the pinch axis is 1-2 kJ/sr. The results obtained by means of XRDs agree to within measurement errors with those obtained using the radiation calorimeter. It is found that the energy per unit solid angle carried by the expanding plasma in the radial direction does not exceed 10% of the soft X-ray yield. Analysis of the structure of time-integrated pinhole images and signals from the radial and axial XRDs shows that radiation emitted in the radial direction from the hot central region of the pinch is partially screened by the less dense surrounding plasma halo, whereas radiation emitted in the axial direction is a

  1. Efficient generation of fast neutrons by magnetized deuterons in an optimized deuterium gas-puff z-pinch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubeš, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Řezáč, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtová, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravařík, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orčíková, Hana; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Šíla, O.; Turek, Karel; Varlachev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2015), s. 044005 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LH13283 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : z-pinch * gas puff * deuterium * fast neutrons * plasma guns Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015

  2. Energy transformation in Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges with wire and wire-in-liner loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubes, Pavel; Kravarik, Jozef; Klir, Daniel; Scholz, Marek; Paduch, Marian; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Karpinski, Leslaw; Bakshaev, Yury L.; Blinov, Peter I.; Chernenko, Andrey S.; Dan'ko, Sergey A.; Korolev, Valery D.; Shashkov, Andrey Y.; Tumanov, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study of the Z-pinch and plasma-focus plasmas at presence of the axial C, Al, or Cu wires of sufficient high diameter are discussed in this paper. The wire was positioned on the top of the inner electrode of the PF 1000 plasma focus (1.8 MA, IPPLM Warsaw), or at the axis with or without the tungsten or alumine wire array load at the S-300 facility (3 MA, RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow), and at the axis of the small Z-pinch Z-150 (50 kA, CTU Prague). The plasma corona around the wire was generated both by the current going through the wires and by the implosion of the wire array or of the current sheath. The experiments showed interesting results often observed in some shots of Z-pinch type discharges - existence of helical structures, two relatively long and stable pinch phases, oscillation of pinch diameter, and back return of the plasma exploding from the pinch. All these observed phenomena can be evolved by spontaneous self-generation and transformation of the axial magnetic field in the pinch during the plasma implosion and explosion. A configuration of axial and azimuthal magnetic field confines the plasma and later transforms or dissipates during a few tens or hundreds ns. A fast transformation of internal magnetic fields can induce a sufficiently high electric field for generation of keV particles and radiation. Study and usage of Z-pinch discharges is connected with solving of two principal problems, limitation of instability development and a way of generation of high energy particles and radiation. The first problem is partially solved by the faster increase of the current, by better cylindrical symmetry of the load and plasma, by higher density of the plasma or by the presence of a stronger magnetized plasma

  3. Neutron energy distribution function reconstructed from time-of-flight signals in deuterium gas-puff Z-pinch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klír, D.; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, J.; Rezac, K.; Ananev, S.S.; Bakshaev, Y. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kazakov, E.D.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Juha, Libor; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Grant - others:IAEA(XE) RC 14817 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : deuterium * fusion reaction * gas puff * Monte Carlo reconstruction * neutron energy spectra * neutron s * Z-pinch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.043, year: 2009

  4. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T A; Bailey, J E; Bennett, G; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G; Cuneo, M E; Golovkin, I; Hanson, D L; Leeper, R J; MacFarlane, J J; Mancini, R C; Matzen, M K; Nash, T J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ruiz, C L; Schroen, D G; Slutz, S A; Varnum, W; Vesey, R A

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6±1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with T e ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL

  5. Radiation symmetry control for inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions in double Z-pinch hohlraums on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, Roger A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Adams, Richard G.; Aragon, Rafael A.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Simpson, Walter W.; Smith, Ian C.; Bennett, Guy R.

    2003-01-01

    The double Z-pinch hohlraum high-yield concept [Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] utilizes two 63-MA Z pinches to heat separate primary hohlraums at either end of a secondary hohlraum containing the cryogenic fusion capsule. Recent experiments on the Z accelerator [Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)] at Sandia National Laboratories have developed an advanced single-sided power feed, double Z-pinch load to study radiation symmetry and pinch power balance using implosion capsules [Cuneo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215004 (2002)]. Point-projection x-ray imaging with the Z-Beamlet Laser mapped the trajectory and distortion of 2-mm diameter plastic ablator capsules. Using the backlit capsule distortion as a symmetry diagnostic, the ability to predictably tune symmetry at the 2 Legendre mode asymmetry coefficient over a range of ±6% (±2% considering points nearest the optimum) was achieved by varying the length of the cylindrical secondary hohlraum containing the capsule, in agreement with viewfactor and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations

  6. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Vesey, Roger Alan; Hanson, David Lester; Olson, Craig Lee; Nash, Thomas J.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Varnum, William S.; Bennett, Guy R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Schroen, Diana Grace; Slutz, Stephen A.; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Golovkin, I.E.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Mancini, Roberto Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6 ± 1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with Te ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL.

  7. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Peterson, D.L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh - Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ∼40 TW and energy of ∼325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ∼8 TW and energy of ∼70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh - Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States); Haines, M.G.; Chittenden, J.P. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Reisman, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array {ital z}-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in the r{endash}z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in the r{endash}z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545-0010 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Roderick, N.F. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 77}, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of {approximately}40 TW and energy of {approximately}325 kJ show little change outside of a {plus_minus}15{percent} shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak {ital K}-shell (lines plus continuum) power of {approximately}8 TW and energy of {approximately}70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in {ital K}-shell yield is in agreement with simple {ital K}-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  11. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-04

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  12. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N. F.

    1998-10-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ˜40 TW and energy of ˜325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ˜8 TW and energy of ˜70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads.

  13. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Haines, M.G.; Chittenden, J.P.; Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Peterson, D.L.; Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B.; Reisman, D.B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-01-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh - Taylor instability in the r - z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh - Taylor instability in the r - z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Quantitative X-ray spectroscopy of sodium Z-pinch plasmas for Na/ne photopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Mehlman, G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Newman, D.A.; Scherrer, V.E.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of sodium K-shell x-ray emission were measured for implosions of sodium-bearing plasmas produced on the Naval Research Laboratory Gamble II pulsed-power generator. Sodium fluoride from a capillary discharge provided the initial plasma for these fast Z-pinch implosions. Spatially-resolved images, corresponding to sodium K-shell x-rays from a 3 to 4 cm long plasma column, were recorded with a curved-crystal spectrograph. Non-uniform emission was observed along this column. The diameter of the plasma along the column (1-5 mm) was determined from time-integrated pinhole-camera images, and the duration of the x-ray emission (15-23 ns FWHM) was measured with a vacuum x-ray diode. Absolute emissivities were determined for X-rays from the n=2-1 and n=3-1 transitions in Na X and Na XI. Emissivities calculated using a collisional-radiative equilibrium model were fitted to these measurements to determine plasma temperatures of 230 to 550 eV and electron densities of 0.2 to 4.0 x 10 20 cm -3 at several locations along the plasma column. The slope of the recombination continuum was also used to determine temperatures of 200 to 300 eV and 200 to 400 eV for Na X and Na XI ions, respectively. Absolute intensity measurements of the n=2-1 line emissions from Na X and Na XI, averaged over the entire plasma length, indicated shot-to-shot variations of more than a factor of two in these implosions. (author)

  15. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels

  16. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  17. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  18. Design of a 5-MA 100-ns linear-transformer-driver accelerator for wire array Z-pinch experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Qi, Jianmin; Chu, Yanyun

    2016-03-01

    The linear-transformer-driver (LTD) is a recently developed pulsed-power technology that shows great promise for a number of applications. These include a Z -pinch-driven fission-fusion-hybrid reactor that is being developed by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics. In support of the reactor development effort, we are planning to build an LTD-based accelerator that is optimized for driving wire-array Z -pinch loads. The accelerator comprises six modules in parallel, each of which has eight series 0.8-MA LTD cavities in a voltage-adder configuration. Vacuum transmission lines are used from the interior of the adder to the central vacuum chamber where the load is placed. Thus the traditional stack-flashover problem is eliminated. The machine is 3.2 m tall and 12 m in outer diameter including supports. A prototype cavity was built and tested for more than 6000 shots intermittently at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A novel trigger, in which only one input trigger pulse is needed by utilizing an internal trigger brick, was developed and successfully verified in these shots. A full circuit modeling was conducted for the accelerator. The simulation result shows that a current pulse rising to 5.2 MA in 91 ns (10%-90%) can be delivered to the wire-array load, which is 1.5 cm in height, 1.2 cm in initial radius, and 1 mg in mass. The maximum implosion velocity of the load is 32 cm /μ s when compressed to 0.1 of the initial radius. The maximum kinetic energy is 78 kJ, which is 11.7% of the electric energy stored in the capacitors. This accelerator is supposed to enable a radiation energy efficiency of 20%-30%, providing a high efficient facility for research on the fast Z pinch and technologies for repetition-rate-operated accelerators.

  19. Stability analysis and numerical simulation of a hard-core diffuse z pinch during compression with Atlas facility liner parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, R. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Awe, T.; Bauer, B. S.; Buyko, A. M.; Chernyshev, V. K.; Cowan, T. E.; Degnan, J. H.; Faehl, R. J.; Fuelling, S.; Garanin, S. F.; Goodrich, T.; Ivanovsky, A. V.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Makhin, V.; Mokhov, V. N.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Ryutov, D. D.; Scudder, D. W.; Taylor, T.; Yakubov, V. B.

    2005-09-01

    In the 'metal liner' approach to magnetized target fusion (MTF), a preheated magnetized plasma target is compressed to thermonuclear temperature and high density by externally driving the implosion of a flux conserving metal enclosure, or liner, which contains the plasma target. As in inertial confinement fusion, the principal fusion fuel heating mechanism is pdV work by the imploding enclosure, called a pusher in ICF. One possible MTF target, the hard-core diffuse z pinch, has been studied in MAGO experiments at VNIIEF and is one possible target being considered for experiments on the Atlas pulsed power facility. Numerical MHD simulations show two intriguing and helpful features of the diffuse z pinch with respect to compressional heating. First, in two-dimensional simulations the m = 0 interchange modes, arising from an unstable pressure profile, result in turbulent motions and self-organization into a stable pressure profile. The turbulence also gives rise to convective thermal transport, but the level of turbulence saturates at a finite level, and simulations show substantial heating during liner compression despite the turbulence. The second helpful feature is that pressure profile evolution during compression tends towards improved stability rather than instability when analysed according to the Kadomtsev criteria. A liner experiment is planned for Atlas to study compression of magnetic flux without plasma, as a first step. The Atlas geometry is compatible with a diffuse z pinch, and simulations of possible future experiments show that kiloelectronvolt temperatures and useful neutron production for diagnostic purposes should be possible if a suitable plasma injector is added to the Atlas facility.

  20. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Jennings, C.A.; Bland, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions

  1. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system

  2. Simulation of the dynamics of sausage development in a z pinch with a high rate of thermonuclear heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the sausage instability in a z pinch is accompanied by the formulation of a high-temperature plasma. This high-temperature region initiates a wave of thermonuclear burning propagating along the pinch. A numerical solution of the MHD equations has been carried out, taking into account plasma energy losses through radiation and thermonuclear heating. Results of calculations on the growth of the sausage instability are presented for ρr = 0.23 g/cm 2 . It is accompanied by the development of a stable wave of thermonuclear burning. 12 refs., 4 figs

  3. Deuterium z-pinch as a powerful source of multi-MeV ions and neutrons for advanced applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtová, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Krása, Josef; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orčíková, Hana; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, Karel; Varlachev, V. A.; Velyhan, Andriy; Wagner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), 1-10, č. článku 032702. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07036S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LH13283 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutrons * Z-pinch * ion sources * isotopes * protons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  4. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han; Ning, Guo; Jian, Wu; Aici, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. The kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns

  5. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  6. Physics of the dense Z-pinch in theory and in experiment with application to fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, M.G. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1982-01-01

    A new generation of Z-pinches employing high voltage, high current pulsed lines as power sources produce dense hot plasmas with enhanced stability properties. Three methods of Z-pinch formation are currently in use: (1) cylindrical collapse and compression of a pre-ionised gas; (2) laser initiation and Joule heating of a gas embedded pinch, and (3) hollow gas puff and subsequent collapse to the axis. The first two experimental conditions are relevant for fusion. A calculation of energy balance for satisfying Lawson conditions with axial and radial energy losses and radiation loss shows that a current of approximately 10/sup 6/ A and a line density of 6 x 10/sup 18/ m/sup -1/ are required. This leads to two coincidences of physical quantities that are very favourable for controlled fusion. The first is that at this line density and under pressure balance the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to pinch is of order 1 so that a marked stabilisation of the configuration is expected. The second coincidence is that the current is only just below the Pease-Braginskii limit; this will permit the possibility or radiative collapse to attain the high density (approximately 4 x 10/sup 27/ m/sup -3/) and small radius (approximately 20 ..mu..m) required for a compact (0.1 m long) discharge.

  7. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei, E-mail: sifenni@163.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  8. Design of a 5-MA 100-ns linear-transformer-driver accelerator for wire array Z-pinch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The linear-transformer-driver (LTD is a recently developed pulsed-power technology that shows great promise for a number of applications. These include a Z-pinch-driven fission-fusion-hybrid reactor that is being developed by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics. In support of the reactor development effort, we are planning to build an LTD-based accelerator that is optimized for driving wire-array Z-pinch loads. The accelerator comprises six modules in parallel, each of which has eight series 0.8-MA LTD cavities in a voltage-adder configuration. Vacuum transmission lines are used from the interior of the adder to the central vacuum chamber where the load is placed. Thus the traditional stack-flashover problem is eliminated. The machine is 3.2 m tall and 12 m in outer diameter including supports. A prototype cavity was built and tested for more than 6000 shots intermittently at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A novel trigger, in which only one input trigger pulse is needed by utilizing an internal trigger brick, was developed and successfully verified in these shots. A full circuit modeling was conducted for the accelerator. The simulation result shows that a current pulse rising to 5.2 MA in 91 ns (10%–90% can be delivered to the wire-array load, which is 1.5 cm in height, 1.2 cm in initial radius, and 1 mg in mass. The maximum implosion velocity of the load is 32  cm/μs when compressed to 0.1 of the initial radius. The maximum kinetic energy is 78 kJ, which is 11.7% of the electric energy stored in the capacitors. This accelerator is supposed to enable a radiation energy efficiency of 20%–30%, providing a high efficient facility for research on the fast Z pinch and technologies for repetition-rate-operated accelerators.

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray-laser pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Mehlman, G.; Davis, J.; Rogerson, J.E.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    Using axially resolved spectra, we have derived temperature and density profiles of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas produced on the Naval Research Laboratory's Gamble-II generator. The variations in the output power of the Na X 1s 2 1 S 0 --1s2p 1 P 1 line which can be used to pump a Ne IX x-ray laser, are analyzed as functions of mass loading, temperature, and density. The fractional conversion of plasma energy to lasing lines is projected as 10/sup -3/ if an optimum neon lasant plasma can be prepared and pumped to saturation. This would require an increase in load current of less than or equal to 50% from the present 1.2 MA

  10. Study of the noncylindrical Z-pinch during discharges in neon using electro-optical transducer of the AGAT type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.B.; Orlov, M.M.; Saulevich, S.V.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of investigation into running away current-plasma sheath (CPS) of noncylindrical Z-pinch are given. Experimental chamber was filled with neon up to 3 torr pressure. Store of energy was equal to 20 kJ. CPS radiation spectrum scanning was recorded in the phase of its convergence to the system axis by means of an electron-optical converter of the AGAT type. Electron temperature in the inflection region on CPS constituted 3 eV. Possibilities of magnetic field diffusion through neon CPS and appearance of CPS running away mode are shown. CPS plasma spectra indicated that radiation can be recorded only from a CPS head near-anode part and its external peripheral regions moving from the axis and emitting considerably less quantity of radiation

  11. Linear and nonlinear development of m=0 instability in a diffuse Bennett Z-pinch equilibrium with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, I.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Makhin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sheared axial flow on the Z-pinch sausage instability has been examined with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Diffuse Bennett equilibria in the presence of axial flows with parabolic and linear radial profiles have been considered, and a detailed study of the linear and nonlinear development of small perturbations from these equilibria has been performed. The consequences of both single-wavelength and random-seed perturbations were calculated. It was found that sheared flows changed the internal m=0 mode development by reducing the linear growth rates, decreasing the saturation amplitude, and modifying the instability spectrum. High spatial frequency modes were stabilized to small amplitudes and only long wavelengths continued to grow. Full stability was obtained for supersonic plasma flows.

  12. Opacity and gradients in aluminum wire array z-pinch implosions on the Z pulsed power facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampleford, D. J., E-mail: damplef@sandia.gov; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Dunham, G.; Moore, N. W.; Harding, E. C.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chong, Y.-K.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Apruzese, J. P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Aluminum wire array z pinches imploded on the Z generator are an extremely bright source of 1–2 keV radiation, with close to 400 kJ radiated at photon energies >1 keV and more than 50 kJ radiated in a single line (Al Ly-α). Opacity plays a critical role in the dynamics and K-shell radiation efficiency of these pinches. Where significant structure is present in the stagnated pinch this acts to reduce the effective opacity of the system as demonstrated by direct analysis of spectra. Analysis of time-integrated broadband spectra (0.8–25 keV) indicates electron temperatures ranging from a few 100 eV to a few keV are present, indicative of substantial temperature gradients.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, G. C.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Ouart, N. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature ({approx}10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra ({approx}350-500 eV).

  14. Observation of visible emission from the molecular helium ion in the afterglow of a dense helium Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, J.E.; Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present the results of axial and radial time resolved visible emission spectroscopy from the afterglow of a dense helium Z-pinch. These results show that the visible emissions in the pinch afterglow are dominated by line emissions from molecular helium and He II. Axial spectroscopy measurements show the occurrence of several absorption bands which cannot be identified as molecular or atomic helium nor impurities from the discharge chamber materials. The authors believe that these absorption bands are attributable to the molecular helium ion which is present in the discharge. The molecular ion has been observed by others in low pressure and temperature helium discharges directly by means of mass spectrometry and indirectly by the presence of helium atoms in the 2/sup 3/S state, (the He 2/sup 3/S state is believed to result from molecular helium ion recombination). However, the molecular helium ion has not previously been observed spectroscopically

  15. Influence of the inner diameters of capillary on the Z-Pinch plasma of the capillary discharge soft X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shan; Zhao, Yong-peng; Cui, Huai-yu; Li, Lian-bo; Ding, Yu-jie; Zhang, Wen-hong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of inner diameters on the Z-pinch plasma of capillary discharge soft X-ray laser were investigated with the 3.2 mm and 4.0 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries. The intensities of the laser emitted from the 3.2 mm and 4.0 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries were measured under different initial pressures. To understand the underlying physics of the experimental measurements, the Z-pinch plasma simulations had been conducted with a one-dimensional cylindrical symmetry Lagrangian magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code. The parametric studies of Z-pinch plasma, such as the electron temperature, the electron density and the Ne-like Ar ion density, were performed with the MHD code. With the experimental and the simulated results, the discussions had been conducted on the Z-pinch plasma of Ne-like Ar 46.9 nm laser with the 3.2 mm and 4.0 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries. The analysis had been made on the difference of the gain coefficients under the optimum pressures with both capillaries. Then, the effects of inner diameters on the optimum pressure and the pressure domain were analyzed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Development of a visible framing camera diagnostic for the study of current initiation in z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muron, D.J.; Hurst, M.J.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors assembled and tested a visible framing camera system to take 5 ns FWHM images of the early time emission from a z-pinch plasma. This diagnostic was used in conjunction with a visible streak camera allowing early time emissions measurements to diagnose current initiation. Individual frames from gated image intensifiers were proximity coupled to charge injection device (CID) cameras and read out at video rate and 8-bit resolution. A mirror was used to view the pinch from a 90-degree angle. The authors observed the destruction of the mirror surface, due to the high surface heating, and the subsequent reduction in signal reflected from the mirror. Images were obtained that showed early time ejecta and a nonuniform emission from the target. This initial test of the equipment highlighted problems with this measurement. They observed non-uniformities in early time emission. This is believed to be due to either spatially varying current density or heating of the foam. Images were obtained that showed early time ejecta from the target. The results and suggestions for improvement are discussed in the text

  17. The C-300 soft X-ray power measurement on Sino-Russian joint Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jiamin; Jiang Shilun; Xu Rongkun; Guo Cun

    2008-06-01

    The measurement system for soft X-ray radiation power was introduced which applied in Sino-Russia joint Z-pinch experiments on C-300. The system measured the soft X-ray radiation power and energy, investigated relation between radiation power and time, and provided the time-relating signals. The type of experimental wire array loads were tungsten wire array single layer, aluminum wire array and nested wire array, and obtained the radiation wave, power and energy. Radiation peak of double wire array generally lower than that of single wire, radial radiation synchronization didn't obviously affected radiation front, fast pulse front may reflect better homogenous of plasma inner explosive which generally produced higher radiation power. There are no direct relationship between wide and power of radiation pulse. The micro-structures of wire array load were a very important factor for radiation power. Increasing the homogenous of wire array gap could optimize radiation synchronization and obviously increased the radiation power. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; NASH,THOMAS J.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; PETERSON,D.L.; BOWERS,R.L.; MATUSKA,W.

    2000-07-10

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 {+-} 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 {+-} 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 {+-} 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 {+-} 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm{sup 3} CH{sub 2} fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by {approximately}40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  19. One- and two-dimensional density and temperature measurements of an argon-neon Z-pinch plasma at stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Springer, P.T.; Hammer, J.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Emig, J.A.; Deeney, C.

    1996-10-01

    In order to benchmark and improve current 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of Z-pinch plasmas, we have performed experiments which characterize the plasma -conditions at stagnation. In the experiments the SATURN pulsed power facility at Sandia National Laboratory was used to create an imploding -Ar-Ne plasma. An absolutely calibrated, high resolution space- and time- resolving Johann crystal spectrometer was used to infer the electron temperature Te from the slope of the hydrogenlike Ne free-bound continuum, and the ion density ni from the Stark broadening of the Ar heliunlike Rydberg series. 2D electron temperature profiles of the plasma are obtained from a set of imaging crystals also focused on the Ne free-bound continuum. We shot two types of gas nozzles in the experiment, annular and uniform fill which varies the amount of mass in the plasma. 2D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE MM models predict a radiating region denser and cooler than measured

  20. The optimisation of an intense Z-pinch discharge as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, Gabriela; Zoita, Vasile; Iova, Iancu; Fleurier, Claude; Hong, Dunpin; Bauchire, Jean Marc

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of the low voltage circuit breaker arc from the optical and plasma physics points of view represents an element of importance for understanding the operating mechanism and the current interruption process. The development of the broad band optical absorption spectroscopy method seems to be well adapted in order to perform the circuit breaker arc analysis. A pulsed power device based on a Z-pinch type discharge has been developed as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations. The spatial extension of this radiation source, its brightness, reproducibility are well adapted to characterize the circuit-breaker arc. In addition, a very short emission period compared to the lifetime of the arc discharge provides an excellent time resolution for the absorption spectroscopy method. The first compression phase of the linear pinch produced in argon has been studied from the point of view of its use as a light source. The initial pressure of argon was varied from 0.5 to 2 mbar and the condenser bank energy from 5.1 to 8.7 kJ. The characterization of the emitted radiation, especially the influence of the condenser bank voltage and the argon pressure on the discharge has been studied. Collapse dynamics of the argon compressional pinch and the spectrally resolved continuum emission at the time of maximum compression have been observed. A very satisfactory plasma source optimisation has been achieved that fulfils the conditions required for the absorption spectroscopy method. (authors)

  1. Mass accretion and nested array dynamics from Ni-Clad Ti-Al wire array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Brent Manley; Jennings, Christopher A.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Maron, Yitzhak; LePell, Paul David; Deeney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 50 mm diameter wire arrays at the Z Accelerator has shown experimentally the accretion of mass in a stagnating z pinch and provided insight into details of the radiating plasma species and plasma conditions. This analysis focused on nested wire arrays with a 2:1 (outeninner) mass, radius, and wire number ratio where Al wires were fielded on the outer array and Ni-clad Ti wires were fielded on the inner array.In this presentation, we will present analysis of data from other mixed Al/Ni-clad Ti configurations to further evaluate nested wire array dynamics and mass accretion. These additional configurations include the opposite configuration to that described above (Ni-clad Ti wires on the outer array, with Al wires on the inner array) as well as higher wire number Al configurations fielded to vary the interaction of the two arrays. These same variations were also assessed for a smaller diameter nested array configuration (40 mm). Variations in the emitted radiation and plasma conditions will be presented, along with a discussion of what the results indicate about the nested array dynamics. Additional evidence for mass accretion will also be presented.

  2. Effects of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution on Z-pinch characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yao-Yong; Guo Yong-Hui; Wang Wen-Sheng; Qiu Ai-Ci

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional, three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the investigation of evolutional trends in x-ray radiation power, energy, peak plasma temperature and density as functions of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution by using the typical experimental parameters of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch on the Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator. The numerical results show that as the drive current rise-time is shortened, x-ray radiation peak power, energy, peak plasma density and peak ion temperature increase approximately linearly, but among them the x-ray radiation peak power increases more quickly. As the initial plasma density distribution in the radial direction becomes gradually flattened, the peak radiation power and the peak ion-temperature almost exponentially increase, while the radiation energy and the peak plasma density change only a little. The main effect of shortening drive current rise-time is to enhance compression of plasma, and the effect of flattening initial load density distribution in the radial direction is to raise the plasma temperature. Both of the approaches elevate the x-ray peak radiation power.

  3. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Thomas W.L.; Olson, Richard E.; Mock, Raymond Cecil; Chandler, Gordon A.; Leeper, Ramon J.; Nash, Thomas J.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Simpson, Walter W.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-01-01

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 ± 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 ± 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 ± 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 ± 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm 3 CH 2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ∼40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements

  4. Optimisation of intense X-ray sources of Z-pinch type connected to the high intensity current generator SPHINX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new source of intense X-rays in the spectral range of the keV has been designed in the CEA facilities at Gramat (France). This Z-pinch source is based on the implosion of a cylinder of matter that has been ionized by the Lorentz force generated by the injection in the cylinder of an intense current pulse delivered by a HPP (High Pulsed Powers) generator named SPHINX. The cylinder of matter is made up of a few hundreds of thin metal wires (tungsten or aluminium) whose diameter is less than a few tenths of μm. The SPHINX generator is based on the LTD (Linear Transformer Driver) technology. SPHINX stores an energy of 2.2 MJ and delivers a current of 8 MA over a time of 1 μs. SPHINX does not use any technology of time compression, it is a robust, compact machine with reduced maintenance but the price to pay for this simplification is to maintain a high axial homogeneity of the implosion during the initiation phase, it means the pulse time of 1μs. The preliminary experiments that have been performed give the following results: -) for a tungsten cylinder (X ray 1 keV): 28 kJ, 0.6 TW and 25 ns

  5. Evolution of sausage and helical modes in magnetized thin-foil cylindrical liners driven by a Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.

  6. One- and two-dimensional density and temperature measurements of an argon-neon Z-pinch plasma at stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Springer, P.T.; Hammer, J.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Emig, J.A.; Deeney, C.

    1997-01-01

    In order to benchmark and improve current 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of Z-pinch plasmas, we have performed experiments which characterize the plasma conditions at stagnation. In the experiments the SATURN pulsed power facility at Sandia National Laboratory was used to create an imploding Ar-Ne plasma. An absolutely calibrated, high resolution space- and time-resolving Johann crystal spectrometer was used to infer the electron temperature T e from the slope of the hydrogenlike Ne free-bound continuum, and the ion density n i from the Stark broadening of the Ar heliumlike Rydberg series. 2D electron temperature profiles of the plasma are obtained from a set of imaging crystals also focused on the Ne free-bound continuum. We shot two types of gas nozzles in the experiment, annular and uniform fill, which varies the amount of mass in the plasma. 2D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE MHD models predict a radiating region denser and cooler than measured. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Conception and realization of optical diagnosis to characterize gas puffs in Z-Pinch experiments. Comparison between experiment and computation. Study of a new nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnier, J.N.

    1998-01-01

    The CEA develops research programs on plasma. A good way to generate such X-rays sources, is to realize Z-pinch experiments, so to realize the radial implosion on its axis of a conducting cylinder in a very high current. The AMBIORIX machine, allowing such experiments, calls for necessitates the use of gaseous conductors. The gas puff, coming from the nozzle, is ionised by a 2 MA current. The aim of this thesis is the characterisation of the gas source before the current impulse. For this purpose many optic diagnostics have been tested. Interferometric measures allow the gas profile density measurement. Various gas have been studied: neon, argon, helium and aluminium. For the aluminium, the resonant interferometric imagery method has been used. A new nozzle with an innovative injection technic, has been designed, characterized and tested in Z-pinch configuration. Finally measures of light diffusion (Rayleigh) have been realised to show dust in the gas. (A.L.B.)

  8. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at “QiangGuang-I” facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Jizhen; Wang, Liangping [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: liyang@nint.ac.cn; Li, Mo [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on “QiangGuang-I” facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/t{sub imp} < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GW for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigations on the interaction of light wire-array Z-pinches with embedded heavy foam converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Delong; Ding, Ning; Sun, Shunkai [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Ye, Fan; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Chen, Faxin; Qin, Yi; Xu, Rongkun; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-04-15

    The interaction of a light tungsten wire-array Z-pinch with an embedded heavy foam converter, whose mass ratio is typically less than 0.16, is numerically analyzed and experimentally investigated on the 1.3 MA “QiangGuang I” facility. Computational results show that this implosion process can be divided into three stages: acceleration of the tungsten wire-array plasma, collision, and stagnation. The tungsten plasma is accelerated to a high speed by the J × B force and interacts weakly with the foam plasma in the first stage. Strong energy conversions take place in the second collision stage. When the high speed tungsten plasma impacts on the foam converter, the plasma is thermalized and a radial radiation peak is produced. Meanwhile, a shock wave is generated due to the collision. After the shock rebounds from the axis and meets the W/Foam boundary, the plasma stagnates and the second radial radiation peak appears. The collision and stagnation processes were observed and the two-peak radial radiation pulse was produced in experiments. Increasing the wire-array radius from 4 mm to 6 mm, the kinetic energy of the tungsten plasma is increased, causing a stronger thermalization and generating a higher first radiation peak. Experimental results also showed a higher ratio of the first peak to the second peak in the case of larger wire-array radius. If we add a thin CH film cover onto the surface of the embedded foam converter, the first radiation peak will be hardly changed, because the acceleration of the tungsten plasma is not evidently affected by the film cover. However, the second radiation peak decreases remarkably due to the large load mass and the corresponding weak compression.

  10. The wire array Z-pinch: an efficient x-ray source for ICF and a new ion heating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M. G.

    2008-10-01

    The Z-pinch provides an efficient x-ray source for driving a hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion. The basic physics of wire-array implosions is reviewed. It can be understood in several sequential stages. Firstly, the wires heat and form a surrounding vapour which ionizes, causing the current to transfer to this lower resistance. The J×B global force leads to ejection of this plasma towards the axis to form a precursor plasma. The wire cores continue to ablate due to the heat flux from the Joule-heated nearby plasma. The cooling of this plasma by the wire-cores leads to a low magnetic Reynolds number so that the precursor plasma carries little or no current. When gaps appear in the liquid/vapour cores the plasma temperature and Reynolds number rise and this plasma accelerates in towards the axis carrying the current. This is the main implosion, and it sweeps up earlier ablated plasma, which acts to reduce Rayleigh-Taylor growth. At stagnation, the ion kinetic energy is thermalized and equipartition heats the electrons, which then radiate in a 5 ns pulse. In some conditions the energy radiated by soft x-rays exceeds the ion kinetic energy by a factor of 3 or 4. A theory has been developed to explain this in which fine-scale, fast growing m= 0 MHD instabilities grow to saturation, viscous dissipation of which leads to ion heating, followed by equipartition. World record ion temperatures of 2-3 billion Kelvin were predicted, and measured at Sandia National Laboratory. Lastly, progress in capsule implosions and in application to inertial fusion energy is reported.

  11. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-01-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the Z pinch plasma as a source of power pulse of soft X radiation for generation of shock waves in condensed targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabovskij, E.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Vorob'ev, O.Yu.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Lebedev, M.E.; Fortov, V.E.; Frolov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of processes occurring in Z-pinch plasma under conditions initiating a powerful pulse of soft X-radiation. The main attention is focused on double liner circuit designs. Estimations of power of radiation and spectrum are studied. The results are used to simulate processes occurring at generation of shock waves under the effect of soft X-radiation on the target. Experiments to generate shock waves with up to 3 Mbar amplitude pressure in lead under the effect of soft X-radiation were conducted using Angara-5 plant. 24 refs., 9 figs

  13. Numerical simulations of annular wire-array z-pinches in (x,y), (r,θ), and (r,z) geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, B.M.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1997-12-01

    The Total Immersion PIC (TIP) code has been used in several two-dimensional geometries to understand better the measured dynamics of annular, aluminum wire-array z-pinches. The areas investigated include the formation of the plasma sheath from current-induced individual wire explosions, the effects of wire number and symmetry on the implosion dynamics, and the dependence of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on initial sheath thickness. A qualitative change in the dynamics with increasing wire number was observed, corresponding to a transition between a z-pinch composed of non-merging, self-pinching individual wires, and one characterized by the rapid formation and subsequent implosion of a continuous plasma sheath. A sharp increase in radiated power with increasing wire number has been observed experimentally near this calculated transition. Although two-dimensional codes have correctly simulated observed power pulse durations, there are indications that three dimensional effects are important in understanding the actual mechanism by which these pulse lengths are produced

  14. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  15. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼ 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  16. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  17. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4 mm. In this ''plasma-shell regime,'' many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  18. Experimental research of neutron yield and spectrum from deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at current above 2 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas-puff surrounded by an outer plasma shell were carried out on the GIT-12 generator (Tomsk, Russia) at currents of 2 MA. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed by 48 plasma guns. The deuterium gas-puff was created by a fast electromagnetic valve. This configuration provides an efficient mode of the neutron production in DD reaction, and the neutron yield reaches a value above 1012 neutrons per shot. Neutron diagnostics included scintillation TOF detectors for determination of the neutron energy spectrum, bubble detectors BD-PND, a silver activation detector, and several activation samples for determination of the neutron yield analysed by a Sodium Iodide (NaI) and a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Using this neutron diagnostic complex, we measured the total neutron yield and amount of high-energy neutrons.

  19. Fibers as solid, internal targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B.v.

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that fibers or micro ribbons provide the possibility to expose solid targets to a stored ion beam. Compared to gas targets or micro particle targets fiber targets require a relatively small technical effort, since differential pumping systems are not necessary to maintain the ring vacuum. Since stationary fibers are often too thick to allow for long enough lifetimes of the stored beam to be useful for experiments, a methods has been developed to move the fiber periodically through the beam. That way, the time averaged target thickness is small compared to the thickness the same fiber would have, if it were stationary in the path of the beam. In addition, the time averaged thickness can be adjusted if the amplitude of the fiber motion is increased or decreased to obtain a thinner or thicker target respectively. Measurements that compare the lifetime of the stored beam in the presence of a fiber target with the lifetime of a stored beam in the presence of a gas target show that a fiber target of a certain time averaged target thickness is equivalent to a homogeneous target of the same thickness. The data are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations

  20. All-PM monolithic fs Yb-fiber laser, dispersion-managed with all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    All-in-fiber SESAM-modelocked self-starting fiber laser is demonstrated. Cavity dispersion is managed by a spliced-in PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. The laser directly delivers 1.25 nJ pulses of 280 fs duration.......All-in-fiber SESAM-modelocked self-starting fiber laser is demonstrated. Cavity dispersion is managed by a spliced-in PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. The laser directly delivers 1.25 nJ pulses of 280 fs duration....

  1. Increased kilo-electron-volt x-ray yields from Z-pinch plasmas by mixing elements of similar atomic numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Failor, B.H.; Wong, S.L.; Apruzese, J.P.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Yadlowsky, E.; Hazelton, R.C.; Moschella, J.J.; Nash, T.; Loter, N.

    1995-01-01

    Magnesium-coated aluminum wire array Z pinch plasmas have been tested on a 4-MA, 6-TW pulsed electrical generator. A mixture of 80% aluminum and 20% magnesium is observed to maximize the radiated kilovolt x-ray yield at ≥50 kJ, which is 50% higher than that obtained with pure aluminum. Spectroscopic analysis and collisional radiative equilbrium models with radiation transport are employed to show that the aluminum-magnesium mixture reduces the opacity of the strongest emission lines, thus increasing the yield by increasing the probability of photon escape. Furthermore, the spectroscopic data also point to the presence of a strong temperature gradient in the pinched plasma that results in the outer magnesium coating of the wires having a higher electron temperature in the pinch. This temperature difference also plays a role in enhancing the kilovolt x-ray yield. The observation of a higher magnesium electron temperature offers evidence that the magnesium reaches the axis first, forming a core that is compressed and heated by the imploding mass of aluminum. Since the emissions from the core are not absorbed by the outer aluminum, the yields are increased. By comparison, aluminum-magnesium alloys imploded on a different but similar generator do not show a temperature difference

  2. Recent ACE 4 Z-pinch experiments: Long implosion time argon loads, uniform fill versus annular shell distributions and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, P.; Rauch, J.; Rix, W.; Thompson, J.; Wilson, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hammer (1996) and Velikovich (1996) have discussed ways to mitigate the growth of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in z-pinch (PRS) implosions. They predict that initial mass distributions more complex than a simple annular shell will reduce instability development. Sanford (1996) reported experimental data showing a benefit for a uniform mass distribution compared to a shell; those tests used ''conventional'' load radii of 2.25 and 1.25 cm respectively, and implosion times under 100 ns. However, the instability problem is expected to grow exponentially as the implosion time, or alternatively the initial radius, increases. Thus we made a comparison of a uniform fill load with a shell but at larger radii, 3.6 and 2.5 cm respectively, and at implosion times well above 100 ns. We see nearly a factor of 10X improvement in peak K-shell power and 2X increase in K-shell yield for the uniform mass load. Hence it appears that suitable tailoring of the imploding mass distribution can significantly limit the instability growth

  3. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120--160 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L. (and others)

    2000-11-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60{+-}20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13{+-}4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122{+-}6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155{+-}8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in the r--z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH{sub 2} fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by {approx}40% with only a 3%--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  4. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120--160 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in the r--z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH 2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ∼40% with only a 3%--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements

  5. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185 (United States); Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California94550 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States); Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately}1.4mm. In this {open_quotes}plasma-shell regime,{close_quotes} many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, array radius, and load mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, including the radiated power, increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMEC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In the plasma-shell regime, the experimental implosions exhibit 1D- and 2D-code characteristics as evidenced by the presence of a strong first and a weak second radiation pulse that correlates with a strong and weak radial convergence. In this regime, many of the radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. Moreover, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in array mass and radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple K-shell radiation scaling models.

  7. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B.; Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4mm. In this open-quotes plasma-shell regime,close quotes many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120-160 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-11-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV—providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ˜40% with only a 3%-5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  9. Radial evolution of the finite-width plasma sheet in a z-pinch: A parametric analysis based on conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method that allows to estimate the macroscopic variables (width, temperature, density, radial velocity, etc.) of the plasma sheet in the first compression of a z-pinch, is presented. Following the snow-plow model, the radial compression is assumed as a process in which the mass is swept by a sheet of finite width. Very high pressures can be reached inside the sheet due to magnetic compression, higher than the filling gas pressure. A quasi-equilibrium hypothesis for the pressure of the layer is defined. From this assumption the thickness of the dense plasma sheet can be estimated. A set of MHD equations that include a term to compute total energy losses is used. The system of equations is written in the interface reference system in which the internal boundary of the sheet is at rest. In this early stage of the compression, the plasma temperature is mainly due to heavy particles. The results obtained using this model can explain ionic temperatures measured in cold plasmas which cannot be explained from electron-ion collisions. From an analytical study of the formation solution, a well-defined range of validity for each parameter of the model has been found. Based on physical conditions, these ranges of validity give a criterion to understanding the necessary conditions to build and maintain a moving plasma sheet. Using this model, other geometries besides the cylindrical one can be analyzed in the future

  10. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I. [Yatsushiro National College of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  11. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  12. Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Dong, Zelin; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong; Qu, Liangti

    2013-12-13

    Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were fabricated through a dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy and their extraction performance was evaluated. For the fiber fabrication, a glass pipeline was innovatively used as a hydrothermal reactor instead of a Teflon-lined autoclave. Compared with conventional methods for SPME fibers, the proposed strategy can fabricate a uniform graphene fiber as long as several meters or more at a time. Coupled to capillary gas chromatography (GC), the monolithic graphene fibers in a direct-immersion (DI) mode achieved higher extraction efficiencies for aromatics than those for n-alkanes, especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thanks to π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic effect. Additionally, the fibers exhibited excellent durability and can be repetitively used more than 160 times without significant loss of extraction performance. As a result, an optimum extraction condition of 40°C for 50min with 20% NaCl (w/w) was finally used for SPME of PAHs in aqueous samples. For the determination of PAHs in water samples, the proposed DI-SPME-GC method exhibited linear range of 0.05-200μg/L, limits of detection (LOD) of 4.0-50ng/L, relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 9.4% and 12.1% for one fiber and different fibers, respectively, and recoveries of 78.9-115.9%. The proposed method can be used for analysis of PAHs in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S.; Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F.; Schumer, Joseph Wade; Welch, Dale Robert; Kim, Alexander; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Kammer, Daniel C.; Rose, David Vincent; Nedoseev, Sergei L.; Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G.; Bruner, Nichelle

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO 2 production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  14. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle " Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  15. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  16. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  17. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse [2] . Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  18. Investigation of magnetic field effects on the mitigation of the magnetohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in fast z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.; Deeney, C.; Roderick, N.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the role that magnetic field diffusion and ohmic heating have on the magnetohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) development in fast z-pinch implosions. Previous work has indicated these terms can strongly influence the evolution of RT growth, leading to a reduction in RT amplitude, and an improvement in pinch performance. Indeed, Roderick et al have suggested that magnetic smoothing is an important mechanism in linear RT growth. To examine this in more detail, simulations are presented for a 1.4 mg, 25.0 mm diameter tungsten wire array imploded in the Saturn long pulse mode. The 130 ns implosion time of this calculation should enhance any mitigating effects that may be attributed to nonideal MHD. Calculations were performed using the 2D MHD code Mach2. The wire array was approximated by a right cylindrical slab of 1.0 mm width. Both a random density perturbation and single mode density perturbations were incorporated to initiate the instability. In the former case, a 5% cell-to-cell random perturbation was used. This allowed a range of modes to be initially present. In the single mode case, a 1.25 mm wavelength, on the order of the shell thickness, was defined. To isolate the contributions due to field diffusion, joule heating, and equation of state, simulations were run with and without ohmic heating using both constant and material-dependent spitzer resistivities. This analysis was then extended to look at the effect of such parameters on the nested shell load configuration. Detailed analysis of the simulations will be presented

  19. Measurements for the radiation spectra of fast Z-pinches produced at compression of multi-wire arrays on the 'Angara-5-1' facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkhovitinov, E.A.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Fedulov, M.V.; Grabovsky, E.V.; Gritsuk, A.N.; Oleinik, G.M.; Volkov, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The measurements results on the radiation spectra of fast z-pinches produced at compression of cylindrical multi-wire tungsten and aluminum arrays in the experiments on a high-current 'Angara-5-1' facility are presented. Cylindrical multi-wire arrays has linear mass 200-400 μg/cm and the initial diameter 12-20 mm. The pinch current was about 3 MA with pulse duration of 140 ns and peak power 3 TW. The radiation spectra are measured within the range of 50-900 eV quanta by a spectrometer with transmission diffraction grating, where the radiation is recorded on the UF-4 X-ray film. An electromagnetic curtain shutter was used to protect the transmission grating from fast microparticles produced by the erosion of high-voltage electrodes. The radiation spectrum of 1-3 keV quanta was recorded by a convex crystal wide-range spectrometer. Total yield of the radiation was measured by a thermocouple calorimeter. The main part of the tungsten plasma radiative energy proves to correspond to the quasi-continuous spectrum within the range of 80-300 eV quanta. Measurements of the tungsten plasma radiation spectrum with spatial resolution by a pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch as not higher than 1 mm. In the case of aluminum plasma an intensive linear radiation of the [H]- and [He]-like ions have been recorded along with a continuous and linear radiation of the [Li]- and [Be]-like ions with the range of 100-300 eV quanta. Spectral measurements of the aluminum plasma radiation with spatial resolution by the pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch is around the value of 1.5 mm. Within the framework of the stationary collisional-radiative model, in respect of the [H]- and [He]-like ion spectral lines relative intensities, the parameters of the aluminum plasma pinch, namely, the electron temperature T e ∼ 550 eV and electron density n e ∼ 3 x 10 20 cm

  20. Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund

    2015-11-01

    Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which

  1. Simulations of fusion chamber dynamics and first wall response in a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, J.M., E-mail: qjm06@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangz_es@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Chu, Y.Y., E-mail: chuyanyun@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Li, Z.H., E-mail: lee_march@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Z-FFR utilizes DT neutrons to drive a sub-critical fission blanket to produce energy. • A metal shell and Ar gas are employed in the fusion chamber for shock mitigation. • Massive materials can effectively mitigate the thermal heats on the chamber wall. • The W-coated Zr-alloy first wall exhibits good viability as a long-lived component. - Abstract: In a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR), the fusion target will produce enormous energy of ∼1.5 GJ per pulse at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Almost 20% of the fusion energy yield, approximately 300 MJ, is released in forms of pulsed X-rays. To prevent the first wall from fatal damages by the intense X-rays, a thin spherical metal shell and rare Ar buffer gas are introduced to mitigate the transient X-ray bursts. Radiation hydrodynamics in the fusion chamber were investigated by MULTI-1D simulations, and the corresponding thermal and mechanical loads on the first wall were also obtained. The simulations indicated that by optimizing the design parameters of the metal shell and Ar buffer gas, peak power flux of the thermal heats on the first wall could be mitigated to less than 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2} within a time scale of several milliseconds, while peak overpressures of the mechanical loads varying from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa. In addition, the thermomechanical response in a W–coated Zr-alloy first wall was performed by FWDR1D calculations using the derived thermal and mechanical loads as inputs. The temperature and stress fields were analyzed, and the corresponding elastic strains were conducted for primary lifetime estimations by using the Coffin–Manson relationships of both W and Zr-alloy. It was shown that the maximum temperature rises and stresses in the first wall were less than 50 K and 130 MPa respectively, and lifetime of the first wall would be in excess of 10{sup 9} cycles. The chamber exhibits good viability as a long-lived component to sustain the Z-FFR conceptual

  2. Neodymium-doped phosphate fiber lasers with an all-solid microstructured inner cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Zhou, Qinling; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2012-06-15

    We report on high-power fiber lasers based on index-guiding, all-solid neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) phosphate photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a hexagonal-shaped inner cladding. The optimum fiber laser with a 36 cm length active fiber, generated up to 7.92 W output power at 1053 nm, which benefited from a high absorption coefficient for pump power due to its noncircular inner cladding. The guiding properties of the all-solid PCF were also investigated. A stable mode with a donut-shaped profile and a power-dependent laser beam quality have been observed experimentally and analyzed.

  3. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser with intracavity all-solid PBG fiber and ex-cavity HC-PCF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    (PM) photonic bandgap fiber (PBG) is used in the cavity of the master oscillator for dispersion compensation and stabilization of modelocking. The final compression of an chirped-pulse-amplified laser signal is performed in a hollow PM PCF, yielding final fiber-delivered pulse energy of around 7 n......J, and pulse duration of around 297 fs. The self-stabilization mechanism of the oscillator, based on the optical nonlinearities in an AS PCF, results in excellent environmental and operational stability of our laser. Stable self-starting fundamental modelocking is maintained for at least 4 days of operation......We demonstrate an all-fiber femtosecond master oscillator / power amplifier operating at the central wavelength of 1033 nm, based on Yb-doped fiber as gain medium, and two different kinds of photonic crystal fibers for dispersion control and stabilization. An all-solid (AS) polarization maintaining...

  4. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningfang; Ma, Kun; Jin, Jing; Teng, Fei; Cai, Wei

    2017-10-26

    A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10 -5 deg/√h.

  5. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  6. A 98 W 1178 nm Yb-doped solid-core photonic bandgap fiber oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xinyan; Chen, Mingchen; Shirakawa, Akira; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Olausson, Christina B; Broeng, Jes

    2013-01-01

    A high-power ytterbium-doped solid-core photonic bandgap fiber laser directly oscillating at 1178 nm is reported. The sharp-cut bandpass distributed filtering effect of photonic bandgap fiber can suppress amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the conventional high-gain spectral region. The oscillator is composed of a high reflection fiber Bragg grating spliced with a 39 m gain fiber and a Fresnel fiber end surface. A model based on rate equations is investigated numerically. A record output power of 98 W is achieved with a slope efficiency of 54%. The laser linewidth is 0.5 nm. The spectrum at 98 W indicates that ASE and parasitic lasing are suppressed effectively. (letter)

  7. Flexible all solid-state supercapacitors based on chemical vapor deposition derived graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhao, Tianshuo; Chen, Qiao; Li, Peixu; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Wei, Bingqing; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-11-07

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene fibers are demonstrated in this study. Surface-deposited oxide nanoparticles are used as pseudo-capacitor electrodes to achieve high capacitance. This supercapacitor electrode has an areal capacitance of 42 mF cm(-2), which is comparable to the capacitance for fiber-based supercapacitors reported to date. During the bending and cycling of the fiber-based supercapacitor, the stability could be maintained without sacrificing the electrochemical performance, which provides a novel and simple way to develop flexible, lightweight and efficient graphene-based devices.

  8. Transforming Pristine Carbon Fiber Tows into High Performance Solid-State Fiber Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Zhai, Shengli; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Li; Chen, Xudong; Jiang, Rongrong; Chen, Yuan

    2015-09-02

    A facile activation strategy can transform pristine carbon fiber tows into high-performance fiber electrodes with a specific capacitance of 14.2 F cm(-3) . The knottable fiber supercapacitor shows an energy density of 0.35 mW h cm(-3) , an ultrahigh power density of 3000 mW cm(-3) , and a remarkable capacitance retention of 68%, when the scan rate increases from 10 to 1000 mV s(-1) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of liner non-uniformity on plasma instabilities in an inverse Z-pinch magnetized target fusion system: liner-on-plasma simulations and comparison with linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude

  10. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yinping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is <0.3 dB from 26°C to 44°C. Further tuning coherent coupling of waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  11. Preliminary investigation on the use of low current pulsed power Z-pinch plasma devices for the study of early stage plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselouris, E.; Dimitriou, V.; Fitilis, I.; Skoulakis, A.; Koundourakis, G.; Clark, E. L.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, Μ; Nikolos, I. K.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses key features for the implementation of low current pulsed power plasma devices for the study of matter dynamics from the solid to the plasma phase. The renewed interest in such low current plasma devices lies in the need to investigate methods for the mitigation of prompt seeding mechanisms for the generation of plasma instabilities. The low current when driven into thick wires (skin effect mode) allows for the simultaneous existence of all phases of matter from solid to plasma. Such studies are important for the concept of inertial confinement fusion where the mitigation of the instability seeding mechanisms arising from the very early moments within the target’s heating is of crucial importance. Similarly, in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept it is an open question as to how much surface non-uniformity correlates with the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which develops during the implosion. This study presents experimental and simulation results, which demonstrate that the use of low current pulsed power devices in conjunction with appropriate diagnostics can be important for studying seeding mechanisms for the imminent generation of plasma instabilities in future research.

  12. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti R. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90° and impact velocities (48–109 m/s. The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM to understand the erosion mechanism.

  13. Continued advances in high brightness fiber-coupled laser modules for efficient pumping of fiber and solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M.; Chen, Z.; Urbanek, W.; Dawson, D.; Bao, L.; Kanskar, M.; DeVito, M.; Martinsen, R.

    2018-02-01

    Both the fibber laser and diode-pumped solid-state laser market continue to drive advances in pump diode module brightness. We report on the continued progress by nLIGHT to develop and deliver the highest brightness diode-laser pumps using single-emitter technology. Continued advances in multimode laser diode technology [13] and fiber-coupling techniques have enabled higher emitter counts in the element packages, enabling us to demonstrate 305 W into 105 μm - 0.16 NA. This brightness improvement is achieved by leveraging our prior-reported package re-optimization, allowing an increase in the emitter count from two rows of nine emitters to two rows of twelve emitters. Leveraging the two rows off twelve emitter architecture,, product development has commenced on a 400 W into 200 μm - 00.16 NA package. Additionally, the advances in pump technology intended for CW Yb-doped fiber laser pumping has been leveraged to develop the highest brightness 793 nm pump modules for 2 μm Thulium fiber laser pumping, generating 150 W into 200 μm - 0.18 NA and 100 W into 105 μm - 0.15 NA. Lastly, renewed interest in direct diode materials processing led us to experiment with wavelength multiplexing our existing state of the art 200 W, 105 μm - 00.15 NA package into a combined output of 395 WW into 105 μm - 0.16 NA.

  14. All solid-state V2O5-based flexible hybrid fiber supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; He, Jin; Cao, Xin; Kang, Liping; He, Xuexia; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Ruibin; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium pentoxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (V2O5-SWCNT) hybrid fibers with good electrochemical performance and flexibility are firstly prepared by using wet-spinning method. V2O5 nanobelt suspension is obtained by mixing V2O5 bulk, 30% H2O2, H2O and followed by hydrothermally treating at 190 °C for 15 h. SWCNT suspension is suspended into V2O5 nanobelt suspension under vigorous stirring, the V2O5-SWCNT homogenous suspension is obtained. It is injected into a coagulation bath composed of 5 wt % CaCl2 ethanol-water solution using syringe pump, V2O5-SWCNT hybrid fibers are prepared by washing with deionized water and drying at room temperature. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SWCNT hybrid fibers are also prepared by the similar wet-spinning approach and followed by reducing GO-SWCNT hybrid fibers in an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. All solid-state asymmetric V2O5/SWCNT//RGO/SWCNT fiber supercapacitors are assembled with V2O5-SWCNT fiber as positive electrode and RGO-SWCNT fiber as negative electrode by using PVA-H3PO4 as gel electrolyte. The assembled device not only shows maximum volumetric energy density of 1.95 mW h cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 7.5 mW cm-3, superior rate performance and cycling stability, but also exhibits remarkable flexibility to tolerate long-term and repeated bending. This work will open a new application filed of V2O5-based fibers in wearable energy storage devices.

  15. Stretchable, Weavable Coiled Carbon Nanotube/MnO2/Polymer Fiber Solid-State Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm2, 2.6 μWh/cm2 and 66.9 μW/cm2, respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove. PMID:25797351

  16. Stretchable, weavable coiled carbon nanotube/MnO2/polymer fiber solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-03-23

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm(2), 2.6 μWh/cm(2) and 66.9 μW/cm(2), respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove.

  17. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  18. A new polyethylene glycol fiber prepared by coating porous zinc electrodeposited onto silver for solid-phase microextraction of styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungkaew, Sakchaibordee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2010-01-01

    A new polyethylene glycol fiber was developed for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of styrene by electrodepositing porous Zn film on Ag wire substrate followed by coating with polyethylene glycol sol-gel (Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber). The scanning electron micrographs of fibers surface revealed a highly porous structure. The extraction property of the developed fiber-to-styrene residue from polystyrene packaged food was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The new Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber is simple to prepare, low cost, robust, has high thermal stability and long lifetime, up to 359 extractions. Repeatability of one fiber (n = 6) was in the range of 4.7-7.5% and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 4) for five concentration values were in the range 3.4-10%. This Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber was compared to two commercial SPME fibers, 75 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Under their optimum conditions, Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber showed the highest sensitivity and the lowest detection limit at 0.28 ± 0.01 ng mL -1 .

  19. Polypyrrole/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite as a novel fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Fattahpour, Peyman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The polypyrrole/SBA15) nanocomposite was used as a novel coating for SPME fiber. → The proposed fiber was used for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. → The proposed SPME fiber is thermal stable, and it has a low limit of detection. → The SPME fiber was applied in polluted river water and wastewater samples. - Abstract: A highly porous fiber coated polypyrrole/hexagonally ordered silica (PPy/SBA15) materials were prepared for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The PPy/SBA15 nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization technique. The resulting material was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The prepared nanomaterial was immobilized onto a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fiber. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A one at-the-time optimization strategy was applied for optimizing the important extraction parameters such as extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, stirring rate, desorption time and desorption temperature. In optimum conditions (extraction temperature 70 deg. C, extraction time 20 min, ionic strength 20% (W V -1 ), stirring rate 500 rpm, desorption temperature 270 deg. C, desorption time 5 min) the repeatability for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D. %), was between 5.0% and 9.3% for the tested compounds. The quantitation limit for the studied compounds were between 13.3 and 66.6 pg mL -1 . The life span and stability of the PPy/SBA15 fiber are good, and it can be used more than 50 times at 260 deg. C without any significant change in sorption properties. The developed method offers the advantage of being simple to use, with shorter analysis times, lower cost of equipment, thermal stability of fiber and high

  20. Optimized debris stoppers for Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondarenko, N A; Pereira, N R [Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A pulse power generator discharging through an array of wires or a gas cylinder creates a pulse of useful soft x-rays, which is usually followed by deleterious byproducts such as plasma, hot gases and droplets of metal from evaporated electrodes. Separating the extraneous material from the x-rays is done with a debris shield. Optimization of such shields is discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Analysis of Z Pinch Shock Wave Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, James; Budge, Kent G.; Chandler, Gordon; Fleming, Kevin; Hall, Clint; Holland, Kathleen; Konrad, Carl; Lawrence, Jeffery; Trott, Wayne; Trucano, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report details of our computational study of two shock wave physics experiments performed on the Sandia Z machine in 1998. The novelty of these particular experiments is that they represent the first successful application of VISAR interferometry to diagnose shock waves generated in experimental payloads by the primary X-ray pulse of the machine. We use the Sandia shock-wave physics code ALEGRA to perform the simulations reported in this study. Our simulations are found to be in fair agreement with the time-resolved VISAR experimental data. However, there are also interesting and important discrepancies. We speculate as to future use of time-resolved shock wave data to diagnose details of the Z machine X-ray pulse in the future

  2. Poly(Dimethylsiloxane)-Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coated Solid Phase Micro extraction Fiber for Chloropyrifos Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Nor Fairul Zukry Ahmad Rasdy; Norfazilah Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Traditional liquid - liquid extraction of pesticides consumes large volumes of organic solvent which are hazardous to the operator and is not environment friendly. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) is a solvent less extraction method which is safer to the operator and is environmental friendly. A sol-gel hybrid fibre coating material, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PDMS-PVA) was synthesized and used in head space solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) of chloropyrifos. The thickness of the synthesised PDMS-PVA fiber coating was 13.5 μm and it is thermally stable up to 400 degree Celsius. The PDMS-PVA sol-gel hybrid fiber was also stable to two organic solvents tested; acetonitrile and dichloromethane (1 hour dipping) and showed no significant changes in extraction performance for chloropyrifos. Extracted chloropyrifos was analysed using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Optimum SPME parameters affecting the PDMS-PVA HS-SPME performance namely extraction time (15 min), extraction temperature (50 degree Celsius), desorption time (5 min), desorption temperature (260 degree Celsius) and stirring rate (120 rpm) were used for extraction. It was found that HSSPME using PDMS-PVA sol-gel fiber gave significantly better extraction performance of chloropyrifos compared to commercial 100 μm PDMS fiber. The PDMS-PVA fiber showed excellent operational performances such as temperature stability (up to 380 degree Celsius), coating lifetime (up to 170 times use) and organic solvent stability. The PDMS-PVA-HS-SPME method showed excellent recovery for chloropyrifos from tomatoes (98.0 %, 5.9 % RSD) at 0.01 μg/ g spiked level (5 times lower than maximum residue limit set by European Union). (author)

  3. Measurement of characteristics of solid flow in the cyclone separators with fiber optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaohua; Li Yan; Li Jinjing; Yang Shi; Yang Hairui; Zhang Hai; Lu Junfu; Yue Guangxi

    2009-01-01

    In some applications, e.g. circulating fluidized beds (CFB), cyclones are usually operated at high solid loadings. Under high inlet solid concentration, most of the particles are collected at the wall and form a dense particle spiral band because of high separation efficiency. As a result, gas-solid reactions should occur mostly in the near-wall region. To understand the gas-solid reaction mechanism in the cyclone, an experimental study was conducted in a plexiglass CFB cold apparatus, with a riser of 0.2m I.D. and 5m high, and a standard Lapple cyclone. Fiber optical probe was used to measure the characteristics of solid flow in the cyclone, including particle velocity and volumetric solid concentration, especially in the near-wall region of the cyclone. Based on the experiment results, the combustion of carbon particles in the cyclone of a CFB boiler was estimated with group combustion theory. The calculated results show that combustion effectiveness factor ηeff of near-wall particle cloud is smaller than 1/25, which means the combustion rate of a carbon particle in the near-wall region is greatly restricted by other particles in the cloud.

  4. Fiber up-tapering and down-tapering for low-loss coupling between anti-resonant hollow-core fiber and solid-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naiqian; Wang, Zefeng; Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method for the low-loss coupling between solid-core multi-mode fibers (MMFs) and anti-resonant hollow-core fibers (AR-HCFs). The core/cladding diameter of the MMF is 50/125μm and the mode field diameter of the AR-HCFs are 33.3μm and 71.2μm of the ice-cream type AR-HCFs and the non-node type ARHCFs, respectively. In order to match the mode field diameters of these two specific AR-HCFs, the mode field diameter of the MMFs is increased or decreased by up-tapering or down-tapering the MMFs. Then, according to the principle of coupled fiber mode matching, the optimal diameter of tapered fiber for low-loss coupling is calculated. Based on beam propagation method, the calculated coupling losses without tapering process are 0.31dB and 0.89dB, respectively for a MMF-HCF-MMF structure of the ice-cream type AR-HCFs and the non-node type AR-HCFs. These values can be reduced to 0.096dB and 0.047dB when the outer diameters of the MMF are down-tapered to 116μm and up-tapered to 269μm, respectively. What's more, these results can also be verified by existing experiments.

  5. Chemically bonded carbon nanotubes on modified gold substrate as novel unbreakable solid phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, H.; Ayazi, Z.; Sistani, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is introduced for preparation of an unbreakable fiber using gold wire as a substrate for solid phase microextraction (SPME). A gold wire is used as a solid support, onto which a first film is deposited that consists of a two-dimensional polymer obtained by hydrolysis of a self-assembled monolayer of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanthiol. This first film is covered with a layer of 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine. Next, a stationary phase of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes was chemically bound to the surface. The synthetic strategy was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal stability of new fiber was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. The applicability of the novel coating was verified by its employment as a SPME fiber for isolation of diazinon and fenthion, as model compounds. Parameters influencing the extraction process were optimized to result in limits of detection as low as 0.2 ng mL -1 for diazinon, and 0.3 ng mL -1 for fenthion using the time-scheduled selected ion monitoring mode. The method was successfully applied to real water, and the recoveries for spiked samples were 104% for diazinon and 97% for fenthion. (author)

  6. Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-S.; Tsai, S.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10 -4 cm 3 s -1 with detection limit of 58.8 μg m -3 h -1 . Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozone

  7. A sol-gel based solid phase microextraction fiber for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Maleki, Ramin; Tahmasebi, Raheleh

    2010-01-01

    A new fiber based on titania-chitin sol-gel coated on a silver wire for the headspace solid phase microextraction of aliphatic alcohols from apple juice samples was developed. The influences of fiber coating composition and microextraction conditions (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ionic strength of the sample matrix) on the fiber performance were investigated. Also, the influence of temperature and time on desorption of analytes from fiber were studied. Under the optimized conditions, a porous fiber with a high extraction capacity and good thermal stability (up to 250 degrees C) was obtained. The proposed headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC method was successfully used for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juice and concentrate samples. The recovery values were from 92.8 to 98.6%. The RSD (n=5) for all analytes were below 7.8%.

  8. Solid Particle Erosion Behaviors of Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Composite and Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Gao, Feng; Pant, Shashank; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rotor blades of Bell CH-146 Griffon helicopter experience excessive solid particle erosion at low altitudes in desert environment. The rotor blade is made of an advanced light-weight composite which, however, has a low resistance to solid particle erosion. Coatings have been developed and applied to protect the composite blade. However, due to the influence of coating process on composite material, the compatibility between coating and composite base, and the challenges of repairing damaged coatings as well as the inconsistency between the old and new coatings, replaceable thin metal shielding is an alternative approach; and titanium, due to its high-specific strength and better formability, is an ideal candidate. This work investigates solid particle erosion behaviors of carbon-fiber epoxy composite and titanium in order to assess the feasibility of titanium as a viable candidate for erosion shielding. Experiment results showed that carbon-fiber epoxy composite showed a brittle erosion behavior, whereas titanium showed a ductile erosion mode. The erosion rate on composite was 1.5 times of that on titanium at impingement angle 15° and increased to 5 times at impact angle 90°.

  9. Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Mangan, Brian Joseph; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2010-01-01

    We report on two types of polarization maintaining solid photonic crystal fibers that guide light by a combination of a photonic bandgap and total internal reflection. Group and phase birefringence are studied experimentally and numerically for stress-applying parts made from B-doped and F......-doped silica. The stress field originating from Ge-doped cladding rods is shown to interfere with the stress field from the B-doped and F-doped rods. Since the differential expansion coefficients of B-doped and F-doped silica have opposite signs this interference is either destructive or constructive....... Consequently, we found that the fiber with F-doped stress applying parts has the highest modal phase birefringence, and polarization cross talk is characterized by an h-parameter below 3⋅10−5 m−1....

  10. Heterogeneous all-solid multicore fiber based multipath Michelson interferometer for high temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Ming; Wang, Ruoxu; Zhao, Zhiyong; Fu, Songnian; Gan, Lin; Zhu, Benpeng; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry Ping

    2016-09-05

    A compact high temperature sensor utilizing a multipath Michelson interferometer (MI) structure based on weak coupling multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is fabricated by program-controlled tapering the spliced region between single mode fiber (SMF) and a segment of MCF. After that, a spherical reflective structure is formed by arc-fusion splicing the end face of MCF. Theoretical analysis has been implemented for this specific multipath MI structure; beam propagation method based simulation and corresponding experiments were performed to investigate the effect of taper and spherical end face on system's performance. Benefiting from the multipath interferences and heterogeneous structure between the center core and surrounding cores of the all-solid MCF, an enhanced temperature sensitivity of 165 pm/°C up to 900°C and a high-quality interference spectrum with 25 dB fringe visibility were achieved.

  11. Adaptive Crack Modeling with Interface Solid Elements for Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yijian; Meschke, Günther

    2017-07-08

    The effective analysis of the nonlinear behavior of cement-based engineering structures not only demands physically-reliable models, but also computationally-efficient algorithms. Based on a continuum interface element formulation that is suitable to capture complex cracking phenomena in concrete materials and structures, an adaptive mesh processing technique is proposed for computational simulations of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures to progressively disintegrate the initial finite element mesh and to add degenerated solid elements into the interfacial gaps. In comparison with the implementation where the entire mesh is processed prior to the computation, the proposed adaptive cracking model allows simulating the failure behavior of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures with remarkably reduced computational expense.

  12. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  13. ZnO nanorod array solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Zhang Zhuomin; Li Tiemei; Zhang Lan; Chen Guonan; Luo Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a ZnO nanorod array has been introduced as a coating to the headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HSSPME) field. The coating shows good extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by use of BTEX as a standard and can be considered suitable for sampling trace and small molecular VOC targets. In comparison with the randomly oriented ZnO nanorod HSSPME coating, ZnO nanorod array HSSPME fiber coating shows better extraction capability, which is attributed to the nanorod array structure of the coating. Also, this novel nanorod array coating shows good extraction selectivity to 1-propanethiol.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid tellurite-phosphate photonic bandgap fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tonglei; Sakai, Yukiko; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-05-01

    We present an all-solid tellurite-phosphate photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF) with two layers of high-index rods (TeO2-Li2O-WO3-MoO3-Nb2O5, TLWMN) in the cladding (TeO2-ZnO-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3-P2O5, TZLKAP). TLWMN and TZLKAP glasses have good compatibility for fabricating the all-solid PBGF. Photonic bandgap (PBG) properties are calculated by the plane wave expansion method (PWM), and the results agree well with the measured transmission spectrum. Furthermore, the modal field patterns are measured at ∼1300 and 1520 nm, respectively. The light is confined to the core at ∼1300  nm and lost in the cladding at ∼1520  nm, which match well with the calculated modal field intensities.

  15. 4.5 W supercontinuum generation from 1017 to 3438 nm in an all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixu; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Wang, Shunbin; Zhao, Zhipeng; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    All-solid fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 (TBY) and AlF3-based glasses, respectively. Since the refractive index (˜1.46) of AlF3-based glass is much lower than that (˜1.84) of TBY glass, the zero-dispersion-wavelength of the fabricated fiber can be tuned from 2145 to 1507 nm by varying the fiber core diameter from 50 to 3 μm. By using a 0.6 m long all-solid fluorotellurite fiber with a core diameter of ˜7 μm as the nonlinear medium and a 2 μm femtosecond fiber laser as the pump source, 4.5 W supercontinuum (SC) generation from 1017 to 3438 nm is obtained for a launched pump power of ˜10.48 W. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is about 42.9%. In addition, no any damage of the fluorotellurite fiber is observed during the operation of the above SC light source. Our results show that all-solid fluorotellurite fibers are promising nonlinear media for constructing high power mid-infrared SC light sources.

  16. Diffusion and Interface Effects during Preparation of All-Solid Microstructured Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobelke Jens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-solid microstructured optical fibers (MOF allow the realization of very flexible optical waveguide designs. They are prepared by stacking of doped silica rods or canes in complex arrangements. Typical dopants in silica matrices are germanium and phosphorus to increase the refractive index (RI, or boron and fluorine to decrease the RI. However, the direct interface contact of stacking elements often causes interrelated chemical reactions or evaporation during thermal processing. The obtained fiber structures after the final drawing step thus tend to deviate from the targeted structure risking degrading their favored optical functionality. Dopant profiles and design parameters (e.g., the RI homogeneity of the cladding are controlled by the combination of diffusion and equilibrium conditions of evaporation reactions. We show simulation results of diffusion and thermal dissociation in germanium and fluorine doped silica rod arrangements according to the monitored geometrical disturbances in stretched canes or drawn fibers. The paper indicates geometrical limits of dopant structures in sub-µm-level depending on the dopant concentration and the thermal conditions during the drawing process. The presented results thus enable an optimized planning of the preform parameters avoiding unwanted alterations in dopant concentration profiles or in design parameters encountered during the drawing process.

  17. Thermo-optic characteristic of DNA thin solid film and its application as a biocompatible optical fiber temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Jung, Woohyun; Nazari, Tavakol; Song, Sanggwon; Kim, Taeoh; Quan, Chai; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2017-05-15

    We report unique thermo-optical characteristics of DNA-Cetyl tri-methyl ammonium (DNA-CTMA) thin solid film with a large negative thermo-optical coefficient of -3.4×10-4/°C in the temperature range from 20°C to 70°C without any observable thermal hysteresis. By combining this thermo-optic DNA film and fiber optic multimode interference (MMI) device, we experimentally demonstrated a highly sensitive compact temperature sensor with a large spectral shift of 0.15 nm/°C. The fiber optic MMI device was a concatenated structure with single-mode fiber (SMF)-coreless silica fiber (CSF)-single mode fiber (SMF) and the DNA-CTMA film was deposited on the CSF. The spectral shifts of the device in experiments were compared with the beam propagation method, which showed a good agreement.

  18. High-Power Yb-Doped Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier at 1150-1200nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained.......Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained....

  19. Graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles as a coating on a stainless-steel fiber for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Licheng; Hou, Xiudan; Li, Jubai; Liu, Shujuan; Guo, Yong

    2015-07-01

    A novel graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles coating on a stainless-steel fiber for solid-phase microextraction was prepared. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the coating surface and showed that silver nanoparticles were dispersed on the wrinkled graphene oxide surface. Coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, the extraction abilities of the fiber for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were examined in the headspace solid-phase microextraction mode. The extraction parameters including adsorption time, adsorption temperature, salt concentration, desorption time and desorption temperature were investigated. Under the optimized condition, wide linearity with low limits of detection from 2 to 10 ng/L was obtained. The relative standard deviations for single-fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 10.6 and 17.5%, respectively. The enrichment factors were from 1712.5 to 4503.7, showing the fiber has good extraction abilities. Moreover, the fiber exhibited a good stability and could be reused for more than 120 times. The established method was also applied for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two real water samples and the recoveries of analytes ranged from 84.4-116.3% with relative standard deviations less than 16.2%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation by low-temperature nonthermal plasma of graphite fiber and its characteristics for solid-phase microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fan; Wu Zucheng; Tao Ping; Cong Yanqing

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature nonthermal plasma has been used to prepare solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with high adsorbability, long-term serviceability, and high reproducibility. Graphite rods serving as fiber precursors were treated by an air plasma discharged at 15.2-15.5 kV for a duration of 8 min. Sampling results revealed that the adsorptive capacity of the homemade fiber was 2.5-34.6 times that of a polyacrylate (PA) fiber for alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol), and about 1.4-1.6 times and 2.5-5.1 times that of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) for alcohols and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), respectively. It is confirmed from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analyses that the improvement in the adsorptive performance attributed to increased surface energy and roughness of the graphite fiber. Using gas chromatography (GC)-flame-ionization detector (FID), the limits of detection (LODs) of the alcohols and BTEX ranged between 0.19 and 3.75 μg L -1 , the linear ranges were between 0.6 and 35619 μg L -1 with good linearity (R 2 = 0.9964-0.9997). It was demonstrated that nonthermal plasma offers a fast and simple method for preparing an efficient graphite SPME fiber, and that SPME using the homemade fiber represents a sensitive and selective extraction method for the analysis of a wide range of organic compounds

  1. Preparation by low-temperature nonthermal plasma of graphite fiber and its characteristics for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fan; Wu, Zucheng; Tao, Ping; Cong, Yanqing

    2009-01-05

    Low-temperature nonthermal plasma has been used to prepare solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with high adsorbability, long-term serviceability, and high reproducibility. Graphite rods serving as fiber precursors were treated by an air plasma discharged at 15.2-15.5 kV for a duration of 8 min. Sampling results revealed that the adsorptive capacity of the homemade fiber was 2.5-34.6 times that of a polyacrylate (PA) fiber for alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol), and about 1.4-1.6 times and 2.5-5.1 times that of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) for alcohols and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), respectively. It is confirmed from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analyses that the improvement in the adsorptive performance attributed to increased surface energy and roughness of the graphite fiber. Using gas chromatography (GC)-flame-ionization detector (FID), the limits of detection (LODs) of the alcohols and BTEX ranged between 0.19 and 3.75 microg L(-1), the linear ranges were between 0.6 and 35,619 microg L(-1) with good linearity (R(2)=0.9964-0.9997). It was demonstrated that nonthermal plasma offers a fast and simple method for preparing an efficient graphite SPME fiber, and that SPME using the homemade fiber represents a sensitive and selective extraction method for the analysis of a wide range of organic compounds.

  2. Strength Analysis of the Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer Impeller Based on Fluid Solid Coupling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material impeller is designed for the centrifugal pump to deliver corrosive, toxic, and abrasive media in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The pressure-velocity coupling fields in the pump are obtained from the CFD simulation. The stress distribution of the impeller couple caused by the flow water pressure and rotation centrifugal force of the blade is analyzed using one-way fluid-solid coupling method. Results show that the strength of the impeller can meet the requirement of the centrifugal pumps, and the largest stress occurred around the blades root on a pressure side of blade surface. Due to the existence of stress concentration at the blades root, the fatigue limit of the impeller would be reduced greatly. In the further structure optimal design, the blade root should be strengthened.

  3. Polarization splitter based on interference effects in all-solid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dong; Guan, Chunying; Yuan, Libo

    2010-07-01

    We propose a novel kind of polarization splitter in all-solid photonic crystal fibers based on the mode interference effects. Both the full-vector finite-element method and the semi-vector three-dimensional beam propagation method are employed to design and analyze the characteristics of the splitter. Numerical simulations show that x-polarized and y-polarized modes are split entirely along with 6.8 mm long propagation. An extinction ratio of more than 20 dB and a crosstalk of less than -20 dB are obtained within the wavelength range of 1.541-1.556 microm. The extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 28.9 and -29.0 dB for x polarization, while the extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 29.9 and -29.8 dB for y polarization, respectively.

  4. Electrochemically modified carbon fiber bundles as selective sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction of sulfonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Xu; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2016-01-01

    The authors show that carbon fiber bundles electrochemically modified with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a viable sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of the sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine and sulfamethoxazole) prior to their determination by HPLC. The fibers were packed in a tube loop made from polyether ether ketone (PEEK) that was coupled to the HPLC system for online SPME. Preconcentration factors can reach values of up to 300, and the limit of detection (at an S/N ration of 3) can be as low as 0.05 ng⋅mL −1 . The method was applied to the analysis of the sulfonamides in spiked rat plasma with intra-day and inter-day RSDs of <3.33 and <4.57 %, and with recoveries in the range from 91.7 to 97.8 % in spiked plasma. The in-tube SPME was also applied to the determination of the 3 sulfonamides in rat plasma after oral administration (tablet powder) with high sensitivity. In addition to its efficient extraction, the PEEK tube based SPME has chemical and mechanical stability under even harsh conditions. (author)

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide onto carbon fibers for in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiuqin; Tian, Yu; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min

    2017-09-29

    Carbon fibers (CFs) were functionalized with graphene oxide (GO) by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME). GO-CFs were filled into a poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube to obtain a fibers-in-tube SPME device, which was connected with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment to build online SPME-HPLC system. Compared with CFs, GO-CFs presented obviously better extraction performance, due to excellent adsorption property and large surface area of GO. Using ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes, the important extraction conditions were optimized, such as sample flow rate, extraction time, organic solvent content and desorption time. An online analysis method was established with wide linear range (0.01-50μgL -1 ) and low detection limits (0.001-0.004μgL -1 ). Good sensitivity resulted from high enrichment factors (1133-3840) of GO-CFs in-tube device towards PAHs. The analysis method was used to online determination of PAHs in wastewater samples. Some target analytes were detected and relative recoveries were in the range of 90.2-112%. It is obvious that the proposed GO-CFs in-tube device was an efficient extraction device, and EPD could be used to develop nanomaterials functionalized sorbents for sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensing dissolved sediment porewater concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative poolutants using disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, P.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Wijnker, F.; Legierse, K.C.H.M.; Kraaij, R.H.; Tolls, J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer coated glass fibers were applied as disposable samplers to measure dissolved concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants (PBPs) in sediment porewater. The method is called matrix solid-phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), because it utilizes the entire sediment matrix as a

  7. Temperature Compensated Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Sagnac Interferometers and All-Solid Birefringent Hybrid Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Wu; He, Sailing

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a temperature compensated strain sensor with two cascaded Sagnac interferometers, that provide strain sensing and temperature compensation, respectively. The Sagnac interferometers use an all-solid hybrid photonic crystal fiber with stress-induced birefringence. The stress-induced ...

  8. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  9. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  10. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  11. Tribological properties of solid lubricants filled glass fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Du-Xin; You, Yi-Lan; Deng, Xin; Li, Wen-Juan; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tribological properties of GF/PA6 improved by the incorporation of PTFE. ► PTFE and UHMWPE exhibited a synergism effect on reducing friction coefficient. ► Solid lubricants enlarged the range of applied velocity for GF/PA6 composite. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to further optimize the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PA6 (GF/PA6,15/85 by weight) for high performance friction materials using single or combinative solid lubricants such as Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and the combination of both of them. Various polymer blends, where GF/PA6 acts as the polymer matrix and solid lubricants as the dispersed phase were prepared by injection molding. The tribological properties of these materials and the synergism as a result of the incorporation of both PTFE and UHMWPE were investigated. The results showed that, at a load of 40 N and a velocity of 200 rpm, PTFE was effective in improving the tribological capabilities of matrix material. On the contrary, UHMWPE was not conductive to maintain the structure integrity of GF/PA6 composite and harmful to the friction and wear properties. The combination of PTFE and UHMWPE showed synergism on further reducing the friction coefficient of the composites filled with either PTFE or UHMWPE only. Effects of load and velocity on tribological behavior were also discussed. To further understand the wear mechanism, the worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy

  12. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad; Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co 3 O 4 nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared

  13. Controlled functionalization of carbonaceous fibers for asymmetric solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Wenchao; Chen, Yuan

    2014-10-22

    A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2 -coated reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A Hybrid Fiber/Solid-State Regenerative Amplifier with Tunable Pulse Widths for Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Barry; Poulios, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    A fiber/solid-state hybrid seeded regenerative amplifier, capable of achieving high output energy with tunable pulse widths, has been developed for satellite laser ranging applications. The regenerative amplifier cavity uses a pair of Nd:YAG zigzag slabs oriented orthogonally to one another in order to make thermal lensing effects symmetrical and simplify optical correction schemes. The seed laser used is a fiber-coupled 1,064-nm narrowband (pumped by a single 120-W, pulsed 808-nm laser diode array. In this configuration, the average pump beam distribution in the slabs had a 1-D Gaussian shape, which matches the estimated cavity mode size. A half-wave plate between the slabs reduces losses from Fresnel reflections due to the orthogonal slabs Brewster-cut end faces. Successful "temporal" seeding of the regenerative amplifier cavity results in a cavity Q-switch pulse envelope segmenting into shorter pulses, each having the width of the input seed, and having a uniform temporal separation corresponding to the cavity round-trip time of approx. =10 ns. The pulse energy is allowed to build on successive passes in the regenerative amplifier cavity until a maximum is reached, (when cavity gains and losses are equal), after which the pulse is electro- optically switched out on the next round trip The overall gain of the amplifier is approx. =82 dB (or a factor of 1.26 million). After directing the amplified output through a LBO frequency doubling crystal, approx. = 2.1 W of 532-nm output (>1 mJ) was measured. This corresponds to a nonlinear conversion efficiency of >60%. Furthermore, by pulse pumping this system, a single pulse per laser shot can be created for the SLR (satellite laser ranging) measurement, and this can be ejected into the instrument. This is operated at the precise frequency needed by the measurement, as opposed to commercial short-pulsed, mode-locked systems that need to operate in a continuous fashion, or CW (continuous wave), and create pulses at many

  15. Preparation by low-temperature nonthermal plasma of graphite fiber and its characteristics for solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Fan [Department of Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Key Laboratory of Polluted Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, MOE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu Zucheng [Department of Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Key Laboratory of Polluted Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, MOE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: wuzc@zju.edu.cn; Tao Ping [Institute of Structural Mechanics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Cong Yanqing [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2009-01-05

    Low-temperature nonthermal plasma has been used to prepare solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with high adsorbability, long-term serviceability, and high reproducibility. Graphite rods serving as fiber precursors were treated by an air plasma discharged at 15.2-15.5 kV for a duration of 8 min. Sampling results revealed that the adsorptive capacity of the homemade fiber was 2.5-34.6 times that of a polyacrylate (PA) fiber for alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol), and about 1.4-1.6 times and 2.5-5.1 times that of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) for alcohols and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), respectively. It is confirmed from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analyses that the improvement in the adsorptive performance attributed to increased surface energy and roughness of the graphite fiber. Using gas chromatography (GC)-flame-ionization detector (FID), the limits of detection (LODs) of the alcohols and BTEX ranged between 0.19 and 3.75 {mu}g L{sup -1}, the linear ranges were between 0.6 and 35619 {mu}g L{sup -1} with good linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.9964-0.9997). It was demonstrated that nonthermal plasma offers a fast and simple method for preparing an efficient graphite SPME fiber, and that SPME using the homemade fiber represents a sensitive and selective extraction method for the analysis of a wide range of organic compounds.

  16. Solid-Phase Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites Using an Activated Carbon Fiber Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction method using activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed and validated. ACF has a vast network of pores of varying sizes and microporous structures that result in rapid adsorption and selective extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites according to the pH of eluting solvents. ACF could not only selectively extract thiodiglycol and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)-ethylsulfonyl]ethane eluting a 9:1 ratio of dichloromethane to acetone, and 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] and 1,1'-sulfonylbis- [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] eluting 3% hydrogen chloride in methanol, but could also eliminate most interference without loss of analytes during the loading and washing steps. A sample preparation method has been optimized for the extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites from human urine using an ACF sorbent. The newly developed extraction method was applied to the trace analysis of metabolites of sulfur mustard in human urine matrices in a confidence-building exercise for the analysis of biomedical samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Polarizing Ytterbium-Doped all-Solid Photonic Bandgap Fiber with 1150 micrometers2 Effective Mode Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Liang Dong Fanting Kong,, Guancheng Gu,, Thomas W. Hawkins ,, Joshua Parsons, Maxwell Jones,, Christopher...Dunn,, Monica T. Kalichevsky-Dong,, Benjamin Pulford,, Iyad Dajani,, Kunimasa Saitoh,, Stephen P. Palese,, Eric Cheung,, Liang Dong c. THIS PAGE The...ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with ~1150µm2 effective mode area Fanting Kong,1,* Guancheng Gu,1 Thomas W. Hawkins ,1 Joshua Parsons

  18. Solid-phase microextraction Ni-Ti fibers coated with functionalised silica particles immobilized in a sol-gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azenha, Manuel; Ornelas, Mariana; Fernando Silva, A

    2009-03-20

    One of the possible approaches for the development of novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers is the physical deposition of porous materials onto a support using high-temperature epoxy glue. However, a major drawback arises from decomposition of epoxy glue at temperatures below 300 degrees C and instability in some organic solvents. This limitation motivated us to explore the possibility of replacing the epoxy glue with a sol-gel film, thermally more stable and resistant to organic solvents. We found that functionalised silica particles could be successfully attached to a robust Ni-Ti wire by using a UV-curable sol-gel film. The particles were found to be more important than the sol-gel layer during the microextraction process, as shown by competitive extraction trials and by the different extraction profiles observed with differently functionalised particles. If a quality control microscopic-check aiming at the rejection of fibers exhibiting unacceptably low particle load was conducted, acceptable (6-14%) reproducibility of preparation of C(18)-silica fibers was observed, and a strong indication of the durability of the fibers was also obtained. A cyclohexyldiol-silica fiber was used, as a simple example of applicability, for the successful determination of benzaldehyde, acetophenone and dimethylphenol at trace level in spiked tap water. Recoveries: 95-109%; limits of detection: 2-7 microg/L; no competition effects within the studied range (

  19. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  20. Supercontinuum generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Jia, S. J.; Wang, F.; Wang, S. B.; Zhao, Z. P.; Liao, M. S.; Qin, G. S.; Hu, L. L.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    Enormous efforts have been made to realize supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the entire transmission window of fiber materials for their wide applications in many fields. Here we demonstrate ultra-broadband SC generation from 400 to 5140 nm in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture (NA) all-solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1560 nm mode-locked fiber laser. The fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3- and TeO2-modified fluoroaluminate glasses, respectively, which have large refractive index contrast and similar thermal expansion coefficients and softening temperatures. The NA at 3200 nm of the fluorotellurite fiber is about 1.11. Furthermore, tapered fluorotellurite fibers are prepared using an elongation machine. SC generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window is achieved in a tapered fluorotellurite fiber for a pumping peak power of ~10.5 kW through synergetic control of dispersion, nonlinearity, confinement loss and other unexpected effects (e.g. the attachment of dust or water to the surface of the fiber core) of the fiber. Our results show that tapered ultra-high NA all-solid soft glass fibers have a potential for generating SC light covering their entire transmission window.

  1. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  2. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Scott, Jill R.; Rae, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A field vacuum extractor (FVE) nondestructively samples surface-adsorbed organics. → The FVE creates a modest vacuum over the surface, volatilizing surface organics. → A solid phase microextraction fiber (SPME) collects volatilized organics. → The SPME is easily analyzed using GC/MS. → The FVE enables collection chemical signatures from hard-to-sample surfaces. - Abstract: Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging, particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample to be taken to the laboratory. A simple device is described that collects semi-volatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The reduced pressure speeds partitioning of the semi-volatile compounds into the gas phase and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection, the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (ΔT vac ) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies that ranged from 10 -3 to >10 -2 , and in absolute terms, collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were positively correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery also increased with increasing ΔT vac and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile, indicating that an

  3. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E.E.; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL −1 . Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues

  4. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu, E-mail: fusun.okcu@ege.edu.tr; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E.E.; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F.N.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL{sup −1}. Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues.

  5. Simple fabrication of solid phase microextraction fiber employing nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous polymer by in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-04

    A combination of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous polymer (NOMP) and stainless steel wires led to highly sensitive, selective, and stable solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers by in situ polymerization for the first time. The ordered structure of synthesized NOMP coating was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and microscopy analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a homogenous morphology of the NOMP-coated fiber. The NOMP-coated fiber was further applied for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantification. Under the optimized conditions, low detection limits (0.023-0.77 ng L(-1)), a wide linear range (9-1500 ng L(-1)), good repeatability (3.5-8.1%, n=6) and excellent reproducibility (1.5-8.3%, n=3) were achieved. Moreover, the practical feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated by determining OCPs in environmental water samples with satisfactory recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber for self-cleaning solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo; Shi, Yu-e; Cui, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Jinhua, E-mail: jhzhan@sdu.edu.cn

    2016-06-07

    Solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SPME–SERS), combining the pretreatment and determination functions, has been successfully used in environmental analysis. In this work, Au-coated ZnO nanorods were fabricated on stainless steel fiber as a self-cleaning SERS-active SPME fiber. The ZnO nanorods grown on stainless steel fiber were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach. Then the obtained nanostructures were decorated with Au nanoparticles through ion-sputtering at room temperature. The obtained SERS-active SPME fiber is a reproducible sensitivity sensor. Taking p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule, the RSD value of the SERS-active SPME fiber was 8.9%, indicating the fiber owned good uniformity. The qualitative and quantitative detection of crystal violet and malachite green was also achieved. The log–log plot of SERS intensity to crystal violet and malachite green concentration showed a good linear relationship. Meanwhile, this SERS-active SPME fiber can achieve self-cleaning owning to the excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanorods. Crystal violet was still successfully detected even after five cycles, which indicated the high reproducibility of this SERS-active SPME fiber. - Graphical abstract: Au-coated ZnO NRs on stainless steel fiber were used as SERS-active SPME fiber with good extraction effect, high SERS sensitivity. Self-cleaning function of the fiber was achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO nanorods by UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber as a SERS-active SPME fiber was fabricated. • The SERS-active SPME fiber can directly extract and detect the crystal violet and malachite green. • The SERS-active SPME fiber owns good extraction effect, and high SERS sensitivity. • Self-cleaning property of the fiber were achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO.

  7. Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber for self-cleaning solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Shi, Yu-e; Cui, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SPME–SERS), combining the pretreatment and determination functions, has been successfully used in environmental analysis. In this work, Au-coated ZnO nanorods were fabricated on stainless steel fiber as a self-cleaning SERS-active SPME fiber. The ZnO nanorods grown on stainless steel fiber were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach. Then the obtained nanostructures were decorated with Au nanoparticles through ion-sputtering at room temperature. The obtained SERS-active SPME fiber is a reproducible sensitivity sensor. Taking p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule, the RSD value of the SERS-active SPME fiber was 8.9%, indicating the fiber owned good uniformity. The qualitative and quantitative detection of crystal violet and malachite green was also achieved. The log–log plot of SERS intensity to crystal violet and malachite green concentration showed a good linear relationship. Meanwhile, this SERS-active SPME fiber can achieve self-cleaning owning to the excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanorods. Crystal violet was still successfully detected even after five cycles, which indicated the high reproducibility of this SERS-active SPME fiber. - Graphical abstract: Au-coated ZnO NRs on stainless steel fiber were used as SERS-active SPME fiber with good extraction effect, high SERS sensitivity. Self-cleaning function of the fiber was achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO nanorods by UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber as a SERS-active SPME fiber was fabricated. • The SERS-active SPME fiber can directly extract and detect the crystal violet and malachite green. • The SERS-active SPME fiber owns good extraction effect, and high SERS sensitivity. • Self-cleaning property of the fiber were achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO.

  8. Phase modulation and structural effects in a D-shaped all-solid photonic crystal fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhixin; Hao, Xin; Shao, Yonghong; Chen, Yuzhi; Li, Xuejin; Fan, Ping

    2014-06-16

    We numerically investigate a D-shaped fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor based on all-solid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with finite element method. In the side-polished PCF sensor, field leakage is guided to penetrate through the gap between the rods, causing a pronounced phase modulation in the deep polishing case. Taking advantage of these amplified phase shifts, a high-performance fiber sensor design is proposed. The significant enhancements arising from this new sensor design should lift the performance of the fiber SPR sensor into the range capable of detecting a wide range of biochemical interactions, which makes it especially attractive for many in vivo and in situ bioanalysis applications. Several parameters which influence the field leakage, such as the polishing position, the pitch of the PCF, and the rod diameter, are inspected to evaluate their impacts. Furthermore, we develop a mathematical model to describe the effects of varying the structural parameters of a D-shaped PCF sensor on the evanescent field and the sensor performance.

  9. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: MB.Gholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Technology Research Laboratory, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared.

  10. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  11. Application of β-cyclodextrin-modified, carbon nanotube-reinforced hollow fiber to solid-phase microextraction of plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Ha, Wei; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2014-12-29

    A new, efficient, and environmental friendly solid-phase microextraction (SPME) medium based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a hollow fiber (HF) was prepared. Functionalized β-CD was covalently linked to the surface of the carboxylic CNTs and then the obtained nanocomposite was immobilized into the wall pores of HFs under ultrasonic-assisted effect. The scanning electron microscope was used to inspect surface characteristics of fibers, demonstrating the presence of nanocomposites in their wall pores. The reinforced HF was employed in SPME, and its extraction performance was evaluated by analyzing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA) in vegetables. Without any tedious clean-up procedure, analytes were extracted from the sample to the adsorbent and organic solvent immobilized in HFs and then desorbed in acetonitrile prior to chromatographic analysis. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method provided 275- and 283-fold enrichment factors of NAA and 2-NOA, low limits of detection and quantification (at an ngg(-1) level), satisfactory spiked recoveries, good inter-fiber repeatability, and batch-to-batch reproducibility. The selectivity of the developed fiber was investigated to three structurally similar compounds and two reference compounds with recognition coefficients up to 3.18. The obtained results indicate that the newly developed fiber is a feasible, selective, green, and cost-effective microextraction medium and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of naphthalene-derived plant hormones in complex matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability ...

  13. Molecular Dynamics and Morphology of High Performance Elastomers and Fibers by Solid State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical structure and physical state of the residual phosphorous in PBO fiber...ssNMR) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical structure and physical state of the residual phosphorous in PBO fiber, which has been long suspected to...Jason Cain, Jian H. Yu, David Veysset, Keith A. Nelson . Probing the Influence of Molecular Dynamics of Matrix Elastomers on Ballistic Impact Back-face

  14. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-05

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r(2)=0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L(-1) for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n=6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r2 = 0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L-1 for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments.

  16. All-solid tellurite optical fiber with transversely disordered refractive index profile and its optical image transport performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hoang Tuan; Kuroyanagi, Shunei; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2018-02-01

    All-solid tellurite-glass optical rod and fiber with transversely-disordered refractive index profile were successfully fabricated to study the transport of infrared images by using transverse localization of light. The fabrication was carried out by using stack-and-draw and rod-in-tube techniques. The fabricated tellurite optical rod and fiber were composed of high-index and low-index units which were arranged randomly in the transverse plane but were invariant in the longitudinal direction. The diameter of each unit was approximately 1.0 μm. The high-index and low-index materials were TeO2-Li2O-WO3-MoO3-Nb2O5 (TLWMN) glass and TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-La2O3 (TZNL) glass, respectively. At 1550 nm, their refractive index difference Δn is 0.096. To investigate the optical image transport capability, A CW laser light at 1550 nm was used as an input probe beam and the 1951 U.S. Air Force test target was installed in front of 10-cm-long segments of the fabricated rod and fiber in the experimental setup. The output signal was recorded by a beam profiler. As a result, clear transported images of numbers and lines on the test target were obtained.

  17. Polyoxotungstate nanoclusters supported on silica as an efficient solid-phase microextraction fiber of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Yousefi, Vahid; Rafiee, Ezzat

    2014-01-01

    A highly porous silica-supported tungstophosphoric acid (PW) nanocluster was prepared for use in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PWs represent a class of discrete transition metal-oxide nanoclusters and their structures resemble discrete fragments of metal-oxide structures of definite size and shape. Transition metal-oxide nanoclusters display large structural diversity, and their monodisperse sizes can be tuned from several Ångstroms up to 10 nm. The highly porous silica-supported tungstophosphoric acid nanocluster material is found to be capable of efficiently extracting PAHs from aqueous sample solutions. The nanomaterial was immobilized on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fiber. Following thermal desorption, the PAHs were quantified by GC-MS. Analytical merits include limits of detection that range from 0.02 to 0.1 pg mL −1 and a dynamic range as wide as from 0.001 to 100 ng mL −1 . Under optimum conditions, the repeatability for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, is between 4.3 % and 8.6 %. The method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive. The thermal stability of the fiber and the high relative recovery make this method superior to conventional methods of extraction. (author)

  18. Holey nickel hydroxide nanosheets for wearable solid-state fiber-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peipei; Chen, Rong; Li, Li; An, Jianing; Hua, Li; Zhou, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Sun, Gengzhi

    2018-03-28

    Holey nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) nanosheets with a mean thickness of 2 nm are facilely synthesized, and then embedded in carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds to construct a hybrid fiber electrode, which shows a high volumetric capacitance of 335.9 F cm -3 at 0.8 A cm -3 and superior rate performance. The hybrid supercapacitor made from the Ni(OH) 2 /CNT fiber can deliver a high specific capacitance of 24.8 F cm -3 and an energy density of 5.8 mW h cm -3 with outstanding mechanical stability under repeated bending conditions.

  19. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djozan, Djavanshir, E-mail: djozan@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Bahram [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahkam, Mehrdad [Chemistry Department, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-26

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  20. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djozan, Djavanshir; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Mahkam, Mehrdad; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2010-01-01

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL -1 , respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase micro-extraction fibers for selective extraction of phthalates in an aqueous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Juan; Lv Ruihe; Zhan Haijun; Wang Huizhi; Cheng Jie; Lu Kui; Wang Fengcheng

    2010-01-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that was applied to a solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) device, which could be coupled directly to gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC/MS), was prepared using dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as the template molecule. The characteristics and application of this fiber were investigated. Electron microscope images indicated that the MIP-coated solid-phase micro-extraction (MI-SPME) fibers were homogeneous and porous. The extraction yield of DBP with the MI-SPME fibers was higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated SPME (NI-SPME) fibers. The MI-SPME fibers had a higher selectivity to other phthalates that had similar structures as DBP. A method was developed for the determination of phthalates using MI-SPME fibers coupled with GC/MS. The extraction conditions were optimized. Detection limits for the phthalate samples were within the range of 2.17-20.84 ng L -1 . The method was applied to five kinds of phthalates dissolved in spiked aqueous samples and resulted in recoveries of up to 94.54-105.34%, respectively. Thus, the MI-SPME fibers are suitable for the extraction of trace phthalates in complicated samples.

  2. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New Methyltrimethoxysilane-(3-Mercaptopropyl)- Trimethoxysilane Coated Hollow Fiber-Solid Phase Micro extraction for Hexanal and Heptanal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Munirah Abd Wahib; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2016-01-01

    Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various matrices is often accomplished using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) as a superior mode of extraction. Alternatively, another configuration of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) namely hollow fiber-solid phase micro extraction (HF-SPME) is a great approach to redress some limitations of the ordinary SPME fibers including fiber breakage, coating stripping and sample carry over. The HF-SPME technique highlights the use of hollow polypropylene (PP) membrane to hold and protect the adsorbent inside its lumen. Unlike the conventional SPME, the inexpensive HF device can be disposed after single use. Introducing extracting phase via sol-gel technology has gained great interest owing to its simple preparation method and promising way to obtain materials with good characteristics. In the present work, a new hybrid silica material based on methyltrimethoxysilane-(3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MTMOS-MPTMOS) was introduced as a new extractant of HF-SPME and the effectiveness of the proposed method was tested for analysis of hexanal and heptanal as the target VOC analytes. Preparation of the HF-SPME MTMOS-MPTMOS was simple in which the hybrid material was synthesized via sol-gel method and was self-polymerized in small segments of HF. Parameters affecting the efficiency of the HF-SPME MTMOS-MPTMOS in extracting both aldehydes were thoroughly investigated and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). It was found that the highest efficiency was achieved as the extraction was conducted in 30 min at a stirring rate of 1000 rpm in a 10 mL of sample solution whereby the back-extraction was performed via vortex for 3 min using 100 μL methanol as desorption solvent. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was observed over a range of 0.020-10.00 μg mL"-"1 with detection limits of 0.015 μg mL"-"1 and 0.010 μg mL"-"1 for hexanal and heptanal, respectively. The applicability of the HF

  4. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  5. An All-Solid-State Fiber-Shaped Aluminum-Air Battery with Flexibility, Stretchability, and High Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-07-04

    Owing to the high theoretical energy density of metal-air batteries, the aluminum-air battery has been proposed as a promising long-term power supply for electronics. However, the available energy density from the aluminum-air battery is far from that anticipated and is limited by current electrode materials. Herein we described the creation of a new family of all-solid-state fiber-shaped aluminum-air batteries with a specific capacity of 935 mAh g(-1) and an energy density of 1168 Wh kg(-1) . The synthesis of an electrode composed of cross-stacked aligned carbon-nanotube/silver-nanoparticle sheets contributes to the remarkable electrochemical performance. The fiber shape also provides the aluminum-air batteries with unique advantages; for example, they are flexible and stretchable and can be woven into a variety of textiles for large-scale applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Assessment of solid phase microfiber extraction fibers for the monitoring of volatile organoarsinicals emitted from a plant-soil system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L; Lin, Z-Q; Dixon, R P; Johnson, K A

    2013-11-15

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants and microbes to clean up inorganic and organic pollutants, has shown great promise as an inexpensive and feasible form of remediation. More recently, studies have shown that some plants have an amazing capacity to volatilize contaminants and can be an effective remediation strategy if the chemicals released are non-toxic. Arsenic contamination and remediation has drawn great attention in the scientific community. However, its toxicity also varies depending on its form. We evaluated, optimized, and then utilized a solid phase microfiber extraction (SPME) head space sampling technique to characterize the organoarsinical emissions from rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) in arsenic treated soils to determine if the potentially more toxic organic forms of arsenic (AsH3, AsH2CH3, AsH(CH3)2, and As(CH3)3) were being emitted from the plant-soil system. The SPME fiber that proved best fitted for this application was the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber with a 45 min sampling period. We did detect and confirm the emissions of dimethylchloroarsine (AsCl(CH3)2) and pentamethylarsine (As(CH3)5). However, it was determined that the more toxic organic forms of arsenic were not released during phytovolatilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres-based fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingru; Liu, Chao; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Xiuyun; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-10-20

    In this study, a novel hollow mesoporous carbon spheres-based fiber (HMCSs-F) was fabricated to immobilize HMCSs onto a stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Characterization results showed that the HMCSs-F possessed a large specific surface area, high porosity and uniform pore size. To demonstrate the extraction performance, a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was chosen as target analytes. The experimental parameters including extraction and desorption conditions were optimized. Compared to commercial fibers, the HMCSs-F exhibited better extraction efficiency for PAHs. More interestingly, a good extraction selectivity for PAHs from the complex matrix was observed in these HMCSs-F. The enhanced SPME performance was attributed to the unique pore structure and special surface properties of the HMCSs. Furthermore, under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for the HMCSs-F were in the range of 0.20-1.15ngL -1 with a corresponding relative standard deviation that was below 8.6%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in actual environmental water samples with recoveries ranging from 85.9% to 112.2%. These results imply that the novel HMCSs-F have potential application in environmental water analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using Al2O3-NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes synthesized from solid waste coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Ji, Jiayou; Wang, Shulin; Xu, Chenxi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Man

    2018-09-01

    Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated via hydrothermal synthesis by using industrial solid waste coal fly ash and porous Al 2 O 3 hollow fiber supports. The as-synthesized Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hollow fiber membranes were used to remove lead ions (Pb(II), 50 mg L -1 ) from synthetic wastewater with a removal efficiency of 99.9% at 0.1 MPa after 12 h of filtration. This study showed that the Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes (the pore size of the membrane was about 0.41 nm in diameter) synthesized from coal fly ash could be efficiently used for treating low concentration Pb(II) wastewater. It recycled solid waste coal fly ash not only to solve its environment problems, but also can produce high-value Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes for separation application in treating wastewater containing Pb(II). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the addition of sugar cane bagasse fibers in the composite with the copolymer vinyl ethylene-acetate (EVA) by solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; D'Almeida, Jose Roberto Moraes; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    1997-01-01

    Natural fibers composites obtained form sugar cane bagasse and ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer were prepared with different compositions and analysed by solid state Carbon-13 NMR aiming the observation of molecular mobility, compatibility, and chemical structure of the different obtained composites. One objective of this work was to enable the future commercial application of these materials

  10. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  11. Comparison of TEVAR resin beads, PAN fibers, and ePTFE membranes as a solid support for Aliquat-336 in immobilized liquid extraction chromatography for separation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe Dauner; Steve Workman

    2012-01-01

    The following paper covers a comparison of two new systems to traditional TEVA R resin systems for the analytical separation of actinides by immobilized liquid-liquid extraction using Aliquat-336. The new systems are using expanded polytetrafluroethane (ePTFE) membrane or polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as the solid support. The systems are compared in two ways. First in how much Aliquat-336 they contain with the Vs, ratio of volume of Aliquat-336 to volume of polymeric support, being 0.158, 0.483, and 0.590 for the TEVA R resin, PAN fibers, and the ePTFE systems, respectively. The second comparison is in their performance capacity of extraction of uranyl chloride anion complex. The fiber and resins systems show similar capacities, and the membrane system being an order of magnitude less than the other systems. A cost comparison demonstrates the savings advantages of using a fiber based support compared with resin and membrane support systems. (author)

  12. Specific features of implosion of metallized fiber arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrofan@triniti.ru; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Breshkov, S. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Implosion of metallized fiber arrays was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. The use of such arrays makes it possible to investigate the production and implosion dynamics of plasmas of various metals (such as tin, indium, and bismuth) that were previously unavailable for such studies. The plasma production rates m-dot (in μg/(cm{sup 2} ns)) for different metals were determined and quantitatively compared. Varying the thickness of the metal layer deposited on kapron fibers (the total linear mass of the metal coating being maintained at the level of 220 μg/cm), the current and velocity of the plasma precursor were studied as functions of the thickness of the metal coating. The strong difference in the rates of plasma production from the metal coating and kapron fibers results in the redistribution of the discharge current between the Z-pinch and the trailing fiber plasma. The outer boundary of the plasma produced from the metal coating is found to be stable against instabilities typical of the final stage of implosion of conventional wire arrays.

  13. A heuristic model of the wire array z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent experimental results at the Sandia National Laboratory have shown that the X-ray power increases as the number of wires n employed is increased, with a sharper increase in power when the wire gap is below a critical value. This paper proposes a model that can not only explain these phenomena, but also shows how the initial perturbations that lead to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability scale as n -1/2 . The model predicts the shell thickness at merger of the expanding separate wires which will mainly determine the final pinch radius. The largest amplitude Rayleigh-Taylor mode at the pinch time is also found, in reasonable agreement with experiment

  14. Nuclear reactions cross section measurement using Z-pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, T; Bystritskij, V; Mesyats, G A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Electrophysics; and others

    1997-12-31

    Direct experimental estimate of the upper limit of the d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n cross-section at deuteron energies below the keV region was obtained for the first time. The experiment was performed at the Pulsed Ion Beam Accelerator of the High-Current Electronics Institute in Tomsk, using high intensity, radially converging deuteron beams, generated during implosion of liner plasma. A two-jet liner made of 17% D{sub 2} + 83% N{sub 2} gas was used, with the inner jet serving as the target. The dd-fusion neutrons were registered by time-of-flight scintillator spectrometers and BF{sub 3} detectors of thermal neutrons placed in a polyethylene moderator. The upper limit obtained for the d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n cross-section for a deuteron energy of 440 eV is {sigma} < 2 x 10{sup -34} cm{sup 2} at the 90% confidence level. The result demonstrates that the liner implosion technique can be used in the investigation of nuclear reactions between light nuclei at infra low energies, previously not accessible in experiments with classical beam accelerators. (author). 7 refs.

  15. Mechanism of hot spots formation in magnetic Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubes, P; Kravarik, J [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Elektrotechnicka; Kolacek, K; Krejci, A [Akademie Ved Ceske Republiky, Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu; Paduch, M; Tomaszewski, K [Inst. of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of neon implosion of low energy discharge (4 kJ, 40 kV, 150 kA, 1.1 {mu}s) was studied using X-ray, schlieren and high speed electrooptical visible gated Quadro camera diagnostics. The geometry, the helical structure of pinched column, two steps of pinching and X-ray emission were studied. The diameters, electron density and temperature of the hot spots were determined. The hypothesis of axial component of magnetic field generation, of helical shape of magnetic and electric field lines, of the possibility of the release of magnetic energy and of the acceleration of the keV electrons and ions due to voltage induction during the second pinching of the column are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Effective dispersion and crosslinking in PVA/cellulose fiber biocomposites via solid-state mechanochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang; He, Xu; Zhao, Jiangqi; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-01

    A mechanochemical approach to improve the dispersion and the degree of crosslinking between cellulose fiber and polymer matrix is presented herein to create high performance poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cellulose biocomposites in a solvent-free and catalyst-free system. During a pan-milling process, the hydrogen bonds in both cellulose and PVA were effectively broken up, and the released hydroxyl groups could react with succinic anhydride (SA) to form covalent bonds between the two components. This stress-induced chemical reaction was verified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reaction kinetics was discussed according to the conversion rate of SA during the pan-milling process. Soxhlet extraction with hot water showed that the crosslinked PVA/cellulose retained more PVA in the composites due to the homogeneous and heterogeneous crosslinking. Scanning electron microscope images indicated the dispersion and interfacial interactions between PVA and cellulose were largely improved. The resulting composites exhibited remarkably enhanced mechanical properties. The tensile strength increased from 8.8 MPa (without mechanochemical treatment) to 18.2 MPa, and elongation at break increased from 76.8 to 361.7% after the treatment. Their thermal stability was also significantly improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study of the sol-gel based solid phase microextraction fibers in extraction of naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene from saffron samples extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, A.; Ghaemi, F.; Amiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    We are introducing a method for the determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous saffron sample by direct immersion solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. A sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of the SPME fibers. Three kinds of sol-gel coatings on the fibers were tested and compared. They are composed of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and a poly(ethylene glycol) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG/CNTs). The effects of fiber coating, desorption time, desorption temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salting effect were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (at S/N = 3) are 7-50, 5-50, and 1-10 pg mL -1 , respectively, for SPME fibers made from PDMS, PEG and PEG/CNTs. The relative standard deviations for one type of fiber are from 2.1% to 9.6% for all fibers (at n = 5), and in the range from 1.9% to 9.8% from batch to batch (for n = 3). (author)

  18. Graphene oxide bonded fused-silica fiber for solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jubai; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel chemically bonded graphene oxide/fused-silica fiber was prepared and applied in solid-phase microextraction of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples coupled with gas chromatography. It exhibited high extraction efficiency and excellent stability. Effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, stirring rate and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized in our work. Detection limits to the six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were less than 0.08 μg/L, and their calibration curves were all linear (R(2)≥0.9954) in the range from 0.05 to 200 μg/L. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 6.13 and 15.87%, respectively. This novel fiber was then utilized to analyze two real water samples from the Yellow River and local waterworks, and the recoveries of samples spiked at 1 and 10 μg/L ranged from 84.48 to 118.24%. Compared with other coating materials, this graphene oxide-coated fiber showed many advantages: wide linear range, low detection limit, and good stability in acid, alkali, organic solutions and at high temperature. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad

    2014-12-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL(-1)) and (40.0-150.0ngkg(-1))] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel approach to microwave-assisted extraction and micro-solid-phase extraction from soil using graphite fibers as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lee, Hian Kee

    2008-05-30

    A single-step extraction-cleanup procedure involving microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction (micro-SPE) has been developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil samples. Micro-SPE is a relatively new extraction procedure that makes use of a sorbent enclosed within a sealed polypropylene membrane envelope. In the present work, for the first time, graphite fiber was used as a sorbent material for extraction. MAE-micro-SPE was used to cleanup sediment samples and to extract and preconcentrate five PAHs in sediment samples prepared as slurries with addition of water. The best extraction conditions comprised of microwave heating at 50 degrees C for a duration of 20 min, and an elution (desorption) time of 5 min using acetonitrile with sonication. Using gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID), the limits of detection (LODs) of the PAHs ranged between 2.2 and 3.6 ng/g. With GC-mass spectrometry (MS), LODs were between 0.0017 and 0.0057 ng/g. The linear ranges were between 0.1 and 50 or 100 microg/g for GC-FID analysis, and 1 and 500 or 1000 ng/g for GC-MS analysis. Granular activated carbon was also used for the micro-SPE device but was found to be not as efficient in the PAH extraction. The MAE-micro-SPE method was successfully used for the extraction of PAHs in river and marine sediments, demonstrating its applicability to real environmental solid matrixes.