WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid extruded cable

  1. Tailored sPP/Silica Nanocomposite for Ecofriendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP/silica as an ecofriendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5–3% nanosilica. We found that the silica/sPP nanocomposite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nanosilica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nanosilica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nanocomposite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future ecofriendly extruded HVDC cables.

  2. Tailored sPP/Silica Nano composite for Eco friendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, B.; He, J.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP)/silica as an eco friendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5-3% nano silica. We found that the silica/sPP nano composite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nano silica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nano silica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nano composite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future eco friendly extruded HVDC cables.

  3. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.; Onozuka, M.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)

  4. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.).

  5. A Miniaturized Extruder to Prototype Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Selection of Plasticizers for Hot Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Matthias E; Maurer, Reto; Paepe, Anne T De; Stillhart, Cordula; Jacob, Laurence; James, Rajesh; Kojima, Yuki; Rietmann, Rene; Kissling, Tom; van den Ende, Joost A; Schwarz, Sabine; Grassmann, Olaf; Page, Susanne

    2018-05-19

    Hot-melt extrusion is an option to fabricate amorphous solid dispersions and to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The selection of suitable polymer carriers and processing aids determines the dissolution, homogeneity and stability performance of this solid dosage form. A miniaturized extrusion device (MinEx) was developed and Hypromellose acetate succinate type L (HPMCAS-L) based extrudates containing the model drugs neurokinin-1 (NK1) and cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) were manufactured, plasticizers were added and their impact on dissolution and solid-state properties were assessed. Similar mixtures were manufactured with a lab-scale extruder, for face to face comparison. The properties of MinEx extrudates widely translated to those manufactured with a lab-scale extruder. Plasticizers, Polyethyleneglycol 4000 (PEG4000) and Poloxamer 188, were homogenously distributed but decreased the storage stability of the extrudates. Stearic acid was found condensed in ultrathin nanoplatelets which did not impact the storage stability of the system. Depending on their distribution and physicochemical properties, plasticizers can modulate storage stability and dissolution performance of extrudates. MinEx is a valuable prototyping-screening method and enables rational selection of plasticizers in a time and material sparing manner. In eight out of eight cases the properties of the extrudates translated to products manufactured in lab-scale extrusion trials.

  6. Investigation into mixing capability and solid dispersion preparation using the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Thommes, Markus

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to qualify the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder as a formulation screening tool for early-stage hot-melt extrusion. Dispersive and distributive mixing was investigated using soluplus, copovidone or basic butylated methacrylate copolymer with sodium chloride (NaCl) in a batch size of 5 g. Eleven types of solid dispersions were prepared using various drugs and carriers in batches of 5 g in accordance with the literature. The dispersive mixing was a function of screw speed and recirculation time and the particle size was remarkably reduced after 1 min of processing, regardless of the polymers. An inverse relationship between the particle size and specific mechanical energy (SME) was also found. The SME values were higher than those in large-scale extruders. After 1 min recirculation at 200 rpm, the uniformity of NaCl content met the criteria of the European Pharmacopoeia, indicating that distributive mixing was achieved in this time. For the solid dispersions preparations, the results from different scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and in-vitro dissolution tests confirmed that all solid-dispersion systems were successfully prepared. These findings demonstrated that the extruder is a useful tool to screen solid-dispersion formulations and their material properties on a small scale. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  8. Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) : Part 2: cables for rated voltages from 6 kV (Um = 7,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV)

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) : Part 2: cables for rated voltages from 6 kV (Um = 7,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV)

  9. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of composition in the development of carbamazepine hot-melt extruded solid dispersions by application of mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Ioannis, Nikolakakis; Ibric, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of hot-melt extrusion for the formulation of carbamazepine (CBZ) solid dispersions, using polyethyleneglycol-polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate grafted copolymer (Soluplus, BASF, Germany) and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Poloxamer 407). In agreement with the current Quality by Design principle, formulations of solid dispersions were prepared according to a D-optimal mixture experimental design, and the influence of formulation composition on the properties of the dispersions (CBZ heat of fusion and release rate) was estimated. Prepared solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and hot stage microscopy, as well as by determination of the dissolution rate of CBZ from the hot-melt extrudates. Solid dispersions of CBZ can be successfully prepared using the novel copolymer Soluplus. Inclusion of Poloxamer 407 as a plasticizer facilitated the processing and decreased the hardness of hot-melt extrudates. Regardless of their composition, all hot-melt extrudates displayed an improvement in the release rate compared to the pure CBZ, with formulations having the ratio of CBZ : Poloxamer 407 = 1 : 1 showing the highest increase in CBZ release rate. Interactions between the mixture components (CBZ and polymers), or quadratic effects of the components, play a significant role in overall influence on the CBZ release rate. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028 ng g(-1) at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.05-0.07 ng mN(-3)) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting HBCDs in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just

  12. Application of film-casting technique to investigate drug-polymer miscibility in solid dispersion and hot-melt extrudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tapan; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Meena, Anuprabha K; Vitez, Imre; Mahajan, Nidhi; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2015-07-01

    Determination of drug-polymer miscibility is critical for successful development of solid dispersions. This report details a practical method to predict miscibility and physical stability of drug with various polymers in solid dispersion and, especially, in melt extrudates by applying a film-casting technique. Mixtures of itraconazole (ITZ) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Kollidon(®) VA 64, Eudragit(®) E PO, and Soluplus(®) were film-casted, exposed to 40°C/75% RH for 1 month and then analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry, and polarized light microscopy (PLM). ITZ had the highest miscibility with HPMCP, being miscible at drug to polymer ratio of 6:4 (w/w). There was a downward trend of lower miscibility with Soluplus(®) (miscible at 3:7, w/w, and a few microcrystals present at 4:6, w/w), Kollidon(®) VA 64 (2:8, w/w) and Eudragit(®) E PO (casting and hot-melt extrusion (HME) using a twin screw extruder. For ITZ-Soluplus(®) mixtures, HME at 4:6 (w/w) resulted in a single phase, whereas drug crystallization was observed at higher drug load. HME of ITZ-Kollidon(®) VA 64 mixtures also correlated well with the miscibility predicted by film casting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Hot Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Posaconazole with Improved Bioavailability: Investigating Drug-Polymer Miscibility with Advanced Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Fule

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72 and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72 and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil. Molecular dynamic (MD simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  14. Biaxial vent extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemoto, A.; Maki, Y.; Oda, N.

    1981-01-01

    A biaxial vent extruder is described for processing of slurry-like waste fluids or radioactive waste fluids which have a hopper cylinger, a solidifying substance port and a solidified substance port. A plurality of vent cylinders each having a vent port are provided with a plunger type scraper. An extruding cylinder having a single opening for a main screw is connected to the assembled vent cylinders. The main screw extends to the upstream end of the extruding cylinder and a sub-screw extends to the extruding cylinder. The screws each having a full flight engaging the other and a set of rings are mounted on the screws near the respective vent port inlets. The screws are rotated in different directions and inwardly with respect to the vent ports. Rotors may be mounted on the screws to break down solid particles

  15. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded from Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0.25. The result is the formula which can produce best extruded food is pop corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:2:0.25 with Expansion Ratio (ER 2.22 and protein content 8.83%.

  16. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded From Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahudin, Farid; Syamsixman, Syamsixman

    2010-01-01

    Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0....

  17. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  18. Erosion in extruder flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  19. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived of being cut off on barrel wall, were found to have the capacity of the positive conveying. Experimental data were obtained using a specially designed extruder with a helically channeled barrel in the feeding zone and a pressure-adjustable die. The effects of the barrel channel geometry and friction coefficients on the conveying mechanism were presented and compared with the experimental results. The simulations showed that the positive conveying could be achieved after optimizing extruder designs. Compared with the traditional design with the friction-drag conveying, the throughput is higher while screw torque and energy consumption are decreased. Besides, the design criteria of the barrel channel were also discussed.

  20. Cable handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In computerized axial tomography scanning, problems arise in exchanging electrical signals between fixed and rotating assemblies. A novel method of overcoming this problem is described in detail for both signal and high voltage cables. Apparatus using a sequence of drums and pulleys is used to maintain the interconnecting cables in a neat arrangement and free from mechanical strain. The apparatus is simple and relatively easy and inexpensive to assemble and maintain. (UK)

  1. Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prut, Eduard V; Zelenetskii, Alexandr N

    2001-01-01

    Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor are discussed. Relationships between the parameters affecting the reaction kinetics, viz., mixing time, duration of a chemical reaction and the residence time of the system in the extruder reactor, and the structure of the materials produced are analysed. The mechanisms of (i) grafting of low-molecular-mass compounds onto polymers; (ii) reactions between terminal groups of different polymers and (iii) transesterification and interchange reactions are considered. The factors affecting the mechanism of dynamic vulcanisation and the properties of thermoplastic elastomers are identified. Solid-phase reactions of polysaccharides in an extruder are discussed. The priority aspects of studies on the chemical modification and blending of polymers are noted. The bibliography includes 90 references.

  2. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  3. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alain D.; Rykalin, Viktor V.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R andD program at Fermilab

  4. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  5. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  6. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  7. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  8. Universal Cable Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  9. Properties of extrudates from sorghum varieties | Byaruhanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical-chemical properties of the extrudates including, lateral expansion, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index, as well as proximate composition were determined. The extrudates exhibited 240-300% lateral expansion and 0.067-0.095 g cm-3 bulk density. The water absorption index was ...

  10. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  11. Continuously graded extruded polymer composites for energetic applications fabricated using twin-screw extrusion processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Frederick M.

    A novel method of fabricating functionally graded extruded composite materials is proposed for propellant applications using the technology of continuous processing with a Twin-Screw Extruder. The method is applied to the manufacturing of grains for solid rocket motors in an end-burning configuration with an axial gradient in ammonium perchlorate volume fraction and relative coarse/fine particle size distributions. The fabrication of functionally graded extruded polymer composites with either inert or energetic ingredients has yet to be investigated. The lack of knowledge concerning the processing of these novel materials has necessitated that a number of research issues be addressed. Of primary concern is characterizing and modeling the relationship between the extruder screw geometry, transient processing conditions, and the gradient architecture that evolves in the extruder. Recent interpretations of the Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) and Residence Volume Distributions (RVDs) for polymer composites in the TSE are used to develop new process models for predicting gradient architectures in the direction of extrusion. An approach is developed for characterizing the sections of the extrudate using optical, mechanical, and compositional analysis to determine the gradient architectures. The effects of processing on the burning rate properties of extruded energetic polymer composites are characterized for homogeneous formulations over a range of compositions to determine realistic gradient architectures for solid rocket motor applications. The new process models and burning rate properties that have been characterized in this research effort will be the basis for an inverse design procedure that is capable of determining gradient architectures for grains in solid rocket motors that possess tailored burning rate distributions that conform to user-defined performance specifications.

  12. Diclofenac sodium sustained release hot melt extruded lipid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithani, K; Cuppok, Y; Mostafa, S; Slipper, I J; Snowden, M J; Douroumis, D

    2014-08-01

    Sustained release diclofenac sodium (Df-Na) solid lipid matrices with Compritol® 888 ATO were developed in this study. The drug/lipid powders were processed via cold and hot melt extrusion at various drug loadings. The influence of the processing temperatures, drug loading and the addition of excipients on the obtained dissolution rates was investigated. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded batches showed the existence of crystalline drug in the extrudates with a small amount being solubilized in the lipid matrix. The drug content and uniformity on the tablet surface were also investigated by using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The dissolution rates were found to depend on the actual Df-Na loading and the nature of the added excipients, while the effect of the processing temperatures was negligible. The dissolution mechanism of all extruded formulations followed Peppas-Korsemeyer law, based on the estimated determination coefficients and the dissolution constant rates, indicating drug diffusion from the lipid matrices.

  13. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; FermilabRykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-01-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here

  14. Superconducting ac cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-11-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.

  15. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  16. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  17. Numerical studies of the polymer melt flow in the extruder screw channel and the forming tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, S. V.; Trufanova, N. M.

    2017-06-01

    To date, polymer compositions based on polyethylene or PVC is widely used as insulating materials. These materials processing conjugate with a number of problems during selection of the rational extrusion regimes. To minimize the time and cost when determining the technological regime uses mathematical modeling techniques. The paper discusses heat and mass transfer processes in the extruder screw channel, output adapter and the cable head. During the study were determined coefficients for three rheological models based on obtained viscosity vs. shear rate experimental data. Also a comparative analysis of this viscosimetric laws application possibility for studying polymer melt flow during its processing on the extrusion equipment was held. As a result of numerical study the temperature, viscosity and shear rate fields in the extruder screw channel and forming tool were obtained.

  18. Energy cable engineering. Energiekabeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecking, H W

    1981-01-01

    This textbook intends to explain cable elements and common cable constructions according to VDE, and in a second part, to review the theoretical fundamentals and their consequences with a view to the construction of cables for higher voltages and powers. It will give the student a picture of the variety of problems and solutions which make cable engineering so interesting and show the practising engineer how to derive a theoretical system from their extensive everyday experience.

  19. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  20. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  1. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  2. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  3. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  4. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  5. Cable aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results from aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of class 1E electrical cables, per NUREG/CR-5772. This test was designed to test the performance of cables which had been aged with simultaneous radiation and thermal exposure. The tested cables included crosslinked polyolefin cables, ethylene propylene rubber cables, and miscellaneous cable types. Cables were exposed to 20, 40, and 60 years equivalent aging, and then exposed to LOCA tests at the end of their qualified life to determine the minimum insulation thickness needed for survival of the test. Failures were found in a large number of the tested cables. As a result the NRC has sent information notices to the industry regarding potential insulation problems. The results have raised the question of whether the artificial aging methods provide adequate testing methods. As a result of this testing the NRC is reviewing the artificial aging procedures, the adequacy of environmental qualification requirements for cable safety, and reexamining data from condition monitoring of installed cables

  6. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Sizewell 'B' cable installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    N G Bailey and Co. Ltd., UK were awarded the contract for the procurement, manufacture, works testing, works finishing, supply, delivery, off-loading, storage, installation, site finishing, preservation, setting to work and site testing of the following; the main cable installation throughout the Station including the addition of the Radioactive Waste Building, earthing and lightning protection installation, cable supporting steelwork and carriers and glanding and termination of cables. The cabling installation comprises power distribution, control and instrumentation cabling including all the associated cabling accessories, terminal boxes and similar components. The way that the contract was set-up, awarded and is now being carried out is described. Planning and industrial relations have been key features of the contract. (Author)

  8. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  9. High voltage dc cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjustrom, B

    1965-12-01

    How stress distribution in dc cables varies with temperature and stress level, influence of polarity reversals and space charges, and different types of overvoltage to which dc cable may be subjected are discussed. Design problems, especially as related to corrosion protection and to mechanical stress caused by wire armoring during manufacturing and laying, accessories and work done on test methods, and the possibility of designing 400 to 600 kV dc cables for transmitting 2000 to 4000 MW are described.

  10. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, CliffordIII; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0?20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As ...

  12. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  13. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  14. Experiment using laboratory scale extruder. Fluid behavior in twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miura, Akihiko

    1999-09-01

    All evidences and chemical data suggest non-chemical heating mechanism raised the filling temperature of the bituminized product. But they indicate the filling temperature was higher than before at the incident. We estimated the physical heat mechanism in the extruder. It is well known that the viscous-heating occurs in mixing process in extruders. In order to confirm the behavior of the torque and temperature, some experiment using laboratory scale extruder were performed. The result of the experiment using laboratory scale extruder showed that the phenomena of salt enrichment and salt accumulation were observed and they raised mixture temperature at the decreased feed rate. These phenomena depend on the feed rate. It is considered that they have large contribution to heat transportation and operational torque due to the friction between screw and mixture. In this report, all experiment result are explained. (author)

  15. A phenomenological study on twin screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although more and more twin screw extruders are being used in the polymer industry, the theoretical background is relatively undeveloped. The literature abounds in contradictions and often informs the reader that all extrusion problems can be solved if a certain new design is considered. The

  16. Properties of extruded teff-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff is an ancient grain that is becoming more popular since it is gluten-free and a good source of vitamins, minerals and protein. Relatively little is known about the properties of extruded teff, although the high insoluble fiber and protein contents have been shown to limit expansion. The health ...

  17. The extrudate swell of HDPE: Rheological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Ansari, Mahmoud; Mitsoulis, Evan; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2017-05-01

    The extrudate swell of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in capillary dies is studied experimentally and numerically using the integral K-BKZ constitutive model. The non-linear viscoelastic flow properties of the polymer resin are studied for a broad range of large step shear strains and high shear rates using the cone partitioned plate (CPP) geometry of the stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer. This allowed the determination of the rheological parameters accurately, in particular the damping function, which is proven to be the most important in simulating transient flows such as extrudate swell. A series of simulations performed using the integral K-BKZ Wagner model with different values of the Wagner exponent n, ranging from n=0.15 to 0.5, demonstrates that the extrudate swell predictions are extremely sensitive to the Wagner damping function exponent. Using the correct n-value resulted in extrudate swell predictions that are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  18. Automated Cable Preparation for Robotized Stator Cable Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for robotized cable winding of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator stator has previously been presented and validated. The purpose of this study is to present and validate further developments to the method: automated stand-alone equipment for the preparation of the winding cables. The cable preparation consists of three parts: feeding the cable from a drum, forming the cable end and cutting the cable. Forming and cutting the cable was previously done manually and only small cable drums could be handled. Therefore the robot cell needed to be stopped frequently. The new equipment was tested in an experimental robot stator cable winding setup. Through the experiments, the equipment was validated to be able to perform fully automated and robust cable preparation. Suggestions are also given on how to further develop the equipment with regards to performance, robustness and quality. Hence, this work represents another important step towards demonstrating completely automated robotized stator cable winding.

  19. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  20. Dynamic space charge behaviour in polymeric DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict...... the formation and transport of space charges in a polymeric dielectric. The model incorporates the processes of field assisted electron-hole pair generation from impurity atoms, trapping and charge injection at the electrodes. Its aim has been to study the field- and temperature dependent dynamic behaviour...

  1. Cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumaran, A.; Sedding, H.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, due to the age of the majority of nuclear generating stations significant attention is being paid to the condition of the major components, e.g., reactor, steam generator, turbine generator, transformer, etc., with respect to relicensing and life extension. However, there is recognition that cable systems are critical to the safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear power plants. Consequently, there is great interest in ageing management of low and medium voltage cables in the nuclear environment. Successful implementation of such programs requires an understanding of how the materials associated with cables and their accessories behave under normal operating and accident conditions. However, there is also a great need to determine the actual condition of the materials and systems in order to make rational decisions on whether or not to replace cables to ensure long term assurance of reliable operation. This proposed contribution describes an approach to cable ageing management of low and medium voltage cables based on measurements of material and electrical properties obtained in the laboratory and in the field. The effectiveness of various chemical, mechanical and electrical test methods are discussed in the context of, • Cable configuration, i.e., low or medium voltage, shielded or unshielded • Material type, i.e., PVC, XLPE, EPR, etc., • Ageing stress, i.e., electrical, thermal, radiation, thermal plus radiation, etc. These factors are key to identifying the most appropriate test method (or methods) to enable understanding of the current condition of the cable. While electrical test methods, e.g., ac withstand testing, partial discharge and various dielectric loss measurement techniques have been found effective for medium voltage cables, they are of very limited use on low voltage cables that constitute the majority of cables in nuclear power plants. This limited effectiveness is due to the lack of a well defined ground plane that is a

  2. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G.; Trutna, W. R.; Orsley, T. J.; Lucia, F.; Daly, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000's, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s "Eye-Opener" cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10's of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  3. Proposed superscreened cables and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-11-01

    The paper summarises the present availability of superscreened cables and proposes the specification of a family of cables to meet the foreseeable needs of the nuclear power industry. The cable numbering system is described, special tests outlined and important details given for the chosen cables. Appropriate connectors are also discussed and listed with an outline of their required screening performance. (author)

  4. Design of a termination for a high temperature superconduction power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Tønnesen, Ole

    1999-01-01

    ). This assembly is electrically insulated with an extruded polymer dielectric kept at room temperature. Cooling is provided by a flow of liquid nitrogen inside the former. The purpose of the termination is to connect the superconducting cable conductor at cryogenic temperature to the existing power grid at room...... temperatures, the transfer of liquid nitrogen over a high voltage drop and that of providing a well defined atmosphere inside the termination and around the cable conductor. Designs based on calculations and experiments will be presented. The solutions are optimized with respect to a low heat in-leak....

  5. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF PROTEIN PREPARATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF EXTRUDED MAIZE EXTRUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Rytel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of extrusion enables enrichment of snacking products with protein preparation simultaneously providing a high quality of end products. Maize semolina with particle size of 500-1250 μm was used as raw material and as additives soybean protein isolate, distillery yeast Safethanol 3035 and laboratory obtained potato protein preparation. Snacks were determined for contents of dry matter, protein, fat as well as for texture, volume weight, bulk density and sensory traits. The application of 3% and 6% additions of protein preparations in extruded snacks production was found to exert a beneficial effect on their chemical composition without deteriorating sensory characteristics. The higher, 6%, addition of proteins to extrudates turned out to significantly reduce content of fat (by 18% and ash (by 50%, and to increase total protein content by 26%, on average, in the products examined as compared to the samples free of additives. The addition of potato protein to extrudates, especially at the higher dose (6%, significantly improved their consistency and texture, simultaneously diminishing the expansion ratio of ready products. The higher (6% addition of yeast protein applied in the production of extrudates resulted in slight deterioration of their taste and aroma, yet had a positive effect on the structure and expansion ratio of the ready products. The extrudates produced with the addition of soybean protein were characterized by a good expansion ratio, uniform structure, irrespective of preparation dose and simultaneously demonstrated lower bulk mass as compared to the other products obtained in the experiment.

  6. Costly cables; Lange Leitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    Connection of offshore wind turbines to the onshore power supply grid requires costly cables for HV DC power transmission. The technology is mature enough to enable low-loss power transmission, but construction times may last several years.

  7. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... been conducted. The two current prevailing systems consisting of helically filleted cables and cables with a pattern-indented surface were directly compared under the same conditions and both applications were found with attractive properties. The pattern-indented surface maintained a low supercritical...... of reducing the intensity of the axial flow and disrupting the near wake flow structures. Similar studies during wet conditions with artificial simulation of light rain in the wind tunnel showed that the plain cable suffered from severe rain-wind induced vibrations. But despite the presence of both upper...

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Vadukapuram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20% into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05 different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P>0.05 in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  10. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1985-07-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  11. Estudio de la cargabilidad de cables de alta tensión de aislamiento sólido con las variaciones periódicas de la carga; Study of the current capacity of solid insulation high voltage cables with periodical changes of load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Zuñinga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se plantean los resultados obtenidos al introducir una corrección al método desarrollado en el CIPEL para elcálculo de la cargabilidad de cables soterrados considerando las variaciones periódicas de la curva de cargadiaria y la impedancia compleja del medio que rodea a la instalación a partir del empleo de funciones Bessel yHankel. La validación de la corrección propuesta se realizó mediante el cálculo, con y sin la corrección planteada,de la temperatura superficial de cables en servicio por el método de cálculo propuesto y su comparación conlos medidos en la superficie de dichos cables  This work presents the results obtaines after the introduction of a correction to the method developed in theCIPEL to calculate the current capacity of underground cables considering the periodical chnages of the loadchanges of the daily load curve and the complex impedance of the enviroment sorrounding the installation usingBessel and Hankel funtions.The validity of the proposed correction was carried out calculating the surfacetemperature of the cables in service by means of the calculating method  with and whithout the correction  andthe  comparison of these values with the temperature mesured on the surface of the cables

  12. Properties of extruded snacks supplemented with amaranth grain grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev Miroslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food, supplement in breakfast cereals, or as raw material for further processing. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends, containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits, were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded, hence rheological properties were examined. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage.

  13. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. W.; Bonin, J. H.; Daniel, A. D. Jr.

    1983-03-15

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues. 19 figs.

  14. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level.

  15. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  16. Preparation of an extruded fish snack using twin screw extruder and the storage characteristics of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.; Basu, S.

    2003-01-01

    A value-added extruded fish product was prepared with corn flour (80%) and fish (sciaenid) powder (20%), using a twin-screw extruder. The effect of different parameters like moisture, temperature, fish powder concentration, speed of the extruder and die-diameter on expansion ratio and crisp texture were studied. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing. The study revealed that aluminum foil is the best packa...

  17. The nutritional properties of extruded and non-extruded corn fiber isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, W E; Warren, C C; Erdman, J W; Villota, R

    1990-01-01

    The feed efficiency and selected organ weights of rats fed diets containing 3 or 7% corn fiber, extruded corn fiber or silica were compared to rats fed a fiber-free diet. No significant differences were found in feed efficiency, spleen, lung or liver weights for any of the treatments relative to the fiber-free control diet.

  18. Cable laying methods in a multi-cable elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, V.I.; Makhinyan, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the solution of differential equations describing the stress and deformation state of cables during rolling on the drum, a conclusion is made concerning a rational method for hanging cables with a free-spinning end.

  19. Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.

  20. Method and apparatus for extruding thermoplastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvey, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A gear pump assisted screw conveyor extrusion system utilizing a cartridge heating device disposed axially within the screw and having the drives for the gear pump and the screw correlated in speed to create relatively little pressure in the thermoplastic material being extruded such that relatively little mechanical working thereof occurs. The thermoplastic material is melted in the screw conveyor primarily by heat transfer from the cartridge heater and the gear pump is utilized for conveying the melted material under pressure to a subsequent work station. A relatively deep material-conveying spiral channel is provided in the screw for maximized extrusion output per revolution of the screw and minimized mechanical energy generation by the screw. A motionless mixer may be employed intermediate the screw and the work station to homogenize the melted material for reducing temperature gradients therein. The system advantageously is capable of extruding material at a substantially greater rate and a lower material temperature and with substantially increased power economy than conventional systems utilizing a high pressure, externally heated screw conveyor portion

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  2. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  3. Cable indenter aging monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements

  4. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  5. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  6. The transfer impedance of cables with a nearby return conductor and a noncentral inner conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, van M.J.A.M.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Laan, van der P.C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer impedance Z/sub t/ of a cable is often assumed to be a characteristic of the shield only. We investigate the limits of this assumption by calculations and measurements. The first test cable was formed by a solid copper tube (ldquoshieldrdquo) and a wire inside; several positions, also

  7. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Owen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10’s of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  8. Fabrication and properties of high-strength extruded brass using elemental mixture of Cu-40% Zn alloy powder and Mg particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Haruhiko, E-mail: atsumi-h@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Li, Shufeng; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kousaka, Yoshiharu; Kojima, Akimichi [San-etsu Metals Co. Ltd., 1892 Ohta, Tonami, Toyama 939-1315 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, high-strength brass (Cu-40% Zn) alloy with magnesium (Mg) element was fabricated via powder technology process, and the effect of the additive Mg element on microstructural and mechanical properties of extruded brass alloys with {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases was investigated. Pre-mixed Cu-40% Zn alloy powder with 0.5-1.5 mass% pure Mg powder (Cu-40% Zn + Mg) was consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens consisted of {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases containing Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a mean particle size of 10-30 {mu}m in diameter. The IMCs were completely dissolved in the {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases by a heat-treatment at 973 K for 15 min; thus, in order to disperse fine IMCs on {alpha}-{beta} duplex phase matrix, the SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens were pre-heated at the solid solutionizing condition, and immediately extruded. The extruded specimen exhibited fine {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases, containing very fine precipitates of the above Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} IMCs with 0.5-3.0 {mu}m in diameter. In particular, a mean grain size of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen was 3.32 {mu}m analyzed using an electron back-scattered diffraction. Tensile properties of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen were an average value of yield strength (YS): 328 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 553 MPa, and 25% elongation. This indicated that the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen revealed the significantly high-strength properties compared to a conventional binary brass alloy with 229 MPa YS and 464 MPa UTS. A high strengthening mechanism of this wrought brass alloy was mainly due to the grain refinement because of a pinning effect by the fine Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} precipitates at the boundaries of each phase. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New high-strength extruded brass alloy with Mg was fabricated via powder metallurgy. Black

  9. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  10. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cable tension throughout the range of travel under operating conditions and temperature variations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must...

  11. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two ... These filling materials can be used with several obturation .... The tip of the master cone.

  12. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  13. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  14. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  15. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Outlet of Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the unreasonable design of non-intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder die, the problem of productivity reduction was discussed. Firstly, the mathematical model of extruder productivity was established. The extruder die model was improved. Secondly, the force analysis of twin screw extruder physical model was carried out. Meanwhile, A combination of mechanical analysis and numerical simulation was adopted. The velocity field, pressure field and viscosity field were calculated by Mini-Element interpolation method, linear interpolation method and Picard iterative convergence method respectively. The influence of die model on the quantity of each field before and after improvement was analyzed. The results show that the improved model had increased the rheological parameters of the flow field, the leakage and reverse flow decreased. Through post-processing calculation, the productivity of the third dies extruder was 10% higher than before. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the design and optimization of die model of non intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder.

  17. A comparison of the mechanical and sensory properties of baked and extruded confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Saba; Charalambides, Maria; Mohammed, Idris K.; Powell, Hugh

    2017-10-01

    Traditional baking is the most common way of producing confectionery wafers, however over the past few decades, the extrusion process has become an increasingly important food manufacturing method and is commonly used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and filled snack products. This study aims to characterise products made via each of these manufacturing processes in order to understand the important parameters involved in the resulting texture of confectionery products such as wafers. Both of the named processes result in brittle, cellular foams comprising of cell walls and cell pores which may contain some of the confectionery filling. The mechanical response of the cell wall material and the geometry of the products influence the consumer perception and preference. X-Ray micro tomography (XRT) was used to generate geometry of the microstructure which was then fed to Finite Element (FE) for numerical analysis on both products. The FE models were used to determine properties such as solid modulus of the cell walls, Young's modulus of the entire foam and to investigate and compare the microstructural damage of baked wafers and extruded products. A sensory analysis study was performed on both products by a qualified sensory panel. The results of this study were then used to draw links between the mechanical behaviour and sensory perception of a consumer. The extruded product was found to be made up of a stiffer solid material and had a higher compressive modulus and fracture stress when compared to the baked wafer. The sensory panel observed textural differences between the baked and extruded products which were also found in the differences of the mechanical properties of the two products.

  18. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  19. Cable deterioration analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nitta, Makoto.

    1997-01-01

    At first, a hardness of a minute region and an elongation at break are measured relative to a plurality of reference samples having deterioration which is different stepwise, to obtain a relation between the hardness of the minute region and the elongation at break. They are obtained as information of correlation showing the degree of deterioration of cables. Then, samples are collected. The samples are collected from a PVC sheath. In this case, the samples to be used for the measurement are extremely small piece having the size of one side of about several hundred μm. Then, the hardness of the minute region of the samples is measured. The measured hardness of the minute region is corresponded to the previously obtained information of the correlation for deteriorations to judge the state of deterioration for the collected samples. With such procedures, the state of deterioration for electric wires and cables to be used in nuclear facilities such as power plants can easily be diagnosed substantially non destructively. (I.N.)

  20. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  1. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  2. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of extruded OFMSW: Process performance and energetics evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Kongyun; Ma, Jiao; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extrusion press treatment shows some promising advantages for effectively separating of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from the mixed MSW, which is critical for their following high-efficiency treatment. In this study, an extruded OFMSW obtained from a demonstrated MSW treatment plant was characterized, and submitted to a series of semi-continuous anaerobic experiments to examine its biodegradability and process stability. The results indicated that the extruded OFMSW was a desirable substrate with a high biochemical methane potential (BMP), balanced nutrients and reliable stability. For increasing organic loading rates (OLRs), feeding higher volatile solid (VS) contents in feedstock was much better than shortening the hydraulic retention times (HRTs), while excessively high contents caused a low biodegradability due to the mass transfer limitation. For energetics evaluation, a high electricity output of 129.19-156.37kWh/ton raw MSW was obtained, which was further improved by co-digestion with food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of thermostable α-amylase injection on mechanical and physiochemical properties for saccharification of extruded corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2014-01-30

    In industry, a jet cooker is used to gelatinize starch by mixing the starch slurry with steam under pressure at 100-175 °C. A higher degree of starch hydrolysis in an extruder is possible with glucoamylase. Unfortunately, it is difficult to carry out liquefaction and saccharification in parallel, because the temperature of gelatinization will be too high and will inactivate glucoamylase. Since the temperature for liquefaction and saccharification is different, it is hard to change the temperature from high (required for liquefaction) to low (required for saccharification). The industrial gelatinization process is usually carried out with 30-35% (w/w) dry solids starch slurry. Conventional jet cookers cannot be used any more at high substrate concentrations owing to higher viscosity. In this study, therefore, corn starch was extruded at different melt temperatures to overcome these limitations and to produce the highest enzyme-accessible starch extrudates. Significant effects on physical properties (water solubility index, water absorption index and color) and chemical properties (reducing sugar and % increase in reducing sugar after saccharification) were achieved by addition of thermostable α-amylase at melt temperatures of 115 and 135 °C. However, there was no significant effect on % increase in reducing sugar of extruded corn starch at 95 °C. The results show the great potential of extrusion with thermostable α-amylase injection at 115 and 135 °C as an effective pretreatment for breaking down starch granules, because of the significant increase (P < 0.05) in % reducing sugar and enzyme-accessible extrudates for saccharification yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  5. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  6. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  7. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  8. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    OpenAIRE

    G. Owen; W. R. Trutna; T. J. Orsley; F. Lucia; C. B. Daly

    2017-01-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the or...

  9. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  10. Bio rapid prototyping by extruding/aspirating/refilling thermoreversible hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, K; Noda, T; Ishida, K; Umeda, N; Morishima, K; Nakamura, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a method for rapid prototyping of cell tissues, which is based on a system that extrudes, aspirates and refills a mixture of cells and thermoreversible hydrogel as a scaffold. In the extruding mode, a cell-mixed scaffold solution in the sol state is extruded from a cooled micronozzle into a temperature-controlled substrate, which keeps the scaffold in the gel state. In the aspiration mode, the opposite process is performed by Bernoulli suction. In the refilling mode, the solution is extruded into a groove created in the aspiration mode. The minimum width of extruded hydrogel pattern is 114 ± 15 μm by employing a nozzle of diameter 100 μm, and that of aspirated groove was 355 ± 10 μm using a 500 μm-diameter nozzle. Gum arabic is mixed with the scaffold solution to avoid peeling-off of the gel pattern from the substrate. Patterning of Sf-9 cell tissue is demonstrated, and the stability of the patterned cell is investigated. This system offers a procedure for rapid prototyping and local modification of cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  11. Effect of thermo-mechanical processing on the material properties at low temperature of a large size Al-Ni stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu superconducting cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, S. A. E.; Curé, B.; Sgobba, S.; Dudarev, A.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Neuenschwander, J.; Jerjen, I.

    2014-01-01

    For future high-resolution particle experiments, a prototype for a 60 kA at 5 T, 4.2 K class conductor is realized by co-extrusion of a large, 40-strand Nb-Ti/Cu superconducting cable with a precipitation type Al-0.1wt.%Ni stabilizer. Microalloying with nickel contributes to the strength of the stabilizer, and avoids significant degradation in residual resistivity ratio, owing to its low solid solubility in aluminum. Sections of the conductor are work hardened to increase the mechanical properties of the as-extruded temper. Mechanical and resistivity characteristics are assessed as function of the amount of work hardening, at room temperature as well as at 4.2 K. Thermal treatments, like resin curing after coil winding, can cause partial annealing of the cold-worked material and reverse the strengthening effect. However, targeted thermal treatments, applied at relatively low temperature can result in precipitation hardening. The depletion of nickel in the aluminum-rich matrix around the precipitates results in an increased strength and a decreased effect of nickel on the thermal and electrical resistivity of the material. The present work aims at identifying an optimal work hardening sequence, and an optimal thermal treatment, possibly coinciding with a suitable coil resin curing cycle, for the Al-Ni stabilized superconductor.

  12. Effect of D.C. testing water tree deteriorated cable and a preliminary evaluation of V.L.F. as alternate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, G.S. Jr.; Fryszczyn, B.; Katz, C.; ElBadaly, H.A.; Jean, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that according to the experience of some power utilities, the application of industry recommended high voltage d.c. field tests on 5-35 kV extruded dielectric cables, containing water trees, sometimes causes further deterioration of the insulation. Tests conducted on laboratory aged 15 kV ethylene propylene rubber (EP) and 15 and 28 kV crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables indicate that d.c. proof tests in accordance with AEIC specifications an IEEE test guides without flashover do not appear to cause further deterioration. Depending on the degree of cable aging and the level of test voltage, when flashovers take place, damage may be inflicted to XLPE cables. No damage was observed on aged EP cable, at the same test levels. Because of the aforementioned power utility experience, some users have requested an alternate field proof test. Tests conducted on new XLPE and EP cables indicate that damage to the insulation structure can be detected using VLF (0.1 Hz) voltage at approximately one-third the d.c. voltage level. Field tests conducted on severely tree deteriorated 15 kV polyethylene (PE) cable using AEIC recommended d.c. voltage level of about five times operating voltage level caused cable failure; VLF voltage levels up to two times operating voltage did not. VLF voltage appears to be a suitable alternate to d.c. voltage for field proof testing

  13. Analysis of the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    In order for the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly to be safely used it was determined by the cognizant engineer that analysis was necessary. The use of the finite-element analysis (FEA) progarm COSMOS/M version 1.71 permitted a quick, easy, and detailed stress analysis of the RGS Extruder Assembly. The FEA model is a three dimensional model using the SHELL4T element type. From the results of the FEA, the cognizant engineer determined that the RGS extruder would be rated at 10,000 lbf and load tested to 12,000 lbf. The respective input and output files for the model are EXTR02.GFM and EXTR02.OUT and can be found on the attached tape

  14. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  15. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  16. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  17. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and locomotives shall maintain positive tension on the portable cable during reeling and unreeling. Such tension shall only be high enough to prevent a machine from running over its own cable(s). (e... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable reels. 18.45 Section 18.45 Mineral...

  18. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous change in cable tension throughout the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a...

  19. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food.

  1. Cables - a question of custom-design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doig, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Electrical equipment such as cabling can often be the limiting factor as far as machine operations in radioactive environments are concerned. Electronic and electrical equipment will degrade if exposed to ionising radiation, affecting equipment reliability, or causing complete failure. However, several companies provide custom-designed products directed specifically at the nuclear industry. One such company is Habia Cable which has built up its business in submarine cables, internal engine cables, and cables for high fire risk situations. It began supplying custom-designed cables to the nuclear industry in 1986, and has since then supplied cables throughout Europe from its plant in Sweden. (Author)

  2. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  3. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for CA Weapons Systems Engineering

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  4. Air flow around suspended cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołębiowska Irena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  5. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris using three rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tasdemir

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, all instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris through the apical foramen. However, the BioRaCe instruments induced less extruded debris than the ProTaper Universal and Mtwo rotary systems.

  6. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  7. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  8. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xu; Li, Xiaozhang; Shen, Yonggang

    2014-06-23

    In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  9. THE EFFICACY OF THE CABLES OF 6–110 KW WITH XLPE INSULATION. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the suitability of cables of 6–110 kW with XLPE insulation in comparison with cables of the same voltage but possessing paper-oil insulation has been fulfilled on the basis of the method of multi-objective optimization that makes it possible to account not only the quantitative characteristics (of reduced costs, but also qualitative ones. As an indicator of the reliability of the cable line the maximum mean time to failure (the value inversely proportional to the parameter of succession of failures, which is an order more for cable lines with XLPE insulation than for cable lines with paper insulation, is adopted. A comprehensive assessment of the convenience of installation of cable lines revealed that the installation of cable with XLPE insulation features a 1.2–1.6 times easier installation as compared to three-wire (voltage 10 kW and 1.4 times easier installation as compared to single-core oil-filled cables (voltage of 110 kW. The efficacy of the cables 6–110 kW with XLPE insulation is proved on the basis on the method of multi-objective optimization, that took into account as the costs for the construction and operation of cable lines and the reliability of its operation, ease of its installation and other quality indicators. If the goals taken into account are considered as equally important, the polyethylene-insulated cables for a voltage of 10–110 kW is more efficient as compared to three-wire (voltage 10 kW and solid (110 kW cables with paper insulation. Herewith, the cost of the cable with XLPE insulation may exceed the cost of cable with paper insulation up to two times. If the most important aim is to provide the minimum reduced costs for the construction and operation of the cable line, the use of cables with XLPE insulation for voltage of 10 kW is most advisable in individual cases.

  10. Residence time distribution in twin-screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the twin-screw extruders used in the food industry at short time high temperature processes the knowledge of their reactor properties is incomplete for mass- and heat flow. Therefore each process change such as: scale-up or product development requires a great number of measurements

  11. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 0 or 5% full fat extruded soybeans meal (dry matter basis) and ... Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn .... The oven temperature was initially 180°C for 45.

  12. [Significance of extruded feeds for trout nutrition and water protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W

    1993-01-01

    Extruded feeds exhibit an improved starch digestibility and are more firmly bound due to the almost complete gelatinization of the starch. This results in fewer fines and longer water stability than pelleted feeds. Extruded pellets also have the advantage that they can soak up more oil than a conventional pellet. It is therefore possible to increase the maximum oil content to more than 20%. On the other hand extruding feeds is more expensive than steam pelleting. Gelatinized starch is a useful energy source in trout diets helping to reduce feed conversion ratios. Proportions up to 35-40% in the diet are tolerable. Using high dietary levels of both gelatinized starch and oil the non-protein energy of feed may be increased and thus a protein-sparing effect results. High-energy diets enable to reduce excretion of faeces and of nitrogen via gills. In addition a decrease of phosphorus level in feeds and thus of phosphorus excretion by fish is possible. Extruded high-energy diets therefore make a contribution to improve water quality.

  13. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  14. Modeling The Effect Of Extruder Screw Speed On The Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling The Effect Of Extruder Screw Speed On The Mechanical Properties Of High Density Polyethylene Blown Film. ... Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Two sets of multiple linear regression models were developed to predict impact failure weight and tenacity respectively.

  15. exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (lm6/tic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum casting alloy (LM6), and particles of (TiC) which make it the first choice in many applications like airplane and marine industries. During this research the extrudability and mechanical specifications of this composite ...

  16. Investigation of heat transfer for extruded polymers cooled in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . The temperature of still water after 1, 5 and 10 min were determined experimentally using the digital temperature sensor. The temperature gains for the water after the immersion of the extruded polymers were determined at different time intervals. In the second...

  17. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  18. Influence of extruder screws speed and process temperature on the extrudate shape changes of the maize-spelt blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Żelaziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was examination of changes in the shape factors of extruded products, which occur as a result of different settings of the extrusion process variables. Samples analysed included products created by means of the extrusion process from a mixture of spelt flour and cornmeal, with the share of spelt at 70 to 100%. The samples were made with the use of a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Two speeds of extruder screw rotation (300 and 350 rpm as well as two levels of temperature (120 and 140°C were set during the investigation. The samples obtained were photographed in a light box, following which they underwent an image analysis with the use of specialist vision software. Four shape-related factors were determined: area, elongation factor, Heywood circularity factor and compactness factor. It was determined that the product shape changed significantly depending on the share of spelt flour in the mixture. Moreover, it was observed that change in the screw rotation speed within the analysed range may cause material changes in the shape of particular extrudates.

  19. The RHIC transfer line cable database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

    1995-01-01

    A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed

  20. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  1. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.A.; Chinnaswamy, R.; Gray, D.R.; Miladinov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  2. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  3. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges Using CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Kuihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic modulus and deadweight of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP cables are different from those of steel cables. Thus, the static and dynamic behaviors of cable-stayed bridges using CFRP cables are different from those of cable-stayed bridges using steel cables. The static and dynamic performances of the two kinds of bridges with a span of 1000 m were studied using the numerical method. The effects of geometric nonlinear factors on static performance of the two kinds of cable-stayed bridges were analyzed. The live load effects and temperature effects of the two cable-stayed bridges were also analyzed. The influences of design parameters, including different structural systems, the numbers of auxiliary piers, and the space arrangement types of cable, on the dynamic performance of the cable-stayed bridge using CFRP cables were also studied. Results demonstrate that sag effect of the CFRP cable is much smaller than that of steel cable. The temperature effects of CFRP cable-stayed bridge are less than those of steel cable-stayed bridge. The vertical bending natural vibration frequency of the CFRP cable-stayed bridge is generally lower than that of steel cable-stayed bridge, whereas the torsional natural vibration frequency of the former is higher than that of the latter.

  4. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  5. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  6. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  7. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  8. OTEC riser cable model and prototype testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, J. P.; Schultz, J. A.; Roblee, L. H. S.

    1981-12-01

    Two different OTEC riser cables have been developed to span the distance between a floating OTEC power plant and the ocean floor. The major design concerns for a riser cable in the dynamic OTEC environment are fatigue, corrosion, and electrical/mechanical aging of the cable components. The basic properties of the cable materials were studied through tests on model cables and on samples of cable materials. Full-scale prototype cables were manufactured and were tested to measure their electrical and mechanical properties and performance. The full-scale testing was culminated by the electrical/mechanical fatigue test, which exposes full-scale cables to simultaneous tension, bending and electrical loads, all in a natural seawater environment.

  9. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... material and 21/2 inches of conductor insulation. The type, amperage, voltage rating, and construction of...

  10. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  11. Characteristics of hydrostatically extruded Zr-2.5Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie, Z.; Jiaqi, D.; Tieqi, Y.; Wenxian, H.; Yan, L.; Yunxia, Z.; Zhenhe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrostatic extrusion is a new production technology. Zr-2.5Nb alloy tubes cold hydrostatically extruded possess excellent mechanical properties similar to heat-treated tubes and better than cold-worked tubes. Examination by transmission electron microscope shows that the alloy is of a uniform cell substructure containing the (α + β) phases, which is one of important factors improving properties of the alloy. The study of texture, stress, and reorientation of the hydride shows that hydrostatically extruded tubes with basal plane normals in the radial direction have obviously higher hydride reorientation threshold stress than tubes with basal plane normals in the circumferential direction. Moreover, investigation of fracture toughness reveals that hydride distributed perpendicular to the crack propagation direction restrains further propagation of the crack. It is favorable for preserving the fracture resistance of the material

  12. Active optical cable for intrasatellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, J.; Cano, D.; Navasquillo, O.; Esteban, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    DAS Photonics and Airbus Defence and Space (Spain) have been working for more than six years in the concept of an Active Optical Cable (AOC) for copper cable substitution. The main advantages that AOC offers are significant mass and size saving, better flexibility and routing of the cable and immunity to EMI.

  13. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  14. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  15. Comparison of Extruder Systems for 3D Printer Filament Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has grown in popularity over the past thirty years, due to its versatility, short design to product cycle, and capability to fabricate complex geometries, which cannot otherwise be produced. There exist several platforms that are able to print objects composed of different materials, making this technology significant in different fields such as: automotive, aerospace, medical, electronics, amongst others. Though several types of AM technologies are available, the expiration of the patents on fused deposition modeling (FDM) in 2009 has led to a widespread use of this platform in academia and home use settings. Widespread use of FDM-type AM platforms has led to a demand to fabricate feedstock materials for this AM platform. Particularly, in the home do it yourself (DIY) community there has been a widespread interest for users to manufacture their own feedstock filament leading to a large growth in home-use extrusion systems. The low cost of these desktop-grade systems has also made them attractive to academics, but there has not been a widespread effort into determining the efficacy of these small scale extrusion systems as compared to industrial quality extruders which are typically used to manufacture feedstock for FDM platforms. The aim of this study was to compare two extrusion processes: 1) a desktop grade single-screw extruder; and 2) an industrial scale twin-screw extruder. In order to understand differences between their performance and quality of mixing, a rubberized blend of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) mixed with styrene ethylene butylene styrene with a maleic anhydride graft (SEBS-g-MA) at different ratios was compounded on each extrusion system. Melt flow index, and mechanical properties were compared. In addition, a raster pattern sensitivity study was performed to evaluate the effect of the extruder system on 3D printed objects. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces

  16. Extrudability and Consolidation of Blends between CGM and DDGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. R. Verbeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the global biofuels industry has experienced exponential growth. By-products such as high protein corn gluten meal (CGM and high fibre distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS have grown in parallel. CGM has been shown to be suitable as a biopolymer; the high fibre content of DDGS reduces its effectiveness, although it is considerably cheaper. In this study, the processing behaviour of CGM and DDGS blends was evaluated and resulting extrudate properties were determined. Prior to processing, urea was used as a denaturant. DDGS : CGM ratios of 0, 33, 50, 66, and 100% were processed in a single screw extruder, which solely used dissipative heating. Blends containing DDGS were less uniformly consolidated and resulted in more dissipative heating. Blends showed multiple glass transitions, which is characteristic of mechanically compatible blends. Transmission electron microscopy revealed phase separation on a microscale, although distinct CGM or DDGS phases could not be identified. On a macroscale, optical microscopy suggested that CGM-rich blends were better consolidated, supported by visual observations of a more continuous extrudate formed during extrusion. Future work should aim to also characterize the mechanical properties of these blends to assess their suitability as either bioplastic feedstock or pelletized livestock feed.

  17. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  18. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  19. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  20. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  1. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  2. Modelling of long High Voltage AC Cables in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    : conductor-insulation (with or without SC layers)-conductor-insulation(-conductor-insulation), whereas a transmission line single core XLPE cable will normally have the configuration: conductor-SC layerinsulation-SC layer-conductor-SC layer-conductor-insulation. Furthermore the existing cable models use......, EMTDC/PSCAD is provided. A typical HV AC underground power cable is formed by 4 main layers, namely; Conductor-Insulation-Screen-Insulation. In addition to these main layers, the cable also has semiconductive screens, swelling tapes and metal foil. For high frequency modelling in EMT-based software......-SC layer-solid hollow conductor) is implemented in the model. These improvements result in a more correct series impedance and hence a more correct damping of the simulations. Even though the series impedance is more correct, it does still not include the proximity effect and high frequency oscillations...

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Hot-Melt Extruded Patient-Centric Ketoprofen Mini-Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Almutairy, Bjad K; Tiwari, Roshan V; Morott, Joseph T; Alshehri, Sultan M; Feng, Xin; Alsulays, Bader B; Park, Jun-Bom; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Bitter tasting drugs represent a large portion of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Mini-tablets are specifically designed for patients with difficulty in swallowing particular in young children up to 10 years of age, geriatric patients and patients with esophagitis. The present study was aimed to prepare, taste-masked mini-tablets, which are easily swallowed dosage forms, primarily to be used by pediatric and geriatric patients. Ketoprofen (10%-50% w/w) and Eudragit® EPO were blended and extruded with a 5-mm strand die and cut into consistent mini-tablets by using an adapted downstream pelletizer. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy-hot stage microscopy studies confirmed that the binary mixtures were miscible under the employed extrusion temperatures. In-vitro release studies showed that drug release was less than 0.5% within the first 2 min in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and more than 90% in the first 20 min in gastric media (pH 1.0). The results of the electronic tongue analysis were well correlated with the drug release profile of the mini-tablets in the artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no cracks on the surface of the minitablets, confirming that the mini-tablets were compact solids. Chemical imaging confirmed the uniform distribution of ketoprofen inside the polymer matrices. Eudragit® EPO containing ketoprofen at various drug loads were successfully melt extruded into tastedmasked mini-tablets. The reduced drug release at salivary pH correlated well with Astree e-Tongue studies for taste masking efficiency.

  4. Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches to Explore Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Soluplus on the Crystallization Inhibition and Dissolution of Felodipine Extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiali; Chen, Yuqi; Huang, Wencong; Wang, Hanning; Du, Yang; Xiong, Subin

    2018-05-05

    The objectives of this study were to explore sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Soluplus on the crystallization inhibition and dissolution of felodipine (FLDP) extrudates by bottom-up and top-down approaches. FLDP extrudates with Soluplus and/or SDS were prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME), and characterized by PLM, DSC and FT-IR. Results indicated that Soluplus inhibited FLDP crystallization and the whole amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) were binary FLDP-Soluplus (1:3) and ternary FLDP-Soluplus-SDS(1:2:0.15∼0.3 and 1:3:0.2∼0.4) extrudates. Internal SDS (5%-10%) decreased Tgs of FLDP-Soluplus-SDS ternary ASDs without presenting molecular interactions with FLDP or Soluplus. The enhanced dissolution rate of binary or ternary Soluplus-rich ASDs in the non-sink condition of 0.05%SDS was achieved. Bottom-up approach indicated that Soluplus was a much stronger crystal inhibitor to the supersaturated FLDP in solutions than SDS. Top-down approach demonstrated that SDS enhanced the dissolution of Soluplus-rich ASDs via wettability and complexation with Soluplus to accelerate the medium uptake and erosion kinetics of extrudates, but induced FLDP recrystallization and resulted in incomplete dissolution of FLDP-rich extrudates. In conclusion, top-down approach is a promising strategy to explore the mechanisms of ASDs' dissolution, and small amount of SDS enhances the dissolution rate of polymer-rich ASDs in the non-sink condition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Succession of cable bacteria and electric currents in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2014-01-01

    conductivity, we followed a population for 53 days after exposing sulphidic sediment with initially no detectable filaments to oxygen. After 10 days, cable bacteria and electric currents were established throughout the top 15[thinsp]mm of the sediment, and after 21 days the filament density peaked with a total......][mu]m, with a general increase over time and depth, and yet they shared 16S rRNA sequence identity of >98%. Comparison of the increase in biovolume and electric current density suggested high cellular growth efficiency. While the vertical expansion of filaments continued over time and reached 30[thinsp]mm, the electric...... current density and biomass declined after 13 and 21 days, respectively. This might reflect a breakdown of short filaments as their solid sulphide sources became depleted in the top layers of the anoxic zone. In conclusion, cable bacteria combine rapid and efficient growth with oriented movement...

  6. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  7. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  8. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Study of the cooling process of an extruded aluminium profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, C.; Habraken, A.M.; Carton, M.; Lecomte-Beckers, J.

    2004-01-01

    The prediction of the final axial stresses and the residual strains of complex extruded aluminium profiles requires a good knowledge of the material behavior and of the industrial process. This paper is focused on the methods required to provide the whole set of data: material ones and process ones. Scanning differential calorimetry, dilatometry and diffusivity tests identify thermophysic material properties and hot tensile tests identify parameters of the elasto-visco-plastic Norton-Hoff law. The description of the industrial process and its simulations are described. Then a sensitivity analyzis provides the cooling key parameters causing the undesired final curvature during the industrial process

  11. Extrude Hone deburring with X-base media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1973-09-01

    Small precision mechanisms must have burr-free, sharp-edged parts to operate well. Controlling the size of burrs can lower burr removal costs and improve edge repeatability. Study results indicated that with conventional tooling approaches, Extrude Hone deburring with x-base media removes more material from the hole than desired and is less repeatable than required on precision miniature parts. With this media, the process is most applicable to precision miniature parts with burrs less than 25.4 ..mu..m thick, allowable hole size changes equal to burr thickness, and allowable hole size repeatability of +-0.2 times the actual average hole size change.

  12. Metallization of Extruded Briquettes (BREX in Midrex Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitber Bizhanov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the full-scale testing of the Extruded Briquettes (BREX as the charge components of the industrial Midrex reactor are discussed. The influence of the type of binder on the degree of metallization of BREX is analyzed. Magnesium sulfate-based binder helps to reach highest metallization degree of BREX. Mineralogical study shows the difference in the iron-silicate phase’s development as well as in the porosity change during metallization depending on the binder used.

  13. Continuous thickness control of extruded pipes with assistance of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breil, J.

    1983-06-01

    Because of economic and quality securing reasons a constant wall thickness of extruded pipes in circumference and extrusion direction is an important production aim. Therefore a microcomputer controlled system was developed, which controls die centering with electric motors. The control of wall thickness distribution; was realized with two conceptions: a dead time subjected control with a rotating on line wall thickness measuring instrument and an adaptive control with sensors in the pipe die. With a PI-algorithm excentricities of 30% of the wall thickness could be controlled below a trigger level of 2% within three dead times. (orig.) [de

  14. Comparison study of cable geometries and superconducting tape layouts for high-temperature superconductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Wurui; Shao, Tianchong; Gao, Yuanwen

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature superconductor (HTS) rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) tapes are very promising for use in high-current cables. The cable geometry and the layout of the superconducting tapes are directly related to the performance of the HTS cable. In this paper, we use numerical methods to perform a comparison study of multiple-stage twisted stacked-tape cable (TSTC) conductors to find better cable structures that can both improve the critical current and minimize the alternating current (AC) losses of the cable. The sub-cable geometry is designed to have a stair-step shape. Three superconducting tape layouts are chosen and their transport performance and AC losses are evaluated. The magnetic field and current density profiles of the cables are obtained. The results show that arrangement of the superconducting tapes from the interior towards the exterior of the cable based on their critical current values in descending order can enhance the cable's transport capacity while significantly reducing the AC losses. These results imply that cable transport capacity improvements can be achieved by arranging the superconducting tapes in a manner consistent with the electromagnetic field distribution. Through comparison of the critical currents and AC losses of four types of HTS cables, we determine the best structural choice among these cables.

  15. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. An industrial cabling machine for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

    1989-02-01

    The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs

  17. Initial tension loss in cerclage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jérémie; Émard, Maxime; Canet, Fanny; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y

    2013-10-01

    Cerclage cables, frequently used in the management of fractures and osteotomies, are associated with a high failure rate and significant loosening during surgery. This study compared the capacity to maintain tension of different types of orthopaedic cable systems. Multifilament Cobalt-Chrome (CoCr) cables with four different crimp/clamp devices (DePuy, Stryker, Zimmer and Smith&Nephew) and one non-metallic Nylon (Ny) cable from Kinamed were instrumented with a load cell to measure tension during insertion. Significant tension loss was observed with crimping for all cables (Ptensioner led to an additional unexpected tension loss (CoCr-DePuy: 18%, CoCr-Stryker: 29%, CoCr-Smith&Nephew: 33%, Ny: 46%, and CoCr-Zimmer: 52%). The simple CoCr (DePuy) cable system outperformed the more sophisticated locking devices due to its significantly better ability to prevent tension loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatigue of cable anchorage of large cable stayed bridge; Daikibo shachokyo cable teichaku kozo no hiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Matsumoto, T. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Tsukahara, H. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    Design considerations such as design schemes, the assemblage and welding of steel plates, and safety for fatigue of welded connections have to be taken for the cable anchorages of the steel cable stayed bridges. In this study, two full scale models, which have different shape of box anchorages welded to the web of the main girder, were made to investigate fatigue characteristics as well as assemblage of plate and gelding details. Finite element analyses for both test models and actual bridges here carried out to compare stress distribution. It was confirmed that the assemblage and welding of both types of box anchorage were attainable kith required quality and accuracy. According to the fatigue test, fatigue cracks originated from the weldings of the bearing plate to which the load from cable socket applied directly were caused by out-of-plane bending of the bearing plate. It was proved that the slight modifications of the details around the bearing plate resulted in sufficient fatigue strength in both types of anchorage. 1 ref., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  20. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly

  1. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  2. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee; Lee, Eun Chan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  3. Power cables now and in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanser, G

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems to be faced with the underground supply of electric power to large, urban areas and of the contributions that improvements in power cable technology will make to solving these problems. It is concluded that the increase in population densities and the rising demand for energy on the part of individual consumers bring up problems for electricity supply and thus have a direct influence on development trends in cable engineering. During the last few years the increasing capacities required in power transmission have led to the use of higher voltages and to the application of special methods of cooling for the oil-filled cable. When the technical and economic possibilities with present-day cable techniques have been exhausted, we must anticipate the introduction of new types of cable, i.e., gas-insulated cables and superconducting cables. The problems involved in power distribution are being solved successfully by resorting to larger conductor cross-sectional areas and by raising the voltage levels. The advantages of plastic cables are also being utilized on a wide scale. The requirement that there be freedom from partial discharges in plastic cables operating at medium and higher voltages is becoming increasingly more widely adopted as a new quality criterion in cable engineering. New materials from the polymer range are permitting the introduction of fittings which are easier to install and which reduce costs. Cable engineering has already, to a considerable extent, adapted itself to face future problems. Even so, there are still a large number of problems in cable engineering requiring research, development and operation.

  4. Device for guiding various diameter size cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.

    1982-01-30

    A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.

  5. Effect of Some Extrusion Variables on Rheological Properties and Physicochemical Changes of Cornmeal Extruded by Twin Screw Extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.K.; Martínez-Bustos f.; Lara h.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of extrusion variables, such as barrel temperature (100 to 170ºC), feed rate (100 to 500 g/min), feed moisture (20 to 40 g/100 g wet basis), screw speed rate (from 100 to 500 rpm), and slit die rheometer configuration (0.15 and 0.30 cm height) were studied using a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder coupled to a slit die rheometer on the rheological properties of yellow cornmeal. An increase in feed rate decreased WAI and WSI, but increased the viscosity values. The temper...

  6. Large volume syringe pump extruder for desktop 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Pusch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Syringe pump extruders are required for a wide range of 3D printing applications, including bioprinting, embedded printing, and food printing. However, the mass of the syringe becomes a major challenge for most printing platforms, requiring compromises in speed, resolution and/or volume. To address these issues, we have designed a syringe pump large volume extruder (LVE that is compatible with low-cost, open source 3D printers, and herein demonstrate its performance on a PrintrBot Simple Metal. Key aspects of the LVE include: (1 it is open source and compatible with open source hardware and software, making it inexpensive and widely accessible to the 3D printing community, (2 it utilizes a standard 60 mL syringe as its ink reservoir, effectively increasing print volume of the average bioprinter, (3 it is capable of retraction and high speed movements, and (4 it can print fluids using nozzle diameters as small as 100 μm, enabling the printing of complex shapes/objects when used in conjunction with the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH 3D printing method. Printing performance of the LVE is demonstrated by utilizing alginate as a model biomaterial ink to fabricate parametric CAD models and standard calibration objects. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D bioprinting, Embedded printing, FRESH, Soft materials extrusion

  7. Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckes, Isaac K.

    1972-01-01

    The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)

  8. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  9. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  10. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... or splices that heat or spark under load shall not be used. ...

  11. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half a cy...

  12. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  13. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and

  14. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...

  15. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  16. Parametric analysis and design of a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Orisaleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law

  17. Instrumental and sensory properties of pea protein-fortified extruded rice snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  19. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO{sub 2} as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddo, V.; Marci, G. [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Palmisano, G., E-mail: giovanni_palmisano@yahoo.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Yurdakal, S. [Kimya Boeluemue, Fen-Edebiyat Fakueltesi, Afyon Kocatepe Ueniversitesi - Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampuesue - 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L. [Sirap-Gema S.p.A. - Via Industriale, 1/3 - 25028 Verolanuova (Brescia) (Italy); Palmisano, L., E-mail: leonardo.palmisano@unipa.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO{sub 2} sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO{sub 2} as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO{sub 2} with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  20. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  1. THE MODELING OF COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS AS REACTORS FOR SINGLE-COMPONENT REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; CAPEL, JE; VANDERWAL, DJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  2. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  3. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  4. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  5. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  6. An ACLU Guide to Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powledge, Fred

    Proceeding from the hypothesis that cable television (CATV) is one of the most significant developments in modern America, this booklet examines the medium itself and then devotes special attention to the capacity of CATV to serve the First Amendment interest in diversity of expression. The opening section deals with the size and growth of cable,…

  7. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  8. Cables for nuclear power generating stations, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Asakawa, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Watanabe, Mikio; Shingo, Yoshioki.

    1981-01-01

    New inorganic material insulated flexible triaxial cables have been developed for the purpose of applying around the primary circuit of fast breeder reactor (FBR). These cables were tested at high temperature and high #betta#-ray radiation environment, and they showed good electrical properties. Other noted results were that they showed good fire proof and flame resistant properties. (author)

  9. Cable Television and Educational Access: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lee R.; Greene, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the possible impact of recent federal legislation on educational utilization of cable television. Stresses the importance of educators understanding the law's provisions and acting to initiate relationships with cable companies. Reviews public educational or governmental access provisions. Presents strategies for promoting reciprocity…

  10. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  11. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  13. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  14. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  15. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  16. Development of radiation resistant PEEK insulation cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Keigo; Ogiwara, Norio; Hikichi, Yusuke; Furukori, Hisayoshi; Arai, Hideyuki; Nishizawa, Daiji; Nishidono, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Material characterization and development has been carried out for cable insulation suitable for use in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. In spite of its high cost, PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) has emerged as the leading candidate satisfying requirements of being non-halogen based, highly incombustible and with radiation resistant at least 10 MGy, along with the usual mechanical characteristics such as good elongation at break, which are needed in a cable insulation. Gamma-ray irradiation tests have been done in order to study radiation resistance of PEEK cable. Further, mechanical, electrical and fire retardant characteristics of a complete cable such as would be used at the J-PARC RCS were investigated. As a result, PEEK cables were shown to be not degraded by radiation up to at least 10 MGy, and thus could be expected to operate stably under the 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. (author)

  17. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    to the structural codes with data derived from a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Findings – Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. Originality......Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...... in most national building regulations. The paper aims to present a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the loss of loadbearing capacity of hollow-core slabs when exposed to fire. Design/methodology/approach – Furthermore, it compares theoretica calculation and assessment according...

  19. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...... a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. For the first time the mechanisms responsible for loss of load......-bearing capacity are identified and test results and calculation approach are for the first time Applied in accordance with each other for assessment of fire resistance of the structure....

  20. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A model for evaluating the flow rate of an extruder for plastic recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, S.A.; Popoola, I.O.

    2007-01-01

    For several years, Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) from packaging, newspapers, batteries, furniture, metals, clothing's, bottles, and food scraps have contributed negatively to the increased deterioration of our environments particularly in developing countries. It has resulted in activities that threaten lives (such as disease outbreaks and severe health hazards). As a result, governments and other stakeholders in environment have considered both theoretical and practical approaches to waste control. Recycling, which has enormous benefits of reducing manufacturing cost of new products and providing employment for the populace has been chosen as a viable option. Despite the multi-disciplinary efforts involved recycling models, guidelines applicable in the design of flow rates of extruders for plastic recycling processes are missing. This gap is addressed in the current paper. This paper conceptualizes the flow rates as an input-output system in a continuous dynamic state. With a focus on the melting activity (operation section), the analysis of flow in the metering zone involves an estimation of the quantity of recycled materials that could be produced per time. The work hopefully stimulates research in an area where quantitative methodologies are sparse. (author)

  2. Fabrication and Characterizations of Hot-Melt Extruded Nanocomposites Based on Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate and Soluplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4-loaded nanocomposites (NCs were fabricated by using a hot-melt extruder (HME system. Soluplus (SP was adopted as an amphiphilic polymer matrix for HME processing. The micro-size of ZnSO4 dispersion was reduced to nano-size by HME processing with the use of SP. ZnSO4 could be homogeneously dispersed in SP through HME processing. ZnSO4/SP NCs with a 75 nm mean diameter, a 0.1 polydispersity index, and a −1 mV zeta potential value were prepared. The physicochemical properties of ZnSO4/SP NCs and the existence of SP in ZnSO4/SP NCs were further investigated by solid-state studies. Nano-size range of ZnSO4/SP NC dispersion was maintained in the simulated gastrointestinal environments (pH 1.2 and 6.8 media. No severe toxicity in intestinal epithelium after oral administration of ZnSO4/SP NCs (at 100 mg/kg dose of ZnSO4, single dosing was observed in rats. These results imply that developed ZnSO4/SP NC can be used as a promising nano-sized zinc supplement formulation. In addition, developed HME technology can be widely applied to fabricate nanoformulations of inorganic materials.

  3. Characterization of Extruded Poly(lactic acid/Pecan Nutshell Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Álvarez-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pecan nutshells are a solid form of waste obtained from the pecan nut production and they have been explored as an inexpensive filler for incorporation by melt blending into the poly(lactic acid (PLA matrix. The pecan nutshells contain polyphenols, proteins, tannins, sugars, and lipids; some of these components must be released in order to improve adhesion with a polymeric matrix. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded biocomposites of pecan nutshell powder (PNSP at 0, 5, and 7.5% wt. with two treatments (untreated and defatted into PLA is presented in this work. The incorporation of PNSP into the PLA matrix caused a variation in color and density and increased the water absorption. However, some mechanical and thermal parameters of the biocomposites showed a significant decrease. The morphological analysis showed good dispersion and adhesion of the PNSP to the PLA matrix. Based on the results of the characterization, biocomposites formulated with defatted PNSP have a potential to be used as sustainable fillers in PLA biocomposites. These biocomposites have a potential application as food containers, packaging trays, or disposable items.

  4. Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of TIG Hardfaced Dispersive Layer by Reinforced with Particles Extruded Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dimitrova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the implemented technology for generation of hardfaced dispersive layers obtained by additive material containing reinforcing phase of non-metal particles. The wear resistant coatings are deposited on pure aluminium metal matrix by shielded gas metal-arc welding applying tungsten inert gas (TIG with extruded aluminium wire reinforced by particles as additive material. Wire filler is produced by extrusion of a pack containing metalized and plated by flux micro/nano SiC particles. The metalized particles implanting in the metal matrix and its dispersive hardfacing are realized by solid-state welding under conditions of hot plastic deformation. Tribological characteristics are studied of the hardfaced layers of dispersive reinforced material on pure aluminium metal matrix with and without flux. Hardness profiles of the hardfaced layers are determined by nanoindentation. The surface layers are studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Increase by 15-31 % of the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers and 30-40 % of their hardness was found, which is due to the implanted in the layer reinforcing phase of metalized micro/nano SiC particles.

  5. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Physical degradation assessment of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonkus, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary studies of fossil-fired and nuclear generator station cables indicate that the low voltage PVC insulated cables are in relatively good condition. The insulation is flexible and in the case of nuclear cables can withstand a design basis event after nearly 15 years of service. Cables insulated with styrene butadiene rubber have been found embrittled and cables insulated with SBR should be closely inspected in any plant assurance program. Thermal analysis using oxidative induction technique shows promise to indicate cable insulation degradation. Long term reliability assurance and plant life extension studies are being actively pursued at Ontario Hydro. A major study is currently underway to extend the life of the oldest operating fossil-fuel station, the 8-unit, 2400 MW Lakeview TGS in operation since the 1960s. Plant life assurance programs have been initiated at the 2000 MW Lambton TGS in operation since 1969, and for the oldest operating nuclear plant, Pickering NGS A in operation since the early 1970s. As cables are considered one of the critical components in a generator station due to the extreme difficulty and cost of cable replacement, test programs have been initiated to evaluate the physical degradation of the cables and relate the results to electrical diagnostic tests and to chemical changes. The decommissioning of two small nuclear stations, the 20 MW Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) and the 200 MW Douglas Point NGS, which were placed in service in 1962 and 1967 respectively, will provide an opportunity to perform destructive electrical and physical evaluation on field aged cables

  7. Harmonizing power cables and power lines. Harmonisierung der Starkstromkabel und -leitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinhold, L [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.); Retzlaff, E; Warner, A [Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-01-01

    The article gives a summarizing view of the present level of harmonization in the field of power cables and lines. Special attention is paid to problems referring to using harmonized designs for flexible lines and using lines for solid layout with PVC and rubber insulation in the German standards DIN 57281/VDE 0281 and DIN 57282/VDE 0282 and problems of taking the types used until today out of use. A general view of the power lines fully harmonized is given and a harmonization-labelling (common labelling) for cables and lines is described.

  8. Wind-induced cable vibrations and countermeasures of cables of PC cable-stayed bridge. PC syachokyo keburu no kaze ni yoru shindo to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    In recent years, long span of cable-stayed bridges is remarkable. The wind-induced cable vibration called as line vibration and wake galloping was given as an important problem not only in the steel cable-stayed bridges but also in the PC cable-stayed bridges. The technical engineers in design of the cable-stayed bridges have many times to confront the problems on the vibration control of cables, it is considered that sufficient understand of the wind-induced vibration and countermeasures for cables of the PC cable-stayed bridges is necessary. Many reports on the countermeasure examples and trend of vibration control centred on cables of the cable-stayed bridges have been published. In this paper, the wind-induced vibration of cables in the cable-stayed bridges was reviewed, the examples of countermeasures of vibration control on cables in the PC cable-stayed bridges was mainly introduced. The remaining tasks and future prospects on vibration control of the PC cable-stayed bridges were described. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: an ex vivo comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2008-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( PProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05). Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05). The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( PProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  10. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature.

  11. Comparative study of the methane and methanol mass transfer in the mesoporous H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst pellet was prepared using extrusion method. The as-prepared mesoporous material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption, IR, XRD, and TEM methods. Transport of methane and methanol in the obtained H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded grain was studied. We demonstrate that the methanol transport may be described by the time-fractional diffusion equation in a fairly good manner. The measured value of the fractional order of the time-fractional derivative reveals the fast super-diffusive regime of the methanol transport in the mesoporous solid. Contrary, the methane transport has been found to follow a standard diffusion and described by the second Fick's law. These findings show that mass transfer kinetics is characterized by the order of the temporal derivative. The latter is a unique property of the individual porous media and the diffusing agent.

  12. Comparative study of the methane and methanol mass transfer in the mesoporous H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-07-01

    H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst pellet was prepared using extrusion method. The as-prepared mesoporous material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption, IR, XRD, and TEM methods. Transport of methane and methanol in the obtained H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded grain was studied. We demonstrate that the methanol transport may be described by the time-fractional diffusion equation in a fairly good manner. The measured value of the fractional order of the time-fractional derivative reveals the fast super-diffusive regime of the methanol transport in the mesoporous solid. Contrary, the methane transport has been found to follow a standard diffusion and described by the second Fick's law. These findings show that mass transfer kinetics is characterized by the order of the temporal derivative. The latter is a unique property of the individual porous media and the diffusing agent.

  13. Effect of Some Extrusion Variables on Rheological Properties and Physicochemical Changes of Cornmeal Extruded by Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Y.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion variables, such as barrel temperature (100 to 170ºC, feed rate (100 to 500 g/min, feed moisture (20 to 40 g/100 g wet basis, screw speed rate (from 100 to 500 rpm, and slit die rheometer configuration (0.15 and 0.30 cm height were studied using a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder coupled to a slit die rheometer on the rheological properties of yellow cornmeal. An increase in feed rate decreased WAI and WSI, but increased the viscosity values. The temperature interacts strongly with screw speed in affecting the WSI. The most important factor in starch degradation was the screw speed. Increasing the screw speed completely modifies the organised structure of starch (crystalline region.

  14. Simulation of the cabling process for Rutherford cables: An advanced finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, J.; Garlasche, M.; Bordini, B.; Dallocchio, A.

    2016-12-01

    In all existing large particle accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) the main superconducting magnets are based on Rutherford cables, which are characterized by having: strands fully transposed with respect to the magnetic field, a significant compaction that assures a large engineering critical current density and a geometry that allows efficient winding of the coils. The Nb3Sn magnets developed in the framework of the HL-LHC project for improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are also based on Rutherford cables. Due to the characteristics of Nb3Sn wires, the cabling process has become a crucial step in the magnet manufacturing. During cabling the wires experience large plastic deformations that strongly modify the geometrical dimensions of the sub-elements constituting the superconducting strand. These deformations are particularly severe on the cable edges and can result in a significant reduction of the cable critical current as well as of the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. In order to understand the main parameters that rule the cabling process and their impact on the cable performance, CERN has developed a 3D Finite Element (FE) model based on the LS-Dyna® software that simulates the whole cabling process. In the paper the model is presented together with a comparison between experimental and numerical results for a copper cable produced at CERN.

  15. Non-cable vehicle guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugela, G.C.; Willott, A.M.; Chopiuk, R.G.; Thornton, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose is to determine the most promising driverless mine vehicle guidance systems that are not dependent on buried cables, and to plan their development. The project is presented in two phases: a preliminary study and literature review to determine whether suitable technologies exist to justify further work; and an in-depth assessment and selection of technologies for vehicle guidance. A large number of guidance elements are involved in a completely automated vehicle. The technologies that hold the best potential for development of guidance systems for mine vehicles are ultrasonics, radar, lasers, dead reckoning, and guidance algorithms. The best approach to adaptation of these technologies is on a step by step basis. Guidance modules that are complete in themselves and are designed to be integrated with other modules can provide short term benefits. Two modules are selected for development: the dragline operations monitor and automated machine control for optimized mining (AMCOM). 99 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Study of Dynamic Flow and Mixing Performances of Tri-Screw Extruders with Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    X. Z. Zhu; G. Wang; Y. D. He; Z. F. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    There is a special circumfluence in the center region of cross-section for a tri-screw extruder. To study the effect of the dynamic center region on the flow and mixing mechanism of the tri-screw extruder, 2D finite element modeling was used to reduce the axial effects. Based on the particle tracking technology, the nonlinear dynamics of a typical particle motions in the center region was carried out and the mixing process in the tri-screw extruder was analyzed with Poincaré maps. Moreover, m...

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Amber; Felix, Larry; Farthing, William

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass was conducted continuously in a TSE-based reactor system. • The fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system produces hydrochar in higher yields than a batch reactor system. • Severity factor (SF) is a useful metric for characterizing reaction conditions in different reactor systems. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has become an accepted means of converting a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into solid hydrochars, which have improved physical and chemical properties compared to raw biomass. To date, HTC applications have involved batch or semi-continuous process systems, which has limited their economic viability. The work presented here describes a fully-continuous HTC process, made possible by use of a specially modified twin-screw extruder (TSE). The reaction time within this fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system is very short (20–30 sec) as compared to a typical batch reactor. Therefore, the concept of reaction ‘severity factor’ is used when comparing the FHTC products with those produced in other reactor systems. While solid hydrochar produced in the FHTC system has different physical properties than hydrochar from batch reactor systems, these materials exhibit similar energy densification and pelletization behavior, when produced under comparable severity conditions. However, total hydrochar yields are considerably higher from the FHTC reactor compared to batch reactor systems. This is a consequence of the de-pressurization process in the FHTC system, whereby most water-soluble organic products are retained in the hydrochar, rather than exiting the process in a separate aqueous product stream. FHTC treatment of loblolly pine at a severity factor of 5.3 (290 °C) produced a hydrochar yield of nearly 85% (based on dry feedstock mass). Condensation of the flashed vapor products provided a relatively clean water stream, containing only 1.2% organics – primarily furfural and acetic acid

  18. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  19. Neutron detector with gamma compensated cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention describes a technique for essentially eliminating the radiation induced background currents that are generated in the cable that connects an ''in-core'' neutron detector to an electrical terminal that is outside of the reactor's radiation field. This undesirable radiation-induced cable current is suppressed through an appropriate selection of conductor and cable sheath materials and sizes that generally satisfy the equation: Z/sub l/sup n/d/sub l/ = Z/sub s/sup m/d/sub s/ where Z is the atomic number of the material; d is a characteristic of the size of the cable component; m and/n have values between 1 and 5 to express the electron emissivity of the cable component from photoelectric and Compton effects; l represents the conductor; and s represents the sheath. Thus, the radiation-generated electrons emitted from the conductor and the oppositely-directed electrons emitted from the inner surface of the cable sheath are mutually cancelled if this equation is satisfied. A typical cable that does meet this criterion at low temperatures has a centrally disposed Zircaloy-2 inner conductor of 0.011 inch diameter, an annular insulation of magnesium oxide powder compacted to 100 percent density, and an Inconel sheath with an outside diameter of 0.062 inch and 0.011 inch wall thickness. (auth)

  20. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  1. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-5 Cable installation. (a) Each cable installation must meet... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable installation. 111.60-5 Section 111.60-5 Shipping... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), including clause 8. (b) Each cable installation made in...

  2. TMI cable tracer operation and maintenance manual for assembly 417910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumstine, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    This manual provides technical information and instructions to operate and maintain the cable tracer designed for the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 Reactor Building. The TMI cable tracer was developed to allow TMI personnel to trace cables in cable trays that may be tested or sectioned for destructive examination

  3. Electrical cabling system associated at a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejeux, P.; Desfontaines, G.

    1988-01-01

    This cabling system for an electrical device in a nuclear reactor comprises at least a first cable issued of the device, a second cable comprising a first portion, a second portion and a third portion joining the second by a multiple quick fitting connector capable to connect at least ten second portions at ten other third portions of the second cable [fr

  4. Choice Of Computer Networking Cables And Their Effect On Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer networking is the order of the day in this Information and Communication Technology (ICT) age. Although a network can be through a wireless device most local connections are done using cables. There are three main computer-networking cables namely coaxial cable, unshielded twisted pair cable and the optic ...

  5. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  6. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  8. Extruded Tunnel Lining System : Phase 1. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    The Extruded Tunnel Lining System (ETLS) has been conceived as a means of continuously placing the final concrete tunnel lining directly behind a tunnel boring machine. The system will shorten the time required to excavate and line a tunnel section, ...

  9. Physical and functional characteristics of extrudates prepared from fenugreek and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP and oat flour (OF on the physical and functional properties of extruded snack product such as bulk density (BD, hardness (HD, lateral expansion (LE, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI using response surface methodology. All the properties were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 affected by proportion of FSP and OF. Results indicated that with the increase in the FSP content, an increase in the values of BD, HD, WAI and WSI was noticed, whereas negative effect of FSP on LE was observed. Results showed negative effect of OF on HD and WSI and an increased effect on BD, LE and WAI of the extruded product. Numerical optimization results showed that a mixture of 2% FSP and 6% OF had higher preference levels for parameters of physical and functional characteristics and could be extruded to produce acceptable quality extrudates.

  10. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  11. On the Minimum Cable Tensions for the Cable-Based Parallel Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the minimum cable tension distributions in the workspace for cable-based parallel robots to find out more information on the stability. First, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel robot is derived based on the wrench matrix. Then, a noniterative polynomial-based optimization algorithm with the proper optimal objective function is presented based on the convex optimization theory, in which the minimum cable tension at any pose is determined. Additionally, three performance indices are proposed to show the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in a specified region of the workspace. An important thing is that the three performance indices can be used to evaluate the stability of the cable-based parallel robots. Furthermore, a new workspace, the Specified Minimum Cable Tension Workspace (SMCTW, is introduced, within which all the minimum tensions exceed a specified value, therefore meeting the specified stability requirement. Finally, a camera robot parallel driven by four cables for aerial panoramic photographing is selected to illustrate the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in the workspace and the relationship between the three performance indices and the stability.

  12. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-nan; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ko, J M; Ni, Y Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  13. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -5......°C may lead to large amplitude vibrations of bridge cables under wind action. For the prediction of aerodynamic instability quasi-steady models have been developed estimating the cable response magnitude based on structural properties and aerodynamic force coefficients for drag, lift and torsion...... forces of different bridge cables types. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate incloud icing conditions....

  14. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable... manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges for the...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a... of cleaning manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and...

  16. Chinese Market for Fibres and Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of Chinese market of optical fibres and cables based on the development of the optical communications industry. Analysis shows that the market will keep growing for sometime in the future.

  17. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  18. Torsion instability of Dynamic Cables during Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Opgård, Marie Finstad

    2017-01-01

    The oil and gas industry today is a heavily regulated segment, and current standard hasestablished restrictions which yields a very limited weather window for offshore cable installations. This is due to experience with cable failure in harsh weather. A limiting factor in current practice is the design criterion for the minimum allowable radius of curvature in the touchdown point. In addition, current practice does not allow for occurrence of compression in the touch down zone...

  19. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  20. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    influence the losses. Secondly, cable parameters such as component impedances, positive-, zero-sequence impedances and losses are measured for varying currents and frequencies. Zero sequence is measured for two setups, one with armour grounded, and with armour open to match CIGREs formula assumption......-sequence impedance is found between the measurements and the CIGRÉ formulas. It is concluded that the formulas are not accurate for the specific cable under test....

  2. Polyethylene as a possible hvdc cable insulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.G.; Body, R.S.; Mason, J.H.

    1966-10-01

    Many cable authorities have expressed the view that polyethylene would be attractive for this application. The dc conductivity of polyethylene is lower than that of impregnated paper, and varies less with temperature and stress. Polyethylene also has higher thermal conductivity and is resistant to moisture and electrochemical deterioration. Furthermore, processing polyethylene cables should ultimately involve lower capital and manufacturing costs. However, polyethylene has a lower limiting short circuit temperature unless it is cross linked.

  3. Impact of polymer type on bioperformance and physical stability of hot melt extruded formulations of a poorly water soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amitava; Li, Li; Marsac, Patrick; Marks, Brian; Liu, Zhen; Brown, Chad

    2016-05-30

    Amorphous solid dispersion formulations have been widely used to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In these formulations, polymer is included to physically stabilize the amorphous drug by dispersing it in the polymeric carrier and thus forming a solid solution. The polymer can also maintain supersaturation and promote speciation during dissolution, thus enabling better absorption as compared to crystalline drug substance. In this paper, we report the use of hot melt extrusion (HME) to develop amorphous formulations of a poorly soluble compound (FaSSIF solubility=1μg/mL). The poor solubility of the compound and high dose (300mg) necessitated the use of amorphous formulation to achieve adequate bioperformance. The effect of using three different polymers (HPMCAS-HF, HPMCAS-LF and copovidone), on the dissolution, physical stability, and bioperformance of the formulations was demonstrated. In this particular case, HPMCAS-HF containing HME provided the highest bioavailability and also had better physical stability as compared to extrudates using HPMCAS-LF and copovidone. The data demonstrated that the polymer type can have significant impact on the formulation bioperformance and physical stability. Thus a thorough understanding of the polymer choice is imperative when designing an amorphous solid dispersion formulation, such that the formulation provides robust bioperformance and has adequate shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The interrupted properties of an extruded Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Liu, Tianmo; He, Jiejun; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} twins on yield stress is reflected at low deformation. ► The recompressive yield stress equals to the stress when it is unloaded. ► The stress–strain curve of recompression seems like that without interruption. ► Twins generated in precompression could become thicker in recompression. -- Abstract: The current paper investigates the effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins identified by using electron backscattered diffraction on the interrupted properties of an extruded Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31) alloy. Compressive and recompressive tests are conducted along extrusion direction (ED). It is discovered that the yield strength of recompression is enhanced due to grain refinement by {101 ¯ 2} extension twins. The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins on the yield stress of recompression is mainly reflected at the stage of small deformation while the improvement of yield strength is mainly attributed to the pile-up and intersection of dislocations as large deformation occurs. Furthermore, the yield stress of recompression is identical to the interrupted stress of precompression. In situ observation reveals that some twins generated in precompression could also become thicker in the following recompression.

  5. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  6. Additives for high-load extruders; Additivsysteme fuer hochbelastete Spritzgussmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletschinger, M.; Brand, F. [Ciba Speciality Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The requirement for tight sealing of hydraulic systems, such as between the moving cylinders and the seals in extruders, has led to the development of new technologies in particular with respect to the sealing materials. Today PTFE/bronze (Poly-Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene/embedded bronze powder) seals are widely used for these applications, which require in addition reliability and long seal life. Needs to replace environmentally problematic hydraulic fluids based on ZnDTP has gained momentum and therefore new lubricants have also been evaluated for these hydraulic systems. The well-known seal manufacturer Busak + Shamban observed axial tiny scratches in the contact area cylinder-seal on the metal surface when replacing ZnDTP based with Zn-free lubricants. ''Micro-scratching'' refers to this phenomenon, which ultimately leads to fluid leakage thus reducing the efficiency of the hydraulic systems. A first assumption was that this problem is associated with the additive technology. A subsequent root cause analysis clearly showed that this preliminary hypothesis was incorrect. An in depth investigation showed that the phenomenon occurs when the load carrying capacity of the lubricant is insufficient and is not associated with the lubricant additive technology (Zn-free vs. Zn-containing). The load carrying capacity is predominantly determined by the selection of the correct lubricant viscosity and by its appropriate wear inhibition system. In this work it could be demonstrated that there are also Zn-free lubricants available which meet all these requirements. (orig.)

  7. The analysis of cable forces based on natural frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Juliastuti; Bontan, Darwin Julius

    2017-12-01

    A cable is a flexible structural member that is effective at resisting tensile forces. Cables are used in a variety of structures that employ their unique characteristics to create efficient design tension members. The condition of the cable forces in the cable supported structure is an important indication of judging whether the structure is in good condition. Several methods have been developed to measure on site cable forces. Vibration technique using correlation between natural frequency and cable forces is a simple method to determine in situ cable forces, however the method need accurate information on the boundary condition, cable mass, and cable length. The natural frequency of the cable is determined using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Technique to the acceleration record of the cable. Based on the natural frequency obtained, the cable forces then can be determine by analytical or by finite element program. This research is focus on the vibration techniques to determine the cable forces, to understand the physical parameter effect of the cable and also modelling techniques to the natural frequency and cable forces.

  8. Structural behavior of cable superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Marston, P.

    1983-01-01

    The structural properties of cable superconductor coils, for particle accelerators such as the Tevatron and the CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator), depend upon direction of loading. For compression perpendicular to the ''flat faces'' of the conductor, the coils exhibit nonlinear, inelastic and time dependent behavior. The same is true for ''inplane'' compression loading perpendicular to the conductor edges. In the lengthwise direction, the coils display tension and compression stress-strain curves typical of structural metals. The loading of primary concern is compression perpendicular to the conductor faces since deformations in that direction can have a major influence on magnetic field quality. However, the coil behavior under that condition is uncertain because of the nonlinear stress strain curve complicated by creep and relaxation at the stress levels induced by preloading and Lorentz forces. Furthermore, the stiffness of the loading fixture appears to influence the data as shown by results from tests run under different conditions at Berkeley, Brookhaven and MIT. The paper displays test data on stress-strain curves for all three loading directions. Results are presented for RT, 77 K and 4 K behavior. Data of various investigators are compared. The applicability of a relatively simple power law between stress and strain is depicted

  9. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  10. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  11. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  12. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hua; Chen Miao; Chen Tao

    2012-01-01

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  13. Cable condition monitoring in a pressurized water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussaini, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Oconee Nuclear Station is the first nuclear plant designed, engineered and constructed by Duke Power Company. Even though the accelerated aging method was available to determine the life expectancy of the cable used in the reactor building, no natural aging data was available at that time. In order to be able to verify the condition of the reactor building cable over the life of the plant, an on-going cable monitoring plan was instituted. Various types of cable were selected to be monitored, and they were installed in cable life evaluation circuits in the reactor building. At five year intervals over the life of the plant, cable samples would be removed from these cable life evaluation circuits and tested to determine the effects of the reactor building environment on the integrity of the cable. A review of the cable life evaluation circuits and the results of the evaluation program to date is presented

  14. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  15. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  16. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  17. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  18. A desktop 3D printer with dual extruders to produce customised electronic circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Javaid; Onimowo, Dominic Adaoiza; Gohrabian, Mohammed; Sharma, Tinku; Shirvani, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    3D printing has opened new horizons for the manufacturing industry in general, and 3D printers have become the tools for technological advancements. There is a huge divide between the pricing of industrial and desktop 3D printers with the former being on the expensive side capable of producing excellent quality products and latter being on the low-cost side with moderate quality results. However, there is a larger room for improvements and enhancements for the desktop systems as compared to the industrial ones. In this paper, a desktop 3D printer called Prusa Mendel i2 has been modified and integrated with an additional extruder so that the system can work with dual extruders and produce bespoke electronic circuits. The communication between the two extruders has been established by making use of the In-Chip Serial Programming port on the Arduino Uno controlling the printer. The biggest challenge is to control the flow of electric paint (to be dispensed by the new extruder) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis has been carried out to ascertain the optimal conditions for proper dispensing. The final product is a customised electronic circuit with the base of plastic (from the 3D printer's extruder) and electronic paint (from the additional extruder) properly dispensed to create a live circuit on a plastic platform. This low-cost enhancement to a desktop 3D printer can provide a new prospect to produce multiple material parts where the additional extruder can be filled with any material that can be properly dispensed from its nozzle.

  19. Effects of extrusion variables on the properties of waxy hulless barley extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksel, Hamit; Ryu, Gy-Hyung; Başman, Arzu; Demiralp, Hande; Ng, Perry K W

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the extrudability of waxy hulless barley flour under various extrusion conditions. Waxy hulless barley flour was processed in a laboratory-scale corotating twin-screw extruder with different levels of feed moisture content (22.3, 26.8, and 30.7%) and die temperature (130, 150, and 170 degrees C) to develop a snack food with high beta-glucan content. The effects of extrusion condition variables (screw configuration, moisture, and temperature) on the system variables (pressure and specific mechanical energy), the extrudate physical properties (sectional expansion index, bulk density), starch gelatinization, pasting properties (cold peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity), and beta-glucan contents were determined. Results were evaluated by using response surface methodology. Increased extrusion temperature and feed moisture content resulted in decreases in exit die pressure and specific mechanical energy values. For extrudates extruded under low shear screw configuration (LS), increased barrel temperature decreased sectional expansion index (SEI) values at both low and high moisture contents. The feed moisture seems to have an inverse relationship with SEI over the range studied. Bulk density was higher at higher moisture contents, for both low and high barrel temperatures, for samples extruded under high shear screw configuration (HS) and LS. Cold peak viscosities (CV) were observed in all samples. The CV increased with the increase in extrusion temperature and feed moisture content. Although beta-glucan contents of the LS extrudates were comparable to that of barley flour sample, HS samples had generally lower beta-glucan contents. The extrusion cooking technique seems to be promising for the production of snack foods with high beta-glucan content, especially using LS conditions.

  20. Young's moduli of cables for high field superconductive dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shunji; Shintomi, Takakazu.

    1983-01-01

    Superconductive dipole magnets for big accelerators are subjected to enormous electro-magnetic force, when they are operated with high field such as 10 Tesla. They should be constructed by means of superconductive cables, which have high Young's modulus, to obtain good performance. To develop such cables we measured the Young's moduli of cables for practical use of accelerator magnets. They are monolithic and compacted strand cables. We measured also Young's moduli of monolithic copper and brass cables for comparison. The obtained data showed the Young's moduli of 35 and 15 GPa for the monolithic and compacted strand cables, respectively. (author)

  1. CSNS control cable information management system based on web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huihui; Wang Chunhong; Li Luofeng; Liu Zhengtong; Lei Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to data modeling a great number of control devices and cables with complicated relations of CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). The CSNS accelerator control cable database was created using MySQL, and the control cable information management system based on Web was further built. During the development of the database, the design idea of IRMIS database was studied. and the actual situation of CSNS accelerator control cables was investigated. The control cable database model fitting the requirements was designed. This system is of great convenience to manage and maintain CSNS control devices and cables in the future. (authors)

  2. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces.

  3. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces

  4. NEPO cable system aging management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Cable polymer aging and condition monitoring is being studied in detail under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO) that is co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI. Significant advances in modeling of polymer aging and condition monitoring have occurred and continue to be developed. The activities include: Analysis of the linearity of the Arrhenius model to room temperature; Development of a wear-out technique for determining remaining life of cable polymers; Determination of the aging fragility point for composite EPR/CSPE insulation with respect to LOCA function; Development of visual/tactile training aids for cable assessment; Development of a totally new nuclear magnetic resonance condition monitoring technique; Assessment of existing techniques with regard to repeatability, accuracy and ease of use. Through use of highly precise oxygen consumption experiments, the linearity of the Arrhenius model is being evaluated. In these experiments, polymer is placed in vials with a known amount of oxygen and aged at much lower temperatures than is possible with standard accelerated aging techniques. aging results are possible at room temperature. The technique is being applied to commonly used insulation and jacket polymers. The wear-out technique allows highly non-linear aging behavior to be made linear. The wearout point of a polymer is determined through high-rate aging and use of a condition monitoring technique to establish the end point. Then, micro-samples of cable that have been naturally aged are subjected to high rate aging to the same end point. The ratio of the remaining high rate aging period to the total high rate aging time provides a linear indication of the remaining service time. Initial screening of nuclear plant cable systems can use visual/tactile techniques to identify cable that has aged significantly. Training aids have been developed by developing sets of specimens with accelerated aging ranging from none

  5. Configuration of an inelastic flexible anchored cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Dreyer

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Consider an inelastic, perfectly flexible cable with given external forces acting on the total length of the cable. The one end-point is fixed in the origin and the other end-point is anchored at a given point (a;b;c in space. The resulting configuration of the cable in space can be modelled by a system of non-linear differential equations. In this article it is shown that this continuous model of the cable can always be solved in terms of an integral. In the special case of a constant (i.e. independent of the position on the cable external force per unit length the solution is given explicitly in terms of three constants that describe the tension at the origin. These three constants are determined by the boundary values a, b and c at the other end-point, and must be calculated in general by a numerical procedure from the three resulting simultaneous non-linear equations. A few applications of this method are shown.

  6. Development of innovative superconducting DC power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru [Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    It is required to reduce the cost of superconducting cable to realize a superconducting DC power network that covers a wide area in order to utilize renewable energy. In this paper a new concept of innovative cable is introduced that can enhance the current-carrying capacity even though the same superconducting tape is used. Such a cable can be realized by designing an optimal winding structure in such a way that the angle between the tape and magnetic field becomes small. This idea was confirmed by preliminary experiments for a single layer model cable made of Bi-2223 tapes and REBCO coated conductors. Experiments of three and four layer cables of practical sizes were also done and it was found that the current-carrying capacity increased as theoretically predicted. If the critical current properties of commercial superconducting tapes are further improved in a parallel magnetic field, the enhancement will become pronounced and this technology will surely contribute to realization of superconducting DC power network.

  7. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. External heating of electrical cables and auto-ignition investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courty, L., E-mail: leo.courty@univ-orleans.fr [Univ. Orleans, PRISME EA 4229, 63 Avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); Garo, J.P. [Institut P’, UPR 3346 CNRS, ENSMA, Univ. Poitiers, 1 Av. Clément Ader, Téléport 2, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Electrical cables pyrolysis and flammability have been studied. • Two different experimental setups were used to study cables mass loss and flammability. • A 1-D thermal model for cables mass loss and temperature is proposed. • Spontaneous and piloted ignitions have been investigated. - Abstract: Electric cables are now extensively used for both residential and industrial applications. During more than twenty years, multi-scale approaches have been developed to study fire behavior of such cables that represents a serious challenge. Cables are rather complicated materials because they consist of an insulated part and jacket of polymeric materials. These polymeric materials can have various chemical structures, thicknesses and additives and generally have a char-forming tendency when exposed to heat source. In this work, two test methods are used for the characterization of cable pyrolysis and flammability. The first one permits the investigation of cable pyrolysis. A description of the cable mass loss is obtained, coupling an Arrhenius expression with a 1D thermal model of cables heating. Numerical results are successfully compared with experimental data obtained for two types of cable commonly used in French nuclear power plants. The second one is devoted to ignition investigations (spontaneous or piloted) of these cables. All these basic observations, measurements and modelling efforts are of major interest for a more comprehensive fire resistance evaluation of electric cables.

  9. External heating of electrical cables and auto-ignition investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, L.; Garo, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical cables pyrolysis and flammability have been studied. • Two different experimental setups were used to study cables mass loss and flammability. • A 1-D thermal model for cables mass loss and temperature is proposed. • Spontaneous and piloted ignitions have been investigated. - Abstract: Electric cables are now extensively used for both residential and industrial applications. During more than twenty years, multi-scale approaches have been developed to study fire behavior of such cables that represents a serious challenge. Cables are rather complicated materials because they consist of an insulated part and jacket of polymeric materials. These polymeric materials can have various chemical structures, thicknesses and additives and generally have a char-forming tendency when exposed to heat source. In this work, two test methods are used for the characterization of cable pyrolysis and flammability. The first one permits the investigation of cable pyrolysis. A description of the cable mass loss is obtained, coupling an Arrhenius expression with a 1D thermal model of cables heating. Numerical results are successfully compared with experimental data obtained for two types of cable commonly used in French nuclear power plants. The second one is devoted to ignition investigations (spontaneous or piloted) of these cables. All these basic observations, measurements and modelling efforts are of major interest for a more comprehensive fire resistance evaluation of electric cables.

  10. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  11. Numerical study of internal flow in twin screw extruder and its mixing performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Soo; Kim, Hong Bum; Lee, Jae Wook

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the non-Newtonian and non-isothermal flow in the melt conveying zone in co-rotating and counter-rotating screw extruder system with the commercial code, STAR-CD, and compared the mixing performance with respect to screw speed and rotating direction. The viscosity of fluid was described by power-law model. The dynamics of mixing was studied numerically by tracking the motion of particles in a twin screw extruder system. The extent of mixing was characterized in terms of the residence time distribution and average strain. The results showed that high screw speed decreases the residence time but increases the shear rate. Therefore higher screw speed increases the strain and has better mixing performance. Counter-rotating screw extruder system and co-rotating screw extruder has the similar shear rate with the same screw speed in spite of different rotating direction. However, the counter-rotating screw has good mixing performance, which is resulted from longer residence time than that of co-rotating screw extruder

  12. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  13. Antioxidant potential and quality characteristics of vegetable-enriched corn-based extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, G I; Lazou, A E; Panagiotou, N M; Krokida, M K; Maroulis, Z B

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of vegetable-enriched extrudates were investigated as a result of extrusion conditions, including extrusion temperature (140-180 °C), screw rotation speed (150-250 rpm) and feed moisture content (14-19 % w.b.). Broccoli flour and olive paste was used in mixtures with corn flour at a ratio of 4 to 10 % (broccoli/corn) and 4 to 8 % (olive paste/corn). A simple power model was developed for the prediction of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extrudates by extrusion conditions and feed composition. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of broccoli enriched extrudates increased with extrusion temperature and broccoli addition and decreased with feed moisture content. The antioxidant activity of olive paste extrudates increased with material ratio and decreased with feed moisture content and screw rotation. Sensory porosity, homogenous structure, crispness, cohesiveness and melting decreased with feed moisture content, while the latter increased the mealy flavor and hardness of extrudates. Acceptable snacks containing broccoli flour or olive paste can be produced by selecting the appropriate process conditions.

  14. Influence of whey protein concentrate addition on textural properties of corn flour extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture is an important propertiy of extruded snack products, and depended on extrusion process conditions, raw material properties and various ingredients properties as well. The main purpose of this research was, using twin-screw extrusion, to manufacture a direct expanded extrudate based on mixtures of corn flour and whey protein concentrate with acceptable textural properties. Mixtures were made of corn flour and three different concentrations of whey protein concentrate (7,5 %, 15 %, 22,5 %. Materials were processed in co-rotating twin-screw extruder APV Baker, MPF 50.15 under input conditions: water intake was 10,08 L/h, 12,18 L/h, 14,28 L/h, screw speed was 300 rpm; expansion temperature was 130 °C; feed rate was 70 kg/h. Textural properties: breaking strength index and expansion ratio were determined. Breaking strength index had largest value for the sample with 22,5 % of whey protein concentrate and water intake of 14,28 L/h. Sample with 7,5 % of whey protein concentrate and 10,08 L/h had largest expansion ratio. Calculated textural properties confirmed validity of samples. This results suggest that enrichment of extrudates with wpc addition up to 22,5 % to improve their nutritional value as well as their textural characteristics can be accomplished. Validation of direct expanded extrudates in dependence of its textural properties have shown validity and justification of this research.

  15. Fortification of extruded snacks with chitosan: Effects on techno functional and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, K A Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Balange, Amjad; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-08-15

    Chitosan is a dietary fibre that possesses numerous functional, technological and physiological properties useful in improving food quality. Owing to its fat absorbing ability, chitosan is widely consumed as a health supplement in the form of tablets and capsules. With a view to enhance it consumption and availability, the current work was taken up to evaluate techno-functional quality improvement of shrimp based extruded snacks fortified with chitosan. Chitosan powder at 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) level was added to the base material (corn flour and rice flour in the ratio of 70:30 and 15% Acetes powder) for extrusion. Addition of chitosan in acetes based snacks significantly reduced expansion ratio, porosity and crispiness and increased the hardness value of the product. Chitosan addition had a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the moisture retention and total protein contents of the products as well. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of chitosan fortified extrudate showed a significantly lower value than the control sample. A higher level of chitosan also resulted in colour reduction of the final product. The FTIR spectra of extrudate confirmed the stability of chitosan during extrusion conditions. The sensory score revealed that extrudate fortified with 1% chitosan was comparable to control sample. From this study it is concluded that 1% chitosan can be incorporated in Acetes based extruded snacks for an increased level of functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...... based on the current density distribution in different conductor designs by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The obtained results and methods are compared to available standards (IEC publication 60287-1-1)....

  17. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  18. Vibration isolation of cable tray hangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, B.K.; Dixon, M.W.; Jackson, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been performed to partially evaluate the feasibility of using much more flexible support systems than those presently used to support electrical and control cables in nuclear power plants. This approach, which entails introducing a flexible element between the support and the component being supported, could apply to many types of support systems, such as for piping, HVAC or even bridges. However, this paper addresses the specific case of cable tray hangers only. It was found that, for appropriate stiffness and damping characteristics, this concept could be used effectively to isolate cable trays from hanger motion caused by seismic excitation and to significantly reduce hanger loads while maintaining reasonable displacements. This was found to be true for all variations in system parameters investigated. Thus, the flexible hanger concept appears to offer much potential. However, additional study including full-scale testing and more detailed analysis must be completed before the concept can be validated for plant use

  19. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  20. Radiation techology in cable making industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourim, P.; Vokal, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electron accelerators are used in radiation cross-linking of elastomer and thermoplastic layers of cable insulation and sheathing. Another application is cross-linking of insulation bands and moulded products to achieve thermal contractibility. Ionizing radiation is used for curing insulation lacquers on winding leads. In Czechoslovakia, problems of radiation curing of silicone rubber have been studied since 1973. Instrumentation has been installed including accelerators. The feasibility has also been studied of radiation cross-linking of insulation and semiconductor cable cores of hose-type trailing cables. Polyethylene mixes have been designed and prepared which are suitable for radiation cross-linking aimed at increasing thermal resistance above 100 degC. (M.D.)

  1. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...... can be combined with other new technologies such as HVDC light transmission using isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). The network needed in a system with a substantial wind power generation has to be very strong in order to handle energy fluctuations. Such a network will be possible...

  2. Electrothermal Coordination in Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2013-01-01

    behavior of the components. The dynamic temperature calculations of power cables are suggested to be based on thermoelectric equivalents (TEEs). It is shown that the thermal behavior can be built into widely used load flow software, creating a strong ETC tool. ETC is, through two case scenarios, proven...... to be beneficial for both operator and system planner. It is shown how the thermal behavior can be monitored in real-time during normal dynamic load and during emergencies. In that way, ETC enables cables to be loaded above their normal rating, while maintaining high reliability of the system, which potentially...

  3. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  5. Modeling of Pressure Effects in HVDC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Strøbech, Esben

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities.......A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities....

  6. Analysis of Electrical Coupling Parameters in Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of current distribution and redistribution in superconducting cables requires the knowledge of the electric coupling among strands, and in particular the interstrand resistance and inductance values. In practice both parameters can have wide variations in cables commonly used such as Rutherford cables for accelerators or Cable-in-Conduits for fusion and SMES magnets. In this paper we describe a model of a multi-stage twisted cable with arbitrary geometry that can be used to study the range of interstrand resistances and inductances that is associated with variations of geometry. These variations can be due to cabling or compaction effects. To describe the variations from the nominal geometry we have adopted a cable model that resembles to the physical process of cabling and compaction. The inductance calculation part of the model is validated by comparison to semi-analytical results, showing excellent accuracy and execution speed.

  7. Manufacturing experience for the LHC inner triplet quadrupole cables

    CERN Document Server

    Scanlan, R M; Bossert, R; Kerby, J S; Ghosh, A K; Boivin, M; Roy, T

    2002-01-01

    The design for the U.S. LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole magnet requires a 37 strand (inner layer) and a 46 strand (outer layer) cable. This represents the largest number of strands attempted to date for a production quantity of Rutherford-type cable. The cable parameters were optimized during the production of a series of short prototype magnets produced at FNAL. These optimization studies focused on critical current degradation, dimensional control, coil winding, and interstrand resistance. After the R&D phase was complete, the technology was transferred to NEEW and a new cabling machine was installed to produce these cables. At present, about 60 unit lengths, out of 90 required for the entire production series of magnets, have been completed for each type of cable. The manufacturing experience with these challenging cables will be reported. Finally, the implications for even larger cables, with more strands, will be discussed. (8 refs).

  8. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  9. Device to take up slack in monorail cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the necessity to take up the slack of a monorail cable in an HBNPC mine in order to ensure good adhesion between the metal cable and the pulley. A new device has been tested with satisfactory results.

  10. Power plant cable condition monitoring and testing at Georgia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Georgia Power's Research Center has been heavily involved in the evaluation of electrical insulating materials and cables since its inception more than 17 years ago. For the past ten years that expertise has been applied to cables used in generation plants. This paper discusses the results of two test programs. The first is a quality control inspection on 169 samples of new power generation cables. The second is a material degradation evaluation on four short cable samples removed from a coal fired plant during an equipment upgrade. The new material evaluation was performed to identify the cause of a high failure rate upon initial hi-pot testing of newly installed cables. The material degradation evaluation was performed to evaluate the need for replacement of existing cables during an equipment upgrade. Results of the evaluations have led to development of a detailed proposal for a program to evaluate cable degradation and remaining life for cables used in power generation facilities

  11. Configuration Synthesis for Fully Restrained 7-Cable-Driven Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable distribution plays a vital role in Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs regarding tension and workspace quality, especially in fully restrained CDPMs. This paper focuses on three typical configurations of fully restrained CDPMs with 7 cables in order to introduce an approach for configuration synthesis. Firstly, the kinematic models of three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are set up. Then, in order to evaluate workspace quality, two new indices are proposed by using tensions along each cable, which are the All Cable Tension Distribution Index (ACTDI and Global Tension Distribution Index (GTDI. Next, the three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are analysed with the two indices. At the end, according to different performance requirements, the configurations of cable distribution are discussed and selected.

  12. Superscreened co-axial cables for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This specification covers the requirements of superscreened cables. Part 1 covers general requirements and test methods. Part 2 covers data sheets setting out the electrical and mechanical requirements for each type of cable, together with engineering information. (U.K.)

  13. Fault Management of a Cold Dielectric HTS Power Transmission Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, J; Allais, A; Yuan, J; Schmidt, F; Hamber, F; Welsh, Tom

    2006-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) power transmission cables offer significant advantages in power density over conventional copper-based cables. As with conventional cables, HTS cables must be safe and reliable when abnormal conditions, such as local and through faults, occur in the power grid. Due to the unique characteristics of HTS power cables, the fault management of an HTS cable is different from that of a conventional cable. Issues, such as nitrogen bubble formation within lapped dielectric material, need to be addressed. This paper reviews the efforts that have been performed to study the fault conditions of a cold dielectric HTS power cable. As a result of the efforts, a fault management scheme has been developed, which provides both local and through faults system protection. Details of the fault management scheme with examples are presented

  14. Composite carbon fiber cables; Des cables composites en fibres de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of offshore engineering, Freyssinet, a daughter company of the European Vinci group, has developed a series of high-performance carbon fiber cables. These composite materials have an excellent fatigue behaviour in a huge range of constraints. Moreover, their low weight allows the implementation of very long lengths of cables in marine environment with no loss in capacity. The specific weight of the current part of the cable is reduced by a factor of 4 with respect to an equivalent capacity armature made of steel. These materials were presented in June 2002 at the ultra deep engineering and technologies (UDET) exhibition of Brest (France). (J.S.)

  15. Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...... look into the physical behaviour of the nozzle, heating and cooling systems. Experiments on the model were performed at different sub-mm diameters of the extruder. Physical parameters of the model – especially temperature dependent parameters – were set into analytical relationships in order to receive...... dynamical parameters. This research sets the foundation for further research within melted extrusion based additive manufacturing. The heating process of the extruder will be described and a note on the material feeding will be given....

  16. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  17. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  18. Comparison of waste pumpkin material and its potential use in extruded snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfezah, M N; Hardacre, A; Brennan, C S

    2011-08-01

    Material was produced from Crown pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) processed from fractions of the fruit which are regarded as waste stream products (peel, flesh and seed). The flour from the three different fractions (peel, flesh and seed) of Crown pumpkin flour was incorporated into an extruded snack product formulation at levels 10%, 30% and 50% (w/w with corn grit) and processed in a twin-screw extruder to make 10 expanded snack products. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutritional value of the raw pumpkin and pumpkin flour. A physical analysis of the product was used to determine its color, the expansion ratio, bulk density and texture. Inclusion of waste stream material (peel and seed) at 10%, yielded extruded products with similar expansion and density characteristics to the control sample; however, an inclusion of greater than 10% yielded significant challenges to product quality (hardness of the product).

  19. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Delashmit, R.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced

  20. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. 47 CFR 27.1202 - Cable/BRS cross-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... portion of the franchise area actually served by the cable operator's cable system and the cable operator... franchise area actually served by the cable operator's cable system the cable operator will use the BRS... that no portion of the GSA of the BRS station is within the portion of the franchise area actually...

  2. Grain Refinement and Enhancement of Mechanical Properties of Hot Extruded Rare-Earth Containing Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Pourbahari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth addition and hot extrusion process on the grain refinement of magnesium alloy were studied. The as-cast Mg-6Al-1Zn (AZ61 alloy had the average grain size of ~ 64 µm and its microstructure consisted of α-Mg and Mg17Al12 phase. By partial substitution of Al with Gd to reach Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, it was observed that the Mg17Al12 phase disappeared and two new intermetallic phases, i.e. (Mg,Al3Gd and Al2Gd, were identified. The extrusion process showed significant effects on the shape and size of intermetallics and grain size of the matrix. The grain size of the extruded Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was refined from 64 µm to 13.4 µm as a result of recrystallization. Regarding the Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, the grain refinement was much more pronounced, where the extruded grain size has been refined from 698 µm to 2.4 µm (extruded at 385 °C and 1.3 µm (extruded at 320 °C. This was related to the presence of fine and widely dispersed intermetallic phases. Tensile strength and total elongation of extruded alloys were much higher than their as-cast counterparts and the extruded Mg-6Zn-1Al alloy showed magnificent mechanical properties. The latter was related to the absence of intermetallic particles, which act as stress risers.

  3. Extruded black gram flour: Partial substitute for improving quality characteristics of Indian traditional snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Ananthanarayan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During extrusion of black gram flour, formation of amylose-lipid complexes lowers down the gelatinization enthalpy of extrudates, and the partially gelatinized black gram starch leads to lowering down the water-holding capacity and alters functional properties resulting in changing quality attributes of the end product on frying/microwaving/roasting. Methods: Attempts have been made to improve the quality of an Indian traditional snack (e.g., papad by incorporating extruded black gram flour as partial substitute for raw (unextruded black gram flour. In present work, overall quality improvement was achieved by analyzing prefrying and postfrying characteristics (diameter, moisture content, expansion ratio, oil uptake, texture, and color of papad and physical properties (color and viscosity of fried oil. Results: Four different papad samples were prepared (control papads without addition of papadkhar, papads with use of 3% papadkhar, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 25% concentration, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 50% concentration along with 1% papadkhar and analyzed along standard market sample. Incorporation of extruded black gram flour in papad resulted in greater expansion with less oil uptake in fried papad. Further addition of extruded black gram flour permitted the use of lower concentration of papadkhar. After frying, the quality of oil was characterized after numerous frying cycles. Conclusion: Oil used for frying of papads containing highest concentration of papadkhar was effective only up to two frying cycles, after which color and viscosity increased significantly, adversely affecting the quality of fried oil. Keywords: Black gram flour, Extrusion, Prefrying and postfrying characteristics of papad, Quality of fried oil

  4. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  5. 24 CFR 3285.704 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.704....704 Telephone and cable TV. Refer to § 3285.906 for considerations pertinent to installation of telephone and cable TV. ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  7. 75 FR 61116 - Refunds Under the Cable Statutory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Copyright Act, before it was amended to allow a cable system to calculate its royalty fees on a community-by... statutory license set forth in Section 111 are required to pay royalty fees to the Copyright Office... the methodology for a cable operator to calculate royalty fees. Cable operators now pay royalty fees...

  8. 47 CFR 76.111 - Cable sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable sports blackout. 76.111 Section 76.111... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.111 Cable sports blackout. (a) No community unit located in whole or in part within the specified...

  9. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be...

  10. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the...

  11. 30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75.600-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223...

  12. Working Paper for the Revision of San Francisco's Cable Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Video Task Force.

    Ideas are presented for the revision of San Francisco's cable franchise. The recommendations in the report are based upon national research of library and urban use of cable communications and are designed to help the city's present and future cable franchises to comply with the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission by March 31,…

  13. A simulated-annealing-based approach for wind farm cabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, S.; Rutter, I.; Wagner, D.; Wegner, F.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of computing a wind farm cabling with minimum costs allowing different cable types. Our model distinguishes different levels of granularity, where the highest level represents the cabling problem for the whole wind farm. Since even the most restricted of these problems is

  14. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  15. 46 CFR 111.12-9 - Generator cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generator cables. 111.12-9 Section 111.12-9 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-9 Generator cables. (a) The current-carrying capacity of generator cables must not be: (1) Less than 115 percent of the continuous generator rating; or (2...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.870 - RUS specification for terminating cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... core wrap. (f) Shield. (1) An aluminum shield, plastic coated on one side, shall be applied... section establishes the requirements for terminating cables used to connect incoming outside plant cables... cylindrical core. (iii) The cable structure is completed by the application of a core wrap, a shield, and a...

  17. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to minimize... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817...

  18. Environmental Impact of a Submarine Cable: Case Study of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/ Pioneer Seamount Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, I.; Paull, C. K.; Kuhnz, L.; von Thun, S.; Burton, E.; Greene, H. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    To better understand the potential impacts of the presence of cables on the seabed, a topic of interest for which little data is published or publicly available, a study of the environmental impacts of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable was conducted. The 95 km long, submarine, coaxial cable extends between Pioneer Seamount and the Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California. Approximately two thirds of the cable lies within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The cable is permitted to NOAA- Oceanic and Atmospheric Research for transmitting data from a hydrophone array on Pioneer Seamount to shore. The cable was installed unburied on the seafloor in 1995. The cable path crosses the continental shelf, descends to a maximum depth of 1,933 m, and climbs back upslope to 998 m depth near the crest of Pioneer Seamount. A total of 42 hours of video and 152 push cores were collected in 10 stations along cable and control transects using the ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. The condition of the cable, its effect on the seafloor, and distribution of benthic megafauna and infauna were determined. Video data indicated the nature of interaction between the cable and the seafloor. Rocky nearshore areas, where wave energies are greatest, showed the clearest evidence of impact. Here, evidence of abrasion included frayed and unraveling portions of the cable's armor and vertical grooves in the rock apparently cut by the cable. The greatest incision and armor damage occurred on ledges between spans in irregular rock outcrop areas. Unlike the nearshore rocky region, neither the rocks nor the cable appeared damaged along outcrops on Pioneer Seamount. Multiple loops of slack cable added during a 1997 cable repair operation were found lying flat on the seafloor. Several sharp kinks in the cable were seen at 240 m water depths in an area subjected to intense trawling activity. Most of the cable has become buried with time in sediment

  19. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  20. Parameters Affecting the Extraction Process of Jatropha Curcas Oil Using a Single Screw Extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ali Nurrakhmad; Ghani, Jaharah A; Che Haron, Che Hassan; Rizal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used technique to separate oil and cake from J. curcas seeds is mechanical extraction. It uses simple tools such as a piston and a screw extruder to produce high pressure, driven by hand or by engine. A single screw extruder has one screw rotating inside the barrel and materials simultaneously flow from the feed to the die zone. The highest oil yield can be obtained by a well-designed oil press as well as finding the optimum conditions for all parameters involved during the ...

  1. Physical evaluation of a maize-based extruded snack with curry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Vassilis; Ainsworth, Paul; Ibanoğlu, Senol; Gomes, Frances

    2004-02-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of screw speed (200-280 rpm), feed moisture (13.0-17.0%, wet basis), and curry powder (6.0-9.0%) on the bulk density, lateral expansion, and firmness of maize-based extruded snack with curry powder. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the responses were obtained. Responses were most affected by changes in feed moisture followed by screw speed and curry powder (p extruded product indicated by a higher correlation coefficient.

  2. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0; BBRI_cableDOCSIS12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0" technology. Broadband availability is...

  3. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - Other; BBRI_cableOther12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - Other" technology. Broadband availability is...

  4. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  5. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  6. Mineral insulated cables for post accident service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillin, P.L.; Winkler, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory requirement to measure the gamma radiation levels during accident conditions inside a reactor containment building is discussed. The development of a mineral-insulated cable and connector system to accurately transmit this measurement is described and a model of the response is developed

  7. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers

  8. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  9. Improved cable insulation for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kelly, E.; Schmalzle, J.; Willen, E.; Fraivillig, J.; Ochsner, J.; Parish, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago, Brookhaven joined with DuPont in a cooperative effort to develop improved cable insulation for SSC superconducting dipole magnets. The effort was supported by the SSC Central Design Group and later the SSC Laboratory. It was undertaken because turn-to-turn and midplane shorts were routinely being experienced during the assembly of magnets with coils made of the existing Kapton/fiberglass (K/FG) system of Kapton film overwrapped with epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tape. Dissection of failed magnets showed that insulation disruption and punch-through was occurring near the inner edges of turns close to the magnet midplane. Coil pressures of greater than 17 kpsi were sufficient to disrupt the insulation at local high spots where the cable had been strongly compacted in the keystoning operation during cable manufacture. In the joint development program, numerous combinations of polyimide films manufactured by DuPont with varying configurations and properties (including thickness) were subjected to tests at Brookhaven. Early tests were bench trials using wrapped cable samples. The most promising candidates were used in coils and many of these promising candidates were used in coils and many of these assembled and tested as magnets in both the SSC and RHIC magnet programs currently underway. The Kapton CI (CI) system that has been adopted represents a suitable compromise of numerous competing factors. It exhibits improved performance in the critical parameter of compressive punch-through resistance as well as other advantages over the K/FG system

  10. Cable Television for Librarians. Ordinances and Franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel Library Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A short lecture is presented on how librarians can incorporate their programing into that of existing and future cable television stations. The lecture was followed by a question/answer period. (Other conference materials are LI 503071-503076 and 503078 through 503084.) (SM)

  11. Improved cable insulation for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kelly, E.; Schmalzle, J.; Willen, E.; Fraivillig, J.; Ochsner, J.; Parish, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago, Brookhaven joined with DuPont in a cooperative effort to develop improved cable insulation for SSC superconducting dipole magnets. The effort was supported by the SSC Central Design Group and later the SSC Laboratory. It was undertaken because turn-to-turn and midplane shorts were routinely being experienced during the assembly of magnets with coils made of the existing Kapton/Fiberglass (K/FG) system of Kapton film overwrapped with epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tape. Dissection of failed magnets showed that insulation disruption and punch-through was occurring near the inner edges of turns close to the magnet midplane. Coil pressures of greater than 17 kpsi were sufficient to disrupt the insulation at local high spots where wires in neighboring turns crossed one another and where the cable had been strongly compacted in the keystoning operation during cable manufacture. In the joint development program, numerous combinations of polyimide films manufactured by DuPont with varying configurations and properties (including thickness) were subjected to tests at Brookhaven. Early tests were bench trials using wrapped cable samples. The most promising candidates were used in coils and many of these assembled and tested as magnets in both the SSC and RHIC magnet programs currently underway. The Kapton CI (CI) system that has been adopted represents a suitable compromise of numerous competing factors. It exhibits improved performance in the critical parameter of compressive punch-through resistance as well as other advantages over the K/FG system

  12. Optimization of bridge cables with concave fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, Søren V.

    In this paper the aerodynamic performance of new cable surfaces with concave fillet are examined and compared to plain, dimpled and helically filleted surfaces. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel campaign was undertaken. Preliminary flow visualizations tests and static tests were performed to ...

  13. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Hoffmann, Kay

    1998-01-01

    In the late 1960s, the cinema was pronounced dead. Television, like a Biblical Cain had slain his brother Abel. Some thirty years later, a remarkable reversal: rarely has the cinema been more popular. And yet, rarely has the cinema's future seemed more uncertain. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable?

  14. Wide-band cable systems at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struven, W.

    1983-01-01

    SLAC's first cable TV system was installed in 1979 to remotely monitor a narrow pulse which was generated in the west end of the klystron gallery. When Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) experimental work started at the west end of the accelerator, the original 1979 cable was upgraded to a bidirectional system so that 2 MBaud point-to-point data and several video and 9600 baud channels could be transmitted. The implementation of the SLC requires a complete upgrading of the accelerator control system. The system is based on a distributed processing configuration using a PDP11/780 VAX in the Main Control Center (MCC) and Intel single-board computers in a multibus configuration along the accelerator. The high-speed data linking is supplied by a 1 MBaud Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Network. The same cable is used to provide video, low-speed data, voice and high-speed point-to-point data services. The transmission system will utilize a wideband midsplit cable facility to collect and distribute signals to all parts of the network

  15. Cable Design for FAIR SIS 300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaugerts, J.; Moritz, G.; Wilson, M.N.; Ghosh, A.K.; den Ouden, A.

    GSI, Darmstadt is preparing to build FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) which include SIS 300, a 300T - m fast-ramping heavy ion synchrotron. Dipoles for this ring will be 2.9 m long, producing 6 T over a 100 mm coil aperture and ramped at 1 T/s. The cable for these dipoles must have

  16. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1986-04-08

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  17. Galloping instability to chaos of cables

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book provides students and researchers with a systematic solution for fluid-induced structural vibrations, galloping instability and the chaos of cables. They will also gain a better understanding of stable and unstable periodic motions and chaos in fluid-induced structural vibrations. Further, the results presented here will help engineers effectively design and analyze fluid-induced vibrations.

  18. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  19. An In vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris Using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal, Neolix and Hyflex in Curved Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbaf, Hossein; Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Mohammadi Bassir, Mahshid; Fahimi, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: As a consequence of root canal preparation, dentinal chips, irrigants and pulp remnants are extruded into preradicular space. This phenomenon may lead to post endodontic flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of extruded debris with four endodontic NiTi engine-driven systems. Methods and Materials: Sixty mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars with 15-30˚ curvature were divided randomly into four groups (n=15). Each group was instrumented up to apical size of 25 using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal, Neolix and Hyflex. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant and extruded debris was collected in pre-weighted Eppendorf tubes. Tubes were stored in incubator for drying the debris. Extruded debris were weighted in electronic microbalance with accuracy of 0.0001 g. The raw data was analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The debris extrusion with Reciproc files was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05). Hyflex significantly extruded less debris than other files (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between ProTaper Universal and Neolix regarding the amount of extruded debris (P=0.98). Conclusion: All systems extruded debris during the instrumentation. Reciproc system significantly extruded more debris. Caution should be taken when interpreting the results of this study and applying it to the real clinical situation. PMID:28808456

  20. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid ext...

  1. A unique cabling designed to produce Rutherford-type superconducting cable for the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisel, J.; Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.; Armer, R.

    1988-08-01

    Up to 25,000 Km of keystoned flat cable must be produced for the SSC project. Starting from a specification developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), a special cabling machine has been designed by Dour Metal. It has been designed to be able to run at a speed corresponding to a maximum production rate of 10 m/min. This cabling machine is the key part of the production line which consists of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The main features of the cabling unit to be described are a design with nearly equal path length between spool and assembling point for all the wires, and the possibility to run the machine with several over- or under-twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirements led Dour Metal to the choice of an unconventional mechanical concept for a cabling machine. 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Shape accuracy optimization for cable-rib tension deployable antenna structure with tensioned cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiwei; Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Rongqiang; Wang, Hongxiang; Tang, Dewei; Song, Xiaoke

    2017-11-01

    Shape accuracy is of substantial importance in deployable structures as the demand for large-scale deployable structures in various fields, especially in aerospace engineering, increases. The main purpose of this paper is to present a shape accuracy optimization method to find the optimal pretensions for the desired shape of cable-rib tension deployable antenna structure with tensioned cables. First, an analysis model of the deployable structure is established by using finite element method. In this model, geometrical nonlinearity is considered for the cable element and beam element. Flexible deformations of the deployable structure under the action of cable network and tensioned cables are subsequently analyzed separately. Moreover, the influence of pretension of tensioned cables on natural frequencies is studied. Based on the results, a genetic algorithm is used to find a set of reasonable pretension and thus minimize structural deformation under the first natural frequency constraint. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to analyze the deployable structure under two kinds of constraints. Results show that the shape accuracy and natural frequencies of deployable structure can be effectively improved by pretension optimization.

  3. Successful reimplantation of extruded long bone segments in open fractures of lower limb--a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Chandra Mohan, Arun Kamal; Agraharam, Devendra; Perumal, Ramesh; Jayaramaraju, Dheenadhayalan; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Extruded bone segments are rare complication of high energy open fractures. Routinely these fractures are treated by debridement followed by bone loss management in the form of either bone transport or free fibula transfer. There are very few reports in the literature about reimplantation of extruded segments of bone and there are no clear guidelines regarding timing of reimplantation, bone stabilisation and sterilisation techniques. Reimplantation of extruded bone is a risky procedure due to high chances of infection which determines the final outcome and can result in secondary amputations. We present two cases of successful reimplantation of extruded diaphyseal segment of femur and one case of reimplantation of extruded segment of tibia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 2nd International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the outcome of the second forum to cable-driven parallel robots, bringing the cable robot community together. It shows the new ideas of the active researchers developing cable-driven robots. The book presents the state of the art, including both summarizing contributions as well as latest research and future options. The book cover all topics which are essential for cable-driven robots: Classification Kinematics, Workspace and Singularity Analysis Statics and Dynamics Cable Modeling Control and Calibration Design Methodology Hardware Development Experimental Evaluation Prototypes, Application Reports and new Application concepts

  5. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  6. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...

  7. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground...

  8. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chaoyong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Lei; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were studied for orthopedic application, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and compressive tests, immersion test, electrochemical test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were composed of α-Mg and Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2} phases, and the content of Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2} phases increased with increasing Sr content. As-extruded Mg-Sr alloy with 0.5 wt.% Sr was equiaxed grains, while the one with a higher Sr content was long elongated grains and the grain size of the long elongated grains decreased with increasing Sr content. Tensile and compressive tests showed an increase of both tensile and compressive strength and a decrease of elongation with increasing Sr content. Immersion and electrochemical tests showed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy exhibited the best anti-corrosion property, and the anti-corrosion property of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys deteriorated with increasing Sr content, which was greatly associated with galvanic couple effect. The cytotoxicity test revealed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy did not induce toxicity to cells. These results indicated that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy with suitable mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and good cytocompatibility was potential as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic application. - Highlights: • Biodegradable as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were fabricated. • Microstructure of alloys changed with increasing Sr content. • Mechanical properties of alloys could be controlled by adjusting the Sr content. • Corrosion properties of alloys decreased with increasing Sr content. • As-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy was potential for orthopedic application.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROVE, E.; LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; HSU, F.

    2000-01-01

    Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables

  11. Behaviour at thermal ageing of power cable components through penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puiu, D.; Gyongyosi, T.; Dinu, E.

    2009-01-01

    The materials for electric insulation and exterior jackets of the power cables are formulated organic compounds. The environmental service conditions will induce chemical and/or physical processes at molecular level of the material; these processes are the ageing mechanisms. The power cables passing through penetrations lead to an increase of the rate of thermal ageing mechanisms, resulting in irreversible degradation of mechanical and electric properties of the organic compounds and of the functional properties of the cable. The paper presents the results of the laboratory tests when the real environmental service conditions for penetration are simulated, the comparison with the results of the thermal computation of the power cables heating and the evaluation of the influence of temperature increase of the power cable components on the cable lifetime. For the particular case of a power cable with PVC insulation, we estimated a lifetime decrease about seven years as referred to lifetime of about 30 years for operation in air. (authors)

  12. submitter On Roebel Cable Geometry for Accelerator Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, J; Ballarino, A

    2016-01-01

    Roebel-type cables made of a ReBCO conductor are potential candidates for high-field accelerator magnets. The necessity to promote a large effective transverse section in a Roebel cable to avoid local overstress leading to degradation in electrical performance has been recently addressed. In this paper, a new geometry of meander tapes for a Roebel cable that enhances both the transverse effective section and the current margin at crossing segments is discussed. As Roebel cables are bent at the coil ends, the modulation of the bending radius of strands along the cable pitch leads to a shift of the strands with respect to each other. The shift magnitude is analytically investigated in this paper as a function of both cable features and coil geometry. Finally, the minimum transposition pitch of Roebel cables is determined on the basis of coil characteristics.

  13. Defying c-Abl signaling circuits through small allosteric compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eGonfloni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many extracellular and intracellular signals promote the c-Abl tyrosine kinase activity. c-Abl in turn triggers a multitude of changes either in protein phosphorylation or in gene expression in the cell. Yet, c-Abl takes part in diverse signaling routes because of several domains linked to its catalytic core. Complex conformational changes turn on and off its kinase activity. These changes affect surface features of the c-Abl kinase and likely its capability to bind actin and/or DNA. Two specific inhibitors (ATP-competitive or allosteric compounds regulate the c-Abl kinase through different mechanisms. NMR studies show that a c-Abl fragment (SH3-SH2-linker-SH1 adopts different conformational states upon binding to each inhibitor. This supports an unconventional use for allosteric compounds to unraveling physiological c-Abl signaling circuits.

  14. Extrusion trials with a TSK045 twin screw extruder (Poster presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, H.W.R.; Schonewille, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994 a 45mm twin screw extruder was introduced at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of TNO for the processing of energetic materials. Initial safety experiments were carried out by using inert compositions with small amounts of different energetic components and micro encapsulated chemical sensors to

  15. Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Styrene–Butylmethacrylate in a Counterrotating Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, A.J. van der; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the copolymerization of styrene–butylmethacrylate (St-BMA) and the homopolymerization of styrene (St) in a counterrotating twin screw extruder. The effect of prepolymerization on both the product properties and process was studied. It turned out that the process of reactive

  16. Twin screw extruders as polymerization reactors for a free radical homo polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The bulk polymerization of n-butylmethacrylate was investigated in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. It appeared that the gel effect, occurring with bulk polymerizations, affected the polymerization progress very strongly. Due to this effect the conversion of the reaction is independent of the

  17. The modeling of continuous mixers. Part I: The corotating twin-screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Elemans, P.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    In many operations in polymer processing, such as polymer blending, devolatilization, or incorporation of fillers in a polymeric matrix, continuous mixers are used; e.g., corotating twin-screw extruders (ZSK), Buss Cokneaders and Farrel Continuous Mixers. Theoretical analysis of these machines tends

  18. Radical polymerization of styrene and styrene-butylmethacrylate in a counterrotating twin screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderGoot, AJ; Janssen, LPB

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the copolymerization of styrene-butylmethacrylate (St-BMA) and the homopolymerization of styrene (St) in a counterrotating twin screw extruder. The effect of prepolymerization on both the product properties and process was studied. It turned out that the process of reactive

  19. Ethanol fermentation of HTST extruded rye grain by bacteria and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, Z [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology; Nowak, J [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology

    1997-09-01

    High temperature extrusion cooking of rye was used as a pretreatment for ethanol fermentation, and yeasts and bacteria were compared for their fermentation rates. Extrusion cooking caused, on average, a 7.5% increase in ethanol yield in comparison to autoclaved samples. The best results were achieved for grain with a moisture of 21-23% which was extruded at temperatures of 160-180 C. Extrusion decreased the relative viscosity of rye grain water extracts, so it was possible to mash it without {alpha}-amylase. The efficiency of fermentation of extruded rye without Termamyl was equal to that of autoclaved and traditionally mashed rye (using {alpha}-amylase). The rate of fermentation of extruded rye grain by Zymomonas was higher during the first stage, but the final ethanol yield was similar for the bacterium and the yeast. Through both microorganisms gave good quality distillates, the concentration of compounds other than ethanol achieved from extruded rye mashes, which were fermented by Z. mobilis, was five times lower than for yeasts. (orig.)

  20. 78 FR 58520 - Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... from Malaysia.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. \\1\\ See Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 63 FR 12752...

  1. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  2. Effect of strontium on the texture and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–1%Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hemant; Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg–1%Mn and Mg–1%Mn–(0.3–2)Sr alloys were extruded at elevated temperature. ► Strontium additions refine extruded microstructure of M1 alloys. ► Sr additions weaken the basal texture of extruded M1, improve the ductility and reduce the yield asymmetry. ► Texture weakening with increasing strontium additions is the result of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN). - Abstract: Magnesium–manganese, M1, alloy is preferred for extrusion applications due to its extrudability. It is mainly used as a sacrificial anode or as a creep resistant alloy at elevated temperatures in the nuclear industry. Since Mn does not provide a significant strengthening effect, the alloy is not considered for structural applications. The basal texture which forms after extrusion orients the basal planes parallel to the extrusion direction causing anisotropy in mechanical properties. This basal texture, as well as the low strength of the alloy are the main challenges in its widespread applications. In this study, the effect of Sr addition on the texture and mechanical properties of M1 alloy was studied. M1–Sr alloys showed weakened texture by developing random texture components during extrusion. The texture randomisation is attributed to particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) around Mg–Sr intermetallics during recrystallisation. M1–Sr compositions are found to show improved strength and ductility as well as reduced yield asymmetry.

  3. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  4. Wheat gluten in extruded fish feed: Effects on morphology and on physical and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding the role of vital wheat gluten on the structural parameters of extruded fish feed and its correlation to the physical and functional properties. Gluten–soy protein concentrate blends with five gluten concentrations (0–200 g kg-1) were produced. An abrupt

  5. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  6. Extrudable polymer-polymer composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Buslovich, D. G.; Dontsov, Yu. V.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of polymer-polymeric composites of UHMWPE are studied with the aim of developing extrudable, wear-resistant, self-lubricant polymer mixtures for Additive Manufacturing (AM). The motivation of the study is their further application as feedstocks for 3D printing. Blends of UHMWPE with graft- and block copolymers of low-density polyethylene (HDPE-g-VTMS, HDPE-g-SMA, HDPE-b-EVA), polypropylene (PP), block copolymers of polypropylene and polyamide with linear low density polyethylene (PP-b-LLDPE, PA-b-LLDPE), as well as cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-b), are examined. The choice of compatible polymer components for an ultra- high molecular weight matrix for increasing processability (extrudability) is motivated by the search for commercially available and efficient additives aimed at developing wear-resistant extrudable polymer composites for additive manufacturing. The extrudability, mechanical properties and wear resistance of UHMWPE-based polymer-polymeric composites under sliding friction with different velocities and loads are studied.

  7. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  8. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  9. Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Bianchini, Andreia

    2014-11-15

    This study characterised pineapple pomace (PP) and evaluated its application in extrusion to enhance fibre content of the final product. The pomace had low fat (0.61%) and high dietary fibre (45.22%), showing its potential for fibre enrichment of nutritionally poor products, as some extruded snacks. Results also showed low microbiological counts, water activity, and pH indicating good microbiological quality and low risk of physicochemical deterioration. During extrusion, pomace (0%, 10.5% and 21%), moisture (14%, 15% and 16%) and temperature (140 and 160°C) were evaluated. The PP addition decreased expansion and luminosity; while increasing redness of the extrudates compared to the control (0% pomace/14% moisture/140°C). When hardness, yellowness, water absorption, and bulk density were compared to the control, there was no effect (p>0.05) of 10.5% PP addition on the extrudates, indicating that, at this level, PP could be added without affecting the properties of the final extruded product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compositional profiling and sensorial analysis of multi-wholegrain extruded puffs as affected by fructan inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, C; Goomer, S

    2015-09-01

    Rice grits, corn grits, pulse, wholegrain - finger millet and sorghum were utilized in the production of multigrain extruded puffs using a single screw extruder. The effect of inclusion of fructan - fructoligosaccharide in multi-wholegrain (MWG) extruded puffs was examined. MWG fructan enriched puffs puffs had 450 % higher dietary fiber content than the control puff (CP). These puffs can be categorized as 'Good Source' of fiber as it suffices 17.2 % DV of fiber. Puffs were rated 8.1 ± 0.6, 8.3 ± 0.7, 8.1 ± 0.6, 7.5 ± 0.5 and 8.2 ± 0.6 for color, flavor, texture, appearance and overall acceptability respectively. The scores for all the attributes were found to be not significantly different (p extruded puffs could be improved by the inclusion of fructans.

  11. Development of functional extruded snacks by utilizing paste shrimp (Acetes spp.): process optimization and quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, Ka Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Dhanabalan, Vignaesh; Thachil, Madonna T; Balange, Amjad K; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-04-01

    Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.), which is rich in protein. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130-144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100-200 g kg -1 ) and feed moisture (140-200 g kg -1 ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables. Extrusion temperature significantly influenced all the response variables, while Acetes inclusion influenced all variables except porosity. Feed moisture content showed a significant quadratic effect on all responses and an interactive effect on expansion ratio and hardness. Shrimp powder incorporation increased the protein and mineral content of the final product. The extruded snack made with the combination of extrusion temperature 144.59 °C, feed moisture 178.5 g kg -1 and Acetes inclusion level 146.7 g kg -1 was found to be the best one based on sensory evaluation. The study suggests that use of Acetes species for the development of extruded snacks will serve as a means of utilization of Acetes as well as being a rich source of proteins for human consumption, which would otherwise remain unexploited as a by-catch. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Optimal Cable Tension Distribution of the High-Speed Redundant Driven Camera Robots Considering Cable Sag and Inertia Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Camera robots are high-speed redundantly cable-driven parallel manipulators that realize the aerial panoramic photographing. When long-span cables and high maneuverability are involved, the effects of cable sags and inertias on the dynamics must be carefully dealt with. This paper is devoted to the optimal cable tension distribution (OCTD for short of the camera robots. Firstly, each fast varying-length cable is discretized into some nodes for computing the cable inertias. Secondly, the dynamic equation integrated with the cable inertias is set up regarding the large-span cables as catenaries. Thirdly, an iterative optimization algorithm is introduced for the cable tension distribution by using the dynamic equation and sag-to-span ratios as constraint conditions. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of cable sags and inertias on determining tensions. The results justify the convergence and effectiveness of the algorithm. In addition, the results show that it is necessary to take the cable sags and inertias into consideration for the large-span manipulators.

  13. Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, In Son; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005

  14. Dynamical Analysis and Simulation Validation of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspended Swinging System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of the suspension multicables and driven length difference between two cables cause the translation and rotation of the platform in the incompletely restrained cable-suspended system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2, which are theoretically investigated in this paper. The suspension cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method (AMM and the equations of motion are derived from Lagrange equations of the first kind. Considering all the geometric matching conditions are approximately linear with external actuator, the differential algebraic equations (DAEs are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. Using linear boundary conditions of the suspension cable, the current method can obtain not only the accurate longitudinal displacements of cable and posture of the platform, but also the tension between the platform and cables, and the current method is verified by ADAMS simulation.

  15. Processing effects on four prebiotic carbohydrates supplemented in an extruded cereal and a low pH drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebbeca M. Duar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic carbohydrates are added as functional ingredients to a variety of processed foods. Data on the stability of prebiotics during food processing in complex matrices remain limited. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS, and resistant starch (RS2, when added as ingredients (1% w/w to an extruded cereal and a low pH drink. The cereal was prepared using different screw speeds and barrel temperatures. GOS was not affected by any of the extrusion conditions, whereas inulin decreased significantly at 140 and 170°C. FOS levels decreased in all extrusion conditions, while resistant starch (RS unexpectedly increased for each of the parameters. The low pH drink was prepared with different sucrose to corn syrup solids (S:CSS ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 at pH 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The 1:1 S:CSS drink at pH 3.0, negatively impacted FOS and inulin. Moreover, FOS levels decreased when exposed to 1:2 S:CSS (pH 3.5 and 4.0 and 1:1 S:CSS (pH 3.0. GOS and RS were unaffected by any drink formulations. As different conditions impact the stability of prebiotics differently, this study addresses the importance of developing product specific processes for each prebiotic when supplemented into a processed food.

  16. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A new method for the continuous production of single dosed controlled release matrix systems based on hot-melt extruded starch: analysis of relevant process parameters and implementation of an in-process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated a novel processing technique for the continuous production of hot-melt extruded controlled release matrix systems. A cutting technique derived from plastics industry, where it is widely used for cutting of cables and wires was adapted into the production line. Extruded strands were shaped by a rotary fly cutter. Special focus is laid on the development of a process analytical technology by evaluating signals obtained from the servo control of the rotary fly cutter. The intention is to provide a better insight into the production process and to offer the ability to detect small variations in process-variables. A co-rotating twin-screw extruder ZSE 27 HP-PH from Leistritz (Nürnberg, Germany) was used to plasticize the starch; critical extrusion parameters were recorded. Still elastic strands were shaped by a rotary fly-cutter type Dynamat 20 from Metzner (Neu-Ulm, Germany). Properties of the final products were analyzed via digital image analysis to point out critical parameters influencing the quality. Important aspects were uniformity of diameter, height, roundness, weight, and variations in the cutting angle. Stability of the products was measured by friability tests and by determining the crushing strength of the final products. Drug loading studies up to 70% were performed to evaluate the capacity of the matrix and to prove the technological feasibility. Changes in viscosities during API addition were analyzed by a Haake Minilab capillary rheometer. X-ray studies were performed to investigate molecular structures of the matrices. External shapes of the products were highly affected by die-swelling of the melt. Reliable reproducibility concerning uniformity of mass could be achieved even for high production rates (>2500cuts/min). Both mechanical strength and die-swelling of the products could be linked to the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. Formulations containing up to 70% of API could still be processed. Viscosity

  18. Development of polymer packaging for power cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issues of product design and the procedure of developing polymer packaging as one of the most important engineering tasks. For the purpose of packing power cables a polymer packaging has been designed in the form of drum. Packaging and many other consumer products are largely produced using polymeric materials due to many positive features. High Density Polyethylene is the type of polyethylene proposed for packaging purposes due to its low degree of branching and strong intermolecular forces. Transport and storage processes were automated based on the radio-frequency identification technology. The proposed system is flexible in terms of its possibility of accepting and processing different types of cables and other products.

  19. Loop Group Parakeet Virtual Cable Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, T.; McNeill, T. C.; Reynolds, A. B.; Blair, W. D.

    2002-07-01

    The Parakeet Virtual Cable (PVC) concept demonstrator uses the Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN) laid for the Battle Command Support System (BCSS) to connect the Parakeet DVT(DA) (voice terminal) to the Parakeet multiplexer. This currently requires pairs of PVC interface units to be installed for each DVT(DA) . To reduce the cost of a PVC installation, the concept of a Loop Group Parakeet Virtual Cable (LGPVC) was proposed. This device was designed to replace the up to 30 PVC boxes and the multiplexer at the multiplexer side of a PVC installation. While the demonstrator is largely complete, testing has revealed an incomplete understanding of how to emulate the proprietary handshaking occurring between the circuit switch and the multiplexer. The LGPVC concept cannot yet be demonstrated.

  20. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  1. Cabling in the Skyrme–Faddeev model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Skyrme–Faddeev model is a three-dimensional nonlinear field theory that has topological soliton solutions, called hopfions, which are novel string-like solutions taking the form of knots and links. Solutions found thus far take the form of torus knots and links of these, however torus knots form only a small family of known knots. It is an open question whether any non-torus knot hopfions exist. In this paper we present a construction of knotted fields with the form of cable knots to which an energy minimization scheme can be applied. We find the first known hopfions which do not have the form of torus knots, but instead take the form of cable and hyperbolic knots. (paper)

  2. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  3. Organic dielectrics in high voltage cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, J

    1962-03-01

    It appears that the limit has been reached in the applicability of oil-impregnated paper as the dielectric for ehv cables, as with rising voltages the prevention of conductor losses becomes increasingly difficult, while the dielectric losses of the insulation, increasing as the square of the voltage, contribute to a greater extent to the temperature rise of the conductor. The power transmitting capacity of ehv cables reaches a maximum at 500 to 600 kV for these reasons. Apart from artificial cooling, a substantial improvement can be obtained only with the use of insulating materials with much lower dielectric losses; these can moreover be applied with a smaller wall thickness, but this means higher field strengths. Synthetic polymer materials meet these requirements but can be used successfully only in the form of lapped film tapes impregnated with suitable liquids. The electrical properties of these heterogeneous dielectrics, in particular, their impulse breakdown strengths are studied in detail.

  4. Southwire's High Temperature Superconducting Cable Development - Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Uday; Lindsay, David

    2005-01-01

    Final technical report on Southwire HTS cable development program. Southwire started an HTS cable development program beginning early 1995 with a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The development task was to study the properties of HTS tapes, and construct hand wound 1-m cables to study the winding characteristics of the tapes. Within a short time several 1-m long cables were constructed and tested. A goal was established to construct a 30-m long, three single-phase cables suitable to carry 1250-Aac at 12.4 kV and power Southwire's two main manufacturing plants, machinery division, and part of the corporate headquarters building. Southwire chose to construct a cold dielectric (CD) design cable that has the advantage of shielding magnetic fields and suitable for carrying larger amounts of current for future applications. The CD design however, required a dielectric material that would be suitable at liquid nitrogen temperature. After considerable testing, a polymer based tape called ''Cryoflex'' was developed by Southwire for use as a cold dielectric. Southwire developed a HTS cable making facility for the winding of HTS and dielectric tapes. At the same time Southwire and ORNL developed at Oak Ridge a dielectric testing laboratory and a 5-m cable test bed. The HTS cable requires special terminations that connect cables at 77 K and high pressures (design pressure of 150 psi) with outside power at ambient temperature and pressure. Two types of terminations called Vacuum (T-1) and Pressure termination (T-2) were developed. The vacuum termination needed very high vacuum (10 -5 bar) and cold ceramic bushings that were expensive and unreliable. The modified pressure termination eliminated vacuum, utilize industrial bushings, reduced cost, and increased reliability. Two 5-m cables were designed and constructed at Southwire with the same rating as needed for the 30-m cables. The 5-m cables were tested successfully

  5. Construction control of cable-stayed bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Galant, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2012-2013, àmbit d’Enginyeria Civil This work presents a study of the simulation of cable-stayed bridges built on temporary supports focused on their response during construction and in service. To simulate the behavior during construction, a set of four different algorithms has been developed to deal with initial design (Backward Algorithm), updating the tensioning process when deviations on site are measured (Forward Algorithm), optimization processes (D...

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  7. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  8. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  9. Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jongwoong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F.; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2013-04-01

    Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges; monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches. This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC's Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption. The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.

  10. External heating of electrical cables and auto-ignition investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, L; Garo, J P

    2017-01-05

    Electric cables are now extensively used for both residential and industrial applications. During more than twenty years, multi-scale approaches have been developed to study fire behavior of such cables that represents a serious challenge. Cables are rather complicated materials because they consist of an insulated part and jacket of polymeric materials. These polymeric materials can have various chemical structures, thicknesses and additives and generally have a char-forming tendency when exposed to heat source. In this work, two test methods are used for the characterization of cable pyrolysis and flammability. The first one permits the investigation of cable pyrolysis. A description of the cable mass loss is obtained, coupling an Arrhenius expression with a 1D thermal model of cables heating. Numerical results are successfully compared with experimental data obtained for two types of cable commonly used in French nuclear power plants. The second one is devoted to ignition investigations (spontaneous or piloted) of these cables. All these basic observations, measurements and modelling efforts are of major interest for a more comprehensive fire resistance evaluation of electric cables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cabling for an SSC silicon tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.; Boissevain, J.; Cooke, B.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) funded silicon tracking subsystem R ampersand D program, we examine the problems associated with cabling such a system. Different options for the cabling plant are discussed. A silicon microstrip tracking detector for an SSC experiment is an extremely complex system. The system consists of approximately 10 7 detector channels, each of which requires a communication link with the outside world and connections to the detector bias voltage supply, to a DC power supply for the onboard electronics, and to an adjustable discrimination level. The large number of channels and the short time between beam interactions (16 nanoseconds) dictates the need for high speed and large bandwidth communication channels, and a power distribution system that can handle the high current draw of the electronics including the large AC component due to their switching. At the same time the constraints imposed by the physics measurements require that the cable plant have absolutely minimal mass and radiation length. 4 refs., 2 figs

  12. SQUG cable tray and conduit evaluation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Eder, S.J.; Conoscente, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cable tray and conduit systems for electrical cables are a common feature and industrial facilities. They have an excellent performance history in past strong earthquake, even though they are rarely designed for earthquakes. Considerable data have been gathered on their performance in earthquakes and in shake table testing. The data have been used to develop a procedure for the verification of the seismic adequacy of cable tray and conduit systems in operating nuclear plants. The procedure is discussed in this paper. It will result in substantial savings, such as reduced engineering effort, fewer modifications of existing hardware, and simpler documentation, relative to alternate procedures like dynamic analysis of shake table testing. The procedure ensures safety-function in a unique manner since the methodology used to develop it (1) is based on a large body of historical data and (2) uses a relative approach of ensuring that nuclear plant systems will perform at least as well as systems that performed well in past earthquakes. (orig.)

  13. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  14. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  15. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  16. Modeling Cable and Guide Channel Interaction in a High-Strength Cable-Driven Continuum Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Matthew S; Murphy, Ryan J; Kutzer, Michael D M; Armand, Mehran

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents several mechanical models of a high-strength cable-driven dexterous manipulator designed for surgical procedures. A stiffness model is presented that distinguishes between contributions from the cables and the backbone. A physics-based model incorporating cable friction is developed and its predictions are compared with experimental data. The data show that under high tension and high curvature, the shape of the manipulator deviates significantly from a circular arc. However, simple parametric models can fit the shape with good accuracy. The motivating application for this study is to develop a model so that shape can be predicted using easily measured quantities such as tension, so that real-time navigation may be performed, especially in minimally-invasive surgical procedures, while reducing the need for hazardous imaging methods such as fluoroscopy.

  17. Rapid optimization of tension distribution for cable-driven parallel manipulators with redundant cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bo; Shang, Weiwei

    2016-03-01

    The solution of tension distributions is infinite for cable-driven parallel manipulators(CDPMs) with redundant cables. A rapid optimization method for determining the optimal tension distribution is presented. The new optimization method is primarily based on the geometry properties of a polyhedron and convex analysis. The computational efficiency of the optimization method is improved by the designed projection algorithm, and a fast algorithm is proposed to determine which two of the lines are intersected at the optimal point. Moreover, a method for avoiding the operating point on the lower tension limit is developed. Simulation experiments are implemented on a six degree-of-freedom(6-DOF) CDPM with eight cables, and the results indicate that the new method is one order of magnitude faster than the standard simplex method. The optimal distribution of tension distribution is thus rapidly established on real-time by the proposed method.

  18. Design, processing, and properties of Bi 2212\\/Ag Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W; Scanlan, R M; Dietderich, D R; Motowidlo, L R; Sokolowski, R S; Aoki, Y; Hasegawa, T

    1999-01-01

    In a program intended to explore the use of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cables in high field synchrotron dipole magnets model Bi:2212/Ag Rutherford cables were designed bearing in mind the needs for mechanical integrity, relatively high tensile strength, and low coupling losses. To satisfy these needs a core-type cable design was selected and a readily available heat-resistant core material acquired. Cables were wound for critical current- and AC loss measurement. Both winding-induced (mechanical) and core-induced (chemical) critical current degradation was examined. Interstrand coupling loss was measured calorimetrically on model cable samples with bare- and oxide-coated cores. From the results it was predicted that the losses of full-scale Bi:2212/Ag-wound LHC-type Rutherford cables would fall close to the acceptability range for the windings of high-field accelerator dipoles. (10 refs).

  19. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC......-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  20. Dynamic characteristics of stay cables with inerter dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye

    2018-06-01

    This study systematically investigates the dynamic characteristics of a stay cable with an inerter damper installed close to one end of a cable. The interest in applying inerter dampers to stay cables is partially inspired by the superior damping performance of negative stiffness dampers in the same application. A comprehensive parametric study on two major parameters, namely, inertance and damping coefficients, are conducted using analytical and numerical approaches. An inerter damper can be optimized for one vibration mode of a stay cable by generating identical wave numbers in two adjacent modes. An optimal design approach is proposed for inerter dampers installed on stay cables. The corresponding optimal inertance and damping coefficients are summarized for different damper locations and interested modes. Inerter dampers can offer better damping performance than conventional viscous dampers for the target mode of a stay cable that requires optimization. However, additional damping ratios in other vibration modes through inerter damper are relatively limited.

  1. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  2. Frequency analysis of a tower-cable coupled system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moo Yeol [Young Sin Precision Engineering Ltd., Gyungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seock Hyun; Park, In Su [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cui, Chengxun [Yanbian University, Yangji (China)

    2013-06-15

    This study considers the prediction of natural frequency to avoid resonance in a wind turbine tower- cable coupled system. An analytical model based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method is proposed to predict the resonance frequency of a wind turbine tower structure supported by four guy cables. To verify the validity of the analytical model, a small tower-cable model is manufactured and tested. The frequency and mode data of the tower model are obtained by modal testing and finite element analysis. The validity of the proposed method is verified through the comparison of the frequency analysis results. Finally, using a parametric study with the analytical model, we identified how the cable tension and cable angle affect the resonance frequency of the wind turbine tower structure. From the analysis results, the tension limit and optimal angle of the cable are identified.

  3. State of the art in power cable design, failure mechanisms and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, H.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation describes state of the art in power cable design, failure mechanisms and testing. It gives a history of cable usage and design of cables, describes different cable types, assessment of the condition of cables, aging and failures, testing and diagnostics

  4. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations for cable television services. 1.1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services. Fee amount Address 1. Cable Television Relay Service $315 FCC, Cable, P.O. Box 979084, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 2. Cable TV System (per...

  5. An Acoustic Source Reactive to Tow Cable Strum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    sound wave radiates from the head mass. Dkt . No. 101720 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 DRAFT 1 CABLE CURVATURE INDUCING LONGITUDINAL...MOTION IDEALIZED TOW CABLE (NO TRANSVERSE VIBRATION) REALISTIC TOW CABLE (INCLUDES TRANSVERSE VIBRATION) DIRECTION OF TOW FIG. 1 (PRIOR ART) Dkt . No...DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT LONGITUDINAL (PRIOR ART) DISPLACEMENT LONGITUDINAL Dkt . No. 101720 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 DRAFT 10 A B B A

  6. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials.

  7. Method discussion of the performance evaluation on nuclear plant cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yongfang; Zhong Weixia; Sun Jiansheng; Liu Jingping

    2014-01-01

    A stock cable, which is same as the nuclear plant cable in service, was treated by thermal aging. After that, the mechanical property, the flame retardant property, the anti-oxidation were measured, and relationships between them due to the thermal aging were established. By those analysis, evaluating the in-service cable performance in nuclear plant and calculating its remaining life. Furthermore, the feasibility of this method was disscussed. (authors)

  8. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  9. Problems with conductors and dielectrics for cryogenic cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, G; Penczynski, P [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (F.R. Germany). Abt. Reaktortechnik

    1976-06-01

    The most important problems which need to be solved if superconducting power cables are to be used on a large scale are connected with the superconducting cable materials and the dielectrics used for insulation. Research work on superconducting materials for ac and dc cables is briefly reviewed together with stabilization problems for these materials. Three types of insulation are considered - vacuum, subcooled or supercritical helium, and foil wound insulation. The merits and problems encountered in each case are discussed.

  10. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog

    2013-01-01

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials

  11. Development of halogen-free cables for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Ito, Kazumi; Yaji, Takeo; Yoshida, Shin; Sakurai, Takako; Matsushita, Shigetoshi.

    1990-01-01

    On the occasion where serious fire accidents were experienced in the past, the need for making flame-retardant wire and cable incombustible took place and has since been generalizing. Various sorts of flame-retardant cables have already been developed and been actually used. From the viewpoint of avoiding the interference with the evacuation and fire-fighting activity in case of fire or the secondary accidents such as corrosion of the distributing panel, etc., the demand for non-halogen flame-retardant cable has rapidly been increasing in recent years in some fields of general industries, because this specific cable would generate the least amount of toxic smoke or corrosive gas even when it should burn. Similar demand has been increasing also for the cable used for nuclear power plants. In this field, earnest desire has been made for the development of non-halogen flame-retardant cable having specific environmental resistance specially required at nuclear power plants in addition to the properties and capacities required in general industries. The authors have continued examinations on the anti-environmental properties of the materials for cable such as long heat resistance, radiation resistance, steam resistance and succeeded in completing various sorts of non-halogen flame-retardant cable for nuclear power plants. In this report, we will introduce various features of the cable we have developed this time as well as the long-term reliability of non-halogen flame-retardant materials. (author)

  12. Debris from cobalt-chrome cable may cause acetabular loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S S; Johnston, R C

    1992-12-01

    To address the issue of nonunion with trochanteric osteotomy, surgeons have experimented with various modes of fixation, wire and cable being the two most popular. From a group of 643 primary cemented total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon via the trans-trochanteric approach, minimum four-year roentgenographic follow-up evaluations were performed on 322 hips (50%). The method of fixation was stainless steel monofilament wire in 162 cases and Co-Cr cable in 160. Trochanteric union rates were 75% (122 patients) for the wire group and 79% (126 patients) for the cable. Breakage rates of the entire trochanteric fixation construction (all three wires or cables) were 43% (68 patients) for the wire and 12% (20 patients) for the cable. Unraveled cable was seen in 56% of the hips (90 patients), and in 47% of these hips, there were no broken cables. Blinded roentgenographic analysis of the acetabulum, preformed independently, revealed that loosening of the acetabulum in the cable group was greater than in the wire group. Cables offer no significant benefit over wires and may have potential adverse effects. Generation of significant particulate debris was noted roentgenographically, and marked reaction/destruction was found at the time of revision surgery.

  13. Stationary operational behavior unsymmetrical superconducting three-phase cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iser, R.

    1974-01-01

    A superconducting cable with a coaxial conductor arrangement is electrically unsymmetrical. Voltage and current relationships are analyzed for such a cable where, as a result of reactance and capacitance matrices being unsymmetric, large voltage unsymmetry appears. This limits the practical length of this type of cable. It is shown that a significant gain in symmetry is attained by the use of two cables connected in parallel. The compensating current which then occurs involves no disadvantage. The circuit described permits overloads of up to 100 percent.

  14. Real Time Load Optimisation of Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    Energinet.dk has launched an investigation of dynamic current ratings of cable based transmission grids, where both internal and external parameters are variables. The first topic was to investigate state of the art within calculating the current carrying capacity (ampacity or loadability......) of cables embedded in larger cable systems. Some recently published research has been concerned with dynamic loadability, but such researches are based on many assumptions. It is shown in the paper, that only limited research has been concerned with larger cable grids, and no remarkable work could been...

  15. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  17. Development mineral insulated cables for nuclear instrumentation of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Hess Junior, A.; Brito Maciel, R. de

    1990-01-01

    In-core and out-of-core neutron detectors for reactor and safety control systems are usually connected by means of mineral insulated cables. The electrical signal, either a pulse or a current, is transmitted along the cable at high temperature, pressure and radiation and should not be influenced by electromagnetic interfereces from the environment. In this paper it is presented the result of the analysis of the mechanical and electrical properties of several types of mineral insulated cables and also the design, manufacture, sealing, cable ends and their applications to nuclear detectors of various types. (author) [pt

  18. Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, A.; Kawabata, Y.; Sumiyoshi, F.; Nagaya, S.; Hirano, N.

    2006-01-01

    Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES coils were evaluated from a comparison between measured data and 2D-FEM analyses on interstrand coupling losses in these cables. The cables were composed of 30 non-twisted Bi-2212 strands with a diameter of 0.81 mm and a cable twist pitch of 90 mm. Three samples were measured; one of them had NiCr cores and the others had no cores. One of the latter two samples repeatedly experienced bending. The interstrand coupling losses were measured in liquid helium for the straight samples under transverse ac ripple magnetic fields superposed on dc bias magnetic fields. The transverse magnetic field was applied to the samples in directions both perpendicular and parallel to the flat face of the cable. The effect of the bending on the interstrand coupling losses could be neglected for the non-cored samples. The interstrand coupling losses of NiCr cored sample decreased by about 30% compared with the non-cored samples, in case the direction of the transverse magnetic fields applied to the cable is perpendicular to the flat face of the cable. Using these results and 2D-FEM analyses, taking into account that interstrand contact conditions vary from the center to the edge in the cross-section of cables, gave us the conclusion that the between side-by-side strands contact with metallurgical bond only in both edges of the cables

  19. Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, A.; Kawabata, Y.; Sumiyoshi, F.; Nagaya, S.; Hirano, N.

    2006-10-01

    Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES coils were evaluated from a comparison between measured data and 2D-FEM analyses on interstrand coupling losses in these cables. The cables were composed of 30 non-twisted Bi-2212 strands with a diameter of 0.81 mm and a cable twist pitch of 90 mm. Three samples were measured; one of them had NiCr cores and the others had no cores. One of the latter two samples repeatedly experienced bending. The interstrand coupling losses were measured in liquid helium for the straight samples under transverse ac ripple magnetic fields superposed on dc bias magnetic fields. The transverse magnetic field was applied to the samples in directions both perpendicular and parallel to the flat face of the cable. The effect of the bending on the interstrand coupling losses could be neglected for the non-cored samples. The interstrand coupling losses of NiCr cored sample decreased by about 30% compared with the non-cored samples, in case the direction of the transverse magnetic fields applied to the cable is perpendicular to the flat face of the cable. Using these results and 2D-FEM analyses, taking into account that interstrand contact conditions vary from the center to the edge in the cross-section of cables, gave us the conclusion that the between side-by-side strands contact with metallurgical bond only in both edges of the cables.

  20. Estimation of Medium Voltage Cable Parameters for PD Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    Medium voltage cable characteristics have been determined with respect to the parameters having influence on the evaluation of results from PD-measurements on paper/oil and XLPE-cables. In particular, parameters essential for discharge quantification and location were measured. In order to relate...... and phase constants. A method to estimate this propagation constant, based on high frequency measurements, will be presented and will be applied to different cable types under different conditions. The influence of temperature and test voltage was investigated. The relevance of the results for cable...

  1. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    During the R and D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, LBL has collaborated with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory on the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, strand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, the authors present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. The authors use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  2. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1990-09-01

    During the R ampersand D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, stand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, we present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. We use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  3. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  4. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Evolution of Plate and Extruded Products with High Strength and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, D. K.; Rioja, R. J.; Bray, G. H.; Venema, G. B.; Colvin, E. L.

    From the first use of 2017-T74 on the Junkers F13, improvements have been made to plate and extruded products for applications requiring the highest attainable strength and adequate fracture toughness. One such application is the upper wing of large aircraft. The progression of these product improvements achieved through the development of alloys that include 7075-(T6 & T76), 7150-(T6 & T77) and 7055-(T77 & T79) and most recently 7255-(T77 & T79) is reviewed. The most current advancements include aluminum-copper-lithium, alloy 2055 plate and extruded products that can attain strength equivalent to that of 7055-T77 with higher modulus, similar fracture toughness and improved fatigue, fatigue crack growth and corrosion performance. The achievement of these properties is explained in terms of the several alloy design principles. The highly desired and balanced characteristics make these products ideal for upper wing applications.

  6. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  7. A novel modeling approach to the mixing process in twin-screw extruders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amedu Osaighe; Penlington, Roger; Busawon, Krishna; Morgan, Andy

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model for the mixing process in a self-wiping co-rotating twin screw extruder by combination of statistical techniques and mechanistic modelling has been proposed. The approach was to examine the mixing process in the local zones via residence time distribution and the flow dynamics, from which predictive models of the mean residence time and mean time delay were determined. Increase in feed rate at constant screw speed was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, reduction in the mean residence time and time delay and increase in the degree of fill. Increase in screw speed at constant feed rate was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, decrease in the degree of fill in the extruder and thus an increase in the time delay. Experimental investigation was also done to validate the modeling approach.

  8. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  9. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  10. Evolution of twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with bimodal grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oñorbe, E. [CIEMAT, Division of Structural Materials, Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gan, W. [German Engineering Materials Science Centre at MLZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lichtebergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Máthis, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Tolnai, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Horváth, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Pérez, P.; Adeva, P. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with a bimodal grain structure is studied under compression along the extrusion direction. This study has combined in-situ measurements during the compression tests by Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction and Acoustic Emission techniques and the evaluation of the microstructure and texture in post-mortem compression samples deformed at different strains. The microstructure of the alloy is characterized by the coexistence of large areas of fine dynamic recrystallized grains and coarse non-recrystallized grains elongated along extrusion direction. Twinning occurs initially in large elongated grains before the macroscopic yield stress which is controlled by the twinning in equiaxed dynamically recrystallized grains. - Highlights: • The AZ31 extruded at low temperature exhibits a bimodal grains structure. • Twinning takes place before macroscopic yielding in coarse non-DRXed grains. • DRXed grains controls the beginning of plasticity in magnesium alloys with bimodal grain structure.

  11. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  12. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  13. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  14. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyong; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were studied for orthopedic application, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and compressive tests, immersion test, electrochemical test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were composed of α-Mg and Mg 17 Sr 2 phases, and the content of Mg 17 Sr 2 phases increased with increasing Sr content. As-extruded Mg-Sr alloy with 0.5wt.% Sr was equiaxed grains, while the one with a higher Sr content was long elongated grains and the grain size of the long elongated grains decreased with increasing Sr content. Tensile and compressive tests showed an increase of both tensile and compressive strength and a decrease of elongation with increasing Sr content. Immersion and electrochemical tests showed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy exhibited the best anti-corrosion property, and the anti-corrosion property of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys deteriorated with increasing Sr content, which was greatly associated with galvanic couple effect. The cytotoxicity test revealed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy did not induce toxicity to cells. These results indicated that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy with suitable mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and good cytocompatibility was potential as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... was comparatively protected against degradation. Furthermore, the initial concentrations of astaxanthin influenced the degradation per se, signifying self-protective properties of astaxanthin....

  16. Texture development in gluten-free breads: Effect of different enzymes and extruded flour

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Mario M.; Marcos, Pablo; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica One of the main problems with gluten-free breads is their texture and their rapid staling. In this work the influence of different enzymes (one protease, one lipase and two amylases) and of extruded rice flour on rice-bread texture and texture development was studied. For this purpose, the development of firmness, cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and chewiness was modelled and the parameters that define the initial values and the development of these characterist...

  17. Orientation-dependent microstructure and shear flow behavior of extruded Mg–Li–Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, M.; Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir

    2015-06-11

    The microstructural and textural evolutions together with the orientation dependencies of mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–6Li–1Zn (LZ61), Mg–8Li–1Zn (LZ81) and Mg–12Li–1Zn (LZ121) alloys were investigated. The shear punch testing (SPT) method was employed to evaluate the room- and high-temperature (200–300 °C) mechanical anisotropy of the extruded materials. Microstructural analysis revealed that, despite a great discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) occurred in the extrusion direction (ED) and normal direction (ND), the microstructural anisotropy was observed in all extruded materials, the effect which was more pronounced in the LZ81 alloy by developing banded structure in the ND condition. Textural studies in both hcp LZ61 and LZ81-α phase showed a fiber-type texture with the basal planes being parallel to the ED after extrusion. For the LZ81 alloy, however, the interfering presence of β phase affects the LZ81-α-phase texture by reducing the intensity of the maximum orientations of the basal and prismatic planes. Similar weakened bimodal type texture was formed in the bcc-structured LZ81-β phase, where some <110> poles were located parallel to the ED along with developing some other poles of a fiber-type character. It was also found that the abnormal grain growth might have been encouraged by the strong texture developed in the extruded LZ121 alloy. The SPT results indicated that the texture-dependent hcp LZ61 alloy showed higher shear strength in the ND condition than the ED condition, caused by the texture strengthening effect. As the Li content and deformation temperature increase, the texture dependence of strength properties, and thus, the mechanical anisotropy, decrease so that the LZ121-ND sample showed lower shear strength than the ED specimen due to the greater grain sizes achieved in the ND condition.

  18. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  19. Request Twin Screw Extruder to Enhance DoD Interested Polymer Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-25

    will provide more African American STEM workforces to the nation. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers...include polymer/carbon nanocomposites, polymer/calcium phosphate composites, and etc , which are within the technical fields of interest to the DoD...e.g. Kalvar), polycarbonate, and textured products, cellulose pulps, etc . Therefore, this twin-screw extruder not only strengthened existing

  20. Creep behavior and threshold stress of an extruded Al-6Mg-2Sc-1Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.P.; Mishra, R.S.; Kendig, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Creep experiments were performed on extruded Al-6Mg-2Sc-1Zr (wt.%) alloy in a temperature range of 423-533 K. A threshold type creep behavior was measured and explained by observed dislocation-particle interactions. The experimental threshold stress values at various temperatures were compared with existing theoretical models. None of the available models could account for the decrease in threshold creep strength with increasing temperature

  1. Recent development of the Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for SSC in Hitachi Cable, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, S.; Iwaki, G.; Sawada, Y.; Moriai, H.; Ishigami, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In these few years, Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for the dipole magnets of SSC projects have been developed in the industrial scale in Hitachi Cable, Ltd. The features of these developed conductors are as follows. (1) The diameter of Nb-Ti filaments is very small, 4-6 μm. (2) The critical current density (J c ) is very high, 2,850-3,050 A/mm 2 at 5 T on wires, 2750-2950 A/mm 2 at 5 T on cables in industrial scale. The champion J c of wires is 3,460 A/mm 2 at 5 T in the laboratory scale. (3) The RRR Residual Resistivity Ratio values of developed cables is very high, approximately 200, due to the newly developed high purity Oxygen Free Copper (OFC). (4) The conductors have been wound to the 1 m length dipole magnet in Hitachi Ltd., and it has generated 6.7 T in the central magnetic field at 6,595 A. The Cu/Cu-Mn/Nb-Ti composite wires which avoid the possibility of electrical coupling of the filaments have been produced in laboratory scale. The RRR of the copper stabilizer and J c properties have not degraded because of no metallurgical reactions between Cu and Mn, Nb-Ti and Mn. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Method of exchanging cables of neutron monitoring instrumentation tube and folding device of the cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a wide range monitor (WRNM) is used instead of a conventional neutron source range monitor (SRM) or an intermediate range monitor (IRM). The WRNM is always fixed to a predetermined position in a reactor core while containing a detection section in a dry tube, different from a conventional monitor. Accordingly, driving devices for the conventional detection section such as in SRM and IRM are not necessary but, when the reactor is operated for a long period of time, it is sometimes necessary to be replaced with new WRNM. According to the present invention, the cable of the detector placed in a neutron instrumentation tube is connected to a cable take-up drum in a take-up device passing through a cask. Then, the cable is taken-up by driving the take-up drum by a driving motor and the WRNM detection section attached to the top end of the cable is contained in the cask. With this constitution, replacing and processing operation for the detection section can be facilitated and operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.S.)

  3. Enzymatic conversion of starch in twin-screw HTST-extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, S; Linko, Y Y; Linko, P; Seiler, K; Seibel, W

    1983-12-01

    Wheat starch was liquefied to DE 25-30 employing heat stable ..cap alpha..-amylase and twin-screw Werner and Pfleiderer Continua 58 HTST-extruder. Most significant reduction in batch saccharification time was obtained when starch was liquefied as a slurry containing 60% water at 120/sup 0/C mass temperature, feed rate 1 500 g min/sup -1/, screw rotation rate 250 min/sup -1/, and 0.9% (w/w, d.s.) Novo Termamyl 120 L ..cap alpha..-amylase was added immediately after initiation of gelatinization in the extruder. Saccharification was carried out at 60/sup 0/C employing 0.36 (w/w, d.s.) Novo glucoamylase 150 L to reach a DE 96 in 22 h. Best total conversion was, however, obtained when also saccharification was initiated in the extruder by adding glucoamylase just before the die element, after lowering mass temperature to 60/sup 0/C, and by allowing the saccharification to continue at 60/sup 0/C after extrusion processing to reach a DE 94 in 5 h and DE 97 in 21 h.

  4. Parameters Affecting the Extraction Process of Jatropha curcas Oil Using a Single Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nurrakhmad Siregar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique to separate oil and cake from J. curcas seeds is mechanical extraction. It uses simple tools such as a piston and a screw extruder to produce high pressure, driven by hand or by engine. A single screw extruder has one screw rotating inside the barrel and materials simultaneously flow from the feed to the die zone. The highest oil yield can be obtained by a well-designed oil press as well as finding the optimum conditions for all parameters involved during the extraction process. The influence of the parameters in a single screw extruder was studied using finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulation with ANSYS POLYFLOW. The research focused on predicting the velocity, pressure and shear rate in the metering section that influenced the screw rotational speed and mass flow rate. The obtained results revealed that increasing the screw rotational speed will increase the pressure, velocity and shear rate. Meanwhile, increasing the mass flow rate results in decreasing the pressure while the velocity and shear rate remain constant.

  5. Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Saturnino Chaves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter with possible early weaning and ground starter (control, were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males. Animals were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05, despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P <0.05, but did not affect the dimensions of the papillary rumen and omasum mitotic index (MI. The Ruter feeding system was potentially beneficial for weight gain and morphofunctional rumen development in lactating animals; however, this treatment did not allow early weaning as proposed by the feeding system.

  6. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  7. Deformation structure of water atomised and extruded Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.B.; Davies, H.A.; Sellars, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copper alloy powders containing Cr and/or Zr were produced via water atomisation and consolidated by extrusion. The crystallographic orientations relative to the extrusion axis, both in the as-extruded condition and after heat treatment were assessed by an inverse pole figure texture determination method using X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used for microstructural observations. The as-extruded materials showed a clear double fibre texture ( left angle 111 right angle + left angle 100 right angle ), the left angle 111 right angle component being the stronger. After isochronal 1 hour heat treatments in the temperature range 400-700 C, a clear trend of a decreasing left angle 111 right angle component with increasing temperatures was seen. For the highest heat treatment temperature used (700 C), the alloys approached a random crystallographic distribution. The microstructure of the as-extruded material showed a banded structure with sharp boundaries parallel to the extrusion direction. Also, the left angle 111 right angle or left angle 100 right angle directions were generally parallel to the extrusion direction. TEM observation of longitudinal sections after exposure to increasingly high temperature, notably above 500 C, indicated that boundaries started to lose their sharpness and to spread sideways. When the same materials were observed in transverse sections, the competitive growth of some subgrains was clearly seen. (orig.)

  8. [Extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute in the poduction of rice bread].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva; El-Dash, Ahmed A

    2006-09-01

    Research regarding the production of gluten-free bread (GFB) is very important nutritionally, technically and economically speaking, both to celiac patients and to developing countries who import wheat. The main technological problem in the production of GFB is obtaining a gluten substitute that is both inexpensive and capable of retaining gas during bread fermentation and baking. The use of gelatinized starch as an alternative for gluten seems promising. In this project, rice bread was made using pregelatinized extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute. Pre-gelatinized rice flours (PRF) were manufactured in a single screw Brabender extruder, varying extrusion temperature (108-192 degrees C) and the moisture of the raw material (19.2 - 24.8%), and were used in a proportion of 10 g for every 100 g of raw rice flour, in the production of gluten-free bread. Results showed that rice flour extruded at a high temperature (180 degrees) and low moisture content (20%), rendered bread with the best technological characteristics, presenting crust and crumb color similar to those of conventional wheat bread, although with volume and texture not as satisfactory in the same comparison.

  9. Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2005-08-10

    Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate.

  10. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Analytical model for cable tray fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.K.

    1975-09-01

    A model for cable tray fires based on buoyant plume theory is presented. Using the model in conjunction with empirical data on size of natural fires and burning rate of cellulosic materials, estimates are made of the heat flux as a function of vertical and horizontal distance from a tray fire. Both local fires and fires extending along a significant length of tray are considered. For the particular set of fire parameters assumed in the calculations, the current tray separation criteria of five feet vertical and three feet horizontal are found to be marginal for local fires and too small to prevent fire spread for extended tray fires. 8 references. (auth)

  12. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom

    2014-01-01

    suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general...... are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink ([Formula: see text]) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion...

  13. Modelling and simulation of railway cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichelmann, G.; Schaub, M.; Simeon, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrum Mathematik M2

    2005-12-15

    Mathematical models and numerical methods for the computation of both static equilibria and dynamic oscillations of railroad catenaries are derived and analyzed. These cable systems form a complex network of string and beam elements and lead to coupled partial differential equations in space and time where constraints and corresponding Lagrange multipliers express the interaction between carrier, contact wire, and pantograph head. For computing static equilibria, three different algorithms are presented and compared, while the dynamic case is treated by a finite element method in space, combined with stabilized time integration of the resulting differential algebraic system. Simulation examples based on reference data from industry illustrate the potential of such computational tools. (orig.)

  14. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  15. Fibre optic cable in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Berwyn

    1987-01-01

    The uses of optical fibre cables to transmit light signals include medical applications and telecommunications. In the nuclear industry the applications include process control and monitoring, conventional datacoms, security fencing and sensors. Time division multiplexing is described and currently available fibre optic multipexers are listed and explained. Single and multimode fibres are mentioned. Fibre optics are also used in cryogenics, to monitor the integrity of the storage vessels for cryogenic liquids. The uses of fibre optics at Hartlepool, Heysham I and Torness are mentioned in particular. (UK)

  16. Effect of composition and processing conditions on selected characteristics of extruded corn instant gruels enriched with fruits addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kręcisz Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries and goji berries were used as natural supplements in extruded instant corn gruels. The effects of additive type and level, as well as extrusion-cooking screw speed on selected properties of extrudates were tested. Corn grit was used as the base raw materials and dry and ground goji berries and cranberries were added at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Extrusion-cooking of blends was performed with a single screw extruder at temperature ranged 125-135°C using various screw speed during processing. Extrudates were ground below 1 mm for instant gruels. Water absorption, water solubility, as well as colour profile were tested. The results showed that the highest water absorption was evaluated for instant gruels consist the highest amount of goji berries extruded at the highest screw speed during processing, while cranberries addition have no significant effect on water absorption. Increasing amount of dry cranberries and goji berries in the recipe affected on lowering the water solubility of the extrudates. Significant effect of fruits on color coordinates was observed. Increasing amount of dry berries lowered lightness L* and yellowness of instant gruels, especially when goji berries were used in the recipe. Increasing the screw speed during processing decreased intensity b* values.

  17. Open segmental fracture of both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow with extruded middle segment radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded middle segment of radius with open segmental fracture both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow is a rare injury. A 12-year-old child presented to us within 4 hours following fall from tree. The child′s mother was carrying a 12-cm-long extruded soiled segment of radius. The extruded bone was thoroughly washed. The medullary cavity was properly syringed with antiseptic solution. The bone was autoclaved and put in the muscle plane of the distal forearm after debridement of the wound. After 5 days, a 2.5-mm K-wire was introduced by retrograde method into the proximal radius by passing through the extruded segment. Another 2.5-mm K-wire was passed in ulna. The limb was evaluated clinicoradiologically every 2 weeks. The wound was healed by primary intention. At 4 months, the reposed bone appeared less dense radiologically and K-wire seemed to be out of the bone. In the subsequent months, the roentgenograms show remodeling of the extruded fragment. After 20 weeks, the K-wires were removed (first ulnar and then radial. Complete union was achieved with full range of movement except loss of few degrees of extension of elbow and thumb. This case is reported to show a good outcome following successful incorporation of an extruded segment of radius in an open fracture.

  18. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  19. 77 FR 67290 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...-126] Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics... between consumer electronics equipment (such as digital television sets) and newly encrypted cable service... Act''), Congress sought to make sure that consumer electronics equipment could receive cable...

  20. Continued development of a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    A non-proprietary, cable guardrail system is currently under development for the Midwest States Pooled Fund Program. : A cable guardrail end terminal was necessary to accompany the cable guardrail system. The objective of this research : project was ...

  1. A PSO Driven Intelligent Model Updating and Parameter Identification Scheme for Cable-Damper System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhui Dan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise measurement of the cable force is very important for monitoring and evaluating the operation status of cable structures such as cable-stayed bridges. The cable system should be installed with lateral dampers to reduce the vibration, which affects the precise measurement of the cable force and other cable parameters. This paper suggests a cable model updating calculation scheme driven by the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. By establishing a finite element model considering the static geometric nonlinearity and stress-stiffening effect firstly, an automatically finite element method model updating powered by PSO algorithm is proposed, with the aims to identify the cable force and relevant parameters of cable-damper system precisely. Both numerical case studies and full-scale cable tests indicated that, after two rounds of updating process, the algorithm can accurately identify the cable force, moment of inertia, and damping coefficient of the cable-damper system.

  2. Copper Cable Recycling Technology. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  3. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  4. Cook Strait cable leak investigation, March-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.J.; Fitzgerald, G.J.

    1985-09-01

    An investigation was made to locate a gas leak in an under-sea electric power cable. Krypton-85 was used as the tracer. Despite problems with the investigation there was strong evidence to suggest that the leak was in the joint between the land and sea portions of the cable. (auths)

  5. A Critical Look At South Dakota Cable TV Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rick P.

    An examination of the present status and future potential of cable television (CATV) in South Dakota is conducted. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to cable in the State and Chapter 2 discusses the value of CATV to South Dakota. The next Chapter presents a State plan for communications and the fourth deals with the subject of franchising. The…

  6. Lightning-resistant, low-inductance detonator cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Lee, R.S.; Moua, K.

    1994-04-01

    A lightning strike on a flat detonator cable in close proximity to a high explosive (HE) main charge poses a possible detonation hazard if the electrical explosion of the cable launches the dielectric cover coat of the cable at a high enough velocity to shock-initiate the HE. The detonator cable for the W87 system has been demonstrated to be incapable of initiating LX-17 main-charge explosive even for a 99 percentile negative lightning strike (1). The W87 cable is a relatively high inductance cable, unsuitable for use with low-inductance firesets. We have performed tests on a low-inductance cable designed for the W89 program, which show it to be marginal in its ability to withstand a lightning strike without the possibility of initiating a heated LX-17 main charge HE. A new cable design, proposed by R.E. Lee of LLNL has been tested and shown to be capable of withstanding a 99 percentile negative lightning strike without initiating LX-17 heated to 250{degree}C.

  7. Uses of Cable Television in Eight Midwestern Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Constance M.

    This study of midwestern cable television systems was designed to accomplish three purposes: (1) compare recommended administration and franchise provisions with actual administration and franchise provisions to see how these policies relate to the future development of educational channels; (2) determine how educators and cable managers work…

  8. Measurements and modeling of EMC, applied to cabling and wiring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargboer, G.

    2011-01-01

    A myriad of cables transport power and communication signals in larger buildings and installations. Cross talk between cables and connected equipment is a major concern. Regulations do exist, but often show to be insufficient to avoid undesirable coupling. The current thesis research addresses this

  9. 24 CFR 3285.906 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Information for Manufacturer's Installation Instructions § 3285.906 Telephone and cable TV. It is recommended that the installation instructions explain that telephone and cable TV wiring should be installed in accordance with requirements of...

  10. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...

  11. Aerodynamic force coefficients of plain bridge cables in wet conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos T.

    In this paper, the aerodynamic forces and force coefficients from preliminary static wind tunnel tests on a plain cable in wet conditions are presented. The presented results are for several different relative cable wind-angles. A comparison is made with tests in dry conditions. In dry conditions...

  12. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  13. Prevention of cable fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murota, George; Yajima, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is indispensable to secure required electric power, therefore double or triple safety measures are necessary to prevent serious accidents absolutely. As for the countermeasures to cable fires, interest grew rapidly with the fire in Browns Ferry Power Station in USA in 1975 as the turning point, because multi-strand grouped cables caused to promote the spread of fire. In Japan, also the fire prevention measures for wires and cables were more strengthened, and the measures for preventing the spread of cable fires with the agent preventing the spread of fires have occupied the important position. When multi-strand cables are ignited by some cause, the fire spreads with very large combustion force along wirings to other rooms and installations, and electric systems are broken down. The harmful corrosive gas generated from the burning coating materials of cables diffuses very quickly. In nuclear power stations, the cables which are very hard to burn are adopted, fire prevention sections are established positively, the fire-resisting capability of fire prevention barriers is reviewed, and fire-resisting and smoke-preventing treatments are applied to the parts where cables penetrate walls, floors or ceilings. The paint and the sealing material which prevent the spread of fires are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  14. Optimized and practical electrical joints for CORC type HTS cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, T; van der Laan, D C; Mentink, M G T; Dhallé, M; ten Kate, H H J

    2015-01-01

    Within CERN the development of REBCO-CORC (Conductor On Round Core) type cables is pursued in view of possible application in future detector and accelerator magnets. An important issue is the design and qualification of terminations for connecting CORC cables mutually or to bus-bars. A termination design is envisaged that combines a simple manufacturing process with a lowest possible joint terminal resistance in the few nΩ range at 4.2 K, first for a single CORC cable and subsequently for CORC based Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. The investigation concerns the effect of tapering the CORC cable within the joint to form a staircase like geometry, which allows current to pass more directly from the copper joint casing to the inner REBCO layers of the CORC cable. Simulations have shown a substantial decrease in joint resistance at operating current in the case both CORC cable and joint casing are tapered. The CORC cable and new joint were tested at CERN. In this paper, some details of the new joint design, fabric...

  15. Optimized and practical electrical joints for CORC type HTS cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, T; Dudarev, A; Mentink, M G T; Ten Kate, H H J; Van der Laan, D C; Dhallé, M

    2015-01-01

    Within CERN the development of REBCO-CORC (Conductor On Round Core) type cables is pursued in view of possible application in future detector and accelerator magnets. An important issue is the design and qualification of terminations for connecting CORC cables mutually or to bus-bars. A termination design is envisaged that combines a simple manufacturing process with a lowest possible joint terminal resistance in the few nΩ range at 4.2 K, first for a single CORC cable and subsequently for CORC based Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. The investigation concerns the effect of tapering the CORC cable within the joint to form a staircase like geometry, which allows current to pass more directly from the copper joint casing to the inner REBCO layers of the CORC cable. Simulations have shown a substantial decrease in joint resistance at operating current in the case both CORC cable and joint casing are tapered. The CORC cable and new joint were tested at CERN. In this paper, some details of the new joint design, fabrication process, and model are presented and the results are summarized. (paper)

  16. New, clean handling process introduced to improve cable quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C G

    1990-05-01

    The clean room system introduced by Canada Wire and Cable Limited in its Toronto plant for its cable manufacturing operation is described. While clean room technology is common in the food processing industry, optical and aerospace manufacturing processes, this is the first time it has been applied to wire and cable extrusion in North America. The purpose of the clean compound handling system is to prevent particle contamination in the shielding and cable insulation materials, as part of an effort to prevent premature underground electric cable failures. Two rooms are dedicated to handling different types of insulation compound, two are dedicated to receiving semi-conducting shielding material, and the fifth room functions as an air lock for the two insulation rooms. The atmosphere is highly regulated with programmable logic control. The air supply filters capture 99.97% of all particles 0.3 microns or larger. The system also maintains air temperature, relative humidity and static pressure. The life variability of cross-linked polyethylene primary distribution cable is dependant on five factors: material purity, extra clean compound handling, cable design, manufacturing process, and installation and operation practices. The clean room system is expected to result in cable that is more resistant to water treeing failures. 2 figs.

  17. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Keiji [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR`s, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of E{beta} radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 {approx} 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented.

  18. 47 CFR 15.118 - Cable ready consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. 15... Unintentional Radiators § 15.118 Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. (a) All consumer electronics TV... provisions of this section. Consumer electronics TV receiving equipment that includes features intended for...

  19. Cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukihashi, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1979-03-01

    Measuring cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING were completed recently. Measures are taken to prevent penetration of noises into the measuring systems. The cable systems are described in detail, including power supplies and grounding for the measuring systems. (author)

  20. Proposed Ordinance for the Regulation of Cable Television. Working Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Council, IL.

    A model ordinance is proposed for the regulation of cable television in the city of Chicago. It defines the language of the ordinance, sets forth the method of granting franchises, and describes the terms of the franchises. The duties of a commission to regulate cable television are listed and the method of selecting commission members is…