Sample records for solid earth geophysics

  1. Multidisciplinary projects and investigations on the solid earth geophysics; Metodi e prospettive per una maggiore conoscenza della crosta terrestre

    Slejko, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Trieste (Italy)


    Physical phenomena that occur in the solid part of the Earth are investigated by Solid Earth Geophysics together with problems related to the shape, location, and characteristics of the different parts that constitute the Earth. Repeated measurements lead the scientists to model the past evolution of the various processes as well as to forecast the future ones. Various disciplines refer to Solid Earth Geophysics, they are: Seismology, Gravimetry, Magnetometry, Geothermics, Geodesy, Geo electromagnetism, and Seismic Exploration. A special citation is due to Applied Geophysics, which are devoted to the identification of minerals, energetic and natural resources. The National Group of Solid Earth Geophysics was constituted in 1978 by CNR for promoting, developing, and coordinating researches related to Solid Earth Geophysics. The limited annual financial budget has conditioned the realisation of relevant multi-disciplinary projects. Nevertheless, important results were obtained in all different fields of Geophysics and were disseminated during the annual conference of the Group. A summary review of the main topics treated during the last conference is given here and some ideas for future research projects are presented. [Italian] La Geofisica della Terra Solida e' quella branca delle scienze e delle tecnologie che prende in considerazione dei fenomeni connessi con le caratteristiche fisiche della parte solida della Terra. La complessita' della costituzione della Terra e della sua evoluzione nel tempo implica che vengano prese in considerazione tutte le fenomenologie che si riescono a misurare e che costituiscono branche diverse della Geofisica: la Sismologia, la Gravimetria, la Magnetometria, la Geotermia, la Geodesia, il Geoelettromagnetismo, la Geofisica applicata. Ognuna di queste branche della Geofisica ha avuto in passato uno sviluppo quasi del tutto indipendente con collaborazioni o integrazioni dirtte ad obiettivi specifici, limitati anche nel tempo

  2. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach for solid earth geophysics in Seafloor Observatories data analysis

    Embriaco, Davide; De Caro, Mariagrazia; De Santis, Angelo; Etiope, Giuseppe; Frugoni, Francesco; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta; Monna, Stephen; Montuori, Caterina; Sgroi, Tiziana; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo


    Continuous time-series in deep ocean waters are the basis for an original approach in ocean exploration. The observation of phenomena variability over time is key to understanding many Earth processes, among which: hydrothermal systems, active tectonics, and ecosystem life cycles. Geo-hazards at sea have often been studied with a single-parameter approach on a short time-scale, but it is now becoming clear that to understand these phenomena and, specifically, to identify precursors to very energetic events, such as mega-earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions, continuous long-term multiparameter monitoring is strongly needed. In fact, given a signal of interest, by using several sensors recording simultaneously it is possible to identify the contribution of different sources to this signal, and to be less prone to false associations. In Europe, large cabled systems with marine sensors are being developed for near real-time and real-time long-term monitoring of ocean processes within the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory Research Infrastructure. Obtaining good quality long-term multiparameter data from sensors on-board seafloor observatories, which are the base of a multidisciplinary approach, is a challenging task. We describe the main steps we have taken to retrieve good quality multiparametric data acquired by GEOSTAR class seafloor observatories, both standalone and cabled, deployed at various sites offshore European coast during the last decade. Starting from this data we show the application of a multidisciplinary approach with some examples coming from experiments in EMSO sites.

  3. Geophysics

    Bolt, Bruce


    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 13: Geophysics is a 10-chapter text that focuses with the theoretical solid-earth geophysics. This volume specifically covers the general topics of terrestrial magnetism and electricity, the Earth's gravity field, tidal deformations, dynamics of global spin, spin processing, and convective models for the deep interior. This volume surveys first the construction of mathematical models, such as the representation of the geomagnetic field by assuming arrangements of multipole sources in the core and the fast computer evaluation of two- and three-dimensiona

  4. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  5. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Paquet, P.


    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  6. Geophysics of an Oceanic Ice Shell on Snowball Earth

    Gaidos, E. J.


    Kirschvink proposed Precambrian low-latitude glaciation could result in an albedo-driven catastrophic runaway to a "Snowball Earth" state in which pack ice up to 1 km thick covered the world ocean. The geophysical state of an ice crust on a Snowball Earth is examined.

  7. [Comments on “Solid earth geophysics” and “More on South American geophysics”] More on S.A. geophysics

    Verma, Surendra P.

    I would like to add to the analyses of J. Urrutia Fucugauchi (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) and C. Lomnitz (Eos, 63, September 21, 1982, p. 786) on South American geophysics. I believe that the lack of a proper infrastructure and of funds on a medium- to long-term basis and the existence of a highly bureaucratic setup constitute further causes of the slow progress of geophysics in Latin America. Although it is true, as C. Lomnitz correctly points out, that in Mexico there has been an increase in funding over the past decade, it has not been applied on carefully planned long-term projects. Instead, the individual projects have received ‘short quantum’ of money input. Thus, all of a sudden, there is a ‘big’ investment for purchasing costly equipment, but no adequate follow-up efforts are made to be able to use it efficiently. Further, the research projects are bound to fail because the excessive bureaucratic set-up makes it difficult to obtain parts or accessories in a reasonable time. The ‘outside’ companies are very eager to sell costly equipment to Latin America, but they do very little to provide adequate technical support to see that such equipment is properly calibrated and kept operational for any reasonable time. In most cases their job is over when the equipment is sold.

  8. PREFACE: Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI

    Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Yamanaka, H.


    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science contains selected papers presented at the Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI. The meeting was held from June 8 to 10, 2015, at the Bale-Sawala of Universitas Padjadjaran in Jatinangor, Indonesia. The PEDISGI is a symposium to accommodate communication between researchers, in particular geophysicists and related scientists, and to enable sharing of knowledge and research findings concerning local and global geophysical issues. The symposium was attended by 126 participants and 64 contributors from Indonesian universities and the neighbouring countries in four categories, viz. Theoretical and Computational Geophysics, Environmental Geophysics, Geophysical Explorations, and Geophysical Instrumentations and Methods. The symposium was accompanied by a dialog, discussing a chosen topic regarding environmental and geological problems of relevance for the Indonesian archipelago and the surrounding regions. For this first event the topic was ''The formation of Bandung-Basin between myths and facts: Exemplary cultural, geological and geophysical study on the evolution of the earth surface'', presented by invited speakers and local experts. This activity was aimed at extending our knowledge on this particular subject, which may have global impact. This topic was augmented by theoretical background lectures on the earth's surface formation, presented by the invited speakers of the symposium. The meeting would not have been successful without the assistance of the local organizing committee. We want to specially thank Irwan A. Dharmawan for managing the programme, Anggie Susilawati and Mia U. Hasanah for the conference administration, and Dini Fitriani for financial management. We also thank the National Geographic Indonesia for its support via the Business to Business Collaboration Program. The conference photograph can be viewed in the PDF.



    20152233 An Zhenchang(Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China);Peng Fenglin Inspection and Study on the Geomagnetic Survey,Charts and Models during 1683~1949in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(11),2014,p.3795-3803,60refs.)

  10. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    Daily, Michael R.; Rohde, Steven B.; Novak, James L.


    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  11. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.


    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see

  12. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.


    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see

  13. Protoplanetary Earth Formation: Further Evidence and Geophysical Implications

    Herndon, J M


    Recently, I showed that the "standard model" of solar system formation is wrong,yielding the contradiction of terrestrial planets having insufficiently massive cores, and showed instead the consistency of Eucken's 1944 concept of planets raining out in the central regions of hot, gaseous protoplanets. Planets generally consist of concentric shells of matter, but there has been no adequate geophysical explanation to account for the Earth's non-contiguous crustal continental rock layer, except by assuming that the Earth in the distant past was smaller and subsequently expanded. Here, I show that formation of Earth, from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet, will account for the compression of the rocky Earth to about 64 percent of its current radius, yielding a closed, contiguous continental shell with concomitant Earth expansion commencing upon the subsequent removal of its protoplanetary gaseous shell. I now propose that Earth expansion progresses, not from spreading at mid-oceanic ridges as usually assumed, but...

  14. Studies in geophysics: The Earth's electrical environment


    The Earth is electrified. Between the surface and the outer reaches of the atmosphere, there is a global circuit that is maintained by worldwide thunderstorm activity and by upper atmospheric dynamo processes. The highest voltages approach a billion volts and are generated within thunderclouds, where lightning is a visual display of the cloud's electrical nature. The largest currents in the circuit, approaching a million amperes, are associated with the aurora. Because there have been significant advances in understanding many of the component parts of the global electric circuit (lightning, cloud electrification, electrical processes in specific atmospheric regions, and telluric currents), a principal research challenge is to understand how these components interact to shape the global circuit. Increased basic understanding in this field has many potential practical applications, including lightning protection, the design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft, and improvements in weather prediction.



    20150056 Gao Yanguang(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100087,China);Li Yonghua Crustal Thickness and Vp/Vsin the Northeast China-North China Region and Its Geological Implication(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(3),2014,p.847-857,7illus.,58 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:crust,Poisson’s ration,Northeast China,North China20150057 He Lijuan(State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-

  16. The Active Solid Earth

    Ebinger, Cynthia


    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  17. Geophysical constraints on mirror matter within the Earth

    Ignatiev, A Yu


    We have performed a detailed investigation of geophysical constraints on the possible admixture of mirror matter inside the Earth. On the basis of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) -- the `Standard Model' of the Earth's interior -- we have developed a method which allows one to compute changes in various quantities characterising the Earth (mass, moment of inertia, normal mode frequencies etc.)due to the presence of mirror matter. As a result we have been able to obtain for the first time the direct upper bounds on the possible concentration of the mirror matter in the Earth. In terms of the ratio of the mirror mass to the Earth mass a conservative upper bound is $3.8\\times 10^{-3}$. We then analysed possible mechanisms (such as lunar and solar tidal forces, meteorite impacts and earthquakes) of exciting mirror matter oscillations around the Earth centre. Such oscillations could manifest themselves through global variations of the gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface. We conclude that ...

  18. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    Khan, Amir


    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  19. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.


    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the

  20. Geophysics: The Earth in Space. A Guide for High School Students.

    American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Geophysics is the application of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the problems and processes of the earth, from its innermost core to its outermost environs in space. Fields within geophysics include the atmospheric sciences; geodesy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; hydrology; oceanography; planetology; seismology; solar-planetary…



    <正>20091452 Cai Xuelin(School of Earth Science,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiaming Lithospheric and Asthenospheric Structures of the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan Geoscience Transect(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,35(3),2008,p.375-391,8 illus.,2 tables,64 refs.)Key words:lithosphere,asthenosphere,Xinjiang,SichuanBy using the theory and method of modern structural analysis,this paper analyzes the explosion seismic sounding profiling and natural seismic surface wave tomographic imaging in the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan geoscience transect and integrates the results of research on geology,geochemistry,structural petrology of deep-seated xenoliths and geophysical signs.The studies indicate that the geometric structure pattern of high-speed blocks or mantle block tectonics is one of the basic conditions for controlling the lithospheric tectonic pattern and tectonic deformation of the lithospheric surface.

  2. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    Basavaiah, Nathani


    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.



    <正>20080091 Cheng Luying(Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430077,China);Xu Houze Rotation of the Gravity Potential on the Earth’s Gravity Field Recovery(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,49(1),2006,p.93-98,3 illus.,24 refs.,with English abstract)



    <正>20111476 Chen Bin(Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China);Gu Zuowen Study of Geomagnetic Secular Variation in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,53(9),2010,p.2144-2154,6 illus.,4 tables,38 refs.)Key words:secular variations of geomagnetic field,China



    <正>20122208 Chen Shi ( Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China );Wang Qianshen Thermal Isostasy of North China and Its Gravity Isostasy and Deep Structure ( Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074 / P,54 ( 11 ), 2011,p.2864-2875,8illus.,1 table,37refs. ) Key words:gravity field,Bouguer anomaly,isostasy theory,North China In this paper,based on the up to date global free-air gravity anomaly dataset ( TopexV18.1 ),

  6. Geophysics

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.


    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.



    <正>20140634 Cao Lingmin(Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Xu Yi Finite Difference Tomography of the Crustal Velocity Structure in Tengchong,Yunnan Province(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,56(4),2013,p.1159-1167,6illus.,35refs.,with English abstract)

  8. Emergent Models for Teaching Geology and Geophysics Using Google Earth

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.


    A significant limitation of Google Earth is that, whereas maps draped over the terrain may be made semi- transparent, the terrain itself is always opaque. It is not possible to see into the earth's interior - a region of particular interest to geologists and geophysicists. Furthermore, learning difficulties undoubtedly result for students because internal features of the Earth are not visible to them. At Fall AGU 2007, we showed how blocks of the earth's sub-surface could be made to emerge from the Google Earth terrain model so as to reveal crustal cross sections using either hand-drawn sketches or real data from geoseismic transects. We have refined these models to include surface topography on the tops of blocks and have produced a set of emergent cross sections representing various tectonic settings, including divergent and convergent margins, deep mantle plumes, and paleo-tectonic reconstructions. Comparing our models with typical sketches from textbooks reveals large disparities between cartoon representations of plate tectonics and real geometries from present plate configurations. Key discrepancies include substantial vertical exaggeration in cartoon models and mostly non-orthogonal collisional plate boundaries in the real world. These differences likely hinder understanding and lead to persistent misconceptions for students. With the support of the NSF CCLI program, we plan to recruit a cohort of instructors at 2- and 4-year colleges to participate in workshops in which sub-surface sketchup models will be generated in hands-on demonstrations. Participants will test the effectiveness of emergent models as learning objects in real classroom settings and compare the relative merits of Google Earth illustrations based on spatially-accurate research data versus cartoon representations of geological structures.


    ZHAO Chunshan; LI Kaitai; HUANG Aixiang


    In this paper, the long time behaviors of non-autonomous evolution system describing geophysical flow within the earth are studied. The uniqueness and existence of the solution to the evolution system and the existence of uniform attractor are proven.Moreover, the upper bounds of the uniform attractor's Hausdorff and Fractal dimensions are obtained.

  10. The EPOS implementation of thematic services for solid Earth sciences

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain

  11. Geophysical and geochemical constraints on geoneutrino fluxes from Earth's mantle

    Šrámek, Ondřej; Kite, Edwin S; Lekić, Vedran; Dye, Steve; Zhong, Shijie


    Knowledge of the amount and distribution of radiogenic heating in the mantle is crucial for understanding the dynamics of the Earth, including its thermal evolution, the style and planform of mantle convection, and the energetics of the core. Although the flux of heat from the surface of the planet is robustly estimated, the contributions of radiogenic heating and secular cooling remain poorly defined. Constraining the amount of heat-producing elements in the Earth will provide clues to understanding nebula condensation and planetary formation processes in early Solar System. Mantle radioactivity supplies power for mantle convection and plate tectonics, but estimates of mantle radiogenic heat production vary by a factor of up to 30. Recent experimental results demonstrate the potential for direct assessment of mantle radioactivity through observations of geoneutrinos, which are emitted by naturally occurring radionuclides. Predictions of the geoneutrino signal from the mantle exist for several established est...

  12. Viscosity near Earth's solid inner core



    Anomalous splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of oscillation of Earth's solid inner core is used to estimate the effective viscosity just outside its boundary. Superconducting gravimeter observations give periods of 3.5822 +/- 0.0012 (retrograde) and 4.0150 +/- 0.0010 (prograde) hours. With the use of Ekman layer theory to estimate viscous drag forces, an inferred single viscosity of 1.22 x 10(11) Pascal seconds gives calculated periods of 3.5839 and 4.0167 hours for the two modes, close to the observed values. The large effective viscosity is consistent with a fluid, solid-liquid mixture surrounding the inner core associated with the "compositional convection" that drives Earth's geodynamo.

  13. Application of the Earth's Natural Electromagnetic Noise to Geophysical Prospecting and Seraching for Oil

    Malyshkov, Sergey Yu; Gordeev, Vasily F; Shtalin, Sergey G; Polivach, Vitaly I; Bazhanov, Yury Yu; Hauan, Terje


    When applying the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields to geophysical prospecting one should take into account characteristics of their spatial and temporal variations. ENPEMF is known to include both pulses attributed to atmospheric thunderstorms and pulses generated in the lithosphere by mechanic-to-electric energy conversion in rocks. It is evident that the most valuable information on the geophysical structure of a certain area is obviously contained in pulses originated from this area. This article covers a method of recording spatial variations of the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields which is able to take due account of spatial and temporal variations of EM fields and suits to reveal crustal structural and lithologic heterogeneities including hydrocarbon pools. We use a system of several stations recording the ENPEMF concurrently to erase the temporal variations from ENPEMF records and to sort out the pulses of local and remote origin. Some stations are fixed (reference) and record o...

  14. Whole earth modeling: developing and disseminating scientific software for computational geophysics.

    Kellogg, L. H.


    Historically, a great deal of specialized scientific software for modeling and data analysis has been developed by individual researchers or small groups of scientists working on their own specific research problems. As the magnitude of available data and computer power has increased, so has the complexity of scientific problems addressed by computational methods, creating both a need to sustain existing scientific software, and expand its development to take advantage of new algorithms, new software approaches, and new computational hardware. To that end, communities like the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) have been established to support the use of best practices in scientific computing for solid earth geophysics research and teaching. Working as a scientific community enables computational geophysicists to take advantage of technological developments, improve the accuracy and performance of software, build on prior software development, and collaborate more readily. The CIG community, and others, have adopted an open-source development model, in which code is developed and disseminated by the community in an open fashion, using version control and software repositories like Git. One emerging issue is how to adequately identify and credit the intellectual contributions involved in creating open source scientific software. The traditional method of disseminating scientific ideas, peer reviewed publication, was not designed for review or crediting scientific software, although emerging publication strategies such software journals are attempting to address the need. We are piloting an integrated approach in which authors are identified and credited as scientific software is developed and run. Successful software citation requires integration with the scholarly publication and indexing mechanisms as well, to assign credit, ensure discoverability, and provide provenance for software.



    <正>20102191 Du Letian(Beijing Uranium Geology Research Institute,Beijing 100029,China)Mantle Ichor(HACONS Fluids):The Interior Crucial Factor of Geodynamics(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,30(6),2009,p.739-748,7 illus.,2 tables,36 refs.)Key words:mantle convection,ore-forming fluidsThis paper attempts to summarize the achievements in geodynamic studies as a whole.Five dynamic principles of the Earth are put forward in this paper:1)the introduction of Na and K to any kind of rocks is the key to magma genesis;2)Na-and K-metasomatism is the most fundamental mechanism in whole hydrothermalism;3)geotectonic movement results from mantle-crust asthenospherization,which is stimulated by Na-and K-metasomatism;4)the evolution of the Earth is represented;and 5)Na-and K-fluids(namely,mantle ichors-HACONS)are derived from deep hydrogen(H+,H,H2)flow extraction from the mantle.20102192 Gao Rui(Lithosphere Research Center,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)

  16. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.


    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules

  17. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅰ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  18. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅱ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance, the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  19. Expanding Earth and declining gravity: a chapter in the recent history of geophysics

    Kragh, H.


    Although speculative ideas of an expanding Earth can be found before World War II, it was only in the 1950s and 1960s that the theory attracted serious attention among a minority of earth scientists. While some of the proponents of the expanding Earth adopted an empiricist attitude by disregarding the physical cause of the assumed expansion, others argued that the cause, either fully or in part, was of cosmological origin. They referred to the possibility that the gravitational constant was slowly decreasing in time, as first suggested by P. Dirac in 1937. As a result of a stronger gravitation in the past, the ancient Earth would have been smaller than today. The gravitational argument for an expanding Earth was proposed by P. Jordan and L. Egyed in the 1950s and during the next 2 decades it was discussed by several physicists, astronomers and earth scientists. Among those who for a period felt attracted by "gravitational expansionism" were A. Holmes, J. Tuzo Wilson and F. Hoyle. The paper examines the idea of a varying gravitational constant and its impact on geophysics in the period from about 1955 to the mid-1970s.

  20. Geophysical investigation of earth dam using the electrical tomography resistivity technique

    Pedro Lemos Camarero

    Full Text Available Abstract Dams are structures that dam rivers and streams for a variety of purposes. These structures often need to be sturdy to withstand the force of the impoundment and the high values of accumulated water load. The constant maintenance of these structures is essential, since a possible accident can lead to damage of catastrophic proportions. This research presents an alternative cheap and quick application for investigating water seepage in earth dams, through the application of the DC resistivity geophysical method from the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT technique in Wenner array. Three ERT lines were placed parallel to the longitudinal axis of a dam formed by clay soil from the decomposition of diabase. The data are presented in 2D and pseudo-3D geophysical images with electrical resistivity values modeled. Based on the physical principle of electrolytic conduction, that is, decrease in electrical resistance in materials or siliceous minerals in moisture conditions as compared to the material in the dry state, the results revealed low-resistivity zones restricted to some points, associated with water infiltration in the transverse direction of the dam. The absence of evidence as water upwelling on the front of the dam together with geophysical evidence indicate saturation restricted to some points and low probability at the present time, for installation of piping processes.

  1. Geoethics and philosophy of Earth sciences: the role of geophysical factors in human evolution

    Telmo Pievani


    Full Text Available This article explores the role of philosophy of the Earth sciences in the foundation of the principles of ‘geoethics’. In particular, the focus is on two different examples of philosophical analysis in the field of geosciences: the first is the trial against the Italian National Commission for Forecasting and Predicting Great Risks, which was charged with negligence in communication and prediction on the occasion of the earthquake that almost destroyed the city of L’Aquila on the night of April 6, 2009; the second is related to the scientific and theoretical consequences of the updated geographical scenario of the human global populating of the Earth, based on archeological, paleontological and genetic data. Our concept of ‘scientific prediction’ in the case of geophysical phenomena and the new ways to see human evolution that depend on geophysical factors have ethical and philosophical implications that are crucial for the foundations of geoethics. The tentative conclusion is that we need an evolutionary sense of belonging to our Planet, and a concept of ‘natural’ phenomena and ‘natural’ disasters that should not be an alibi for the underestimation of our political and ethical responsibilities.

  2. Composite Constitutive Theory for a Solid Earth of Strong Lateral Viscosity Contrast.

    Ivins, Erik Roman


    Lateral heterogeneity in plastic dislocational creep strength is studied from the standpoint of composite media theory and applied to problems in solid Earth geophysics. The main goal is to investigate a constitutive approximation that would explain geophysical and geodetic observations of time-dependent Earth deformation. Of prime concern is a theory for the Earth that is capable of describing the details of how both microscopic and macroscopic deformation occurs in the simplest flow configurations over relatively short time scales. A composite model is proposed in which a hard matrix contains weak cylindrical inclusions. Both the matrix and inclusions are assumed to be stress-relaxing viscoelastic materials. Therefore, when the macrophysical constitutive equation is used with multiple physical boundaries a broad set of new 'relaxation spectra' characterize the boundary-initial-value problems familiar to mantle geophysics (isostasy, interplate stress diffusion, etc.). For cases of mantle deformation having periodic character (tides, nutations and polar wobble motions) the spectrum is complex. The goal is to obtain a physical basis for applying constitutive approximations for time-dependent flow with infinitesimal strain in the presence of spatial variations in mantle and crustal viscosity and then to evaluate the importance of lateral heterogeneity to: (1) tidal and rotational deformations; (2) surface displacement associated with post-seismic relaxation, and; (3) glacio-isostatic rebound. It is concluded that the weakest portions of the solid Earth that occur at a 1 to 10 percent level are very important to modeling several aspects of problems (1) (solid tides and rotation) and (2) (post-seismic rebound). Furthermore, it is concluded that the nature of the response modes and amplitudes limit the usefulness of a composite media approach to problem (3) (glacio-isostatic rebound).

  3. A New Global Theory of the Earth's Dynamics a Single Cause Can Explain All the Geophysical and Geological Phenomena

    Rousseau, A


    After describing all the contradictions associated with the current Plate Tectonics theory, this paper proposes a model where a single cause can explain all geophysical and geological phenomena. The source of the Earth's activity lies in the difference of the angular velocities of the mantle and of the solid inner core. The friction between both spheres infers heat, which is the cause of the melted iron which constitutes most of the liquid outer core, as well as the source of the global heat flow. The solid inner core angular velocity is supposed to remain steady, while the mantle angular velocity depends on gyroscopic forces (involving acceleration) and slowing down due to external attractions and, principally the motions of mantle plates 2900 km thick. The variations of the geomagnetic field are therefore the direct consequence of the variations of the angular velocity of the mantle relative to that of the inner core. As a result, the biological and tectonic evolutions during geological times are due to tho...

  4. Discover Our Earth: Web-Based Geophysical Data in the Classroom

    Moore, A.; Seber, D.; Danowski, D.; Brindisi, C.


    Discover Our Earth is a web-based system designed for classroom use, allowing access and display of geospatial data sets . It is an education and outreach module built as part of Cornell University's Geoscience Information System, originally constructed as a tool for geophysical research ( Discover Our Earth has been used in university, high school and middle school classrooms. Working with real data is a powerful tool for helping students learn scientific principles, content, and the processes of scientific inquiry. In order to give students access to data that is otherwise difficult to work with, Discover Our Earth is comprised of several elements. The central component is a Java applet called QUEST (Quick Use Earth Study Tool). QUEST allows students to query and display data from three data sets selected from the 100+ housed within the Information System. Any attribute of earthquake, volcano, or topographic data can be selected and displayed, and multiple data sets can be overlain on each other, or on assorted background images (such as a geographic base map, age of the sea floor etc). Each image is saved in the QUEST history window, allowing students to compare multiple selections, or to animate a series of images as a "filmstrip." In order to help students better understand their results, the QUEST applet is supported by several other components. There are guides for both teacher and student. The student guide gives step-by-step instructions for a series of problems, and suggests others that will help students answer questions of local and global interest. The teacher guide provides background material, context, and answers to the student exercises. There are animations and 3-D visualizations that allow students to better interpret their maps. Additionally, there are interactive experiments on topics such as continental drift, isostasy, viscosity, that allow students to explore the physics that underlie the processes they are

  5. Observation of the Earth's nutation by the VLBI: how accurate is the geophysical signal

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien B.; Bizouard, Christian


    We compare nutation time series determined by several International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) analysis centers. These series were made available through the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). We adjust the amplitudes of the main nutations, including the free motion associated with the free core nutation (FCN). Then, we discuss the results in terms of physics of the Earth's interior. We find consistent FCN signals in all of the time series, and we provide corrections to IAU 2000A series for a number of nutation terms with realistic errors. It appears that the analysis configuration or the software packages used by each analysis center introduce an error comparable to the amplitude of the prominent corrections. We show that the inconsistencies between series have significant consequences on our understanding of the Earth's deep interior, especially for the free inner core resonance: they induce an uncertainty on the FCN period of about 0.5 day, and on the free inner core nutation (FICN) period of more than 1000 days, comparable to the estimated period itself. Though the FCN parameters are not so much affected, a 100 % error shows up for the FICN parameters and prevents from geophysical conclusions.

  6. Observation of the Earth's nutation by the VLBI: how accurate is the geophysical signal

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien B.; Bizouard, Christian


    We compare nutation time series determined by several International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) analysis centers. These series were made available through the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). We adjust the amplitudes of the main nutations, including the free motion associated with the free core nutation (FCN). Then, we discuss the results in terms of physics of the Earth's interior. We find consistent FCN signals in all of the time series, and we provide corrections to IAU 2000A series for a number of nutation terms with realistic errors. It appears that the analysis configuration or the software packages used by each analysis center introduce an error comparable to the amplitude of the prominent corrections. We show that the inconsistencies between series have significant consequences on our understanding of the Earth's deep interior, especially for the free inner core resonance: they induce an uncertainty on the FCN period of about 0.5 day, and on the free inner core nutation (FICN) period of more than 1000 days, comparable to the estimated period itself. Though the FCN parameters are not so much affected, a 100 % error shows up for the FICN parameters and prevents from geophysical conclusions.

  7. Using earthquakes to uncover the Earth's inner secrets: interactive exhibits for geophysical education

    C. Nostro


    Full Text Available The Educational & Outreach Group (E&O Group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV designed a portable museum to bring on the road educational activities focused on seismology, seismic hazard and Earth science. This project was developed for the first edition of the Science Festival organized in Genoa, Italy, in 2003. The museum has been mainly focused to school students of all ages and explains the main topics of geophysics through posters, movie and slide presentations, and exciting interactive experiments. This new INGV museum has been remarkably successful, being visited by more than 8000 children and adults during the 10 days of the Science Festival. It is now installed at the INGV headquarters in Rome and represents the main attraction during the visits of the schools all year round.

  8. Interplay between solid Earth and biological evolution

    Höning, Dennis; Spohn, Tilman


    Major shifts in Earth's evolution led to progressive adaptations of the biosphere. Particularly the emergence of continents permitted efficient use of solar energy. However, the widespread evolution of the biosphere fed back to the Earth system, often argued as a cause for the great oxidation event or as an important component in stabilizing Earth's climate. Furthermore, biologically enhanced weathering rates alter the flux of sediments in subduction zones, establishing a potential link to the deep interior. Stably bound water within subducting sediments not only enhances partial melting but further affects the mantle rheology. The mantle responds by enhancing its rates of convection, water outgassing, and subduction. How crucial is the emergence and evolution of life on Earth to these processes, and how would Earth have been evolved without the emergence of life? We here discuss concepts and present models addressing these questions and discuss the biosphere as a major component in evolving Earth system feedback cycles.

  9. Scaling and multifractal fields in the solid earth and topography

    S. Lovejoy


    Full Text Available Starting about thirty years ago, new ideas in nonlinear dynamics, particularly fractals and scaling, provoked an explosive growth of research both in modeling and in experimentally characterizing geosystems over wide ranges of scale. In this review we focus on scaling advances in solid earth geophysics including the topography. To reduce the review to manageable proportions, we restrict our attention to scaling fields, i.e. to the discussion of intensive quantities such as ore concentrations, rock densities, susceptibilities, and magnetic and gravitational fields.

    We discuss the growing body of evidence showing that geofields are scaling (have power law dependencies on spatial scale, resolution, over wide ranges of both horizontal and vertical scale. Focusing on the cases where both horizontal and vertical statistics have both been estimated from proximate data, we argue that the exponents are systematically different, reflecting lithospheric stratification which – while very strong at small scales – becomes less and less pronounced at larger and larger scales, but in a scaling manner. We then discuss the necessity for treating the fields as multifractals rather than monofractals, the latter being too restrictive a framework. We discuss the consequences of multifractality for geostatistics, we then discuss cascade processes in which the same dynamical mechanism repeats scale after scale over a range. Using the binomial model first proposed by de Wijs (1951 as an example, we discuss the issues of microcanonical versus canonical conservation, algebraic ("Pareto" versus long tailed (e.g. lognormal distributions, multifractal universality, conservative and nonconservative multifractal processes, codimension versus dimension formalisms. We compare and contrast different scaling models (fractional Brownian motion, fractional Levy motion, continuous (in scale cascades, showing that they are all based on fractional integrations of noises

  10. Geophysics education on the Internet: Course production and assessment of our MOOC, "Deep Earth Science"

    Okuda, Y.; Tazawa, K.; Sugie, K.; Sakuraba, H.; Hideki, M.; Tagawa, S.; Cross, S. J.


    Recently, massive open online courses (MOOC or MOOCs) have gained wide-spread attention as a new educational platform delivered via the internet. Many leading institutions all over the world have provided many fascinating MOOC courses in various fields. Students enrolled in MOOCs study their interested topic in a course not only by watching video lectures, reading texts, and answering questions, but also by utilizing interactive online tools such as discussion boards, Q&A sessions and peer assessments. MOOC is also gaining popularity as a way to do outreach activity and diffuse research results. Tokyo Institute of Technology provided its 1st MOOC, "Introduction to Deep Earth Science Part1" on edX, which is one of the largest MOOC providers. This four-week-long course was designed for 1st year college students and with two learning goals in this course; 1) to introduce students to the fascinating knowledge of solid Earth, 2) to provide an opportunity to use scientific thinking as well as to show how interesting and exciting science can be. This course contained materials such as 1) structure of inside of the Earth 2) internal temperature of the earth and how it is estimated and 3) chemical compositions and dynamics inside the earth. After the end of the provision of Part1, this course was re-made as "Introduction to Deep Earth Science"(so to speak, Part2) on the basis of opinions obtained from students who have attended our course and student teaching assistants (TA) who have run and produced this course. In this presentation, we will explain our MOOC making model, which is a team based course creation effort between the course instructor, Tokyo Tech Online Education Development Office (OEDO) staff and TA students. Moreover, we will share details and feedback of Part1 received from some of the 5000 enrolled students from 150 counties and regions, and report the implementation of Part2 in the light of challenges resulted from Part1.



    20160511An Yulin(School of Geophysics and Information Technology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Guo Lianghui High Precision Computation and Numerical Value Characteristics of Gravity Emendation Values Arising from Mass of the Earth

  12. Integrating Diverse Geophysical and Geological Data to Construct Multi-Dimensional Earth Models: The Open Earth Framework

    Baru, C.; Keller, R.; Wallet, B.; Crosby, C.; Moreland, J.; Nadeau, D.


    Currently, many large geoscientific efforts (e.g., EarthScope, Continental Dynamics, and GeoSwath) have emphasized that a crucial need in advancing our understanding of the structure and evolution of the continents is high-resolution, 3-D models of lithospheric structure. In addition, the geoscience community recognizes that our ultimate goal is the addition of the dimension of time to make the problem 4-D. Adding the dimension of time is a complex problem that is strongly dependent on the integration of a variety of geological data into our analyses (e.g., geochronology, paleontology, stratigraphy, pressure-time histories, structural geology, paleogeography, etc.). The geoscience community also recognizes that solutions to the scientific and societal questions that they seek to answer require innovative integration of many types of data so that many physical properties (x, y, z, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, electrical conductivity, etc.) are measured and included in 3-D models. The problem is, therefore, truly multidimensional in nature. We are developing an Open Earth Framework (OEF) as an open data model for integration of such multidimensional Earth Sciences data. In our work and interactions with the community on building and visualizing complex earth models, several issues have emerged on which there is consensus. First of all, integration efforts should work from the surface down because we have the most data there (e.g., geologic maps, remote sensing data such as LIDAR and ASTER, digital elevation models, gravity and magnetic measurements, etc.) and because the complex conditions near surface always have a potential to mask deeper features. Secondly since we cannot expect uniform coverage of a variety of high-resolution data in anything but special circumstances, a data integration effort should first establish a regional context using lower resolution (and usually wide coverage) data and then proceed to modeling the data sets with the highest

  13. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.


    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  14. Formation cause,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of rare earth solid wastes

    许涛; 彭会清


    Based on practical situation of rare earth industrial chain,production process and rare earth materials that could produce solid wastes on batch were discussed.Formation cause,formation volume,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of the solid wastes of rare earth hydrometallurgy slag,electrolysis slag,Fe-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,Co-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,rare earth hydrogen storage materials,rare earth polishing powders and rare earth catalysts were ...

  15. New interpretation of data of the Earth's solid core

    Guliyev, H. H.


    The commonly accepted scientific opinions on the inner core as the deformable solid globe are based on the solution of the problem on the distribution of elastic parameters in the inner structures of the Earth. The given solution is obtained within the necessary integral conditions on its self-weight, moment of inertia concerning the axes of rotation and periods of free oscillations of the Earth. It is shown that this solution does not satisfy the mechanics of the deformable solid body with sufficient local conditions following from basic principles concerning the strength, stability and actuality of velocities of propagation of elastic waves. The violation of local conditions shows that the inner core cannot exist in the form of the deformable solid body within the commonly accepted elastic parameters.


    Fabio Florindo


    Full Text Available Annals of Geophysics is a bimonthly international journal, which publishes scientific papers in the field of geophysics sensu lato. It derives from Annali di Geofisica, which commenced publication in January 1948 as a quarterly periodical devoted to general geophysics, seismology, earth magnetism, and atmospheric studies. The journal was published regularly for a quarter of a century until 1982 when it merged with the French journal Annales de Géophysique to become Annales Geophysicae under the aegis of the European Geophysical Society. In 1981, this journal ceased publication of the section on solid earth geophysics, ending the legacy of Annali di Geofisica. In 1993, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING, founder of the journal, decided to resume publication of its own journal under the same name, Annali di Geofisica. To ensure continuity, the first volume of the new series was assigned the volume number XXXVI (following the last issue published in 1982. In 2002, with volume XLV, the name of the journal was translated into English to become Annals of Geophysics and in consequence the journal impact factor counter was restarted. Starting in 2010, in order to improve its status and better serve the science community, Annals of Geophysics has instituted a number of editorial changes including full electronic open access, freely accessible online, the possibility to comment on and discuss papers online, and a board of editors representing Asia and the Americas as well as Europe. [...

  17. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  18. Study on rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 solid electrolyte

    YAN Kai; ZHEN Qiang; Song Xiwen


    Five types of rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 superfine-powders were synthesized by a low-temperature combustion technique. The relevant solid electrolyte materials were also sintered by pressureless sintering at different temperatures. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size of the powders was approximately 20-30 nm, and rare earth/alkaline earth oxides were completely dissolved into ceria-based solid solution with fluorite structure. The electrical conductivities of the Sm2O3-CeO2 system were measured by the ac impedance technique in air at temperatures ranging from 513-900℃. The results indicated that the ionic conductivities of Sm0.20Ce0.8O1.875 solid electrolyte increase with increasing sintering temperature, and the relationship between the conductivities and measuring temperature obeys the Arrhenius equation. Then the Sm2O3-CeO2 material was further doped with other rare earth/alkaline earth oxide, and the conductivities improve with the effective index.

  19. Assessing vulnerability to vegetation growth on earth dikes using geophysical investigation

    Mary, Benjamin; Saracco, Ginette; Peyras, Laurent; Vennetier, Michel; Mériaux, Patrice


    The Mediterranean Basin is prone to a plethora of natural hazards including floods. Vegetation growth in hydraulic earth structures, such as flood protections or channel levees and dams, may induce several degradation mechanisms leading to a risk of failure. Typically, trees' rooting generates two types of risks: internal erosion from root development in earth embankments, and external erosion (slopes and crest) which is often related to trees uprooting. To better assess how woody vegetation can compromise levee integrity, we designed a methodology using acoustical and complex electrical tomography as non destructives methods to spot dangerous roots in the embankment. Our work has been first initiated during laboratory experiments; we performed soundings in controlled conditions to determine both acoustical and electrical intrinsic behavior of our root samples. By comparison with soil samples we expected to point out specific signatures that would be useful for the roots anomaly identification in real conditions. Measurements were repeated on several samples to ensure statistical interpretation. With help of an ultrasonic transmission device, we identified significant relative velocity differences of compressional waves propagation between soil and root samples. We also studied spectral properties using wavelet processing method as an additional parameter of root distinction with the surrounding soil. In the case of electrical soundings, complex resistivity was measured and we computed resistivity spectra. Amplitude of resistivity term showed us that root material behaves as an insulator compared to the soil. With the phase resistivity term information, root can also be seen as an electric power capacitance and reveals maximum polarization effect located around 1Hz. Then, as experimental device for the field measurements, we selected a 320 cm high poplar (Populus) planted in a homogeneous loamy-clayed soil, which is the same soil used in laboratory experiment to

  20. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Carolina Del Roveri


    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  1. Geophysical disturbance environment during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971.

    Davis, T. N.; Stanley, G. M.; Boyd, J. S.


    The geophysical disturbance environment was quiet during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971. At the time of the release, the magnetosphere was in the late recovery phase of a principal magnetic storm, the provisional Dst value was -13 gammas, and the local horizontal disturbance at Great Whale River was near zero. Riometer and other observations indicated low-level widespread precipitation of high-energy electrons at Great Whale River before, during, and after the release. Cloudy sky at this station prevented optical observation of aurora. No magnetic or ionospheric effects attributable to the barium release were detected at Great Whale River.

  2. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the


    integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS is coordinating include: i) regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards. Here we present the successful story of the EPOS Preparatory Phase and the progress towards the implementation of both integrated core services (ICS) and thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We aim to discuss the achieved results and the approach followed to design the implementation phase. The goal is to present and discuss the strategies adopted to foster the implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS, and their integration to develop the new ICS. We will present the prototype of the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth sciences as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. Finally, we will discuss the well-defined role of the EPOS-ERIC Headquarter to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services (through ICS and TCS) looking for an effective commitment by national governments. It will be an important and timely opportunity to discuss the EPOS roadmap toward the operation of the novel multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth sciences.

  3. Information Theory and the Earth's Density Distribution

    Rubincam, D. P.


    An argument for using the information theory approach as an inference technique in solid earth geophysics. A spherically symmetric density distribution is derived as an example of the method. A simple model of the earth plus knowledge of its mass and moment of inertia lead to a density distribution which was surprisingly close to the optimum distribution. Future directions for the information theory approach in solid earth geophysics as well as its strengths and weaknesses are discussed.

  4. Building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences: the EPOS integrated approach

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    Services (ICS) to provide a novel research platform to different stakeholders; designing the access to distributed computational resources (ICS-d); ensuring sustainability and governance of TCS and EPOS-ERIC. The research infrastructures (RIs) that EPOS is coordinating include: i) distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services; v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards; vi) access to geo-energy test beds. Here we present the activities planned for the implementation phase focusing on the TCS, the ICS and on their interoperability. We will discuss the data, data-products, software and services (DDSS) presently under implementation, which will be validated and tested during the project lifetime. Particular attention will be given to showing the progress toward the establishment of EPOS-ERIC Headquarter, to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services, and the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth science as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. It will be an important and timely opportunity to discuss the EPOS roadmap toward the operation of the novel multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth science.

  5. Observing the solid Earth, oceans and land waters from space

    Cazenave A.


    Full Text Available In this article, we present a number of significant results related to the solid Earth and its fluid envelopes obtained in the recent years/decades using remote sensing techniques. We first discuss measurements of the Earth gravity field at different spatial scales and the recovery of seafloor topography from satellite altimetry. We briefly mention precise positioning results based on GPS and other space techniques, and applications to tectonic motions and crustal deformations. Next we discuss recent advances in ocean dynamics based on high-precision satellite altimetry missions, and focus on sea level rise. We also discuss how remote sensing techniques, including space gravimetry, inform on the mass balance of the ice sheets and corresponding contribution to sea level rise. As a final example, we report on the monitoring of surface water levels (lakes, rivers, floodplains by satellite altimetry and on total land water storage change at river basin scale, using space gravimetry observations.

  6. Application of TOPEX Altimetry for Solid Earth Deformation Studies

    Hyongki Lee


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the use of satellite radar altimetry to detect solid Earth deformation signals such as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA. Our study region covers moderately flat land surfaces seasonally covered by snow/ice/vegetation. The maximum solid Earth uplift of ~10 mm yr-1 is primarily due to the incomplete glacial isostatic rebound that occurs around Hudson Bay, North America. We use decadal (1992 - 2002 surface height measurements from TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry to generate height changes time series for 12 selected locations in the study region. Due to the seasonally varying surface characteristics, we first perform radar waveform shape classification and have found that most of the waveforms are quasi-diffuse during winter/spring and specular during summer/fall. As a result, we used the NASA £]-retracker for the quasi-diffuse waveforms and the Offset Center of Gravity or the threshold retracker for the specular waveforms, to generate the surface height time series. The TOPEX height change time series exhibit coherent seasonal signals (higher amplitude during the winter and lower amplitude during the summer, and the estimated deformation rates agree qualitatively well with GPS vertical velocities, and with altimeter/tide gauge combined vertical velocities around the Great Lakes. The TOPEX observations also agree well with various GIA model predictions, especially with the ICE-5G (VM2 model with differences at 0.2 ¡_ 1.4 mm yr-1, indicating that TOPEX has indeed observed solid Earth deformation signals manifested as crustal uplift over the former Laurentide Ice Sheet region.

  7. The EPOS Architecture: Integrated Services for solid Earth Science

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) represents a scientific vision and an IT approach in which innovative multidisciplinary research is made possible for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS has a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from existing (but also new) distributed research infrastructures, for solid Earth science. One primary purpose of EPOS is to take full advantage of the new e-science opportunities coming available. The aim is to obtain an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth sciences in Europe. The EPOS preparatory phase (EPOS PP), funded by the European Commission within the Capacities program, started on November 1st 2010 and it has completed its first two years of activity. EPOS is presently mid-way through its preparatory phase and to date it has achieved all the objectives, milestones and deliverables planned in its roadmap towards construction. The EPOS mission is to integrate the existing research infrastructures (RIs) in solid Earth science warranting increased accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations. This is expected to enhance worldwide interoperability in the Earth Sciences and establish a leading, integrated European infrastructure offering services to researchers and other stakeholders. The Preparatory Phase aims at leveraging the project to the level of maturity required to implement the EPOS construction phase, with a defined legal structure, detailed technical planning and financial plan. We will present the EPOS architecture, which relies on the integration of the main outcomes from legal, governance and financial work following the strategic EPOS roadmap and according to the technical work done during the


    李开泰; 赵春山


    The uniqueness for unbounded classical solutions of the evolution system describing geophysical flow within the earth and its associated systems is investigated. Under suitable growth conditions,it is shown that the solution to the initial value problem is unique. Moreover,a counterexample is given if the growth conditions are not satisfied.

  9. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  10. Rare earth mineral potential in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain from integrated geophysical, geochemical, and geological approaches

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bern, Carleton; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Daniels, David L.; Benzel, William M.; Budahn, James R.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Karst, Adam; Davis, Richard


    We combined geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and geological data to evaluate the regional presence of rare earth element (REE)−bearing minerals in heavy mineral sand deposits of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also analyzed regional differences in these data to determine probable sedimentary provenance. Analyses of heavy mineral separates covering the region show strong correlations between thorium, monazite, and xenotime, suggesting that radiometric equivalent thorium (eTh) can be used as a geophysical proxy for those REE-bearing minerals. Airborne radiometric data collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program cover the southeastern United States with line spacing varying from ∼2 to 10 km. These data show eTh highs over Cretaceous and Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments from the Cape Fear arch in North Carolina to eastern Alabama; these highs decrease with distance from the Piedmont. Quaternary sediments along the modern coasts show weaker eTh anomalies, except near coast-parallel ridges from South Carolina to northern Florida. Prominent eTh anomalies are also observed over large riverbeds and their floodplains, even north of the Cape Fear arch where surrounding areas are relatively low. These variations were verified using ground geophysical measurements and sample analyses, indicating that radiometric methods are a useful exploration tool at varying scales. Further analyses of heavy mineral separates showed regional differences, not only in concentrations of monazite, but also of rutile and staurolite, and in magnetic susceptibility. The combined properties suggest the presence of subregions where heavy mineral sediments are primarily sourced from high-grade metamorphic, low-grade metamorphic, or igneous terrains, or where they represent a mixing of these sources. Comparisons between interpreted sources of heavy mineral sands near the Fall Line and igneous and metamorphic Piedmont and Blue Ridge units showed a strong

  11. Uncertainty analysis of atmospheric friction torque on the solid Earth

    Haoming Yan; Yong Huang


    The wind stress acquired from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF),National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate models and QSCAT satellite observations are analyzed by using frequency-wavenumber spectrum method.The spectrum of two climate models,i.e.,ECMWF and NCEP,is similar for both 10 m wind data and model output wind stress data,which indicates that both the climate models capture the key feature of wind stress.While the QSCAT wind stress data shows the similar characteristics with the two climate models in both spectrum domain and the spatial distribution,but with a factor of approximately 1.25 times larger than that of climate models in energy.These differences show the uncertainty in the different wind stress products,which inevitably cause the atmospheric friction torque uncertainties on solid Earth with a 60% departure in annual amplitude,and furtherly affect the precise estimation of the Earth's rotation.

  12. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    Komjathy, Attila; Cutts, James; Pauken, Michael; Kedar, Sharon; Smrekar, Suzanne


    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude ~3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise.In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere.We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  13. A strategy for Earth science from space in the 1980s. Part 1: Solid earth and oceans


    The report develops a ten-year science strategy for investigating the solid earth and dynamics of world oceans from Earth orbit. The strategy begins from the premise that earth studies have proceeded to the point where further advances in understanding Earth processes must be based on a global perspective and that the U.S. is technically ready to begin a global study approach from Earth orbit. The major areas of study and their fundamental problems are identified. The strategy defines the primary science objectives to be addressed and the essential measurements and precision to achieve them.

  14. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).


    ... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.5...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial physics...

  15. Observed changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness from GRACE data and geophysical models.

    Sun, Y; Ditmar, P; Riva, R

    A new methodology is proposed to estimate changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness ([Formula: see text] or equivalently, [Formula: see text]) on a monthly basis. The algorithm uses monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity solutions, an ocean bottom pressure model and a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model. The resulting time series agree remarkably well with a solution based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) data. Seasonal variations of the obtained time series show little sensitivity to the choice of GRACE solutions. Reducing signal leakage in coastal areas when dealing with GRACE data and accounting for self-attraction and loading effects when dealing with water redistribution in the ocean is crucial in achieving close agreement with the SLR-based solution in terms of de-trended solutions. The obtained trend estimates, on the other hand, may be less accurate due to their dependence on the GIA models, which still carry large uncertainties.

  16. The effects of the solid inner core and nonhydrostatic structure on the earth's forced nutations and earth tides

    De Vries, Dan; Wahr, John M.


    This paper computes the effects of the solid inner core (IC) on the forced nutations and earth tides, and on certain of the earth's rotational normal modes. The theoretical results are extended to include the effects of a solid IC and of nonhydrostatic structure. The presence of the IC is responsible for a new, almost diurnal, prograde normal mode which involves a relative rotation between the IC and fluid outer core about an equatorial axis. It is shown that the small size of the IC's effects on both nutations and tides is a consequence of the fact that the IC's moments of inertia are less than 1/1000 of the entire earth's.

  17. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Chao, B. F.


    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  18. Development, Deployment, and Assessment of Dynamic Geological and Geophysical Models Using the Google Earth APP and API: Implications for Undergraduate Education in the Earth and Planetary Sciences

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.


    We previously reported on innovative techniques for presenting data on virtual globes such as Google Earth using emergent Collada models that reveal subsurface geology and geophysics. We here present several new and enhanced models and linked lesson plans to aid deployment in undergraduate geoscience courses, along with preliminary results from our assessment of their effectiveness. The new Collada models are created with Google SketchUp, Bonzai3D, and MeshLab software, and are grouped to cover (i) small scale field mapping areas; (ii) regional scale studies of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Appalachian Orogen, and the Pacific Ring of Fire; and (iii) global scale studies of terrestrial planets, moons, and asteroids. Enhancements include emergent block models with three-dimensional surface topography; models that conserve structural orientation data; interactive virtual specimens; models that animate plate movements on the virtual globe; exploded 3-D views of planetary mantles and cores; and server-generated dynamic KML. We tested volunteer students and professors using Silverback monitoring software, think-aloud verbalizations, and questionnaires designed to assess their understanding of the underlying geo-scientific phenomena. With the aid of a cohort of instructors across the U.S., we are continuing to assess areas in which users encounter difficulties with both the software and geoscientific concepts. Preliminary results suggest that it is easy to overestimate the computer expertise of novice users even when they are content knowledge experts (i.e., instructors), and that a detailed introduction to virtual globe manipulation is essential before moving on to geoscience applications. Tasks that seem trivial to developers may present barriers to non-technical users and technicalities that challenge instructors may block adoption in the classroom. We have developed new models using the Google Earth API which permits enhanced interaction and dynamic feedback and

  19. Research in support of the EODAP validation program and solid earth geophysics

    Gaposchkin, E. M.


    A validation program to verify that geodetic space techniques can measure intersite distances of several hundred to several thousand kilometers and polar motion, both with a precision of about 5 cm is described. Laser data were analyzed using a new analytical approach "scalar translocation." It was found that this approach can give geodynamic information and that the method is promising and can be used on a variety of satellites with data of different accuracy.

  20. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa


    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  1. Information About the World Data Centers for Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Solid Earth Physics, Regional Multidisciplinary Initiatives of the Russian-Ukrainian World Data Centers Segment for Occurrence in the World Data System

    N Sergeyeva


    Full Text Available The Russian World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics and the World Data Center for Solid Earth Physics have been collecting, analyzing, archiving, and disseminating data and information on a wide range of geophysical disciplines since the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. The centers provide free and convenient access for users to their large and permanently increasing volumes of data. Russian WDCs participate in scientific national and international programs and projects, such as InterMAGNET, InterMARGINS, and the International Polar Year. Since 2008 there has been an association of five Russian WDCs and one Ukrainian WDC in a regional segment of the World Data Centers.

  2. Low Temperature Preparation of Ceria Solid Solutions Doubly Doped with Rare-Earth and Alkali-Earth and Their Properties as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    任引哲; 蒋凯; 王海霞; 孟健; 苏锵


    A series of solid electrolytes, (Ce0.8Ln0.2)1-xMxO2-δ (Ln= La, Nd, Sm, Gd, M:Alkali-earth), were prepared by amorphous citrate gel method. XRD patterns indicate that a pure fluorite phase is formed at 800 ℃. The electrical conductivity and the AC impedance spectra were measured. XPS spectra show that the oxygen vacancies increase owing to the MO doping, which results in the increase of the oxygen ionic transport number and conductivity. The performance of ceria-based solid electrolyte is improved. The effects of rare-earth and alkali-earth ions on the electricity were discussed. The open-circuit voltages and maximum power density of planar solid oxide fuel cell using (Ce0.8Sm0.2)1-0.05Ca0.05O2-δ as electrolyte are 0.86 V and 33 mW*cm-2, respectively.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Solid Earth Sciences-a HPC challenge

    Vlad Constantin Manea; Marina Manea; Mihai Pomeran; Lucian Besutiu; Luminita Zlagnean


    Presently, the Solid Earth Sciences started to move towards implementing High Performance Computational (HPC) research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, which strongly depends on the interaction between software and hardware. In this paper, they are presented benchmark results from two HPC systems. Testing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code specific for Solid Earth Sciences, the HPC system Horus, based on Gigabit Ethernet, performed reasonably well compared with...

  4. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Shi, Jianwei; Xiaoxu TENG; Wang, Linling; Long, Rong


    Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA) as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes...

  5. DORIS applications for solid earth and atmospheric sciences

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Jayles, Christian; Rolland, Lucie


    DORIS is a French precise orbit determination system. However, in the past four years, through the creation of the International DORIS Service, a larger international cooperation was involved. Furthermore, the precision of its scientific applications (geodesy, geophysics) gradually improved and expanded to new fields (atmospheric sciences), leading, for example, to the publication of a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy. The goal of this manuscript is to present and explain these changes and to put them in perspective with current results obtained with other space geodetic techniques, such as GPS or Satellite Laser Ranging.

  6. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... ocean circulation. Finally, we will discuss how the results of 3-D predictions can be utilized in geomagnetic field modeling and in a recovery of deep conductivity structures.......Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years...

  7. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years......, utilizing realistic 3-D conductivity models of the oceans, crust and mantle. In addition to these improvements in the prediction of 3-D induction effects, much attention has been paid to identifying magnetic signals of oceanic origin in observatory and satellite data. During the talk we will present...

  8. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.


    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes

  9. Studies on different geophysical and extra-terrestrial events within the Earth-ionosphere cavity in terms of ULF/ELF/VLF radio waves

    Sanfui, Minu; Haldar, D. K.; Biswas, Debasish


    The space between the two spherical conducting shells, Earth surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere, behaves as a spherical cavity in which some electromagnetic signals can propagate a long distance and is called Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Through this waveguide ultra low frequency (ULF), extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) signals can propagate efficiently with low attenuation. Resonances which occur for ELF waves due to round-the-world propagation interfering with 2n π phase difference are called Schumann resonances. Lightnings are the main sources of energy continuously producing these electromagnetic radiations from the troposphere. Some fixed frequency signals are also transmitted through the waveguide from different stations for navigation purposes. The intensity and phase of these signals at a particular position depend on the waveguide characteristics which are highly influenced by different natural events. Thus the signatures of different geophysical and extra-terrestrial events may be investigated by studying these signals through proper monitoring of the time series data using suitable techniques. In this article, we provide a review on ULF, ELF and VLF signals within the waveguide in terms of different geophysical and extra-terrestrial events like lightning, earthquakes, Leonid meteor shower, solar flares, solar eclipse, geomagnetic storms, and TLEs etc.

  10. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick


    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  11. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.


    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  12. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    King, Chris


    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  13. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    King, Chris


    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  14. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  15. Plans for living on a restless planet sets NASA's solid Earth agenda

    Solomon, S. C.; Baker, V. R.; Bloxham, J.; Booth, J.; Donnellan, A.; Elachi, C.; Evans, D.; Rignot, E.; Burbank, D.; Chao, B. F.; Chave, A.; Gillespie, A.; Herring, T.; Jeanloz, R.; LaBrecque, J.; Minster, B.; Pitman, W. C., III; Simons, M.; Turcotte, D. L.; Zoback, M. L.


    What are the most important challenges facing solid Earth science today and over the next two decades? And what is the best approach for NASA, in partnership with other agencies, to address these challenges? A new report, living on a restless planet, provides a blueprint for answering these questions. The top priority for a new spacecraft mission in the area of solid earth science over the next 5 years, according to this report, is a satellite dedicated to interferometric synthetic aperture radar(inSAR).

  16. Fluorescence-Detected Ultrafast Free-Induction Decay in Powdered Rare Earth Solids

    LUO Qi; DAI De-Chang; YU Xiang-Yang; QIU Zhi-Ren; ZHOU Jian-Ying; YAN Chun-Hua; CHEN Zhi-Da


    Fluorescence interferometry is developed and applied to study ultrafast amplitude and phase dynamics for fleeinduction decay in powdered rare earth solids. The time-resolved phase dynamics of free-induction decay throughout the decaying process is accurately determined by using a novel dual-channel correlation technique and subpicosecond dephasing time is measured for Nd3+ solids at room temperature. The phase dynamics is well simulated with linear coherent polarization theory.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Solid Complexes with Sodium 5-Aminosalicylate

    Zhang Xiuying; Li Shujing; Lei Xuefeng; Ma Junxian


    Ten new rare earth solid complexes were synthesized by the reaction of sodium 5-aminosalicyliate with rare earth chloride. The structure character, physical and chemical properties of these complexes were studied by IR, UV, 1H NMR spectra, TG-DTA, fluorescence, elemental analyses, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The ten rare earth complexes exist in dimeric form probably and the coordination number is seven. The antibacterial activity of the ligand and six complexes was also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the effect of Yb complex at 20 mg·ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus is most significant.

  18. Compressibility and planetary interiors. [solid core theory applicable to Earth and Venus

    Bullen, K. E.


    Important confirmations that the Earth's inner core is solid have recently come from analyses of records of free Earth oscillations and from the apparent detection of the seismic phase PKJKP. Corresponding support is given to the theory which supplied the primary evidence for rigidity in the inner core. This theory requires the incompressibility and its gradient with respect to the pressure p to vary fairly smoothly with p inside planets, and supplies a potent restriction on the allowable variations of particular physical properties inside parts of planetary interiors. The theory is at present principally applicable to the Earth and Venus. The paper reviews some of the principal implications.

  19. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Cloetingh, Sierd


    -level. Those cycles were detected as a result of the pioneering work on the stratigraphic record of sedimentary basins and continental margins from all over the world by Peter Vail, Bilal Haq and others from Exxon. It was at this time, that sedimentary basins became a frontier in the integration of quantitative geology and geophysics. Sedimentary basins do not only provide a powerful source of information on the evolution of the underlying lithosphere and climate fluctuations, but also contain mankind's main reservoirs of geo-energy and geo-resources. It was Peter Ziegler, head of global geology at Shell International, who was the prime mentor in my somewhat unexpected scientific journey in sedimentary basins. These became the main research target of the Tectonics research group I established in 1988 in Amsterdam. In these years it became increasingly evident that the rheology of the lithosphere exerts a crucial control on the evolution of basins, but also on continental topography. It is on this topic that the cooperation over more than two decades with Evgenii Burov, addressing issues like the rheological structure of Europe's lithosphere, rift shoulder uplift and the interplay of lithospheric folding and mantle-lithosphere interactions, has, been very fruitful. Another unexpected milestone has been the opportunity to build up, parallel to the research efforts in field studies and numerical modeling, an analogue tectonic laboratory in our group. This brings me to another issue, also completely unforeseen: the integration of earth science in Europe, particularly taking off after the disappearance of the Iron Curtain. For my group, the latter marked the beginning of a very fruitful cooperation in particular with the groups of Frank Horvath in Budapest and Cornel Dinu in Bucharest, addressing the fascinating solid Earth dynamics of the Carpathians and Pannonian basin. Over the last few years, it has been become evident that integration in the solid earth science is the way to

  20. Solid Earth ARISTOTELES mission data preprocessing simulation of gravity gradiometer

    Avanzi, G.; Stolfa, R.; Versini, B.

    Data preprocessing of the ARISTOTELES mission, which measures the Earth gravity gradient in a near polar orbit, was studied. The mission measures the gravity field at sea level through indirect measurements performed on the orbit, so that the evaluation steps consist in processing data from GRADIO accelerometer measurements. Due to the physical phenomena involved in the data collection experiment, it is possible to isolate at an initial stage a preprocessing of the gradiometer data based only on GRADIO measurements and not needing a detailed knowledge of the attitude and attitude rate sensors output. This preprocessing produces intermediate quantities used in future stages of the reduction. Software was designed and run to evaluate for this level of data reduction the achievable accuracy as a function of knowledge on instrument and satellite status parameters. The architecture of this element of preprocessing is described.

  1. Saturation of electrical resistivity of solid iron at Earth's core conditions.

    Pozzo, Monica; Alfè, Dario


    We report on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of solid iron at high pressure, up to and including conditions likely to be found at the centre of the Earth. We have extended some of the calculations of the resistivities of pure solid iron we recently performed at Earth's core conditions (Pozzo et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014) to lower temperature. We show that at low temperature the resistivity increases linearly with temperature, and saturates at high temperature. This saturation effect is well known as the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit in metals, but has been largely ignored to estimate the resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions. Recent experiments (Gomi et al. in Phys Earth Planet Int 224:88-103, 2013) coupled new high pressure data and saturation to predict the resitivity of iron and iron alloys at Earth's core conditions, and reported values up to three times lower than previous estimates, confirming recent first principles calculations (de Koker et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:4070-4073, 2012; Pozzo et al. in Nature 485:355-358, 2012, Phys Rev B 87:014110-10, 2013, Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014; Davies et al. in Nat Geosci 8:678-685, 2015). The present results support the saturation effect idea.

  2. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi


    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Solid Earth Sciences–a HPC challenge

    Luminita Zlagnean


    Full Text Available Presently, the Solid Earth Sciences started to move towards implementing High Performance Computational (HPC research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, which strongly depends on the interaction between software and hardware. In this paper, they are presented benchmark results from two HPC systems. Testing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code specific for Solid Earth Sciences, the HPC system Horus, based on Gigabit Ethernet, performed reasonably well compared with its counterpart CyberDyn, based on Infiniband QDR fabric. However, the HPCC CyberDyn based on low-latency high-speed QDR network dedicated to MPI traffic outperformed the HPCC Horus. Due to the high-resolution simulations involved in geodynamic research studies, HPC facilities used in Earth Sciences should benefit from larger up-front investment in future systems that are based on high-speed interconnects.

  4. A note on the thermal component of the equation of state in solids

    Celebonovic, V


    A simple method for determining the thermal component of the EOS of solids under high pressure is proposed.Application to the interior of the Earth gives results in agreement with recent geophysical data.

  5. Status of Research on Application of High Purity Rare Earth Oxides in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ma Zhihong; Qiu Jufeng


    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high-efficient and environmentally friendly power generation system.The rare earth oxide materials are used extensively in the manufacturing of SOFC components.In particular, the CeO2doped with Gd2O3 or Sm2O3, lanthanide perovskite oxides are indispensable and key materials for developing the intermediate temperature SOFC.The research and development status of application of high purity rare earth oxides in SOFC was overviewed.The rare earth oxide-based and -doped materials were discussed for the SOFC components.Concerning the rare earth oxides applicable to SOFC, several topics were also pointed out for further researching and developing.

  6. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Chao, Benjamin F.


    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  7. The teaching of geophysics in Latin America: An updated assessment

    Valencio, Daniel A.; Schneider, Otto

    The situation of geophysics in developing countries has been the subject of discussions and analysis by diverse international organizations. It was also discussed in some articles in Eos [e.g., Lomnitz, 1982; Urrutia Fucugauchi, 1982; Bolt, 1982]. We have been requested to contribute a current evaluation of the problem, with particular reference to geophysical education in Latin America.In the following report on specialized training of geophysicists in Latin American countries, we consider the “exact earth sciences” in the broader sense, i.e., the mathematical and physical (and, to a certain extent, chemical) aspects of the planet earth as a whole, including its fluid portions, as opposed to the more restricted concept of just solid earth geophysics. In other words, our inquiry follows the scope of both AGU and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), so geodesy, although not explicitly covered, will still be mentioned occasionally. We will also consider the applied branches, especially exploration geophysics, since these areas furnish powerful motivation for fostering our sciences, both in the governmental circles of developing countries and among the young people looking for a promising professional future.

  8. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Jianwei SHI


    Full Text Available Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes are characterized by means of elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR methods, and the phase stability of the complex is determined by using TG-DTA technique. It is proved that preparation of waterless binary rare earth complexes by the solid phase reaction method results in a higher product yield. The fluorescence spectra show that between Eu (Ⅲ and γ-NTA, there exists efficient energy transfer, and the rare earth complexes synthesis is an excellent red bright light-emitting material with excellent UV excited luminescence properties.

  9. Solid-State Lasers for Bathymetry and Communications. Studies of Four Rare-Earth Materials.


    The envelope was cerium -doped quartz, to reduce UV emission. The lamp was operated in simmer mode. The pulse forming network contained a 50-PF...class of solid state lasing materials called rare-earth fluorides . In these materials, the host lattice is LiYF4 (often called YLF), and the active...1971-1973 in which terbium-doped rare-earth fluorides were grown, and spectroscopy and lasing measurements conducted. A sample of Tb:LiGdF4 was lased

  10. Dunlop receives European Geophysical Society's Néel Medal

    Tauxe, Lisa

    David J. Dunlop of the Physics Department and Erindale College at the University of Toronto has been awarded the 1999 Louis Néel Medal of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) for “authoritative contributions to rock magnetism, setting the standards for future decades.” The medal will be presented to Dunlop in April in a special ceremony at the Nederlands Congresbebouw in The Hague, The Netherlands, during the 24th General Assembly of the EGS.The Néel Medal is awarded by the Solid Earth Geophysics section of EGS in recognition of the scientific achievements of Louis Néel, who shared the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental discoveries in magnetism.The medal is awarded “for outstanding achievements in the fertilization of the Earth Sciences by the transfer and application of fundamental theory and/or experimental techniques of solid state physics, defined in its broadest sense.”

  11. Fluorescence line-narrowing studies of rare earths in disordered solids

    Hall, D.W.


    This dissertation is made up of two experimental studies dealing with apparently diverse topics within the subject of rare earths (RE) in solids. The first study, described in Part II, concerns the vibrations of a disordered host material about an optically active rare-earth ion as manifested by vibrationally-assisted-electronic, or vibronic transitions. Part III of the dissertation describes an investigation of the influence of site anisotropy on the purely electronic, laser transition of Nd/sup 3 +/ in glass. These two studies are bound together by the common experimental technique of laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN). By exciting fluorescence with monochromatic light of well-characterized polarization, one may select and observe the response of a single subset of the optically active ions and obtain information that is usually masked by the inhomogeneous nature of disordered solids.

  12. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    Sőrés, László


    model (2D), and solid model (3D). Both measurements and models are derived from O&M sampling features that may be linked to sampling procedures and observation results. Geophysical products are output of complex procedures and can precisely be described as chains of consecutive O&M observations. For describing geophysical processes and results the data model both supports the use of OGC standard XML encoding (SensorML, SWE, GML) and traditional industry standards (SPS, UKOOA, SEG formats). To control the scope of the model and to harmonize terminology an initial set of extendable code lists was developed. The attempt to create a hierarchical SKOS vocabulary of terms for geophysical methods, resource types, processes, properties and technical parameters was partly based on the work done in the eContentPlus GEOMIND project. The result is far from being complete, and the work must be continued in the future.

  13. Subsurface Tiltmeter Observations of Solid Earth Tides and Rock Excavation in Northeastern Illinois

    Lancelle, C.; Volk, J.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.


    Tiltmeter arrays in the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) Near Detector Hall at Fermilab and the Lafarge - Conco Mine record solid earth tides and mechanical unloading due to excavation. The arrays are located approximately 100 meters underground in the Galena-Platteville dolomite in Northeastern Illinois. Just off of the MINOS Near Detector Hall a new cavern was excavated to house the Off-axis Neutrino Appearance Experiment (NOvA) program near detector. The recorded excavation response in the MINOS Near Detector Hall due to the NOvA cavern excavation is approximately thirteen times a point-load estimated response calculated using laboratory-determined properties. This discrepancy is likely due to variations in Young's Modulus in the rock in a field versus laboratory scale, although seasonal effects causing long term trends in the data could be part of this response. Amplitudes of measured solid earth tides differ from the amplitudes of theoretical solid earth tides by up to 40 percent for both arrays. This is likely due to a local heterogeneity or discontinuity.

  14. Tunable Solid-State Quantum Memory Using Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Crystal, Nd3(+):GaN


    Research Initiative was to work on developing solid-state quantum memory using cryogenically cooled rare- earth -ion-doped crystal, Nd3+:GaN. The samples...Initiative (DRI) was to work on developing solid-state quantum memory using cryogenically cooled rare- earth -ion- doped crystal, Nd3+:GaN. The samples were...Caltech group has been working in the area of quantum information of rare- earth doped solids for a number of years and is well equipped to perform



    <正>20131193 Bing Pingping (Key Lab.of Geophysical Exploration of CNPC , China University of Petroleum , Beijing 102249 , China); Cao Siyuan Non-Linear AVO Inversion Based on Support Vector Machine (Chinese Journal of Geophysics , ISSN0001-5733 , CN11-2074/P , 55 (3), 2012 , p.1025-1032 , 4illus. , 26 tables , 2refs.)

  16. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)


    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  17. Open Access to Geophysical Data

    Sergeyeva, Nataliya A.; Zabarinskaya, Ludmila P.


    Russian World Data Centers for Solar-Terrestrial Physics & Solid Earth Physics hosted by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences are the Regular Members of the ICSU-World Data System. Guided by the principles of the WDS Constitution and WDS Data Sharing Principles, the WDCs provide full and open access to data, long-term data stewardship, compliance with agreed-upon data standards and conventions, and mechanisms to facilitate and improve access to data. Historical and current geophysical data on different media, in the form of digital data sets, analog records, collections of maps, descriptions are stored and collected in the Centers. The WDCs regularly fill up repositories and database with new data, support them up to date. Now the WDCs focus on four new projects, aimed at increase of data available in network by retrospective data collection and digital preservation of data; creation of a modern system of registration and publication of data with digital object identifier (DOI) assignment, and promotion of data citation culture; creation of databases instead of file system for more convenient access to data; participation in the WDS Metadata Catalogue and Data Portal by creating of metadata for information resources of WDCs.

  18. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  19. Study on Co-Permeation of Solid Rare Earth, Boron and Vanadium

    陶小克; 董桂霞; 彭日升; 孙永昌


    The effect of rare earth compound of CeCl3 on the kinetic process, composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of co-permeating of solid powder boron-vanadium (B-V) was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of CeCl3 to permeating agent not only has obviously catalytic effect on permeating rate, which increases by more than 40%, but also greatly improves the hardness and abrasion resistant of the permeating layer owing to the formation of new phase of CeFe2 after Ce permeates into the layer of the part as an alloying ingredient. It is believed that rare earth elements accelerate the permeating rate of B and V by increasing the potentials of B and V of the agent, activating the surface of the workpiece, and decreasing the activation energy of diffusion of the B and V atoms.

  20. Making interdisciplinary solid Earth modeling and analysis tools accessible in a diverse undergraduate and graduate classroom

    Becker, T. W.


    I present results from ongoing, NSF-CAREER funded educational and research efforts that center around making numerical tools in seismology and geodynamics more accessible to a broader audience. The goal is not only to train students in quantitative, interdisciplinary research, but also to make methods more easily accessible to practitioners across disciplines. I describe the two main efforts that were funded, the Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment (SEATREE,, and a new Numerical Methods class. SEATREE is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate using solid Earth research tools in the undergraduate and graduate classroom and for interdisciplinary, scientific collaboration. We use only open-source software, and most programming is done in the Python computer language. We strive to make use of modern software design and development concepts while remaining compatible with traditional scientific coding and existing, legacy software. Our goals are to provide a fully contained, yet transparent package that lets users operate in an easy, graphically supported "black box" mode, while also allowing to look under the hood, for example to conduct numerous forward models to explore parameter space. SEATREE currently has several implemented modules, including on global mantle flow, 2D phase velocity tomography, and 2D mantle convection and was used at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and at a 2010 CIDER summer school tutorial. SEATREE was developed in collaboration with engineering and computer science undergraduate students, some of which have gone on to work in Earth Science projects. In the long run, we envision SEATREE to contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, and making (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. The other project is a set of lecture notes and Matlab exercises on Numerical Methods in solid Earth, focusing on finite difference and element methods. The

  1. Seismic wave velocities of rare gas solids through elastic properties in Earth's lower mantle

    Seema GUPTA; Suresh C. GOYAL


    The expressions for second (SOE) and third order elastic (TOE) constants for rare gas solids are de-rived for comparative study of elastic behavior within the framework of many body potentials including the effect of pressure. The derived expressions are used to obtain the relations for pressure derivatives of bulk and shear moduli of RGS solids. The values of SOE, TOE constants and pressure derivative of bulk and shear modulus for Ne up to 100 GPa, Ar up to 75 GPa, for Kr up to 136 GPa and Xe up to 53.4 GPa pressure are computed. The results are in agreement with available experimental results. The computed results are then used to analyze the pressure up to high compression and the elastic and seismic wave velocities (P & S) in Earth's deep interior.

  2. Exploration Geophysics

    Savit, Carl H.


    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  3. Agricultural Geophysics

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...



    <正>20072109 An Yong(Key Lab of Geophysics Exploration under CNPC,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wei Lichun Most Homogeneous Dip-Scanning Method Using Edge Preserving Smoothing for Seismic Noise Attenuation(Applied Geophysics,ISSN1672-7975,CN11-5212/O,3(4),2006,p.210-217,17 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration,denoising

  5. Formation of a solid inner core during the accretion of Earth

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar


    The formation of an inner core during the accretion of Earth is investigated by using self-gravitating and compressible Earth models formed by accreting a total of 25 or 50 Moon to Mars-sized planetary embryos. The impact of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's interior differentially, more below the impact site than elsewhere. The rotating core dynamically overturns and stratifies shortly after each impact, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution relative to an adiabatic profile. Merging of an embryo to the proto-Earth increases the lithostatic pressure that results in compressional temperature increase while further enhances the melting temperature of the core causing solidification. A total of 36 thermal evolution models of the growing proto-Earth's core are calculated to investigate effects of major physical parameters. No solidification is considered in the first 21 models where modified two-body escape velocities are used as the impact velocities of the embryos. At the end of accretion, temperatures in the upper part of the core are significantly different among these models, whereas temperatures in the deeper parts are similar. The core solidification considered in the remaining 15 models, where impact velocities higher than the modified two-body escape velocities are adopted, drastically changes the temperature distribution in the deeper parts of the core. All of the models produce partially solidified stiff inner cores, 1000-2100 km in radius, at the end of accretion, where the solid fraction is larger than 50%. The innermost of the stiff inner cores is completely solidified to radii 250-1500 km.

  6. The examination of the spread of the leachates coming out of a solid waste disposal area on the ground with geophysical and geochemical methods (Sivas, Turkey)

    Özel, Sevda; Yılmaz, Ali; Emin Candansayar, M.


    This study has been conducted in the irregular solid waste disposal area in the city of Sivas. The pollution spread formed by the leachates coming out of the disposal area has been examined with geophysical and geochemical works in this study. For this reason, the spread of the leachate pollution expanding in different geological units at both sides of a creek on the ground has been examined. For this purpose, the pollution spread has been examined with the methods of Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) and Electromagnetic Conductivity (EMC) and soil analyses. In the DCR method, 2D inversion of each sounding-profile datum measured alongside the lines parallel to each other and 3D inversion of the data measured in all the lines have been used in the interpretations. Apparent conductivity map has been attained from EMC measurements. The results of heavy metal analyses in the soil samples taken alongside the Haçin Creek have been assessed with the Spider diagram method. It has been determined that the flow of the leachate from geophysical models is in a SE direction and towards Kızılırmak and it continues vertically deeper than 4 m. In addition, it has been understood that the flow direction of the leachate is inspected by the geological structures. It has been understood from the geochemical results that the pollution in the soil stems from the leachate. In this way, it has been observed that the underground and surface water resources in the territory are under the threat of the pollution occurring due to the leachate.

  7. Developments in geophysical exploration methods


    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  8. ROMY: A 4-component large ring laser for geophysics

    Igel, H.; Schreiber, K. U.; Gebauer, A.; Wassermann, J. M.; Lin, C. J.; Bernauer, F.; Simonelli, A.; Wells, J. P. R.


    Observatory-based ring lasers are currently the most sensitive technology for measurements of rotational ground motions (seismology) and variations of Earth's rotation rate. Ring laser have so far been limited to single components only (e.g., the horizontal G-ring in Wettzell, Germany, measuring the rotation around a vertical axis). Within the ROMY project ( funded by the European Research Council we designed and constructed the first multi-component ring laser system for geophysics. The 4-component, tetrahedral-shaped, top-down ring laser sits on a connected concrete structure embedded underground 2m below the surface at the Geophysical Observatory Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany. The 4 independent equilateral triangular-shaped He-Ne ring lasers with 12 m side length are expected to resolve rotational motions below 12 prad/s/sqrt(Hz). We will report on the design and construction process of this first-of-its-kind ring laser system, with completion expected in August 2016 by which time the optical systems are beginning to be assembled. The four rotational components are combined to the complete 3-component vector of Earth's rotation, perturbed by other geophysical signals such as earthquake induced ground motions, ocean-generated noise, Earth's free oscillations, interactions between atmosphere and solid Earth and other signals. First applications are expected in the field of seismology. We report on future plans to stabilize the ring geometry providing long-term stability for geodetic applications.

  9. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  10. Study of strong interaction between atmosphere and solid Earth by using hurricane data

    Tanimoto, Toshiro


    The original energy of seismic noise is in the atmosphere although the most well-known seismic noise (microseism) gets excited through the ocean, i.e. the atmosphere (winds) excites ocean waves that in turn generate seismic noise in the solid earth. The oceans work as an intermediary in this case. But there is some seismic noise that is directly caused by the atmosphere-solid earth interactions. An extreme example for such a direct interaction can be found in the case of hurricanes (tropical cyclones) when they landfall and move on land. If we had such data, we could study the process of atmosphere-solid earth interactions directly. The Earthscope TA (Transportable Array) provided a few examples of such landfallen hurricanes which moved through the TA that had both seismometers and barometers. This data set allows us to study how ground motions changed as surface pressure (i.e., the source strength) varied over time. Because effects of surface pressure show up at short distances more clearly, we first examine the correlation between pressure and ground motion for the same stations. Plots of vertical ground velocity PSD (Power Spectral Density) vs. surface pressure PSD show that there are no significant ground motions unless pressure PSD becomes larger than 10 (Pa^2/s). Above this threshold, ground motion increases as P**1.69 (P is pressure and 1.69 is close to 5/3). Horizontal ground motions are larger than vertical ground motions (in seismic data), approximately by a factor of 10-30. But we note that the variations of horizontal motions with pressure show a linear relationship. Considering the instrumental design of TA stations, this is more likely due to the tilt of the whole recording system as (lateral) strong winds apply horizontal force on it. This linear trend exists for the whole range of the observed pressure PSD data, extending to small pressure values. We interpret that tilt signals overwhelmed other seismic signals in horizontal seismograms for

  11. SESAR: Addressing the need for unique sample identification in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Lenhardt, C.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.


    The study of solid earth samples is key to our knowledge of Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. The data generated provide the basis for models and hypotheses in all disciplines of the Geosciences from tectonics to magmatic processes to mantle dynamics to paleoclimate research. Sample-based data are diverse ranging from major and trace element abundances, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios of rocks, minerals, fluid or melt inclusions, to age determinations and descriptions of lithology, texture, mineral or fossil content, stratigraphic context, physical properties. The usefulness of these data is critically dependent on their integration as a coherent data set for each sample. If different data sets for the same sample cannot be combined because the sample cannot be unambiguously recognized, valuable information is lost. The ambiguous naming of samples has been a major problem in the geosciences. Different samples are often given identical names, and there is a tendency for different people analyzing the same sample to rename it in their publications according to local conventions. This situation has generated significant confusion, with samples often losing their "history", making it difficult or impossible to link available data. This has become most evident through the compilation of geochemical data in relational databases such as PetDB, NAVDAT, and GEOROC. While the relational data structure allows linking of disparate data for samples published in different references, linkages cannot be established due to ambiguous sample names. SESAR is a response to this problem of ambiguous naming of samples. SESAR will create a common clearinghouse that provides a centralized registry of sample identifiers, to avoid ambiguity, to systematize sample designation, and ensure that all information associated with a sample would in fact be unique. The project will build a web-based digital registry for solid earth samples that will provide for the first time a way to



    20161263Ao Ruide(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Dong Liangguo Source-Independent Envelope-Based FWI to Build an Initial Model(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,58(6),2015,p.1998-2010,15illus.,18refs.,



    20151907 Bai Yang(Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology a nd Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-ences,Beijing100029,China);Song Haibin Structural Characteristics and Genesis of Pockmarks in the Northwest of the South China Sea Derived from Reflective Seismic and Multibeam

  14. Potential of the solid-Earth response for limiting long-term West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat

    Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Pollard, David; Klemann, Volker


    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is assumed to be inherently unstable because it is grounded below sea level in a large part, where the bedrock deepens from today's grounding line towards the interior of the ice sheet. Idealized simulations have shown that bedrock uplift due to isostatic adjustment of the solid Earth and the associated sea-level fall may stop the retreat of such a marine-based ice sheet (Gomez et al., 2012). Here, we employ a coupled model for ice-sheet dynamics and solid-Earth dynamics, including a gravitationally consistent description of sea level, to investigate the influence of the viscoelastic Earth structure on the WAIS' future stability (Konrad et al. 2015). For this, we start from a steady-state condition for the Antarctic Ice Sheet close to present-day observations and apply atmospheric and oceanic forcing of different strength to initiate the retreat of the WAIS and investigate the effect of the viscoelastic deformation on the ice evolution for a range of solid-Earth rheologies. We find that the climate forcing is the primary control on the occurrence of the WAIS collapse. However, for moderate climate forcing and a weak solid-Earth rheology associated with the West Antarctic rift system (asthenosphere viscosities of 3x10^19 Pa s or less), we find that the combined effect of bedrock uplift and gravitational sea-level fall limits the retreat to the Amundsen Sea embayment on millennial time scales. In contrast, a stiffer Earth rheology yields a collapse under these conditions. Under a stronger climate forcing, weak Earth structures do not prevent the WAIS collapse; however, they produce a delay of up to 5000 years in comparison to a stiffer solid-Earth rheology. In an additional experiment, we test the impact of sea-level rise from an assumed fast deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. In cases when the climatic forcing is too weak to force WAIS collapse by itself, the additional rise in sea-level leads to disintegration of the WAIS

  15. Using Interactive Visualization to Analyze Solid Earth Data and Geodynamics Models

    Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.


    The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality

  16. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos


    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  17. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.


    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  18. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics

    Fenglin Peng


    Full Text Available Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on land, ocean, and space. Based on this work, a new discipline of geophysics, geophysical informatics, has been gradually developing over the past 20 years. The recent advances of geophysical informatics in China are introduced and reviewed in this paper.

  19. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.


    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  20. Supporting Data Stewardship Throughout the Data Life Cycle in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Ferrini, V.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Hsu, L.


    Stewardship of scientific data is fundamental to enabling new data-driven research, and ensures preservation, accessibility, and quality of the data, yet researchers, especially in disciplines that typically generate and use small, but complex, heterogeneous, and unstructured datasets are challenged to fulfill increasing demands of properly managing their data. The IEDA Data Facility ( provides tools and services that support data stewardship throughout the full life cycle of observational data in the solid earth sciences, with a focus on the data management needs of individual researchers. IEDA builds upon and brings together over a decade of development and experiences of its component data systems, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS, and EarthChem ( IEDA services include domain-focused data curation and synthesis, tools for data discovery, access, visualization and analysis, as well as investigator support services that include tools for data contribution, data publication services, and data compliance support. IEDA data synthesis efforts (e.g. PetDB and Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis) focus on data integration and analysis while emphasizing provenance and attribution. IEDA's domain-focused data catalogs (e.g. MGDS and EarthChem Library) provide access to metadata-rich long-tail data complemented by extensive metadata including attribution information and links to related publications. IEDA's visualization and analysis tools (e.g. GeoMapApp) broaden access to earth science data for domain specialist and non-specialists alike, facilitating both interdisciplinary research and education and outreach efforts. As a disciplinary data repository, a key role IEDA plays is to coordinate with its user community and to bridge the requirements and standards for data curation with both the evolving needs of its science community and emerging technologies. Development of IEDA tools and services



    <正>20132654Bi Xiaojia(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Miao Fang Lithology Identification and Mapping by Hyperion Hyperspectral Remote Sensing(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,34(5),2012,p.599-603,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,hyperspectral remote sensing,Qinghai Province



    <正>20072798 Chen Fengyun(China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Hang Yuan Algorithm and Application of the Coherency/Variance Cube Technique(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.250-253,257,7 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration The coherency/variance cube technique has been developed in recent years as a new technique of seismic data interpretation.

  3. The EPOS e-Infrastructure: metadata driven integration of data products and services in solid Earth Science

    Bailo, Daniele; Jeffery, Keith


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is an ambitious long term integration plan addressing the major solid-earth research infrastructures in Europe. For its large scale and extent it is an unique initiative which will foster new scientific discoveries and enable scientists to investigate the solid earth system with unprecedented ways. A key aspect of EPOS is to provide end-users with homogeneous access to services and multidisciplinary data collected by monitoring infrastructures and experimental facilities as well as access to software, processing and visualization tools. Such a complex system requires a solid, scalable and reliable architecture in order to accommodate innovative features and to meet the evolving expectations of the heterogeneous communities involved.

  4. The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)

    Woodcock, R.


    Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

  5. A study on variation in position of an Indian station due to solid earth tides

    Jayanta Kumar Ghosh; Shray Pathak


    In many geodetic analyses, it is important to consider the effect of earth tide on the instantaneous position of a station and its subsequent influence on the computation and interpretation of time series of coordinates as well as related data products. The tidal effect and temporal variations in the position of the IGS (International Global Navigational Satellite Systems [GNSS] Service) stations at Hyderabad (India), Ankara (Turkey) and Beijing Fangshan (China), due to solid earth tides has been studied. Surface tidal displacement of the station has been computed on daily basis for a month, based on the concept of gravity. Further, mean daily coordinates of the station been computed using static precise point positioning (PPP) method for a month. Results show that the station undergoes temporal displacements and its coordinates vary continuously within a day and all the days in the month. The maximum range in vertical displacement of the station has been found to be about 48 cm in a day over a period of a month and that along the north and east directions is respectively 8 cm and 14 cm. This is the maximum range but the mean value in the vertical displacement is 6 cm and along north and east is 1.7 cm and 0.09 cm, respectively. The ranges in variation in the mean value of geodetic latitude, longitude, and height of the station have been found to be 1.23, 2.73, and 3.52 cm, respectively. Further, it has been found that the tidal oscillations follow some periodicity, and thus need to be studied independently for all stations.

  6. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics

    Peng, Fenglin; Peng, Le; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Guoqiang; Ma, Maining; Zhang, Yunfei


    Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on...



    <正>20110471 Cai Shaokun(Mechatronics and Automation College,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China);Wu Meiping A Comparison of Digital Lowpass FIR-Filters in Airborne Gravimetry(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(1),2010,p.74-78,8 illus.,3 tables,14 refs.)Key words:aerogravity surveys,filtersThere is a lot of noise in the data observed by airborne gravimeter.Digital lowpass FIR-filter i

  8. Earth rotation prevents exact solid body rotation of fluids in the laboratory

    Boisson, J; Moisy, F; Cortet, P -P


    We report direct evidence of a secondary flow excited by the Earth rotation in a water-filled spherical container spinning at constant rotation rate. This so-called {\\it tilt-over flow} essentially consists in a rotation around an axis which is slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis of the sphere. In the astrophysical context, it corresponds to the flow in the liquid cores of planets forced by precession of the planet rotation axis, and it has been proposed to contribute to the generation of planetary magnetic fields. We detect this weak secondary flow using a particle image velocimetry system mounted in the rotating frame. This secondary flow consists in a weak rotation, thousand times smaller than the sphere rotation, around a horizontal axis which is stationary in the laboratory frame. Its amplitude and orientation are in quantitative agreement with the theory of the tilt-over flow excited by precession. These results show that setting a fluid in a perfect solid body rotation in a laboratory exp...

  9. Earth

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  10. Waiting ages for atmospheric oxygen: A titration hourglass and the oxidation of the solid Earth. (Invited)

    Catling, D. C.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K. J.


    more stable than competing reducing gases, such as CH4 and H2. In this scheme, the delay in the rise of oxygen by several hundred million years is the time it takes to oxidize the outer portions of the solid Earth to the point when the atmosphere flipped redox state. We also speculate that hydrogen escape may be associated with continental growth. As the Archean continents grew, they would have accumulated excess oxygen in their minerals at the tempo of hydrogen escape. The ferric oxide concentration in average continents is an order of magnitude greater than in the mantle. Continental growth supplied reducing power to the surface environment that became intertwined with the carbon cycle and photosynthesis. Thus, 'granitoid' material may be a consequence of increased oxygen fugacity in weathered subducted materials (cf. ref. 2). If so, continents are, in part, a response to surface oxidation rather than vice versa. Moreover, continental growth would necessarily slow once hydrogen escape rates were throttled by the GOE. [1] Catling et al. (2001) Science 293, 839 [2] Jagoutz (2013) Terra Nova 25, 95

  11. Ce1-xLaxOy solid solution prepared from mixed rare earth chloride for soot oxidation

    韩雪; 王亚飞; 郝红蕊; 郭荣贵; 胡运生; 蒋文全


    Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution was simply prepared using mixed rare earth chloride (RECl3·xH2O, RE=Ce, La>99%, containing unseparated Ce and La from rare earth metallurgical industry) as precursor by ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation method with differ-ent ultrasonic frequencies (CLf,f=200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 Hz). A compared Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution (CL*) was also prepared by the same mothod with 10% less precipitant. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution, and the crystal structures of these catalysts were not very sensitive to ultrasonic frequency and precipitant amount. However, both of the fac-tors had obvious effect on morphology and surface area of CL, and precipitant amount seem to play a more crucial role than ultra-sonic frequency for Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution preparation. When soot and catalyst were tight contacted, the peak temperature (Tpeak) of soot oxidation and oxygen reducing temperature for CLf catalysts decreased linearly with increasing surface area. Under loose contact condition, theTpeak had obvious negative correlation with H2 consumption. It was inferred that good reducibility of the Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution favored the soot oxidation reaction. The Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution prepared from unseparated rare earth chloride showed a good soot oxidaiton activity. Controlling the preparation conditions to prepare a CL catalyst would high surface area will enhance its reducibility and activity.

  12. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    Sanchez, Braulio


    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55\\%, 42\\%, and 80\\t for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231\\% (x), 191\\% (y), and 77\\% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3\\% (x), 4\\% (y), and 5\\% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric'torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68\\% and 69 %, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1\\ ) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42\\% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6\\% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the

  13. Petroleum geophysics


    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  14. Effect of isothermal heat treatment on semi-solid microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd

    Yong Hu


    Full Text Available The AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd was prepared in this study, and the effect of semi-solid isothermal heat treatment on the microstructure of the alloy was investigated to obtain an optimum semi-solid structure. Results show that Gd can refine the microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and the optimum semi-solid AZ91D microstructure can be achieved by adding 1.5wt.% Gd. After treated at 585 °C for 30 min, the well distributed rose-shaped and near-spherical semi-solid microstructures of AZ91D+1.5wt.%Gd alloy can be obtained. The liquid phase of the semi-solid alloy consists of three components, namely, the molten pool, the “entrapped liquid” pool and the liner liquid film which separates two neighbor particles. The solid phase is composed of two phases, the primary α-Mg particles and the α-Mg phase formed in the second stage of solidification. With the increase of holding time, melting which causes the decrease of the primary α-Mg particle size is the dominant mechanism in the initial stage while coalescence and Ostwald ripening tend to be the principles later.

  15. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche


    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  16. Serious games for Geophysics

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana


    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  17. The Teach for America RockCorps, Year 2: Using Authentic Research Experiences in Geophysics for STEM Teachers to Inspire Earth Science-Themed Lessons in High School Classrooms

    Parsons, B.; Kassimu, R.; Borjas, C. N.; Griffith, W. A.


    Brooke Parsons1, Rahmatu Kassimu2, Christopher Borjas3, and W. Ashley Griffith31Uplift Hampton Preparatory High School, Dallas, TX, 75232 2H. Grady Spruce High School, Dallas, TX, 75217 3Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019 As Earth Science courses appear in fewer high school curricula, we seek to find creative ways to integrate Earth Science themes as contextual examples into other K-12 STEM courses in order to develop (A) Earth Science literacy, and (B) a pipeline of young talent into our field. This presentation details the efforts of the 2nd year Teach for America (TFA) Rock Corps, a five year NSF-sponsored partnership between TFA and the University of Texas at Arlington designed to provide STEM teachers with genuine research opportunities using components that can be extrapolated to develop dynamic Geophysics-themed lesson plans and materials for their classrooms. Two teachers were selected from the Dallas-Fort Worth region of TFA to participate in original research modeling off-fault damage that occurs during earthquakes in a lab setting using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB). In particular, we simulate a coseismic transient stress perturbation in a fault damage zone by combining traditional SHPB with a traveling harmonic oscillator: Two striker bars attached by an elastic spring are launched with a gas gun allowing us to create the double stress pulse expected during an earthquake rupture. This research affords teachers inspiration to implement Geophysics-themed lesson plans for their courses, Physics/Pre-AP Physics and Chemistry. The physics course will adopt principles of seismic wave propagation to teach concepts of impulse, momentum, conservation of energy, harmonic motion, wave velocity, wave propagation, and real world applications of waves. The chemistry course will implement geochemistry themed techniques into applying the scientific method, density, isotopic composition, p

  18. Study of Suspended Solid in Constructed Wetland Using Rare Earth Elements

    Xiao, Z. X. Z.


    Constructed wetland (CW) is one of the commonly used technologies in wastewater treatment. By means of the biochemical interactions among water, microscopic organism, aquatic plant and sediments in natural environment CW can remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammoniacal nitrogen, suspended solid (SS) and heavy metals. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were used as a natural tracer for the study of SS in the CW. The studied CW, Hebao Island free water surface CW, is located in Chiayi County, south Taiwan. The CW is designed for removing SS and BOD due to the pollution from livestock farms in the upstream area. However, the removal of SS was not effective. In some cases, the SS concentration of inflow is even higher than that of outflow. That the sediments on the slope were flushed into the CW was considered as the main problem. After all the refinement, the issue has not improved yet. In the study, the water samples were filtered with 1.0μm filter paper. Then, part of water samples were digested by ultrapure nitric acid to obtain the water representing the total of dissolved and suspended matters. The others were filtered by 0.1μm filter, which represent the matters in dissolved form. REEs and most of metals were subsequently measured with ICP-MS. REEs generally have a unique source and would fractionate in certain regular patterns during biochemical reactions due to lanthanide contraction. They can be an excellent natural tracer in the environmental researches. After normalized by North American Shale Composite, the REEs pattern for the samples with the total of dissolved and suspended matters is characterized by a middle REE (MREE) enrichment and light REE (LREE) depletion. According to the previous theoretical studies, the MREE enrichment could be achieved by a selected adsorption of MREEs by organic matters, which is generally humic substance in natural surface water. It is suggested that the refinement of removal efficiency of SS should focus on

  19. Early Stage of Origin of Earth (interval after Emergence of Sun, Formation of Liquid Core, Formation of Solid Core)

    Pechernikova, G. V.; Sergeev, V. N.


    Gravitational collapse of interstellar molecular cloud fragment has led to the formation of the Sun and its surrounding protoplanetary disk, consisting of 5 × 10^5 dust and gas. The collapse continued (1 years. Age of solar system (about 4.57×10^9 years) determine by age calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI) which are present at samples of some meteorites (chondrites). Subsidence of dust to the central plane of a protoplanetary disk has led to formation of a dust subdisk which as a result of gravitational instability has broken up to condensations. In the process of collisional evolution they turned into dense planetesimals from which the planets formed. The accounting of a role of large bodies in evolution of a protoplanetary swarm in the field of terrestrial planets has allowed to define times of formation of the massive bodies permitting their early differentiation at the expense of short-lived isotopes heating and impacts to the melting temperature of the depths. The total time of Earth's growth is estimated about 10^8 years. Hf geochronometer showed that the core of the Earth has existed for Using W about 3×10^7 Hf geohronometer years since the formation of the CAI. Thus data W point to the formation of the Earth's core during its accretion. The paleomagnetic data indicate the existence of Earth's magnetic field past 3.5×10^9 years. But the age of the solid core, estimated by heat flow at the core-mantle boundary is 1.7×10^9 (0.5 years). Measurements of the thermal conductivity of liquid iron under the conditions that exist in the Earth's core, indicate the absence of the need for a solid core of existence to support the work geodynamo, although electrical resistivity measurements yield the opposite result.

  20. Geophysics of Mars

    Wells, R. A.


    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  1. Transient Fault Locating Method Based on Line Voltage and Zero-mode Current in Non-solidly Earthed Network

    ZHANG Linli; XU Bingyin; XUE Yongduan; GAO Houlei


    Non-solidly earthed systems are widely used for middle voltage distribution network at home and abroad. Fault point location especially the single phase-to-earth fault is very difficult because the fault current is very weak and the fault arc is intermittent. Although several methods have been developed, the problem of fault location has not yet been resolved very well. A new fault location method based on transient component of line voltage and 0-mode current is presented in this paper, which can realize fault section location by the feeder automation (FA) system. Line voltage signal can be obtained conveniently without requiring any additional equipment. This method is based on transient information, not affected by arc suppression coil.



    <正>20091853 An Jinzhen(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhou Pinggen Experiments on Exploring and Monitoring Landslip-Mass Using Geoelectric Resistivity Observations(Acta Seismologica Sinica,ISSN0253-3782,CN11-2021/P,30(3),2008,p.254-261,6 illus.,1 table,19 refs.)Key words:resistivity methods,landslidesIn the experiments,a high-density resistivity method is used to explore the electric structure of landslip mass,and a resistivity-changing anisotropy method is used to monitor the orientation and speed of main fracture extending of landslip mass.The results are as follows:1)the exploring experiments have verified a part of creep deformation borderline,the depth and thickness of groundwater horizon,and the property of super strata in the landslip mass investigated formerly,which have proved that the landslip belts contain rich groundwater

  3. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.


    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  4. A one-dimensional model of solid-earth electrical resistivity beneath Florida

    Blum, Cletus; Love, Jeffrey J.; Pedrie, Kolby; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Rigler, E. Joshua


    An estimated one-dimensional layered model of electrical resistivity beneath Florida was developed from published geological and geophysical information. The resistivity of each layer is represented by plausible upper and lower bounds as well as a geometric mean resistivity. Corresponding impedance transfer functions, Schmucker-Weidelt transfer functions, apparent resistivity, and phase responses are calculated for inducing geomagnetic frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 100 hertz. The resulting one-dimensional model and response functions can be used to make general estimates of time-varying electric fields associated with geomagnetic storms such as might represent induction hazards for electric-power grid operation. The plausible upper- and lower-bound resistivity structures show the uncertainty, giving a wide range of plausible time-varying electric fields.

  5. Luminescence properties of solid solutions of borates doped with rare-earth ions

    Levushkina, V. S.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Spassky, D. A.; Zadneprovski, B. I.; Tret'yakova, M. S.


    The structural and luminescence properties of LuxY1 - xBO3 solid solutions doped with Ce3+ or Eu+3 have been investigated. It has been found that the solid solutions crystallize in the vaterite phase with a lutetium concentration x spectra are characterized by intensive impurity emission under excitation with the synchrotron radiation in the X-ray and ultraviolet spectral ranges. It has been shown that, as the lutetium concentration x in the LuxY1 - xBO3: Ce3+ solid solutions increases, the emission intensity smoothly decreases, which is associated with a gradual shift of the Ce3+ 5 d(1) level toward the bottom of the conduction band, as well as with a decrease in the band gap. It has been established that, in the LuxY1 - xBO3: Eu3+ solid solutions with intermediate concentrations x, the efficiency of energy transfer to luminescence centers increases. This effect is explained by the limited spatial separation of electrons and holes in the solid solutions. It has been demonstrated that the calcite phase adversely affects the luminescence properties of the solid solutions.

  6. Geoantineutrino Spectrum and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core

    Rusov, V D; Khotyaintseva, E N; Kosenko, S I; Litvinov, D A; Pavlovich, V N; Tarasov, V A; Vaschenko, V N; Zelentsova, T N


    The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 GPa) and temperature (1600- 22000 C) have induced us to consider the possible consequences of made by V. Anisichkin and A. Ershov supposition that there is an actinoid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) such physical consequent can be. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. On the basis of O'Nions-Ivensen-Hamilton model of the geochemical evolution...

  7. Using GPS and GRACE data to assess Solid Earth elastic parameters at regional scale

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.


    of the GPS stations. Remarkably, we find that the calculated uplift shows periodic behaviours with amplitudes that match those of the GPS stations, depending on the Earth model used and especially on the elastic parameters of the mantle. We tested this method over the region of the European Alps and we show...

  8. Impact of the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions on solid-state laser systems

    Pollnau, M.


    The electronic energy level schemes within the 4f subshells of rare-earth ions give rise to a number of fluorescence transitions ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR spectral region. A large variety of laser lines have been demonstrated based on these fluorescence transitions. Depending on the ene

  9. Detection of the translational oscillations of the Earth's solid inner core based on the international superconducting gravimeter observations

    SUN Heping; XU Jianqiao; B.Ducarme


    Based on the 21 series of the high precision tidal gravity observations recorded using superconducting gravimeters (SG) at 14 stations distributed globally (in totally about 86 years), the translational oscillations of the Earth's solid inner core (ESIC) is detected in this paper. All observations are divided into two groups with G-Ⅰ group (8 relatively longer observational series) and G-Ⅱ group (13 relatively shorter observational series). The detailed corrections to minute original observations for each station are carried out, the error data due to the earthquakes, power supply impulses and some perturbations as change in atmospheric pressure and so on are carefully deleted for the first step, the gravity residuals are obtained after removing further synthetic tidal gravity signals. The Fast Fourier Transform analysis is carried out for each residual series, the estimations of the product spectral densities in the sub-tidal band are obtained by using a multi-station staking technique. The 8 common peaks are found after further removing the remaining frequency dependent pressure signals. The eigenperiods, quality factors and resonant strengths for these peaks are simulated. The numerical results show that the discrepancies of the eigenperiods for 3 of 8 peaks, compared to those of theoretical computation given by Smith, are only 0.4%, -0.4% and 1.0%. This coincidence signifies that the dynamical phenomenon of the Earth's solid inner core can be detected by using high precision ground gravity observations. The reliability of the numerical computation is also checked, the spectral peak splitting phenomenon induced by Earth's rotation and ellipticity is preliminary discussed in this paper.

  10. Competition Between Organic Matter and Solid Surface for Cation Sorption: Ce and Rare Earth Element as Proxy

    Davranche, M.; Pourret, O.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.


    Aquatic or soil organic matter are well-known to be strong adsorbent of many cations due to their adsorption capacity. Among these cations, the trivalent rare earth element (REE) and particularly Ce seem to be promising tools to investigate the impact of competition in between organic or inorganic ligands. Ce (III) is oxidized into Ce (IV) by oxidative surface such as Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. Since Ce (IV) is preferentially adsorbed (as compared to other REE), a positive and negative Ce anomaly is developed respectively onto the solid and within the solution. Previous studies (Davranche et al., 2004, 2005) highlighted the suppression of this feature when Ce occurs to be complexed with organic matter (as humate species). Recent experiments were designed to evaluate the competition between humate and Mn oxide for REE complexation (each reactant being added simultaneously). Two parameters control the competition: time and pH. While organic matter does adsorb immediately the free REE, a desorption of REE occurs through time. Desorption is marked by the development of a Ce anomaly in the REE pattern that reflects the complexation with Mn oxide surface. Along the time, solid surface becomes thus more competitive than the organic matter. PH still influences the competition since at basic pH, REE and organic matter - probably as REE-organic complexes - are adsorbed onto the solid surface. Ultrafiltration analyses at 5 KD were also performed to separate organic matter and organic complexes from the solution. Results provide evidence that in presence of a solid surface, HREE (high rare earth element) desorption from the organic matter occurs through time. This leads to HREE enrichment in solution. All these results suggest that complexation of organic matter is kinetically favoured as compared to the complexation with solid surfaces. However, the organic complex formed during the first stage of the complexation process involves weak bindings. These bindings are easily broken

  11. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  12. Developing a curricular module for introductory geophysics or structural geology courses to quantify crustal strain using EarthScope PBO GPS velocities

    Cronin, V. S.; Resor, P. G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C. W.; Olds, S. E.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; West, N. W.


    A group from several UNAVCO-member institutions that are engaged in EarthScope research is developing resources that introduce geoscience majors to one important use of GPS geodesy: measuring the current infinitesimal strain rate of the crust. These resources will be tested during the 2012-13 academic year, and will be accessible from the Science Education Resource Center (SERC), UNAVCO and EarthScope websites. Location and velocity data (and their associated uncertainties) from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) website are used to solve a perfectly constrained problem involving the infinitesimal strain of a triangle defined by three PBO GPS sites. Simple physical models made of inexpensive materials are used to build student intuition about homogeneous strain of a continuum. Introductory exercises with vector-field maps are used to help students understand reference frames and visualize how GPS velocity vectors can indicate crustal strain. The meanings of "extension" and "stretch" are developed through illustrations showing the simultaneous deformation of a triangle with a circle inscribed within it. A strain primer, intended to supplement textbook material, is provided for students to develop needed background. Supplemental material about vectors, vector dot products, matrix mathematics, determinants, and computation of the eigensystem of a symmetric square matrix help support students who have gaps in their mathematical background. Students compute site velocities and uncertainties from PBO data, insert data into one of three strain calculators (open-source code in MatLab, Mathematica, and an Excel spreadsheet), and learn to interpret the output. A complete algorithm and worked example are also provided so that capable students can develop their own code to solve the problem. Strain calculator output includes the mean translation velocity vector, the rotational velocity, the relative magnitudes and directions of the horizontal infinitesimal strain

  13. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.


    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  14. Near-surface applied geophysics

    Everett, Mark E.


    Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook fo...

  15. Impurities especially titanium in the rare earth metal gadolinium-before and after solid state electrotransport

    苗睿瑛; 张小伟; 朱琼; 张志琦; 王志强; 颜世宏; 陈德宏; 周林; 李宗安


    Gadolinium was prepared by conventional procedures of fluorination, reduction, distillation and solid state electrotransport (SSE). The electronegativities of the metals were found to have an important influence on the electrotransport process and result of the impurity element. Meanwhile, titanium particles in the distilled gadolinium as major metallic impurities were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before and after solid state electrotransport. The results showed that impurities especially titanium transported from anode to cathode during SSE. In the metal before SSE, there were impurities of titanium in strip shape or embedded round shape. After SSE processing, titanium particles in the metal smaller than 50 nm in the cathode, but existed 6 to 10 times bigger in the anode.

  16. Artificial intelligence and dynamic systems for geophysical applications

    Gvishiani, Alexei


    The book presents new clustering schemes, dynamical systems and pattern recognition algorithms in geophysical, geodynamical and natural hazard applications. The original mathematical technique is based on both classical and fuzzy sets models. Geophysical and natural hazard applications are mostly original. However, the artificial intelligence technique described in the book can be applied far beyond the limits of Earth science applications. The book is intended for research scientists, tutors, graduate students, scientists in geophysics and engineers

  17. Low temperature preparation and fuel cell properties of rare earth doped barium cerate solid electrolytes

    蒋凯; 何志奇; 孟建; 任玉芳; 苏锵


    The solid electrolytes, BaCe0.8 Ln0.2O2.9 (Ln: Gd, Sm, Eu), were prepared by the sol-gel method. XRD indicated that a pure orthorhombic phase was formed at 900℃. The synthesis temperature by the sol-gel method was about 600℃ lower than the high temperature solid phase reaction method, The electrical conductivity and impedance spectra were measured and the conduction mechanism was studied. The grain-boundary resistance of the solid electrolyte could be reduced or eliminated by the sol-gel method. The conductivity of BaCe0.8Gd0.2O2.9 is 7.87×10-2 S·cm-1 at 800℃. The open-circuit voltage of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using BaCe0.8 Gd0.2O2.9 as electrolyte was near to 1 V and its maximum power density was 30 mW·cm-2.

  18. The permeability variations on the Wenchuan Fault measured on the water level response to solid Earth tides

    Xue, L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, J.


    The mechanics of slip during an earthquake depends critically on the hydrologic properties. The in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never directly been constrained on the fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we analyze 1.5 years of continuous data from the Wenchuan Fault Zone which was the site of the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. By using the solid Earth tides response we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (~200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We find that the hydraulic diffusivity D of Wenchuan Fault Zone is 0.03 m2/s, which is three orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. This measurement at Wenchuan was made by continuously monitoring the response of the well to the solid Earth tides. The solid earth tides impose a dilatational strain on the formation that pumps water cyclically in and out of the well. By measuring the phase and amplitude response, we can infer the transmissivity and storage near the fault assuming an isotropic, homogeneous and laterally extensive aquifer. We evaluated the phase and amplitude responses for solid Earth tide in both frequency domain and time domain. In the frequency domain analysis, we divide Fourier transform of the water levels by that of a synthetic tide to get the amplitude response and phase shift of the water level relative to the dilatational strain at the frequency of the largest semidiurnal tide M2. In the time domain, we use a least-square fit of prediction tidal harmonics to the water levels. Then we solve for phase and amplitude response at the frequency for M2. These two separate methods yield almost identical results. The average phase lag is ~ 25 degree, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. According to the Heish model, we solve for storage coefficient S 2.2×10-4 and transmissivity

  19. Make Super-Earths, Not Jupiters: Accreting Nebular Gas onto Solid Cores at 0.1 AU and Beyond

    Lee, Eve J; Ormel, Chris W


    Close-in super-Earths discovered by Kepler may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10-$M_\\oplus$ cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at $\\sim$0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H$_2$ dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H$_2$ dissociation are universal, timescales for ...

  20. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André


    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations.

  1. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel


    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  2. Make Super-Earths, Not Jupiters: Accreting Nebular Gas onto Solid Cores at 0.1 AU and Beyond

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Ormel, Chris W.


    Close-in super-Earths having radii 1-4 R ⊕ may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10 M ⊕ cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at ~0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H2 dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H2 dissociation are universal, timescales for core instability tend not to vary with orbital distance—and to be alarmingly short for 10 M ⊕ cores. Nevertheless, in the thicket of parameter space, we identify two scenarios, not mutually exclusive, that can reproduce the preponderance of percent-by-mass atmospheres for super-Earths at ~0.1 AU, while still ensuring the formation of Jupiters at >~ 1 AU. Scenario (a): planets form in disks with dust-to-gas ratios that range from ~20× solar at 0.1 AU to ~2× solar at 5 AU. Scenario (b): the final assembly of super-Earth cores from mergers of proto-cores—a process that completes quickly at ~0.1 AU once begun—is delayed by gas dynamical friction until just before disk gas dissipates completely. Both scenarios predict that the occurrence rate for super-Earths versus orbital distance, and the corresponding rate for Jupiters, should trend in opposite directions, as the former population is transformed into the latter: as gas giants become more frequent from ~1 to 10 AU

  3. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  4. Studies on Intermolecular Energy Transfer and Relaxation Processes in Solid Rare Earth Complexes by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    伍荣护; 赵化章; 于锡娟; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德


    The photoacoustic spectra of Eu(benz)3*(phen)2 (benz: benzoate, phen: phenanthroline) and Eu0.8Ln0.2(benz)3*(phen)2 (Ln3+: La3+ or Nd3+) were reported. The intermolecular energy transfer processes were studied from the point of the nonradiative transitions. Combined with the fluorescence spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy reflects the variation of the luminescence efficiencies of solid samples. The luminescence efficiency increases when La3+ is introduced, but it decreases greatly when Nd3+ is added, which is due to the difference of intermolecular energy transfer processes. The models of intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfer and relaxation processes were established.

  5. Geophysical modelling of 3D electromagnetic diffusion with multigrid

    Mulder, W.A.


    The performance of a multigrid solver for time-harmonic electromagnetic problems in geophysical settings was investigated. With the low frequencies used in geophysical surveys for deeper targets, the light-speed waves in the earth can be neglected. Diffusion of induced currents is the dominant physi

  6. Thermodynamics analysis of the rare earth metals and their alloys with indium in solid state

    Vassiliev, V.P., E-mail: [Chemical Department, Lomonossov University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Benaissa, Ablazeze [Département des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, Université M’hamed Bougara, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Taldrik, A.F. [Institute of Superconductivity and Solid State Physics, Academician Kurchatov 1, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)


    Graphical abstract: Gibbs energies of formation vs. RE atomic numbers in REIn{sub 3}. Highlights: •Set of experimental values was collected for REIn{sub 3} phases. •Thermodynamic functions of formation were calculated at 298 K and 775 K. •Experimental and calculated values were compared. -- Abstract: Nonlinear correlative analyses between thermodynamic and some physico-chemical properties of rare-earth metals (RE) and their alloys with indium are performed for the isostructural phases RE and REIn{sub 3}. The thermodynamics values (Gibbs energies of formation, enthalpies of formation, and entropies of formation at 298 K and 775 K and standard entropies) of LnIn{sub 3} phases are calculated on the basis of calorimetry and potentiometry results. The proposed correlation between physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties agrees for all the isostructural phases REX (X are others elements of the periodic table). The resulting thermodynamic data are recommended for metallurgical handbook.

  7. EPOS-WP16: A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    Calignano, Elisa; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, Chris; Willingshofer, Ernst; Drury, Martyn; van Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, Francesca; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Winkler, Aldo


    Laboratory facilities are an integral part of Earth Science research. The diversity of methods employed in such infrastructures reflects the multi-scale nature of the Earth system and is essential for the understanding of its evolution, for the assessment of geo-hazards and for the sustainable exploitation of geo-resources. In the frame of EPOS (European Plate Observing System), the Working Package 16 represents a developing community of European Geoscience Multi-scale laboratories. The participant and collaborating institutions (Utrecht University, GFZ, RomaTre University, INGV, NERC, CSIC-ICTJA, CNRS, LMU, C4G-UBI, ETH, CNR*) embody several types of laboratory infrastructures, engaged in different fields of interest of Earth Science: from high temperature and pressure experimental facilities, to electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue tectonic and geodynamic modelling and paleomagnetic laboratories. The length scales encompassed by these infrastructures range from the nano- and micrometre levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetres-sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. The aim of WP16 is to provide two services by the year 2019: first, providing virtual access to data from laboratories (data service) and, second, providing physical access to laboratories (transnational access, TNA). Regarding the development of a data service, the current status is such that most data produced by the various laboratory centres and networks are available only in limited "final form" in publications, many data remain inaccessible and/or poorly preserved. Within EPOS the TCS Multi-scale laboratories is collecting and harmonizing available and emerging laboratory data on the properties and process controlling rock system behaviour at all relevant scales, in order to generate products accessible and interoperable through services for supporting

  8. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of fluorescent solid rare earth complexes with hydroxamic acids


    The complexes RE2(DHYA)3 .nH2O in the title bar were synthesized through some reactions oftrivalent rareearth ions. In the process of synthesis, dihydroxamic acids were taken as ligands while the alcohol was taken as a solvent.The ligands included adipylhydroxamic acid (ADHA), p-phthalichydroxamic acid (PPHA), oxalohydroxamic acid (OXHA), butadihydroxamic acid (BDHA), o-phthalichydroxamic acid (OPHA), benzoylhydroxamic acid (BHA), etc.Measured at 25 ℃, the molar conductances in various modes are 13.00-21.05 S. cm2. mol-1, which shows that rare-earth complexes are nonelectrolytes and the hydroxamino groups of the complexes have taken part in bonding. Infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectra, and fluorescence spectra were used to investigate the complexes. Experiments have proved that the complexes of Eu3+ and Tb3+ with aromatic hydroxamic acids have good fluorescent characteristics.

  9. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering


    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  10. Linking geodynamics and geophysical inversion with multiobservable probabilistic tomography

    Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rawlinson, Nicholas; Yang, Yingjie; Zlotnik, Sergio; Ortega, Olga


    Our recent work (Afonso et al., 2013a,b; 2016) has demonstrated that multiobservable probabilistic tomography offers a sound method to characterize the thermochemical structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle and opens exiting new opportunities for deep-Earth imaging. In this method, all physical and chemical parameters defining an Earth model are linked together by fundamental thermodynamic relations, rather than by ad hoc empirical assumptions. This allows us to directly invert for the fundamental variables defining the physical state of the Earth's interior, namely, temperature, pressure, and major-element composition using a multitude of data sets with complementary strengths: body wave teleseismic data, surface wave phase dispersion data, gravity anomalies, long-wavelength gravity gradients, geoid height, receiver functions, absolute elevation, and surface heat flow data. In this probabilistic inversion scheme, traditional tomographic images of physical parameters such as 3-D seismic velocity become a "free" by-product. However, our tomographic images are, by design, also thermodynamically compatible with all the other inverted observables instead of satisfying one type of data set only. This is important, as any model deemed representative of the real physical state of the Earth's interior should pass the test of explaining other geophysical data sets as well. Inverting for "geodynamic" parameters such as viscosity or convection-related topography in 3D within this multiobservable probabilistic inverse framework is a major challenge, mainly due to the computational cost of solving the Stokes equations; we are not aware of previous attempts to do so with a probabilistic approach. However, recent advances on Reduced Order Modelling and Proper Generalized Decompositions have allowed us to overcome the traditional difficulties and create a probabilistic inversion framework that not only inverts for the physical state of the mantle but also for dynamic

  11. Women in EPOS: the role of women in a large pan-European Research Infrastructure for Solid Earth sciences

    Calignano, Elisa; Freda, Carmela; Baracchi, Laura


    Women are outnumbered by men in geosciences senior research positions, but what is the situation if we consider large pan-European Research Infrastructures? With this contribution we want to show an analysis of the role of women in the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): a planned research infrastructure for European Solid Earth sciences, integrating national and transnational research infrastructures to enable innovative multidisciplinary research. EPOS involves 256 national research infrastructures, 47 partners (universities and research institutes) from 25 European countries and 4 international organizations. The EPOS integrated platform demands significant coordination between diverse solid Earth disciplinary communities, national research infrastructures and the policies and initiatives they drive, geoscientists and information technologists. The EPOS architecture takes into account governance, legal, financial and technical issues and is designed so that the enterprise works as a single, but distributed, sustainable research infrastructure. A solid management structure is vital for the successful implementation and sustainability of EPOS. The internal organization relies on community-specific Working Packages (WPs), Transversal WPs in charge of the overall EPOS integration and implementation, several governing, executive and advisory bodies, a Project Management Office (PMO) and the Project Coordinator. Driven by the timely debate on gender balance and commitment of the European Commission to promote gender equality in research and innovation, we decided to conduct a mapping exercise on a project that crosses European national borders and that brings together diverse geoscience disciplines under one management structure. We present an analysis of women representation in decision-making positions in each EPOS Working Package (WP Leader, proxy, legal, financial and IT contact persons), in the Boards and Councils and in the PMO

  12. Solid Phase Luminescence of Several Rare Earth Ions on Ion-Exchange Films

    Tanner, Stephen P.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.


    The development and characterization of a novel ion-exchange film for solid-phase fluorometry and phosphorimetry is reported. This new cation-exchange material is suitable for spectroscopic applications in the ultraviolet and visible regions. It is advantageous because it, as a single entity, is easily recovered from solution and mounted in the spectrofluorometers. After preconcentration on the film, the luminescence intensity of lanthanide ions is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the corresponding solution, depending on the volume of solution and the amount of film. This procedure allows emission spectral measurements and determination of lanthanide ions at solution concentrations of < 5 (micro)g/L. The film may be stored for subsequent reuse or as a permanent record of the analysis. The major drawback to the use of the film is slow uptake of analyte due to diffusion limitations.

  13. Introduction to the physics of fluids and solids

    Trefil, James S


    Written by a well-known science author, this introductory text explores the physics of solids and the field of hydrodynamics. It focuses on modern applications, rather than mathematical formalism, with particular emphasis on geophysics, astrophysics, and medical physics. Suitable for a one-semester course, it is geared toward advanced undergraduate physics students and graduate science students. It also serves as a helpful reference for professional astronomers, chemists, and engineers. Geophysical topics include the circulation of the atmosphere, vibrations of the earth, and underground nucle

  14. GPS Imaging of Solid Earth's Flex and Flow: A New Paradigm

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.


    Geodetic GPS data analysis has gone through several paradigm shifts since the 1980s. Initially GPS was used in relative positioning mode to leverage and densify the existing global VLBI network. In the 1990s the new paradigm was to analyze GPS as a self-contained system, in which the global network of GPS stations and satellite orbits could be estimated simultaneously. Computational resources limit this approach to a few hundred stations (n ~ 100), with O(n4) computational complexity. Since the last decade, the new paradigm is to estimate GPS orbits first, followed by precise point positioning of single stations with O(n) complexity. This allows for parallel processing of an unlimited number of stations. The Nevada Geodetic Laboratory currently updates GPS time series for over 13,500 stations every week, a number that has been doubling every ~3 years. In some parts of the world, the inter-station distance between GPS stations that we process is now approaching ~10 km. This now brings us to a new paradigm, "GPS Imaging," for which we use thousands of GPS stations in different continents to generate smooth, yet detailed maps of vertical land motion. Our prototype images show that the striking, first-order signal in North America and Europe is large scale uplift and subsidence from mantle flow driven by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. Thus we are imaging deep Earth processes with unprecedented scope, resolution and accuracy. At regional scales, the images reveal that anthropogenic lithospheric processes can dominate vertical land motion in extended regions. We have developed prototype techniques that form a foundation to make "GPS Imaging" operational: (1) an automatic, robust estimator of station velocity that is insensitive to prevalent step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity; (2) a realistic estimate of the velocity errors based on subsampling; (3) a filter of common-mode noise that is globally seamless; (4) a median spatial filter to

  15. Advances in geophysics

    Sato, Haruo


    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 54th volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  16. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    Homuth, Emil F.


    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  17. Advances in geophysics

    Sato, Haruo


    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 52nd volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  18. Waterberg coalfield airborne geophysics

    Fourie, S


    Full Text Available Airborne Geophysics Project Number: 1.5.5 Sub Committee: Geology and Geophysics Presenter: Dr. Stoffel Fourie Co-Workers: Dr. George Henry & Me. Leonie Marè Collaborators: Coaltech & CSIR Project Objectives Major Objectives: circle5 Initiate Semi...-Regional Exploration of the Waterberg Coalfield to the benefit of the Industry. circle5 Generate a good quality Airborne Geophysical Dataset. circle5 Generate a basic lineament and surface geology interpretation of the Ellisras Basin. circle5 Generate a basic...

  19. A Detailed Model Grid for Solid Planets from 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses

    Zeng, Li


    This paper describes a new grid for the mass-radius relation of 3-layer exoplanets within the mass range of 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses. The 3 layers are: Fe (epsilon iron), MgSiO3 (including both the perovskite phase, post-perovskite phase, and its dissociation at ultra-high pressures), and H2O (including Ices Ih, III, V, VI, VII, X, and the superionic phase along the melting curve). We discuss the current state of knowledge about the equations of state (EOS) that influence these calculations and the improvements used in the new grid. For the 2-layer model, we demonstrate the utility of contours on the mass-radius diagrams. Given the mass and radius input, these contours can be used to quickly determine the important physical properties of a planet including its p0 (central pressure), p1/p0 (core-mantle boundary pressure over central pressure), CMF (core mass fraction) or CRF (core radius fraction). For the 3-layer model, a curve segment on the ternary diagram represents all possible relative mass proportio...

  20. Geophysical Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long qaodmasdkwaspemas5ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 22 ft wide qaodmasdkwaspemas4ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 7 ft deep concrete...

  1. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)


    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  2. Nanotubes of rare earth cobalt oxides for cathodes of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Sacanell, Joaquin [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A. Gabriela [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM. Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bellino, Martin G.; Lamas, Diego G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we studied the electrochemical properties of cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) prepared with nanotubes of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO). Their nanostructures consist of agglomerated nanoparticles in tubular structures of sub-micrometric diameter. The resulting cathodes are highly porous both at the micro- and the nanoscale. This fact increases significantly the access to active sites for the oxygen reduction. We investigated the influence of the diameter of the precursor nanotubes on the polarization resistance of the LSCO cathodes on CeO{sub 2}-10 mol.% Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SDC) electrolytes under air atmosphere, evaluated in symmetrical [LSCO/SDC/LSCO] cells. Our results indicate an optimized performance when the diameter of precursor nanotubes is sufficiently small to become dense nanorods after cathode sintering. We present a phenomenological model that successfully explains the behavior observed and considers that a small starting diameter acts as a barrier that prevents grains growth. This is directly related with the lack of contact points between nanotubes in the precursor, which are the only path for the growth of ceramic grains. We also observed that a conventional sintering process (of 1 h at 1000 C with heating and cooling rates of 10 C min{sup -1}) has to be preferred against a fast firing one (1 or 2 min at 1100 C with heating and cooling rates of 100 C min{sup -1}) in order to reach a higher performance. However, a good adhesion of the cathode can be achieved with both methods. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy diffusion is enhanced while decreasing LSCO particle size. This indicates that the high performance of our nanostructured cathodes is not only related with the increase of the number of active sites for oxygen reduction but also to the fact that the nanotubes are formed by nanoparticles. (author)

  3. Short-term response of the solid Earth to cryosphere fluctuations and the earthquake cycle in south-central Alaska

    Sauber, J. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Han, S. C.; Davis, J. L.; Ruppert, N. A.


    In southern Alaska surface deformation and gravimetric change are associated with the seismic cycle as well as a strong seasonal cycle of snow accumulation and melt and a variable rate of glacier mass wastage. Numerical modeling of the solid Earth response to cryosphere change on a variety of temporal and spatial scales plays a critical role in supporting the interpretation of time-variable gravity and other geodetic data. In this study we calculate the surface displacements and stresses associated with variable spatial and temporal cryospheric loading and unloading in south-central coastal Alaska. A challenging aspect of estimating the response of the solid Earth to short-term (months to 102 years) regional cryospheric fluctuations is choosing the rock mechanics constitutive laws appropriate to this region. Here we report calculated differences in the predicted surface displacements and stresses during the GRACE time period (2002 to present). Broad-scale, GRACE-derived estimates of cryospheric mass change, along with independent snow melt onset/refreeze timing, snow depth and annual glacier wastage estimates from a variety of methods, were used to approximate the magnitude and timing of cryospheric load changes. We used the CIG finite element code PyLith to enable input of spatially complex surface loads. An as example of our evaluation of the influence of variable short-term surface loads, we calculated and contrasted the predicted surface displacements and stresses for a cooler than average and higher precipitation water year (WY12) versus a warmer than average year (WY05). Our calculation of these comparative stresses is motivated by our earlier empirical evaluation of the influence of short-term cryospheric fluctuations on the background seismic rate between 1988-2006 (Sauber and Ruppert, 2008). During the warmer than average years between 2002-2006 we found a stronger seasonal dependency in the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region relative

  4. Earth physics and phase transformations program: A concept and proposal

    Bonavito, N. L.; Tanaka, T.


    A program to study the geophysical characteristics of the earth is presented as an integration of the different disciplines that constitute the earth sciences, through the foundation of a generalized geodynamic theory of earth physics. A program is considered for defining the physical constants of the earth's material which parametrize the hydrodynamic equation in the microscopic solid state behavior of the crystals of the lithosphere. In addition, in order to lay the foundation for a generalized theory in earth physics, specific research areas are considered, such as the nature of the kinetics of the phase transitions in mineral assemblages, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of crystals which are major constituents of mineral assemblages, and the transport properties of pure crystals which are major constituents of mineral assemblages.

  5. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.


    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  6. European Geophysical Society (23rd) General Assembly, Annales Geophysicae, Part 1, Society Symposia, Solid Earth Geophysics & Geodesy, Supplement 1 to Volume 16 Held in Nice, France on 20-24 April 1998


    7,1-20129 Milano, Italy) G. Bianco (Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana . Localita Terlecchia, C.P. Aperta, 75100 Matera, Italy...Telespazio SpA, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale "G. Colombo", Matera, Italy) F. Vespe (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana - Centro di Geodesia Spaziale "G. Colombo...Matematicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, Espana (3) USGS, Menlo Park, CA, USA. Ground deformation is a

  7. The effect of rare earth elements on the kinetics of the isothermal coarsening of the globular solid phase in semisolid AZ91 alloy produced via SIMA process

    Nami, B. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabestari, S.G., E-mail: [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miresmaeili, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Radjaei University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, H.; Mirdamadi, Sh. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present study, the effects of rare earth (RE) elements on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the solid globular particle in the semisolid slurry of AZ91 magnesium alloy have been studied at 570 {sup o}C and 580 {sup o}C. The results showed that the coarsening kinetics of the solid globular particles in semisolid slurry of AZ91 alloy satisfies the Ostwald ripening theory. It was shown that the coarsening rate of the solid particles decreases by adding RE elements into AZ91 alloy, specially at 580 {sup o}C, which results in the smaller particles size. It was attributed to the solid-liquid interfacial energy reduction due to the addition of RE elements.

  8. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    Zuber, Maria


    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  9. Activities and Plan of the Center for Geophysics (Beijing) from WDC to WDS

    Peng, Fenglin; Ma, Maining; Peng, Le; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Gengxiong; Li, Yufang; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yunfei


    In this report we introduce the development of the WDC for Geophysics, Beijing included our activities in the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) and in the transition period from WDC to WDS. We also present our future plans. We have engaged in the development of geophysical informatics and related data science. We began the data visualization of geomagnetic fields in the GIS system. Our database has been expanded from geomagnetic data to the data of solid geophysics, including geothermal data,...

  10. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)


    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  11. Geophysical Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  12. Analysis of earth pigments in Palomino's frescoes in the Santos Juanes Church in Valencia (Spain) by solid state voltammetry and FTIR spectroscopy

    DOMENECH CARBO, ANTONIO; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Ciarrocchi, Julia; Cialei, Vania; Monteagudo, Antonio


    A combination of solid-state voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode was applied to identify earth pigments in samples from the frescoes of Antonio Palomino (dated 1707) taken from the vault of the Santos Juanes church in Valencia (Spain). Such frescoes suffered considerable damage by fire during the Spanish Civil War in 1936, resulting in severe chemical and chromatic alterations. Se ha utilizado una combinación de voltamperometría ...

  13. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    Tang, R.


    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  14. The Physics of Heavy Oils: Implications for Recovery and Geophysical Monitoring

    Schmitt, Douglas


    Our capacity to find and produce conventional light petroleum oils are unable to keep pace with the growth in the growing global demand for energy. With the breakpoint between petroleum production and consumption imminent, a good deal of recent efforts have focused on developing the `heavy' hydrocarbon reserves. Such resources include the extensive heavy oil deposits of Venezuela, the bitumen resources of Canada, and even the solid kerogens (oil shale) of the United States. Capital investments, in particular, have been large in Canada's oil sands due in part to the extensive nature of the resource and already in excess of 30% of Canada's production comes from heavier hydrocarbon deposits. The larger input costs associated with such projects, however, requires that the production be monitored more fully; and this necessitates that both the oils and the porous media which hold them be understood. Geophysical `time-lapse' monitoring seeks to better constrain the areal distribution and movements of fluids in the subsurface by examining the changes in a geophysical response such as seismic reflectivity, micro-gravity variations, or electrical conductivity that arise during production. For example, a changed geophysical seismic character directly depends on relies on variations in the longitudinal and transverse wave speeds and attenuation and mass densities of the materials in the earth. These are controlled by a number of extrinsic conditions such as temperature, fluid pressure, confining stress, and fluid phase and saturation state. Understanding the geophysical signature over a given reservoir requires that the behavior of the porous rock physical properties be well understood and a variety of measurements are being made in laboratories. In current practice, the interpretation of the geophysical field responses is assisted by combined modeling of fluid flow and seismic wave fields. The least understood link in this process, however, is the lack of knowledge on rock

  15. Standing on the shoulders of giants: Trojan Earths and vortex trapping in low mass self-gravitating protoplanetary disks of gas and solids

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N


    Centimeter and meter sized solid particles in protoplanetary disks are trapped within long lived high pressure regions, creating opportunities for collapse into planetesimals and planetary embryos. We study the accumulations in the stable Lagrangian points of a giant planet, as well as in the Rossby vortices launched at the edges of the gap it carves. We employ the Pencil Code, tracing the solids with a large number of interacting Lagrangian particles, usually 100,000. For particles of 1 cm to 10 cm radii, gravitational collapse occurs in the Lagrangian points in less than 200 orbits. For 5 cm particles, a 2 Earth mass planet is formed. For 10 cm, the final maximum collapsed mass is around 3 Earth masses. The collapse of the 1 cm particles is indirect, following the timescale of depletion of gas from the tadpole orbits. In the edges of the gap vortices are excited, trapping preferentially particles of 30 cm radii. The rocky planet that is formed is as massive as 17 Earth masses, constituting a Super-Earth. By...

  16. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J


    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  17. GIPP: Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam

    Christian Haberland


    Full Text Available The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP consists of field instruments, sensors and equipment for temporary seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology as well as for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic experiments. These instruments are mainly mobile digital recorders, broadband seis­mometers and short period sensors, and they are used to reveal the subsurface structure and to investigate earth­quakes. Sensors for magnetotellurics include induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing silver / silver-chloride electrodes. It is operated by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instru­ment facility is open to all academic applicants, both national and international. Instrument applications are evalu­ated and ranked by an external steering board. Currently, for seismological applications >850 geophysical recorders, >170 broadband seis­mo­meters and >1300 short period geophones are available (among others. Available for magnetotelluric experiments are > 50 real-time data-loggers, >150 induction coils, and >500 electrodes. User guidelines and data policy are in force and data archives are provided (standard exchange formats.

  18. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    Turcotte, Donald L.


    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  19. Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics

    Goulty, N. R.


    Several types of sensitive strainmeters and tiltmeters have been developed, and it is now becoming clear which geophysical applications are most suitable for these instruments. In general, strainmeters and tiltmeters are used for observing ground deformation at periods of minutes to days. Small-scale lateral inhomogeneities at the instrument sites distort signals by a few percent, although the effects of large structures can be calculated. In earth tide work these lateral inhomogeneities and unknown ocean loading signals prevent accurate values of the regional tide from being obtained. This limits tidal investigations to looking for temporal variations, possibly associated with pre-earthquake dilatancy, and spatial variations caused by gross elasticity contrasts in the local geological structure. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are well suited for observing long-period seismic waves, seismic slip events on faults and volcano tumescence, where small site-induced distortions in the measured signals are seldom important.

  20. Use of the radon gas as a natural geophysical tracer; Utilizacion del gas radon como un trazador geofisico natural

    Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Lopez M, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this work it is denoted the applications of the radon gas like a natural geophysical radiotracer in the different branches of the Earth Sciences (Geology, geophysics and geochemistry). It importance resides in its employment like one additional tool to register the possible occurrence of seismic events by means of radon anomalies that are presented in land movements (volcanic eruptions and presence of geothermal areas), as well as its potential in environmental works whose purpose is the evaluation of the feather of contamination in the underground water and the porous media for spills of hydrocarbons. The measurement techniques to determine the concentration of radon was carried out by means of Solid Detectors of Nuclear tracks, as well as by Liquid scintillation, Clipperton, Honeywell, AlphaGUARD. The towns where these techniques its were applied were: Mexico City, Estado de Mexico (Toluca, ININ), Jalisco (The Spring), Guerrero coast. (Author)

  1. Temporal variations of the gravity field and Earth precession-nutation

    Bourda, G


    Due to the accuracy now reached by space geodetic techniques, and also considering some modelisations, the temporal variations of some Earth Gravity Field coefficients can be determined. They are due to Earth oceanic and solid tides, as well as geophysical reservoirs masses displacements. They can be related to the variations in the Earth's orientation parameters (through the inertia tensor). Then, we can try to improve our knowledge of the Earth Rotation with those space measurements of the Gravity variations. We have undertaken such a study, using data obtained with the combination of space geodetic techniques. In particular, we use CHAMP data that are more sensitive to such variations and that complete the ones already accumulated (for example with Starlette and LAGEOS I). In this first approach, we focus on the Earth precession nutation, trying to refine it by taking into account the temporal variations of the Earth dynamical flattening. The goal is mainly to understand how Geodesy can influence this fiel...

  2. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others


    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  3. Modification of TiO{sub 2} electrode with a series of alkaline-earth carbonates. Performance improvement of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Zhan, Chun; Wang, Liduo; Wu, Xueming; Qiu, Yong [Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry


    In this paper, alkaline-earth carbonates (CaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}) modified TiO{sub 2} electrodes are synthesized by dipping TiO{sub 2} electrode into alkaline-earth hydroxide or alkaline-earth acetate aqueous solutions. When applied to quasi-solid-state DSSC, hydroxide-treated TiO{sub 2} electrodes have increased open-circuit photovoltages (Voc). Among the three alkaline-earth hydroxides, Ba(OH){sub 2} treatment improved the DSSC performance best. The Voc improves from 0.66 V to 0.71 V and the overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) improves by 15% under100 mW/cm{sup 2}. As to acetates, not only the Voc is increased (from 0.68V to 0.74V), but also short-circuit photocurrent(Isc) is improved by Sr(OAc){sub 2} Ba(OAc){sub 2} The overall conversion efficiency improves by 22%. Dark current measurement indicate that in the presence of alkaline-earth carbonates, the TiO2 conduction band shifts to the negative direction, leading to the increase in Voc.

  4. Solid-liquid extraction of Gd(Ⅲ) and separation possibilities of rare earths from phosphoric acid solutions using Tulsion CH-93 and Tulsion CH-90 resins

    S.Radhika; V.Nagaraju; B.Nagaphani Kumar; M.Lakshmi Kantam; B.Ramachandra Reddy


    Solid-liquid extraction of gadolinium was investigated from phosphoric acid medium using commercial amino phosphonic acid resin,Tulsion CH-93.The experimental conditions studied included equilibration time,acid concentration,mass of the resin,metal concentration,loading and elution.The percent extraction of Gd(Ⅲ) was studied as a function of phosphoric acid (0.05-3 mol/L) using Tulsion CH-93 resin.The corresponding lgD vs.equilibrium pH plot gave straight line with a slope of 1.8.The percent extraction decreased with acid concentration increasing,conforming ion exchange mechanism.Under observed experimental conditions the loading capacity of Tulsion CH-93 for gadolinium was 10.6 mg/g.Among several eluants screened,the quantitative elution of Gd(Ⅲ) from loaded Tulsion CH-93 was obtained with ammonium oxalate (0.15 mol/L).The extraction behavior of commonly associated metals with gadolinium was studied as a function of phosphoric acid concentration.Tulsion CH-93 resin showed selective extraction towards heavy rare earths (Lu and Yb) which could be separated from other rare earths at 3 mol/L H3PO4,similar to wet phosphoric acid (3-5 mol/L).On the other hand Gd(Ⅲ) and other rare earths were studied with chelating resin Tulsion CH-90.Light rare earths were highly extracted and these could be separated from heavy rare earths and Gd.

  5. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.


    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  6. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.


    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  7. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki


    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  8. Innovation of floating time domain electromagnetic method in the case of environmental geophysics

    Nurjanah, Siti; Widodo


    Geophysics has some methods that can be used to reveal the subsurface structure of the earth. The physical features obtained from the acquisition then analyzed and interpreted, so that it can be a great lead to interpret the physical contents, determine its position and its distribution. Geophysical methods also can be used to help the environment contamination survey which is referred to environmental geophysics. There are many sources of pollution that can harm the nature, for example, the source in the form of solid waste, liquid waste containing heavy metals, or radioactive, and etc. As time passes, these sources might settle in any sedimentary area and become sediments. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) is a trustworthy method to detect the presence of conductive anomaly due to sediment accumulation. Innovation of floating TDEM created to maximize the potential of the method, so that it can be used in aquatic environments. The configuration of TDEM modified using pipes and tires during the process of measurements. We conducted numerical simulation using Marquardt and Occam Algorithms towards synthetic model to ensure the capability of the proposed design. The development of this innovation is expected to be very useful to repair the natural conditions, especially in the water.



    Sichuan Geophysical Company (abbreviated as SCGC below), originally named Sichuan Geophysical Company of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum, was founded in 1956 and is a subsidiary of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited. With more than 50 years' development, SCGC now owns almost 3800 employees and has become a big oil & gas seismic exploration engineering service enterprise with the characteristic mountain seismic exploration techniques, and its annual business turnover reaches nearly 2 billion RMB. It can provide the integrated seismic exploration engineering service including seismic data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and geological comprehensive evaluation in various complex regions for clients at home and abroad.

  10. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    McWilliams, James C.


    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from

  11. Arizona Geophysical Data Base

    McLeod, Ronald G.


    A series of digital data sets were compiled for input into a geophysical data base for a one degree quadrangle in Arizona. Using a Landsat digital mosaic as a base, information on topography, geology, gravity as well as Seasat radar imagery were registered. Example overlays and tabulations are performed.

  12. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.


    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium.

  13. Geophysical limits to global wind power

    Marvel, Kate; Kravitz, Ben; Caldeira, Ken


    There is enough power in Earth's winds to be a primary source of near-zero-emission electric power as the global economy continues to grow through the twenty-first century. Historically, wind turbines are placed on Earth's surface, but high-altitude winds are usually steadier and faster than near-surface winds, resulting in higher average power densities. Here, we use a climate model to estimate the amount of power that can be extracted from both surface and high-altitude winds, considering only geophysical limits. We find wind turbines placed on Earth's surface could extract kinetic energy at a rate of at least 400TW, whereas high-altitude wind power could extract more than 1,800TW. At these high rates of extraction, there are pronounced climatic consequences. However, we find that at the level of present global primary power demand (~ 18TW ref. ), uniformly distributed wind turbines are unlikely to substantially affect the Earth's climate. It is likely that wind power growth will be limited by economic or environmental factors, not global geophysical limits.

  14. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photolysis, Sonolysis and Sonophotolysis with Solid Solutions of Rare Earth, Gallium and Indium Oxides as Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Marta Penconi


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the hydrogen production by photolysis, sonolysis and sonophotolysis of water in the presence of newly synthesized solid solutions of rare earth, gallium and indium oxides playing as catalysts. From the experiments of photolysis, we found that the best photocatalyst is the solid solution Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 doped by sulphur atoms. In experiments of sonolysis, we optimized the rate of hydrogen production by changing the amount of water, adding ethanol and tuning the power of our piezoelectric transducer. Finally, we performed sonolysis and sonophotolysis experiments in the presence of S:Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 finding a promising synergistic effect of UV-visible electromagnetic waves and 38 kHz ultrasound waves in producing H2.

  15. Online Polar Oceans Geophysical Databases

    Goodwillie, A. M.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.


    With funding from the Office of Polar Programs of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through Data Link ( which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The data visualisation tool GeoMapApp ( supports dynamic exploration of a multi-resolutional digital elevation model (DEM) of the global oceans, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seaflooor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. To promote inter-operability, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. For example, the global DEM is served freely as an OGC-compliant Web Map Service map layer and is available for viewing with Google Earth. We are working towards full indexing of the AMBS database holdings at the Antarctic Master Directory.

  16. Simulation of the time-variable gravity field by means of coupled geophysical models

    Th. Gruber


    Full Text Available Time variable gravity fields, reflecting variations of mass distribution in the system Earth is one of the key parameters to understand the changing Earth. Mass variations are caused either by redistribution of mass in, on or above the Earth's surface or by geophysical processes in the Earth's interior. The first set of observations of monthly variations of the Earth gravity field was provided by the US/German GRACE satellite mission beginning in 2002. This mission is still providing valuable information to the science community. However, as GRACE has outlived its expected lifetime, the geoscience community is currently seeking successor missions in order to maintain the long time series of climate change that was begun by GRACE. Several studies on science requirements and technical feasibility have been conducted in the recent years. These studies required a realistic model of the time variable gravity field in order to perform simulation studies on sensitivity of satellites and their instrumentation. This was the primary reason for the European Space Agency (ESA to initiate a study on "Monitoring and Modelling individual Sources of Mass Distribution and Transport in the Earth System by Means of Satellites". The goal of this interdisciplinary study was to create as realistic as possible simulated time variable gravity fields based on coupled geophysical models, which could be used in the simulation processes in a controlled environment. For this purpose global atmosphere, ocean, continental hydrology and ice models were used. The coupling was performed by using consistent forcing throughout the models and by including water flow between the different domains of the Earth system. In addition gravity field changes due to solid Earth processes like continuous glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA and a sudden earthquake with co-seismic and post-seismic signals were modelled. All individual model results were combined and converted to gravity field

  17. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.


    Because applicable physical, chemical, and mathematical studies of the Earth system must be both interdisciplinary and international, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was formed in 1919 as an non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change. The Union brings together eight International Associations that address different disciplines of Earth sciences. Through these Associations, IUGG promotes and enables studies in the geosciences by providing a framework for collaborative research and information exchange, by organizing international scientific assemblies worldwide, and via research publications. Resolutions passed by assemblies of IUGG and its International Associations set geophysical standards and promote issues of science policy on which national members agree. IUGG has initiated and/or vigorously supported collaborative international efforts that have led to highly productive worldwide interdisciplinary research programs, such as the International Geophysical Year and subsequent International Years (IPY, IYPE, eGY, and IHY), International Lithosphere Programme, World Climate Research Programme, Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and Integrated Research on Risk Disaster. IUGG is inherently involved in the projects and programs related to climate change, global warming, and related environmental impacts. One major contribution has been the creation, through the International Council for Science (ICSU), of the World Data Centers and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services. These are being transformed to the ICSU World Data System, from which the data gathered during the major programs and data products will be available to researchers everywhere. IUGG cooperates with UNESCO, WMO, and some other U.N. and non-governmental organizations in the study of natural catastrophes

  18. Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles.

    Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till


    Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.

  19. Geoantineutrino Spectrum, 3He/4He - ratio radial distribution and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core

    Rusov, V D; Vaschenko, V N; Tarasov, V A; Zelentsova, T N; Bolshakov, V N; Litvinov, D A; Kosenko, S I; Byegunova, O A


    The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 Gpa) and temperature (1600-22000 C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution ...

  20. Common interests bind AGU and geophysical groups around the globe

    McEntee, Christine


    In continuation of our work to strengthen alliances with key organizations in the Earth and space science community, AGU president Michael McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and I held a series of meetings with leaders from other science societies during the 2011 Fall Meeting. Over the course of 2 days we met with leaders from the Geophysical Society of America, European Geosciences Union, Japan Geosciences Union, Ethiopian Geophysical Union, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Chinese Geophysical Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial. This gave us a valued opportunity to discuss the common interests and challenges we all face and to learn from each other's experience. The meetings allowed AGU to strengthen existing cooperative agreements and reach new levels of understanding between us and other societies. Additionally, we met with representatives from the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute to discuss their intention to establish a geophysical union modeled after AGU.

  1. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.


    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  2. Mechanosynthesis and mechanolysis of solid solutions of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with some rare earth oxides

    Todorowsky, D. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet; Terziev, A. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet; Minkova, N. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet


    The effect of the mechanoactivation on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2}, on mixtures of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with each of these oxides as well as on the solid solutions La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} is studied. The activation causes a decrease of the individual oxides` unit cell parameters. The formation of solid solutions of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the oxides studied is found. Under the conditions of activation in air no decomposition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution is detected. The solution is, however, destroyed when the activation is carried out in the presence of acids. (orig.)

  3. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    Yang, Xin-She


    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  4. The earth's shape and gravity

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T


    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  5. Structural characterization of bismuth rare earth tungstates obtained by fast microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis

    Rocha, G.N.; Melo, L.F.L. [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil); Castro, M.C.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil); Menezes, A.S. de [Departamento de Física – CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Fechine, P.B.A., E-mail: [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil)


    A new synthetic route was used to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates: BiREWO{sub 6}, where RE = Y, Gd and Nd. These materials were obtained by microwave radiation in air at 900–1100 °C for 10 min, depend on the rare earth composition in the ceramic. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that all samples are isostructural materials with monoclinic phase with space group A12/m1 and member of the Aurivillius family, as Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} ferroelectric phase. It was observed moderated values for dielectric measurements (14<ε{sub r}{sup ′}>19 and 0.018 < tg δ > 0.079) at microwaves frequencies, which can be used as Dielectric Resonator Antenna or for size reduction of the electric device. - Highlights: ► New synthetic route to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates by microwave radiation. ► Vibration spectroscopy was based in Group Theory and observed in FTIR and Raman. ► BiGdWO{sub 6} presented simultaneously higher ε{sub r}{sup ′} and smaller tg δ values at microwaves frequencies. ► The samples can be used as a DRA or for size reduction of the electric device.

  6. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.


    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  7. Interactive Geophysical Mapping on the Web

    Meertens, C.; Hamburger, M.; Estey, L.; Weingroff, M.; Deardorff, R.; Holt, W.


    We have developed a set of interactive, web-based map utilities that make geophysical results accessible to a large number and variety of users. These tools provide access to pre-determined map regions via a simple Html/JavaScript interface or to user-selectable areas using a Java interface to a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) engine. Users can access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales for the earth and other planets of the solar system. Developed initially by UNAVCO for study of global-scale geodynamic processes, users can choose from a variety of base maps (satellite mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others) and can then add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays for example coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, NEIC earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, and observed and model plate motion and deformation velocity vectors representing a compilation of 2933 geodetic measurements from around the world. The software design is flexible allowing for construction of special editions for different target audiences. Custom maps been implemented for UNAVCO as the "Jules Verne Voyager" and "Voyager Junior", for the International Lithosphere Project's "Global Strain Rate Map", and for EarthScope Education and Outreach as "EarthScope Voyager Jr.". For the later, a number of EarthScope-specific features have been added, including locations of proposed USArray (seismic), Plate Boundary Observatory (geodetic), and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth sites plus detailed maps and geographically referenced examples of EarthScope-related scientific investigations. In addition, we are developing a website that incorporates background materials and curricular activities that encourage users to explore Earth processes. A cluster of map processing computers and nearly a terabyte of disk storage has been assembled to power the generation of

  8. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  9. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  10. Geophysical wave tomography

    Zhou, Chaoguang


    This study is concerned with geophysical wave tomography techniques that include advanced diffraction tomography, traveltime calculation techniques and simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches. We propose the source independent approximation, the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation and develop a fast and accurate diffraction tomography algorithm that uses this approximation. Since the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation accounts for the scattering fields within scatterers, this tomography algorithm produces better image quality than conventional Born approximation tomography algorithm does with or without the presence of multiple scatterers and can be used to reconstruct images of high contrast objects. Since iteration is not required, this algorithm is efficient. We improve the finite difference traveltime calculation algorithm proposed by Vidale (1990). The bucket theory is utilized in order to enhance the sorting efficiency, which accounts for about ten percent computing time improvement for large velocity models. Snell's law is employed to solve the causality problem analytically, which enables the modified algorithm to compute traveltimes accurately and rapidly for high velocity contrast media. We also develop two simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches, which use traveltimes and amplitude spectra of the observed data, and discuss some of their applications. One approach is processing geophysical data that come from one single survey and the other deals with the repeated survey cases. These approaches are nonlinear and therefore more accurate than linear tomography. A linear system for wave propagation and constant-Q media are assumed in order to develop the tomography algorithms. These approaches not only produce attenuation and velocity images at the same time but also can be used to infer the physical rock properties, such as the dielectric permittivity, the electric conductivity, and the porosity. A crosshole radar

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics

    Eppelbaum, Lev


    , A., 2000, Seismic-electric effect method on guided and reflected waves. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy, 25, No.4, 333-336. Butler, K.E., Russell, R.D., Kepic A.W. and Maxwell, M., 1994. Mapping of a stratigraphic boundary by its seismoelectric response. SAGEEP '94 Conference Proceedings, 689-699. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2010. Archaeological geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future. Advances in Geosciences, 24, 45-68. Dupuis, J.C., Butler, K.E., Kepic, A.W. and Harris, B.D., 2009. Anatomy of a seismoelectric conversion: Measurements and conceptual modeling in boreholes penetrating a sandy aquifer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, B10306, doi:10.1029/2008JB005939 Eppelbaum, L.V., 2011. Study of magnetic anomalies over archaeological targets in urban conditions. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36, No. 16, 1318-1330. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2014. Geophysical observations at archaeological sites: Estimating informational content. Archaeological Prospection, 21, No. 2, 25-38. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2015. Quantitative interpretation of magnetic anomalies from thick bed, horizontal plate and intermediate models under complex physical-geological environments in archaeological prospection. Archaeological Prospection, 23, No. 2, 255-268. Eppelbaum, L.V., Alperovich, L., Zheludev, V. and Pechersky, A., 2011. Application of informational and wavelet approaches for integrated processing of geophysical data in complex environments. Proceed. of the 2011 SAGEEP Conference, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 24, 24-60. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E. and Khesin, B.E., 2000. Optimization of magnetic investigations in the archaeological sites in Israel, In: Special Issue of Prospezioni Archeologiche "Filtering, Modeling and Interpretation of Geophysical Fields at Archaeological Objects", 65-92. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E. and Itkis, S.E., 2001. Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli

  12. Geophysics publications honored

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Editors and artists of the bimonthly USGS Earthquake Information Bulletin were awarded third place in the category for technical magazines using at least two colors.

  13. Geophysical fluid dynamics: whence, whither and why?

    Vallis, Geoffrey K.


    This article discusses the role of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) in understanding the natural environment, and in particular the dynamics of atmospheres and oceans on Earth and elsewhere. GFD, as usually understood, is a branch of the geosciences that deals with fluid dynamics and that, by tradition, seeks to extract the bare essence of a phenomenon, omitting detail where possible. The geosciences in general deal with complex interacting systems and in some ways resemble condensed matter physics or aspects of biology, where we seek explanations of phenomena at a higher level than simply directly calculating the interactions of all the constituent parts. That is, we try to develop theories or make simple models of the behaviour of the system as a whole. However, these days in many geophysical systems of interest, we can also obtain information for how the system behaves by almost direct numerical simulation from the governing equations. The numerical model itself then explicitly predicts the emergent phenomena-the Gulf Stream, for example-something that is still usually impossible in biology or condensed matter physics. Such simulations, as manifested, for example, in complicated general circulation models, have in some ways been extremely successful and one may reasonably now ask whether understanding a complex geophysical system is necessary for predicting it. In what follows we discuss such issues and the roles that GFD has played in the past and will play in the future.

  14. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  15. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  16. If ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances observed before strong earthquakes may result from simultaneous impact of space weather on all geospheres including solid earth

    Khachikyan, Galina


    It is revealed in previous decades that ionospheric disturbances precede strong earthquakes, thus, the ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes are now under developing [Pulinets and Boyarchuk, 2004]. Simultaneously, it is revealed that strong earthquakes may be preceded by geomagnetic disturbances as well, as a result, the geomagnetic variations, for example, in the ULF band, are considered now as precursory signals [Fraser-Smith, 1990, doi/10.1029/GL017i009p01465]. At the same time, there is currently no reliable theory nor for ionospheric or to magnetic precursors of earthquakes. Moreover, several researches have reexamined some of above results and concluded that observed magnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes could be generated by other sources, such as global magnetic activity [e.g. Campbell, 2009, doi/10.1029/2008JA013932], and that ionospheric anomalies can also be an effect of the increase of the global magnetic activity [e. g. Masci and Thomas, 2015, doi:10.1002/2015RS005734]. Taking into account such conclusions, one may suggest that the observed ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes might be due to simultaneous influence of a space weather on the complicated surrounding system including the solid earth. This report presents some statistical results to prove such suggestion. In particular, it is shown [Khachikyan et al., 2012, doi:10.4236/ijg.2012.35109] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude (seismic potential) can be determined, in first approximation, on the base of geomagnetic Z-component measured in the Geocentric Solar Magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system, in which the space weather impact on the earth's environment, due to reconnection of the solar wind magnetic field with the earth's magnetic field, is more ordered.

  17. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Del Angel S, A.


    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  18. Noise generation in the solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, from non-linear interacting surface gravity waves in finite depth

    Ardhuin, Fabrice


    Oceanic observations, even in very deep water, and atmospheric pressure or seismic records, from anywhere on Earth, contain noise with dominant periods between 3 and 10 seconds, that can be related to surface gravity waves in the oceans. This noise is consistent with a dominant source explained by a nonlinear wave-wave interaction mechanism, and takes the form of surface gravity waves, acoustic or seismic waves. Previous theoretical works on seismic noise focused on surface (Rayleigh) waves, and did not consider finite depth effects on the generating wave kinematics. These finite depth effects are introduced here, which requires the consideration of the direct wave-induced pressure at the ocean bottom, a contribution previously overlooked in the context of seismic noise. That contribution can lead to a considerable reduction of the seismic noise source, which is particularly relevant for noise periods larger than 10 s. The theory is applied to acoustic waves in the atmosphere, extending previous theories that...

  19. Secular tidal changes in lunar orbit and Earth rotation

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.


    Small tidal forces in the Earth-Moon system cause detectable changes in the orbit. Tidal energy dissipation causes secular rates in the lunar mean motion n, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e. Terrestrial dissipation causes most of the tidal change in n and a, but lunar dissipation decreases eccentricity rate. Terrestrial tidal dissipation also slows the rotation of the Earth and increases obliquity. A tidal acceleration model is used for integration of the lunar orbit. Analysis of lunar laser ranging (LLR) data provides two or three terrestrial and two lunar dissipation parameters. Additional parameters come from geophysical knowledge of terrestrial tides. When those parameters are converted to secular rates for orbit elements, one obtains d n/d t = -25.97± 0.05 ''/cent2, d a/d t = 38.30 ± 0.08 mm/year, and d i/d t = -0.5 ± 0.1 μas/year. Solving for two terrestrial time delays and an extra d e/d t from unspecified causes gives ˜ 3× 10^{-12}/year for the latter; solving for three LLR tidal time delays without the extra d e/d t gives a larger phase lag of the N2 tide so that total d e/d t = (1.50 ± 0.10)× 10^{-11}/year. For total d n/d t, there is ≤ 1 % difference between geophysical models of average tidal dissipation in oceans and solid Earth and LLR results, and most of that difference comes from diurnal tides. The geophysical model predicts that tidal deceleration of Earth rotation is -1316 ''/cent2 or 87.5 s/cent2 for UT1-AT, a 2.395 ms/cent increase in the length of day, and an obliquity rate of 9 μas/year. For evolution during past times of slow recession, the eccentricity rate can be negative.

  20. Comprehensive geophysics and lithosphenc structure in the western Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    孔祥儒; 王谦身; 熊绍柏


    Comprehensive investigations along the Gyirong-Lugu-Sangehu geophysical profile in the western Xizang Plateau are presented. Analysis and interpretation of the lithospheric structure resulted in setting up of the geophysical methods and marks for the division of tectonic units in the lithospheric structure. Comprehensive geophysical survey in the remote west of Xizang is reported and some reliable geophysical evidence for deep structure division in the study region is provided. These lay a solid basis for probing into the mechanism of the Xizang Plateau uplift and geodynamics.

  1. Sampling functions for geophysics

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.


    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  2. Development of Geophysical Ideas and Institutions in Ottoman Empire

    Ozcep, Ferhat; Ozcep, Tazegul


    In Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity (600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made. There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences are included as a part of physics and chemistry.

  3. Notes on the history of geophysics in the Ottoman Empire

    Ozcep, F.; Ozcep, T.


    In Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity (600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made. There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences are included as a part of physics and chemistry.

  4. 3D stochastic geophysical inversion for contact surface geometry

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin; Bijani, Rodrigo


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. As such, 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy is to consider a fundamentally different type of inversion that works directly with models that comprise surfaces representing contacts between rock units. We are researching such an approach, our goal being to perform geophysical forward and inverse modelling directly with 3D geological models of any complexity. Geological and geophysical models should be specified using the same parameterization such that they are, in essence, the same Earth model. We parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces in a 3D model as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The physical properties of each rock unit in a model remain fixed while the geophysical inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via the control nodes, perturbing the surfaces as required to fit the geophysical data responses. This is essentially a "geometry inversion", which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. We apply global optimization strategies to solve the inverse problem, including stochastic sampling to obtain statistical information regarding the likelihood of particular features in the model, helping to assess the viability of a proposed model. Jointly inverting multiple types of geophysical data is simple

  5. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.


    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  6. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multi-physics problems in the solid Earth sciences

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.


    We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves

  7. 3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and

  8. Activities and Plan of the Center for Geophysics (Beijing from WDC to WDS

    Fenglin Peng


    Full Text Available In this report we introduce the development of the WDC for Geophysics, Beijing included our activities in the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY and in the transition period from WDC to WDS. We also present our future plans. We have engaged in the development of geophysical informatics and related data science. We began the data visualization of geomagnetic fields in the GIS system. Our database has been expanded from geomagnetic data to the data of solid geophysics, including geothermal data, gravity data, and the records of aurora sightings in ancient China. We also joined the study of the history of the development of geophysics in China organized by the Chinese Geophysical Society (CGS.

  9. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  10. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  11. Geophysical lineaments of Arizona

    Lepley, L.K.


    Photolineaments seen on satellite images are usually expressions of deep crustal ruptures. However, photolineaments are omnipresent and an independent expression of regional discontinuities is needed to help rank the photolineaments. Published gravity and magnetic contour maps of Arizona were analyzed to produce a single geophysical lineament map to indicate trends of regional basement structures. This map shows that the southwestern quarter of Arizona is dominated by a NNW-ENE orthogonal system whereas the remainder of the state is gridded by a NW-NE system. North-south systems are present throughout the state, as are EW lineaments. Arizona is transected by the WNW Texas Strand, but other shorter systems trending in the Texas direction are found throughout the state south of the Strand. The major lineament systems as seen on Landsat, gravity, and magnetic maps correlate reasonably well with known geothermal manifestations. Many other systems are Precambrian, Paleozoic, and/or Mesozoic in age but appear to control the location of Quaternary volcanic systems.



    Nov 3, 2012 ... olokoro lateritic soil, particle size distribution, compaction test, geophysical properties, california bearing ratio. 1. ... e.g. alluvial soil, aeolin soil, glacial soil etc. [2]. .... Garg, S.K. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer- ing.

  13. Body-centered cubic iron-nickel alloy in Earth's core.

    Dubrovinsky, L; Dubrovinskaia, N; Narygina, O; Kantor, I; Kuznetzov, A; Prakapenka, V B; Vitos, L; Johansson, B; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Abrikosov, I A


    Cosmochemical, geochemical, and geophysical studies provide evidence that Earth's core contains iron with substantial (5 to 15%) amounts of nickel. The iron-nickel alloy Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) has been studied in situ by means of angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction in internally heated diamond anvil cells (DACs), and its resistance has been measured as a function of pressure and temperature. At pressures above 225 gigapascals and temperatures over 3400 kelvin, Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) adopts a body-centered cubic structure. Our experimental and theoretical results not only support the interpretation of shockwave data on pure iron as showing a solid-solid phase transition above about 200 gigapascals, but also suggest that iron alloys with geochemically reasonable compositions (that is, with substantial nickel, sulfur, or silicon content) adopt the bcc structure in Earth's inner core.

  14. Why Earth aurorae shine?


    @@ By using the data obtained from three satellites of the Cluster mission launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), CAO Jinbin from the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) and his US and European co-workers have clarified why Earth's aurorae shine.Their work entitled Joint Observations by Cluster Satellites of Bursty Bulk Flows in the Magnetotail was published in a recent issue of Journal of Geophysical Research.

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure, and properties of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides: Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.


    The capability of mechanochemical synthesis for the formation of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) was tested by fluorination of metal acetates and metal hydroxides with ammonium fluoride directly at milling. Evidence was found for a mutual substitution of cations on their lattice positions in Ca1-xSrxF2 and Ba1-xSrxF2 samples. For the Ba/Ca-system this synthesis route is only partially successful. X-ray diffraction and 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize all samples concerning their crystal structure and local fluorine coordination. Calculations of 19F chemical shifts with the superposition model along with probability calculations for the intensity of the individual 19F lines, performed in dependence on the molar composition of the samples, perfectly agree with the experimental findings. The fluoride ion conductivity of as-prepared samples, determined by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements, is significantly higher than those of crystalline binary fluorides. Moreover, a higher F- ion conductivity is observed for samples with higher mixing grade in the Ca/Sr-and the Ba/Sr-systems.

  16. Unleashing Geophysics Data with Modern Formats and Services

    Ip, Alex; Brodie, Ross C.; Druken, Kelsey; Bastrakova, Irina; Evans, Ben; Kemp, Carina; Richardson, Murray; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley


    Geoscience Australia (GA) is the national steward of large volumes of geophysical data extending over the entire Australasian region and spanning many decades. The volume and variety of data which must be managed, coupled with the increasing need to support machine-to-machine data access, mean that the old "click-and-ship" model delivering data as downloadable files for local analysis is rapidly becoming unviable - a "big data" problem not unique to geophysics. The Australian Government, through the Research Data Services (RDS) Project, recently funded the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) to organize a wide range of Earth Systems data from diverse collections including geoscience, geophysics, environment, climate, weather, and water resources onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node. This platform, which now contains over 10 petabytes of data, is called the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP), and is designed to facilitate broad user access, maximise reuse, and enable integration. GA has contributed several hundred terabytes of geophysical data to the NERDIP. Historically, geophysical datasets have been stored in a range of formats, with metadata of varying quality and accessibility, and without standardised vocabularies. This has made it extremely difficult to aggregate original data from multiple surveys (particularly un-gridded geophysics point/line data) into standard formats suited to High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. To address this, it was decided to use the NERDIP-preferred Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) 5, which is a proven, standard, open, self-describing and high-performance format supported by extensive software tools, libraries and data services. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) 4 API facilitates the use of data in HDF5, whilst the NetCDF Climate & Forecasting conventions (NetCDF-CF) further constrain NetCDF4/HDF5 data so as to provide greater inherent interoperability

  17. SIAM conference on inverse problems: Geophysical applications. Final technical report



    This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.

  18. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    Hayashi, K.


    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  19. Avalanches in functional materials and geophysics

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni


    This book provides the state-of-the art of the present understanding of avalanche phenomena in both functional materials and geophysics. The main emphasis of the book is analyzing these apparently different problems within the common perspective of out-of-equilibrium phenomena displaying spatial and temporal complexity that occur in a broad range of scales. Many systems, when subjected to an external force, respond intermittently in the form of avalanches that often span over a wide range of sizes, energies and durations. This is often related to a class of critical behavior characterized by the absence of characteristic scales. Typical examples are magnetization processes, plastic deformation and failure occuring in functional materials. These phenomena share many similarities with seismicity arising from the earth crust failure due to stresses that originate from plate tectonics.

  20. Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean

    Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.


    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface ( which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp ( supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth ( To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

  1. A New Social Contract for Geophysics

    Malone, T. F.


    The Golden Age for geophysical research that followed the IGY set the stage for a new era of interaction among science, technology, and society. World population and the average economic productivity of individuals have both continued to grow exponentially during the past 50 years with the result that by the 1980s the demands of the human economy on the finite renewable resources of planet Earth were approximately equal to the natural regenerative capacities of planetary ecosystems. These demands are now "overshooting" those regenerative powers by about 20 per cent (1). The result could be a collapse in the life-supporting capacity of global ecosystems during coming decades, with tragic implications for civilized society. Novel modes of collaboration among all disciplines and all sectors of society are urgently needed to transform a potential catastrophe into the attractive vision that is now within reach as a result of rapidly expanding human knowledge, emerging technologies for sharing that knowledge (2), and the set of ethical principles for sustainable development contained in the Earth Charter (3). This prospect challenges geophysicists and scholars in all disciplines to forge a new and broadly based contract with society (4). 1. Wackernagel M. et al. 2002. "Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 14, 9266-9271, July 9. 2. Malone T. and Yohe G. 2002. "Knowledge partnerships for a sustainable, equitable, and stable society." J. of Knowledge Management, Vol. 6, No. 4, October (in press). 3. 4. Malone T. 1997. "Building on the legacies of the Intenational Geophysical Year." Transactions, AGU, Vol.78, No. 15, pp. 185-191.

  2. High-P behavior of anorthite composition and some phase relations of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system to the lower mantle of the Earth, and their geophysical implications

    Liu, Xi; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Norimasa; He, Qiang; Sanehira, Takeshi; Irifune, Tetsuo


    Multianvil experiments with long experimental durations have been made with the anorthite composition CaAl2Si2O8at pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of 14-25 GPa and 1400-2400°C. At subsolidus conditions, these experiments demonstrated three phase assemblages, grossular (Gr) + kyanite (Ky) + stishovite (St) at ˜14 GPa, Gr + calcium-alumino-silicate phase (CAS) + St at ˜18 GPa, and CAS + CaSiO3-perovskite (CaPv) + St at above ˜20 GPa, which are related by the reactions Gr + Ky = CAS + St and Gr + St = CAS + CaPv. Following the method of Schreinemakers, we combined our data with the literature data to deduce aP-Tphase diagram for a portion of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2system at subsolidus conditions, which subsequently helped to solve some long-lasting discrepancies in the high-Pbehavior of the compositions of anorthite and grossular. The crystal chemistry of the CAS and CaPv solid solutions was examined, and new substitution mechanisms were firmly established. Along the solidus, the melting reaction at ˜14 GPa is peritectic while that at ˜22 GPa is eutectic. For both pressures, St is the first phase to melt out and the melt is generally andesitic. For the An composition, its density starts to be significantly higher than the density of pyrolite at ˜2.5 GPa, a much lower pressure than that for the Or, Ab or Qtz composition (˜7.5-10 GPa), so that the An-enriched continental crust material should readily plunge into the upper mantle.

  3. Geophysical weight loss diet

    Schatten, Kenneth


    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  4. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph


    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  5. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.


    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  6. Diurnal signals in length-of-day changes and their geophysical excitation

    Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Salstein, David


    State-of-the-art determinations of short period Earth rotation variations from long-term space geodetic observations all report an as-yet unexplained LOD (length-of-day) perturbation of roughly 4 microseconds at the principal diurnal frequency corresponding to 1 cycle per solar day. The present study gives a detailed account of this signal component in terms of its possible geophysical excitation from the atmosphere and oceans, including both a direct effect due to pure atmosphere dynamics as well as an indirect effect associated with the oceans' response to diurnal air pressure variations. In particular, we assemble multi-year excitation estimates from a number of modern-day meteorological analysis systems and different hydrodynamic time-stepping solutions for the oceans. A simultaneous application of two legitimate modeling approaches - using either mass and motion terms of fluid angular momentum or pressure and friction torques acting on the Earth's crust - allows for an examination of the balance relationship existing between torques and the angular momentum derivative within each model. Significant violations of this constraint for each of the atmospheric analysis systems mainly originate from seemingly deficient mass term values and cast doubt on the validity of those estimates for sub-diurnal Earth rotation studies. On the contrary, oceanic angular momentum changes are well balanced by the pressure torque on the bathymetry. In light of these results and after thoroughly discussing possible consistency issues between various model estimates, a combined excitation term is constructed on the basis of atmospheric torques and oceanic angular momentum. The obtained solution displays a sufficiently close agreement with observed diurnal changes in LOD, and by virtue of the computed pressure and friction torques, this result can be augmented by a regional analysis of the underlying angular momentum transfer in the axial direction between the solid Earth and its fluid

  7. Direct measurement of thermal conductivity in solid iron at planetary core conditions.

    Konôpková, Zuzana; McWilliams, R Stewart; Gómez-Pérez, Natalia; Goncharov, Alexander F


    The conduction of heat through minerals and melts at extreme pressures and temperatures is of central importance to the evolution and dynamics of planets. In the cooling Earth's core, the thermal conductivity of iron alloys defines the adiabatic heat flux and therefore the thermal and compositional energy available to support the production of Earth's magnetic field via dynamo action. Attempts to describe thermal transport in Earth's core have been problematic, with predictions of high thermal conductivity at odds with traditional geophysical models and direct evidence for a primordial magnetic field in the rock record. Measurements of core heat transport are needed to resolve this difference. Here we present direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of solid iron at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the cores of Mercury-sized to Earth-sized planets, using a dynamically laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. Our measurements place the thermal conductivity of Earth's core near the low end of previous estimates, at 18-44 watts per metre per kelvin. The result is in agreement with palaeomagnetic measurements indicating that Earth's geodynamo has persisted since the beginning of Earth's history, and allows for a solid inner core as old as the dynamo.

  8. The Earth's Core.

    Jeanloz, Raymond


    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  9. The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines

    Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.


    The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given

  10. Fiber Optic Geophysics Sensor Array

    Grochowski, Lucjan


    The distributed optical sensor arrays are analysed in view of specific needs of 3-D seismic explorations methods. There are compared advantages and disadventages of arrays supported by the sensors which are modulated in intensity and phase. In these systems all-fiber optic structures and their compabilities with digital geophysic formats are discussed. It was shown that the arrays based on TDM systems with the intensity modulated sensors are economically and technically the best matched for geophysic systems supported by a large number of the sensors.

  11. Personal Inquiry in the Earth Sciences.

    Kaufman, W. Paul

    Designed as a basic workbook using the inquiry process or as a supplementary text in the classroom, this 129 page booklet is divided into five units: Moving in on the Earth From Space, The Earth's Great Bodies of Water, Composition of the Solid Earth, The Earth's Crust is Constantly Changing, and Studying the Earth's History. The exercises are…

  12. About well-posed definition of geophysical fields'

    Ermokhine, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Ludmila; Litvinova, Tamara


    We introduce a new approach to the downward continuation of geophysical fields based on approximation of observed data by continued fractions. Key Words: downward continuation, continued fraction, Viskovatov's algorithm. Many papers in geophysics are devoted to the downward continuation of geophysical fields from the earth surface to the lower halfspace. Known obstacle for the method practical use is a field's breaking-down phenomenon near the pole closest to the earth surface. It is explained by the discrepancy of the studied fields' mathematical description: linear presentation of the field in the polynomial form, Taylor or Fourier series, leads to essential and unremovable instability of the inverse problem since the field with specific features in the form of poles in the lower halfspace principally can't be adequately described by the linear construction. Field description by the rational fractions is closer to reality. In this case the presence of function's poles in the lower halfspace corresponds adequately to the denominator zeros. Method proposed below is based on the continued fractions. Let's consider the function measured along the profile and represented it in the form of the Tchebishev series (preliminary reducing the argument to the interval [-1, 1]): There are many variants of power series' presentation by continued fractions. The areas of series and corresponding continued fraction's convergence may differ essentially. As investigations have shown, the most suitable mathematical construction for geophysical fields' continuation is so called general C-fraction: where ( , z designates the depth) For construction of C-fraction corresponding to power series exists a rather effective and stable Viskovatov's algorithm (Viskovatov B. "De la methode generale pour reduire toutes sortes des quantitees en fraction continues". Memoires de l' Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersburg, 1, 1805). A fundamentally new algorithm for Downward Continuation

  13. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics.

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel


    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets.



    @@ BGP is one of the world leading onshore geophysical service contractors with a registered capital of 5,100 million Yuan. In 2002, BGP became a liability-limited company after merging other six Chinese geophysical companies.

  15. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    Smith, Peter J.


    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  16. Earth Sciences annual report, 1987

    Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J. (eds.)


    The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications.

  17. Subdaily Earth Rotation Models Estimated From GPS and VLBI Data

    Steigenberger, P.; Tesmer, V.; MacMillan, D.; Thaller, D.; Rothacher, M.; Fritsche, M.; Rülke, A.; Dietrich, R.


    Subdaily changes in Earth rotation at diurnal and semi-diurnal periods are mainly caused by ocean tides. Smaller effects are attributed to the interaction of the atmosphere with the solid Earth. As the tidal periods are well known, models for the ocean tidal contribution to high-frequency Earth rotation variations can be estimated from space- geodetic observations. The subdaily ERP model recommended by the latest IERS conventions was derived from an ocean tide model based on satellite altimetry. Another possibility is the determination of subdaily ERP models from GPS- and/or VLBI-derived Earth rotation parameter series with subdaily resolution. Homogeneously reprocessed long-time series of subdaily ERPs computed by GFZ/TU Dresden (12 years of GPS data), DGFI and GSFC (both with 24 years of VLBI data) provide the basis for the estimation of single-technique and combined subdaily ERP models. The impact of different processing options (e.g., weighting) and different temporal resolutions (1 hour vs. 2 hours) will be evaluated by comparisons of the different models amongst each other and with the IERS model. The analysis of the GPS and VLBI residual signals after subtracting the estimated ocean tidal contribution may help to answer the question whether the remaining signals are technique-specific artifacts and systematic errors or true geophysical signals detected by both techniques.

  18. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994



    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  19. The Denali Earth Science Education Project

    Hansen, R. A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Roush, J. J.; Siemann, K.; Nixon, I.


    In partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve and the Denali Institute, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) will capitalize upon an extraordinary opportunity to raise public interest in the earth sciences. A coincidence of events has made this an ideal time for outreach to raise awareness of the solid earth processes that affect all of our lives. On November 3, 2002, a M 7.9 earthquake occurred on the Denali Fault in central Alaska, raising public consciousness of seismic activity in this state to a level unmatched since the M 9.2 "Good Friday" earthquake of 1964. Shortly after the M 7.9 event, a new public facility for scientific research and education in Alaska's national parks, the Murie Science and Learning Center, was constructed at the entrance to Denali National Park and Preserve only 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault Earthquake. The AEIC and its partners believe that these events can be combined to form a synergy for the creation of unprecedented opportunities for learning about solid earth geophysics among all segments of the public. This cooperative project will undertake the planning and development of education outreach mechanisms and products for the Murie Science and Learning Center that will serve to educate Alaska's residents and visitors about seismology, tectonics, crustal deformation, and volcanism. Through partnerships with Denali National Park and Preserve, this cooperative project will include the Denali Institute (a non-profit organization that assists the National Park Service in operating the Murie Science and Learning Center) and Alaska's Denali Borough Public School District. The AEIC will also draw upon the resources of long standing state partners; the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and the Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services. The objectives of this project are to increase public awareness and understanding of the solid earth processes that affect life in

  20. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1981. [Lead abstract


    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 59 papers of the 1981 annual report of the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The general topics covered included nuclear waste isolation, geophysics and reservoir engineering, and geosciences. (KRM)

  1. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    Stauning, P.


    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  2. A spectral-geophysical approach for detecting pipeline leakage

    van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Jansma, P. F.; van der Meer, F. D.; Groothuis, G. J.


    Leakage of hydrocarbon has a large economic and environmental impact. Traditional methods for investigating leakage and resulting pollution, such as drilling, are destructive, time consuming and expensive. Remote sensing is an alternative that is non-destructive and has been been tested extensively for exploration of onshore hydrocarbon reservoirs and detection of hydrocarbons at the Earth's surface. In this research, a leaking pipeline is investigated through field reflectance spectrometry and the findings are validated with traditional drilling and geophysical measurements. The measurements show a significant increase of vegetation anomalies on the pipeline with respect to areas further away. The observed anomalies are positively related to hydrocarbon pollution through chemical analysis of drillings. Subsurface geophysical measurements show a large correlation with observed surface vegetation stress, enhancing the identification of hydrocarbon-related vegetation stress through spectroscopy.

  3. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in İzmir, Turkey

    Drahor, Mahmut Göktuğ

    In the new millennium, globalisation, and with it urbanisation, has been expanding as a consequence of economic development throughout the world. Urbanisation is a major social problem, not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. Urbanisation also has a major impact on archaeological sites and cultural heritages in urbanised zones. Non-destructive investigation techniques, such as geophysics, which uses remote sensing, and is non-invasive, are of great importance in urban areas. We are now capable of solving urbanisation-related problems, and these techniques reduce the cost of projects at urbanised sites. Geophysics has increased the possibilities of new applications in determining intensive urbanisation effects in earth science. Geophysics deals with numerous physical variations such as electricity, electromagnetism, magnetics, acoustics, gravity and radioactivity. There are numerous ways geophysics can be applied in archaeological and cultural heritage studies. In addition the hazard mitigation, infrastructure investigation, waste management, water supply, urban gateways and other factors are documented by geophysics. In recent years, archaeological sites under the encroachment of urbanisation have been investigated on numerous occasions using non-invasive geophysical techniques, allowing parameters such as the depth, dimension and extension of targets to be clearly determined. The term “urban geophysics” has recently been seen in various references related to geophysics and other earth science studies. This study reviews the results of geophysical investigations carried out at important archaeological sites under encroaching urbanisation in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

  4. Rotation and magnetism of Earth`s inner core

    Glatzmaier, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roberts, P.H. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super-rotation of Earth`s solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth`s magnetic field. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  5. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.


    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  6. Geophysical fields of a megalopolis

    Spivak, A. A.; Loktev, D. N.; Rybnov, Yu. S.; Soloviev, S. P.; Kharlamov, V. A.


    A description of the Center of Geophysical Monitoring for Systematic Investigation of Negative Consequences for the Human Environment and Infrastructure of the City of Moscow Resulting from Natural and Technogenic Factors, which is part of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGD RAS), is presented. The results of synchronous observations of the seismic vibrations, electric and acoustic fields, and atmospheric meteoparameters performed at the Center and in the Mikhnevo Geophysical observatory of IGD RAS situated outside of the zone of the Moscow influence are examined. It is shown that the megalopolis influence consists of an increase in the amplitudes of the physical fields, a change in their spectral composition, and the violation of natural periodicities. A technogenic component that has a considerable impact on the natural physical processes in the surface atmosphere is an important factor that characterizes a megalopolis.

  7. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    Eskola, L


    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  8. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai


    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  9. Geophysical examination of coal deposits

    Jackson, L. J.


    Geophysical techniques for the solution of mining problems and as an aid to mine planning are reviewed. Techniques of geophysical borehole logging are discussed. The responses of the coal seams to logging tools are easily recognized on the logging records. Cores for laboratory analysis are cut from selected sections of the borehole. In addition, information about the density and chemical composition of the coal may be obtained. Surface seismic reflection surveys using two dimensional arrays of seismic sources and detectors detect faults with throws as small as 3 m depths of 800 m. In geologically disturbed areas, good results have been obtained from three dimensional surveys. Smaller faults as far as 500 m in advance of the working face may be detected using in seam seismic surveying conducted from a roadway or working face. Small disturbances are detected by pulse radar and continuous wave electromagnetic methods either from within boreholes or from underground. Other geophysical techniques which explicit the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and geothermal properties of rocks are described.

  10. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.


    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  11. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.


    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  12. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.


    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  13. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.


    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.



    <正>20132231 Chen Li(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Xue Mei Group Velocity Tomography of Rayleigh Waves in South China Sea and Its Geodynamic Implications(Acta Seismologica Sinica,ISSN0253-3782,CN11-2021/P,34(6),2012,p.754-772,9illus.,46refs.,with English abstract)Key words:Rayleigh waves,velocity structure,South China Sea

  16. Magnetotellurics as a multiscale geophysical exploration method

    Carbonari, Rolando; D'Auria, Luca; Di Maio, Rosa; Petrillo, Zaccaria


    Magnetotellurics (MT) is a geophysical method based on the use of natural electromagnetic signals to define subsurface electrical resistivity structure through electromagnetic induction. MT waves are generated in the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere by a range of physical processes, such as magnetic storms, micropulsations, lightning activity. Since the underground MT wave propagation is of diffusive type, the longer is the wavelength (i.e. the lower the wave frequency) the deeper will be the propagation depth. Considering the frequency band commonly used in MT prospecting (10-4 Hz to 104 Hz), the investigation depth ranges from few hundred meters to hundreds of kilometers. This means that magnetotellurics is inherently a multiscale method and, thus, appropriate for applications at different scale ranging from aquifer system characterization to petroleum and geothermal research. In this perspective, the application of the Wavelet transform to the MT data analysis could represent an excellent tool to emphasize characteristics of the MT signal at different scales. In this note, the potentiality of such an approach is studied. In particular, we show that the use of a Discrete Wavelet (DW) decomposition of measured MT time-series data allows to retrieve robust information about the subsoil resistivity over a wide range of spatial (depth) scales, spanning up to 5 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the application of DWs to MT data analysis has proven to be a flexible tool for advanced data processing (e.g. non-linear filtering, denoising and clustering).

  17. A short note on the pressure-depth conversion for geophysical interpretation

    Cammarano, Fabio


    Databases of material properties based on mineral physics are rapidly becoming an essential tool for interpreting geophysical observations. The conversion of physical properties from pressure to depth is usually based on preliminary reference Earth model. We quantify the error that is introduced...



    In this paper,the long time behaviors of non-autonomous evolution system describing geophysical flow within the earth are studied.The uniqueness and existence of the solution to the evolution system and the existence of uniform attractor are proven.Moreover,the upper bounds of the uniform attractor's hausdorff and Fractal dimensions are obtained.

  19. ``An Earth-Shaking Experience''

    Achenbach, Joel


    Last month's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco drew an estimated 11,000 scientists, teachers, journalists and geophysics groupies. The schedule of talks could be found in a bound volume as thick as a phone book. You never see a geophysicist in ordinary life, but apparently the world is crawling with them. They came to talk about everything from the ozone layer to the big wad of iron at the center of the Earth. Also about other planets. And magnetic fields. Solar wind. Water on Mars. To be at this convention was to be immersed to the eyebrows in scientific knowledge. It is intellectually fashionable to fetishize the unknown, but at AGU, a person will get the opposite feeling-that science is a voracious, relentless and tireless enterprise, and that soon there may not remain on this Earth an unturned stone.

  20. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics


    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.


    A. A. Spivak


    Full Text Available Geophysical fields influenced by tectonics faults were observed, and instrumental observation results are analysed in the article. It is shown that fault zones are characterized by geophysical fields that are more variable than those in midmost segments of crustal blocks, more intense responses to weak external impacts such as lunar and solar tides and atmospheric pressure variations, and intensive relaxation. Transformation of energy between geophysical fields varying in origin takes place mainly in the fault zones.

  2. Erosion of a model geophysical fluid

    Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Chambon, Guillaume


    A specificity of natural flows such as debris flows, landslides or snow avalanches is that, mostly, the material forming the static bed has mechanical properties similar to those of the flowing material (mud/mud, snow/snow). To explore the bed erosion phenomenon induced by such geophysical flows, we consider the geomaterial as a continuum by performing experiments in laboratory on a model fluid that can behaves as a solid or as a liquid, depending on the conditions. Indeed, we propose an experimental study where a yield-stress fluid is implemented to model both the eroding flow and the eroded bed. Our approach is to capture the process of erosion in terms of solid-liquid transition. The studied hydrodynamics consists of a pipe-flow disturbed by the presence of an obstacle. We use a polymer micro-gel Carbopol that exhibits a Hershel-Bulkley (HB) rheology. By taking advantage of the fluid transparency, the flow is monitoring by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) internal visualization technique. Upstream of the obstacle, a solid-liquid-like interface between a flow zone and a dead zone appears in the fluid. In this study, we aim to investigate the dominant physical mechanism underlying the formation of the static domain, by combining the rheological characterization of the yield-stress fluid (using a rheometer), with the observation of the morphological evolution of the system substratum / flow and the local measurement of related hydrodynamic parameters. Our first result shows that the flow above the dead zone behaves as a classical plug flow, whose velocity profile can successfully be described by a Hagen-Poiseuille equation including a HB rheology, but except in a thin zone (compared to the whole flow zone) at the close vicinity of the solid-liquid interface. Thanks to a high PIV measurement resolution, we then properly examine the typical feature lying at the tail of the velocity profile. The numerical derivation of the profile shows that the shear rate in this

  3. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.


    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  4. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  5. How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth

    Rousseau, Christiane


    The mathematics behind Inge Lehmann's discovery that the inner core of the Earth is solid is explained using data collected around the Earth on seismic waves and their travel time through the Earth.




    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  7. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Borns, D.J.


    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  8. Fabrication and sealing performance of rare-earth containing glass–ceramic seals for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications


    The opportunity of using two rare-earth metal oxides in an aluminosilicate glass for seal applications was investigated in this work. Substitution of La2O3 with Y2O3 in the system changed thermal and physical properties such as transition temperature, flowing behavior, and thermal expansion...

  9. Press conference bring excitement of geophysical research to the public

    Leifert, Harvey

    “A Flare to Remember.” “Starbucks for Starfish.” “Earth's Rotation Slows for El Niño.” What do these catchy headlines have in common? They all resulted from presentations at AGU's Spring Meeting in Boston, Mass. Yes, geophysical science can be big news when presented in a way that is interesting to general audiences.Proof? Well, the “Flare to Remember” headline (in the Dallas Morning News) reported the discovery, via the SOHO spacecraft, that a solar flare had produced, deep inside the Sun, seismic disturbances of a magnitude never experienced on Earth. Researchers Valentina Zharkova of Glasgow University and Alexander Kosovichev of Stanford gave media representatives a preview of their session, supported by visual aids, in the AGU press briefing room.

  10. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth

    Hipkin, Roger


    It is a paradox that, despite it being the planet on which all our experience is founded, the bulk Earth is as inaccessible as a remote galaxy. In South African diamond mines, man has penetrated about 3 km into the solid Earth; intact core from boreholes has been recovered from about 7 km and, in the Kola Peninsula of northern Russia, drill chippings have been sluiced up from about 13 km. Nevertheless, even if we had the resources to pepper the outer layer with exploratory boreholes, direct observation of the remaining 99% of the Earth's volume will always remain an impossibility. And yet we know some quite detailed properties of the interior of the Earth. Contrary to primitive cosmologies inspired by watching volcanoes erupt, and although below 2890 km there is a core of molten steel, we know that only in rare, shallow and isolated pockets are the rocks of the Earth's interior molten. The interior of the Earth is like an onion-skin: properties (density, electrical conductivity, sound speed etc) change mainly with depth. Taking the Earth's response to stress as one example, the material behaves like a brittle elastic solid only to depths of about 10-20 km. Below that, Earth materials exhibit the properties of both a solid and a liquid: to short-period effects like sound waves, they respond as a conventional solid but, when subjected to long-period stress, they can also flow like a liquid with a very high viscosity. Viscosity is initially controlled by the increasing mobility of atoms as temperature increases (viscosity decreases from about 1025 Pa s in the upper 20 km to about 1020 Pa s at a depth of 250 km); but atomic mobility is then offset by the counteracting effects of increasing pressure (viscosity increases to perhaps 1023 Pa s at 2500 km). We also have a quantitative physical picture of Earth behaviour stretching back over 4.5 billion years, despite having only 4500 years of recorded scientific observations about the Earth. Using the same physics that

  11. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--K-6. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, and Water, with Follow-up Activities and Action Guide.

    Sly, Carolie; Ruskey, Abby

    The purpose of this K-6 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding four significant environmental issues--water, toxics, energy, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching implications, the lessons…

  12. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--7-12. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, Transportation, and Water with Fact Sheets and Action Guide.

    Holm-Shuett, Amy; Shuett, Greg

    The purpose of this 7-12 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding five significant environmental issues - water, toxics, energy, transportation, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching…

  13. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1989


    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. We are proud to be able to bring you this report, which we hope will convey not only a description of the Division's scientific activities but also a sense of the enthusiasm and excitement present today in the Earth Sciences.

  14. Thermal Energy Generation in the Earth

    Mayer, Frederick J


    We show that a recently introduced class of electromagnetic composite particles can explain some discrepancies in observations involving heat and helium released from the earth. Energy release during the formation of the composites and subsequent nuclear reactions involving the composites are described that can quantitatively account for the discrepancies and are expected to have implications in other areas of geophysics, for example, a new picture of heat production and volcanism in the earth is presented.

  15. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  16. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    Santos, Juan Enrique


    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  17. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    Figueroa, Ricardo


    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  18. Exotic geophysical phenomena observed in an environmental neutron flux study using EAS PRISMA detectors

    Alekseenko Victor


    Full Text Available Some exotic geophysical events are observed by a global net of electron-neutron detectors (en-detectors developed in the framework of the PRISMA EAS project. Our en-detectors running both on the Earth's surface and underground are continuously measuring the environmental thermal neutron flux. Thermal neutrons are in equilibrium with media and are therefore sensitive to many geophysical phenomena, which are exotic for people studying ultra high-energy cosmic rays or carrying out low background experiments deep underground.

  19. Agricultural geophysics: Past/present accomplishments and future advancements

    Geophysical methods have become an increasingly valuable tool for application within a variety of agroecosystems. Agricultural geophysics measurements are obtained at a wide range of scales and often exhibit significant variability both temporally and spatially. The three geophysical methods predomi...

  20. Geophysics and Seismic Hazard Reduction

    YuGuihua; ZhouYuanze; YuSheng


    The earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which often brings serious hazard to the human life and material possession. It is a physical process of releasing interior energy of the earth, which is caused by interior and outer forces in special tectonic environment in the earth, especially within the lithosphere. The earthquake only causes casualty and loss in the place where people inhabit. Seismic hazard reduction is composed of four parts as seismic prediction, hazard prevention and seismic engineering, seismic response and seismic rescuing, and rebuilding.

  1. Introducing multisensor satellite radiance-based evaluation for regional Earth System modeling

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; Aires, F.


    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  2. Introducing Multisensor Satellite Radiance-Based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; hide


    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  3. Hydrogen maser clocks in space for solid-Earth research and time-transfer applications: Experiment overview and evaluation of Russian miniature sapphire loaded cavity

    Busca, G.; Bernier, L. G.; Silvestrin, P.; Feltham, S.; Gaygerov, B. A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.


    The Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchatel (ON) is developing for ESTEC a compact H-maser for space use based upon a miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, a technique pioneered at VNIIFTRI. Various contacts between West-European parties, headed by ESA, and the Russian parties, headed by ESA, led to the proposal for flying two H-masers on Meteor 3M, a Russian meteorology satellite in low polar orbit. The experiment will include two masers, one provided by ON and the other by VNIIFTRI. T/F transfer and precise positioning will be performed by both a microwave link, using PRARE equipment, and an optical link, using LASSO-like equipment. The main objectives of the experiment are precise orbit determination and point positioning for geodetic/geophysical research, ultra-accurate time comparison and dissemination as well as in-orbit demonstration of operation and performance of H-masers. Within the scope of a preliminary space H-maser development phase performed for ESTEC at ON in preparation to the joint experiment, a Russian miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, on loan from VNIIFTRI, was evaluated in a full-size EFOS hydrogen maser built by ON. The experimental evaluation confirmed the theoretical expectation that with a hydrogen storage volume of only 0.65 liter an atomic quality factor of 1.5 x 10(exp 9) can be obtained for a -105 dBm output power. This represents a theoretical Allan deviation of 1.7 x 10(exp -15) averaged on a 1000 s time interval. From a full-size design to a compact one, therefore, the sacrifice in performance due to the reduction of the storage volume is very small.

  4. 基于Solid65和Solid45有限单元的素夯土墙体数值建模及计算分析%Rammed-earth Wall Numerical Model and Calculation Analysis Based on Solid65 and Solid45 Finite Element

    阿肯江·托呼提; 亓国庆



  5. Enhanced Microwave Resonance Properties of Pseudo-Tungsten-Bronze Ba6-3xR8+2xTi18O54 (R = Rare Earth) Solid Solutions Explained by Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Wunderlich, Wilfried; Ohsato, Hitoshi


    Microwave dielectrics consisting of pseudo-tungsten-bronze solid solutions form compositional ordering at x = 2/3 with the Ba6-3xR8+2xTi18O54 (R = La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, and Gd) formula. The Qf value of the x = 2/3 composition shows the highest value for Sm, but a discontinuity at Eu. When doping with heavier rare earth species, the crystal structure becomes unstable and needs stabilization with Nd. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that the electron-phonon interaction is responsible for this phenomenon. As the unit cells without Ba ions in the perovskite blocks caused tensile stress, the dielectric constant and dielectric losses increase by means of the ionic size of the dopant in the octahedral sites, but only when elements with a low electron-phonon interaction are used.

  6. Critical zone architecture and processes: a geophysical perspective

    Holbrook, W. S.


    The "critical zone (CZ)," Earth's near-surface layer that reaches from treetop to bedrock, sustains terrestrial life by storing water and producing nutrients. Despite is central importance, however, the CZ remains poorly understood, due in part to the complexity of interacting biogeochemical and physical processes that take place there, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring CZ properties and processes at depth. Major outstanding questions include: What is the architecture of the CZ? How does that architecture vary across scales and across gradients in climate, lithology, topography, biology and regional states of stress? What processes control the architecture of the CZ? At what depth does weathering initiate, and what controls the rates at which it proceeds? Based on recent geophysical campaigns at seven Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) sites and several other locations, a geophysical perspective on CZ architecture and processes is emerging. CZ architecture can be usefully divided into four layers, each of which has distinct geophysical properties: soil, saprolite, weathered bedrock and protolith. The distribution of those layers across landscapes varies depending on protolith composition and internal structure, topography, climate (P/T) and the regional state of stress. Combined observations from deep CZ drilling, geophysics and geochemistry demonstrate that chemical weathering initiates deep in the CZ, in concert with mechanical weathering (fracturing), as chemical weathering appears concentrated along fractures in borehole walls. At the Calhoun CZO, the plagioclase weathering front occurs at nearly 40 m depth, at the base of a 25-m-thick layer of weathered bedrock. The principal boundary in porosity, however, occurs at the saprolite/weathered bedrock boundary: porosity decreases over an order of magnitude, from 50% to 5% over an 8-m-thick zone at the base of saprolite. Porosity in weathered bedrock is between 2-5%. Future progress will depend on (1

  7. Cross-disciplinary education: The use of interactive case studies to teach geophysical exploration

    Boyd, Thomas M.; Romig, Phillip R.


    Cross-disciplinary training in the earth sciences is a difficult issue that has elicited concerns in academia and industry. Many problems associated with cross-disciplinary training stem from the fact that the earth sciences have evolved as a collection of loosely related, poorly coordinated specialties with little communication or interaction between them. As a result, when asked to teach across disciplinary boundaries, our instinctive reaction is to provide a watered-down version of the details that we teach our own students rather than the conceptual understanding that will help others work with us. This makes it difficult for earth scientists to provide the public with a coherent education in the fundamentals of earth science, and it has impeded the development of a common foundation for interaction between earth-science specialists. We have designed a computer-based learning environment for use in cross-disciplinary, earth-science education. This environment entails more than simply providing traditional course materials in an electronic form. Rather, the relevant material is conveyed through the use of a generalization of the case-study approach we refer to as the interactive case study approach. Through the use of computer simulations, students are allowed to interact with all aspects of the case, thereby helping them to become comfortable with the thought processes employed by a specialist and develop an intuitive understanding of the underlying physics. This educational model has been applied to the development of an introductory course in geophysical exploration geared toward upper-level undergraduate students not majoring in geophysics. The cases used in the course are couched in terms of a request for bid (RFB) requiring the use of a specific geophysical technique to solve a specific geologic or engineering problem. In responding to this RFB, students must write proposals, design geophysical surveys, interpret data derived from these surveys, and report

  8. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)


    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Nonlinear regularization with applications in geophysics

    Berglund, Eva Ann-Charlotte


    integral equation, as well as for solving the two geophysical inverse problems considered in this thesis. We compare the IRGN method, the Levenberg-Marquardt method, the trust-region method and the inexact Gauss-Newton method for solving the nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation, and for solving two...... geophysical inverse problems: a seismic tomography problem, and a geoelectrical sounding problem. We found that all four methods gave reasonable solutions for the two geophysical problem. However, the inexact Gauss-Newton method converged faster than the others for the seismic tomography problem...

  10. Nonlinear regularization with applications in geophysics

    Berglund, Eva Ann-Charlotte


    integral equation, as well as for solving the two geophysical inverse problems considered in this thesis. We compare the IRGN method, the Levenberg-Marquardt method, the trust-region method and the inexact Gauss-Newton method for solving the nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation, and for solving two...... geophysical inverse problems: a seismic tomography problem, and a geoelectrical sounding problem. We found that all four methods gave reasonable solutions for the two geophysical problem. However, the inexact Gauss-Newton method converged faster than the others for the seismic tomography problem...

  11. Expanding earth

    Carey, S.W.


    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  12. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico)


    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  13. Heterogeneous solid/gas chemistry of organic compounds related to comets, meteorites, Titan, and Mars: Laboratory and in lower Earth orbit experiments

    Cottin, H.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Fray, N.; Guan, Y. Y.; Macari, F.; Raulin, F.; Rivron, C.; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.; Bertrand, M.; Chabin, A.; Thirkell, L.; Westall, F.; Brack, A.


    To understand the evolution of organic molecules involved in extraterrestrial environments and with exobiological implications, many experimental programs in the laboratory are devoted to photochemical studies in the gaseous phase as well as in the solid state. The validity of such studies and their applications to extraterrestrial environments can be questioned as long as experiments conducted in space conditions, with the full solar spectrum, especially in the short wavelength domain, have not been implemented. The experiments that are described here will be carried out on a FOTON capsule, using the BIOPAN facility, and on the International Space Station, using the EXPOSE facility. Vented and sealed exposition cells will be used, which will allow us to study the chemical evolution in the gaseous phase as well as heterogeneous processes, such as the degradation of solid compounds and the release of gaseous fragments. Four kinds of experiments will be carried out. The first deal with comets and are related to the Rosetta mission, the second with Titan and are related to the Cassini Huygens mission, the third with the search for life-related organic compounds on Mars and, finally, the fourth are a continuation of previous studies concerning the behavior of amino acids in space.

  14. Practices to enable the geophysical research spectrum: from fundamentals to applications

    Kang, S.; Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Oldenburg, D.


    In a geophysical survey, a source injects energy into the earth and a response is measured. These physical systems are governed by partial differential equations and their numerical solutions are obtained by discretizing the earth. Geophysical simulations and inversions are tools for understanding physical responses and constructing models of the subsurface given a finite amount of data. SimPEG ( is our effort to synthesize geophysical forward and inverse methodologies into a consistent framework. The primary focus of our initial development has been on the electromagnetics (EM) package, with recent extensions to magnetotelluric, direct current (DC), and induced polarization. Across these methods, and applied geophysics in general, we require tools to explore and build an understanding of the physics (behaviour of fields, fluxes), and work with data to produce models through reproducible inversions. If we consider DC or EM experiments, with the aim of understanding responses from subsurface conductors, we require resources that provide multiple "entry points" into the geophysical problem. To understand the physical responses and measured data, we must simulate the physical system and visualize electric fields, currents, and charges. Performing an inversion requires that many moving pieces be brought together: simulation, physics, linear algebra, data processing, optimization, etc. Each component must be trusted, accessible to interrogation and manipulation, and readily combined in order to enable investigation into inversion methodologies. To support such research, we not only require "entry points" into the software, but also extensibility to new situations. In our development of SimPEG, we have sought to use leading practices in software development with the aim of supporting and promoting collaborations across a spectrum of geophysical research: from fundamentals to applications. Designing software to enable this spectrum puts unique

  15. Angular momentum exchange among the solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans: A case study of the 1982-1983 El Nino event

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Hide, R.; Eubanks, T. M.; Boggs, D. H.


    The 1982-1983 El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event was accompanied by the largest interannual variation in the Earth's rotation rate on record. In this study we demonstrate that atmospheric forcing was the dominant cause for this rotational anomaly, with atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) integrated from 1000 to 1 mbar (troposphere plus stratosphere) accounting for up to 92% of the interannual variance in the length of day (LOD). Winds between 100 and 1 mbar contributed nearly 20% of the variance explained, indicating that the stratosphere can play a significant role in the Earth's angular momentum budget on interannual time scales. Examination of LOD, AAM, and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data for a 15-year span surrounding the 1982-1983 event suggests that the strong rotational response resulted from constructive interference between the low-frequency (approximately 4-6 year) and quasi-biennial (approximately 2-3 year) components of the ENSO phenomenon, as well as the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Sources of the remaining LOD discrepancy (approximately 55 and 64 microseconds rms residual for the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasting (EC) and U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses) are explored; noise and systematic errors in the AAM data are estimated to contribute 18 and 33 microseconds, respectively, leaving a residual (rms) of 40 (52) microseconds unaccounted for by the EC (NMC) analysis. Oceanic angular momentum contributions (both moment of inertia changes associated with baroclinic waves and motion terms) are shown to be candidates in closing the interannual axial angular momentum budget.

  16. COLLADA Computing for Geophysical Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The COLLADATM open industry XML standard for 3D Graphics Exchange is applied for representation, combination and analysis of geophysical information from disparate...

  17. A geological and geophysical data collection system

    Sudhakar, T.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    A geological and geophysical data collection system using a Personal Computer is described below. The system stores data obtained from various survey systems typically installed in a charter vessel and can be used for similar applications on any...

  18. Exploring the oceans- The geophysical way

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The evolution of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI), the Bengal Fan and the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a consequence of the breakup of India from the eastern Gondwanaland in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Recent marine geophysical...

  19. The Geophysical Database Management System in Taiwan

    Tzay-Chyn Shin


    Full Text Available The Geophysical Database Management System (GDMS is an integrated and web-based open data service which has been developed by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB, Taiwan, ROC since 2005. This service went online on August 1, 2008. The GDMS provides six types of geophysical data acquired from the Short-period Seismographic System, Broadband Seismographic System, Free-field Strong-motion Station, Strong-motion Building Array, Global Positioning System, and Groundwater Observation System. When utilizing the GDMS website, users can download seismic event data and continuous geophysical data. At present, many researchers have accessed this public platform to obtain geophysical data. Clearly, the establishment of GDMS is a significant improvement in data sorting for interested researchers.

  20. Physicist + Geologist points to Geophysics Course

    Julian, Glenn M.; Stueber, Alan M.


    A two-quarter introductory course in geophysics at the advanced undergraduate/beginning graduate level is described. An outline of course content is provided, and mechanics of instruction are discussed. (DT)

  1. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Magnetometer Network

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file is comprised of the variation one minute values of the geomagnetic components X, Y and Z. These data were calculated by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory...

  2. A field guide to geophysics in archaeology

    Oswin, John


    Geophysics operations in archaeology have become well known through exposure on television. However, the technique is presented as the action of specialists and something of a mystery, where people walk about with strange contraptions, and results appear from a computer. This is not the case, however. Some scientific knowledge is needed in order to understand how the machines work and what they detect but otherwise it is only necessary to know how to handle the instruments, how to survey a field and how to interpret the computer results. This book provides all the relevant information. It explains geophysics operations in archaeology, describes the science that gives the soil properties to measure and the means by which the instruments make their measurements. Dr John Oswin is in charge of the geophysics operation of the Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and his work has recently been the subject of a television programme. He has taught many students how to use geophysical equipment.

  3. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    Young, Charles T.


    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  4. Marine geophysical data management and presentation system

    Kunte, P.D.

    The Geophysical Data Management and Presentation System (GPDMPS) constitutes an integral part of the large Geological Oceanographic Database (GODBASE) which is under development at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  5. Magma genesis, plate tectonics, and chemical differentiation of the Earth

    Wyllie, Peter J.


    Magma genesis, migration, and eruption have played prominent roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth. Plate tectonics has provided the framework of tectonic environments for different suites of igneous rocks and the dynamic mechanisms for moving masses of rock into melting regions. Petrology is rooted in geophysics. Petrological and geophysical processes are calibrated by the phase equilibria of the materials. The geochemistry of basalts and mantle xenoliths demonstrates that the m...

  6. Designing and building walls with Rammed Earth

    Galiouna, E.A.; Hammer, L.; Piscitelli, G.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Today, a lot of people in the world live in earth dwellings. There are many different techniques for constructing solid walls of raw earth (adobe, bale, cob, mud wall, light clay, wattle and daub, earth bags

  7. Designing and building walls with Rammed Earth

    Galiouna, E.A.; Hammer, L.; Piscitelli, G.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Today, a lot of people in the world live in earth dwellings. There are many different techniques for constructing solid walls of raw earth (adobe, bale, cob, mud wall, light clay, wattle and daub, earth

  8. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    Campbell, W. J.


    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  9. Brief Introduction of Sichuan Geophysical Company


    @@ Founded in 1956,Sichuan Geophysicai Company (SCGC) is the largest engineering technological service enterprise for petroleum and natural gas seismic exploration in the westem part of China,which is integrated in acquisition,processing and interpretation of seismic data as well as technological deyelopment. Iris also a member of International Asociation of Geophysical Contractors, a member of Association of CNPC Geophysical Contractors and a survey unit with qualification of A level authenticated by China National Survey & Mapping Bureau.

  10. Dictionary of geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy

    Matzner, Richard A


    The Dictionary of Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Astronomy provides a lexicon of terminology covering fields such as astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, relativity, geophysics, meteorology, Newtonian physics, and oceanography. Authors and editors often assume - incorrectly - that readers are familiar with all the terms in professional literature. With over 4,000 definitions and 50 contributing authors, this unique comprehensive dictionary helps scientists to use terminology correctly and to understand papers, articles, and books in which physics-related terms appear.

  11. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika


    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  12. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  13. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe


    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  14. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    Asphaug, Erik I.


    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  15. Early planetary differentiation: Geophysical consequences

    Schubert, G.


    Differentiation of a planet can have profound consequences for its structure and thermal evolution, including core formation and crystal growth. Recent theories for the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets and the Moon have all these bodies forming hot and cooling thereafter. Early core formation, and in the cases of Earth and Moon, a deep magma ocean possibly encompassing the entire mantle are characteristic features of these models. Secular cooling of Mars from a hot origin and cooling of Moon from a hot initial state with a deep magma ocean have been criticized on the basis of their tectonic implications. The cases of Mars and the Moon are discussed.

  16. Data on the Earth's Magnetic Field and its Secular Change since 1800

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on the past and present orientation of the Earth's magnetic field is available from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) which serves as the...

  17. Geophysical monitoring of hydrological and biogeochemical transformations associated with Cr(VI) bioremediation.

    Hubbard, Susan S; Williams, Ken; Conrad, Mark E; Faybishenko, Boris; Peterson, John; Chen, Jinsong; Long, Phil; Hazent, Terry


    Understanding how hydrological and biogeochemical properties change over space and time in response to remedial treatments is hindered by our ability to monitor these processes with sufficient resolution and over field relevant scales. Here, we explored the use of geophysical approaches for monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological and biogeochemical transformations associated with a Cr(VI) bioremediation experiment performed at Hanford, WA. We first integrated hydrological wellbore and geophysical tomographic data sets to estimate hydrological zonation at the study site. Using results from laboratory biogeophysical experiments and constraints provided by field geochemical data sets, we then interpreted time-lapse seismic and radar tomographic data sets, collected during thirteen acquisition campaigns over a three year experimental period, in terms of hydrological and biogeochemical transformations. The geophysical monitoring data sets were used to infer: the spatial distribution of injected electron donor; the evolution of gas bubbles; variations in total dissolved solids (nitrate and sulfate) as a function of pumping activity; the formation of precipitates and dissolution of calcites; and concomitant changes in porosity. Although qualitative in nature, the integrated interpretation illustrates how geophysical techniques have the potential to provide a wealth of information about coupled hydrobiogeochemical responses to remedial treatments in high spatial resolution and in a minimally invasive manner. Particularly novel aspects of our study include the use of multiple lines of evidence to constrain the interpretation of a long-term, field-scale geophysical monitoring data set and the interpretation of the transformations as a function of hydrological heterogeneity and pumping activity.

  18. Exoplanetary Geophysics -- An Emerging Discipline

    Laughlin, Gregory


    Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered, and it is clear that the galactic planetary census draws on a diversity greatly exceeding that exhibited by the solar system's planets. We review significant landmarks in the chronology of extrasolar planet detection, and we give an overview of the varied observational techniques that are brought to bear. We then discuss the properties of the currently known distribution, using the mass-period diagram as a guide to delineating hot Jupiters, eccentric giant planets, and a third, highly populous, category that we term "ungiants", planets having masses less than 30 Earth masses and orbital periods less than 100 days. We then move to a discussion of the bulk compositions of the extrasolar planets. We discuss the long-standing problem of radius anomalies among giant planets, as well as issues posed by the unexpectedly large range in sizes observed for planets with masses somewhat greater than Earth's. We discuss the use of transit observations to probe the atmo...

  19. Co-precipitation of rare-earth-doped Ysub>2sub>Osub>3sub> and MgO nanocomposites for mid-infrared solid-state lasers.

    Blair, Victoria L; Fleischman, Zackery D; Merkle, Larry D; Ku, Nicholas; Moorehead, Carli A


    Mid-infrared, solid-state laser materials face three main challenges: (1) need to dissipate heat generated in lasing; (2) luminescence quenching by multiphonon relaxation; and (3) trade-off in high thermal conductivity and small maximum phonon energy. We are tackling these challenges by synthesizing a ceramic nanocomposite in which multiple phases will be incorporated into the same structure. The undoped majority species, MgO, will be the main carrier of high thermal conductivity, and the minority species, Er:Ysub>2sub>Osub>3sub>, will have low maximum phonon energy. There is also an inherent challenge in attempting to make a translucent part from a mixture of two different materials with two different indexes of refraction. A simple, co-precipitation technique has been developed in which both components are synthesized in situ to obtain intimate mixing. These powders compare well to commercially available ceramics, including their erbium spectroscopy, even when mixed as a composite, and can be air-fired to ∼96% of theoretical density, yielding translucent parts. As the amount of Er:Ysub>2sub>Osub>3sub> increases, the translucency decreases as the number of scattering sites start to coalesce into large patches. If the amount of Er:Ysub>2sub>Osub>3sub> is sufficiently small and dispersed, the yttria grains will be pinned as individuals in a sea of MgO, leading to optimal translucency.

  20. Wavelet correlations to reveal multiscale coupling in geophysical systems

    Casagrande, Erik; Miralles, Diego; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa


    The interactions between climate and the environment are highly complex. Due to this complexity, process-based models are often preferred to estimate the net magnitude and directionality of interactions in the Earth System. However, these models are based on simplifications of our understanding of nature, thus are unavoidably imperfect. Conversely, observation-based data of climatic and environmental variables are becoming increasingly accessible over large scales due to the progress of space-borne sensing technologies and data-assimilation techniques. Albeit uncertain, these data enable the possibility to start unraveling complex multivariable, multiscale relationships if the appropriate statistical methods are applied. Here, we investigate the potential of the wavelet cross-correlation method as a tool for identifying multiscale interactions, feedback and regime shifts in geophysical systems. The ability of wavelet cross-correlation to resolve the fast and slow components of coupled systems is tested on syn...

  1. Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Order and Disorder Planetary Dynamos


    PARTICIPANTS Fast Dynamos in Chaotic Flow Bruce Bayly 109 Observational Constraints on Theories of the Geodynamo Jeremy BloxhamIl i I Nonlinear...1986. Phys. Rev. Lett., 57, No. 22, 2800. 4’ %.’ I- 111 , OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THEORIES OF THE GEODYNAMO Jeremy Bloxham Department of Earth... geodynamo ", 1987 Summer Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- tion, this volume. Bolton, E.W., 1985. "Problems in

  2. Geochemical and geophysical monitoring of thermal waters in Sloveniain relation to seismic activity

    Dolenec, T.; Popit, A.; J. Vaupotic


    Pre-seismic related strains in the Earth s crust are the main cause of the observed geophysical and geochemical anomalies in ground waters preceding an earthquake. Posoc?je Region, situated along the Soc?a River, is one of the most seismically active areas of Slovenia. Our measuring stations close to the Posoc?je Region were installed in the thermal springs at Bled in 1998 and at Zatolmin in 1999. Since the beginning of our survey, radon concentration, electrical conductiv...

  3. The Environmental Geophysics Web Site and Geophysical Decision Support System (GDSS)

    This product provides assistance to project managers, remedial project managers, stakeholders, and anyone interested in on-site investigations or environmental geophysics. The APM is the beta version of the new U.S. EPA Environmental Geophysics Web Site which includes the Geophys...

  4. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.


    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  5. A discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter for the advection of non-diffusive fields in solid Earth geodynamics

    He, Ying; Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Billen, Magali I.


    Mineral composition has a strong effect on the properties of rocks and is an essentially non-diffusive property in the context of large-scale mantle convection. Due to the non-diffusive nature and the origin of compositionally distinct regions in the Earth the boundaries between distinct regions can be nearly discontinuous. While there are different methods for tracking rock composition in numerical simulations of mantle convection, one must consider trade-offs between computational cost, accuracy or ease of implementation when choosing an appropriate method. Existing methods can be computationally expensive, cause over-/undershoots, smear sharp boundaries, or are not easily adapted to tracking multiple compositional fields. Here we present a Discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter (abbreviated as DG-BP) using a second order Runge-Kutta, strong stability-preserving time discretization method for the advection of non-diffusive fields. First, we show that the method is bound-preserving for a point-wise divergence free flow (e.g., a prescribed circular flow in a box). However, using standard adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) there is an over-shoot error (2%) because the cell average is not preserved during mesh coarsening. The effectiveness of the algorithm for convection-dominated flows is demonstrated using the falling box problem. We find that the DG-BP method maintains sharper compositional boundaries (3-5 elements) as compared to an artificial entropy-viscosity method (6-15 elements), although the over-/undershoot errors are similar. When used with AMR the DG-BP method results in fewer degrees of freedom due to smaller regions of mesh refinement in the neighborhood of the discontinuity. However, using Taylor-Hood elements and a uniform mesh there is an over-/undershoot error on the order of 0.0001%, but this error increases to 0.01-0.10% when using AMR. Therefore, for research problems in which a continuous field method is desired the DG

  6. Solid phase extraction for analysis of biogenic carbonates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS): an investigation of rare earth element signatures in otolith microchemistry

    Arslan, Zikri; Paulson, Anthony J


    Uptake of trace elements into fish otoliths is governed by several factors such as life histories and environment in addition to stock and species differences. In an attempt to elucidate the elemental signatures of rare earth elements (REEs) in otoliths, a solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol was used in combination with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) as a sample introduction procedure for the determinations by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of various parameters, such as carrier gas flow rate, atomization temperature and chemical modification, were examined for optimization of the conditions by ETV-ICP-MS. Atomization was achieved at 2800 deg. C. Lower temperatures (i.e. 2600 deg. C) resulted in severe memory problems due to incomplete atomization. Palladium was used as a chemical modifier. It was found that an increase in Pd concentration up to 0.5 {mu}g in the injection volume (70 {mu}l) led up to four-fold enhancement in the integrated signals. This phenomenon is attributed to the carrier effect of Pd rather than the stabilization since no significant losses were observed for high temperature drying around 700 deg. C even in the absence of Pd. Preconcentration was performed on-line at pH 5 by using a mini-column of Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650M chelating resin, which also eliminated the calcium matrix of otolith solutions. After preconcentration of 6.4 ml of solution, the concentrate was collected in 0.65 ml of 0.5% (v/v) HNO{sub 3} in autosampler cups, and then analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS. The method was validated with the analysis of a fish otolith certified reference material (CRM) of emperor snapper, and then applied to samples. Results obtained from otoliths of fish captured in the same habitat indicated that otolith rare earth element concentrations are more dependent on environmental conditions of the habitat than on species differences.

  7. Contribution of the airborne geophysical survey to the study of the regolith : A case study in southern Paris Basin.

    Prognon, Francois; Lacquement, Fréderic; Deparis, Jacques; Martelet, Guillaume; Perrin, José


    Studies of soil and subsoil, also called regolith, are at the crossroads of scientific new challenging questions as well as new environmental needs. Historically, geological maps were focussed on solid geology. Present societal needs increasingly require knowledge of regolith properties: superficial studies combining geology, geochemistry and geophysics become essential to better understand the natural processes which govern the repartition and evolution of subsoil formations. Such progress is critical to better orient the use and management of natural and groundwater resources. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic …). We illustrate the results of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in France, in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Spectral radiometry data were collected throughout "Région Centre" with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. Gamma-rays emitted from the Earth surface are related to the primary mineralogy and geochemistry of the bedrock and/or the nature of secondary weathering including regolith materials. Obtained images are confronted with former geological investigations (1:50 000e geological maps). Geophysical data and geological maps are generally consistent on most of the covered area since the first-rate information delivered by the spectrometry derives from the geochemistry of the solid geology. Second-rate gamma-ray responses come from superimposed allochtonous deposits as well as in situ geochemical modifications. For instance

  8. Solid-state (79/81)Br NMR and gauge-including projector-augmented wave study of structure, symmetry, and hydration state in alkaline earth metal bromides.

    Widdifield, Cory M; Bryce, David L


    Bromine-79/81 solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is established as a tool to characterize the local structure and symmetry about bromide ions in inorganic systems. Benchmark experimental (79/81)Br SSNMR data are acquired for CaBr(2), SrBr(2), BaBr(2), MgBr(2).6H(2)O, SrBr(2).6H(2)O, BaBr(2).2H(2)O, and CaBr(2).xH(2)O using the Solomon echo and/or QCPMG pulse sequences in magnetic fields of 11.75 and 21.1 T. Analytical line-shape analysis provides (79/81)Br electric field gradient (EFG) tensor parameters (including (79)Br quadrupolar coupling constants, C(Q)((79)Br), of up to 75.1(5) MHz in CaBr(2)), chemical shift tensor parameters (including the largest reported anisotropy), and the relative orientation of the tensor principal axis systems. These data are interpreted in terms of structure and symmetry. Our results indicate that ionic bromide systems should be generally accessible to characterization by (79/81)Br SSNMR despite sizable quadrupolar interactions. The resolving capabilities of (79/81)Br SSNMR spectroscopy are illustrated, using samples which possess up to four magnetically inequivalent sites, and through a rare example of (79)Br magic-angle spinning NMR for a Br in a noncubic lattice. Bromine-79/81 SSNMR spectroscopy is demonstrated to be sensitive to the presence of hydrates (i.e., pseudopolymorphism), via drastic changes in C(Q) and delta(iso). The changes are diagnostic to an extent that the composition of the mixture CaBr(2).xH(2)O is determined for the first time. This technique should therefore be applicable to characterize other unknown mixtures or polymorphs. Important instances where (79)Br nuclear quadrupole resonance data were found to be deficient are noted and corrected. GIPAW DFT computations are shown to be generally in very good agreement with the experimental (79/81)Br SSNMR observations. Finally, it is demonstrated that the origin of the EFG at the Br nuclei cannot be described quantitatively using a point charge model, even after

  9. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.


    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  10. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  11. Geophysics: creativity and the archaeological imagination

    Rose Ferraby


    Full Text Available This paper article explores archaeology as a creative practice by engaging specifically with the processes and visuals of geophysics. An area of archaeology considered highly scientific, a different way of looking reveals geophysics to be a poetic form of landscape study. The processes used to collect, alter, interpret and visualize visualise the data are creative acts that have parallels with more easily recognizable recognisable arts practices such as painting, drawing or photography. The paper article explores the ideas behind ways of seeing, the archaeological imagination, technologies and process. The section that follows explores the different elements of work and the ways of seeing and thinking they inspire. The paper article ends by showcasing how other arts practices can give alternative perspectives on geophysics and how these can in turn influence fine art.

  12. Introduction to Rheology and Application to Geophysics

    Ancey, C.

    This chapter gives an overview of the major current issues in rheology through a series of different problems of particular relevance to geophysics. For each topic considered here, we will outline the key elements and point the reader to ward the most helpful references and authoritative works. The reader is also referred to available books introducing rheology [1, 2] for a more complete presentation and to the tutorial written by Middleton and Wilcock on mechanical and rheological app lications in geophysics [3]. This chapter will focus on materials encountered by geophysicists (mud, snow, magma, etc.), although in most cases we will consider only suspensions of particles within an interstitial fluid without loss of generality. Other complex fluids such as polymeric liquids are rarely encountered in geophysics.

  13. Dynamical approach to study and interpret geodynamical and geophysical effects

    Ferronsky, V.


    It was proved by satellite and terrestrial observation that the hydrostatics, which operates by the outer forces, is not able to ensure correct description and interpretation of geodynamical and geophysical effects. In order to find solution of the problem, we applied to dynamics. For this purpose the outer force field of the Earth was replaced by its inner (volumetric) force pressure. Doing so we introduced new physical basis for study dynamics of the planet in its own force field. The analytics for that is as follows. The body is considered as a system of n elementary particles (n → ∞) of masses mi and many degrees of freedom. The volumetric moment of a particle pi is written as pi = midri/dt. Then the moment of momentum M of the system is found to be derivative from the moment of inertia I in the form: M = ∑piri = ∑miridri/dt = d/dt(∑½ miri2) = ½ dI/dt. Then derivative on time from M gives the energy of the system as second derivative from I: M' = ∑pidri/dt + ∑ridpi/dt = ½I" where ∑pidri/dt = 2T is the kinetic energy and ∑ridpi/dt = U is the potential energy of the oscillating moment of inertia (interacting particles). So, equation of dynamical equilibrium (equation of state) of a body, where the interacted particles are presented by nonlinear oscillators, is ½I" = 2T + U. We used this for study and interpretation of oscillation and rotation parameters of the Earth. Note that the center of mass of the Earth is presented here by a surface of asymmetric spheroid. For more information see our works: Ferronsky V.I. and S.V.Ferronsky (2007). Dynamics of the Earth, Scientific World, Moscow; Ferronsky V.I. (2008) Non-averaged virial theorem for natural systems:

  14. PLANETarium - Visualizing Earth Sciences in the Planetarium

    Ballmer, M. D.; Wiethoff, T.; Kraupe, T. W.


    In the past decade, projection systems in most planetariums, traditional sites of outreach and public education, have advanced from instruments that can visualize the motion of stars as beam spots moving over spherical projection areas to systems that are able to display multicolor, high-resolution, immersive full-dome videos or images. These extraordinary capabilities are ideally suited for visualization of global processes occurring on the surface and within the interior of the Earth, a spherical body just as the full dome. So far, however, our community has largely ignored this wonderful interface for outreach and education. A few documentaries on e.g. climate change or volcanic eruptions have been brought to planetariums, but are taking little advantage of the true potential of the medium, as mostly based on standard two-dimensional videos and cartoon-style animations. Along these lines, we here propose a framework to convey recent scientific results on the origin and evolution of our PLANET to the >100,000,000 per-year worldwide audience of planetariums, making the traditionally astronomy-focussed interface a true PLANETarium. In order to do this most efficiently, we intend to directly show visualizations of scientific datasets or models, originally designed for basic research. Such visualizations in solid-Earth, as well as athmospheric and ocean sciences, are expected to be renderable to the dome with little or no effort. For example, showing global geophysical datasets (e.g., surface temperature, gravity, magnetic field), or horizontal slices of seismic-tomography images and of spherical computer simulations (e.g., climate evolution, mantle flow or ocean currents) requires almost no rendering at all. Three-dimensional Cartesian datasets or models can be rendered using standard methods. With the appropriate audio support, present-day science visualizations are typically as intuitive as cartoon-style animations, yet more appealing visually, and clearly more

  15. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.


    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  16. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    Mawad, Ramy


    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  17. Tamara Shapiro Ledley Receives 2013 Excellence in Geophysical Education Award: Citation

    Reiff, Patricia


    It gives me great pleasure to cite Tamara Shapiro Ledley for the AGU Excellence in Geophysical Education Award "for her outstanding sustained leadership in Earth systems and climate change education." Tamara has shown an ongoing commitment to bridging the scientific and educational communities to make geophysical science knowledge and data accessible and usable to teachers and students and by extension to all citizens. She works extensively with both the scientific and educational communities. She began her educational work in 1990 as the leader for weather and climate in my Teacher Research program at Rice University. She continued as the lead for atmospheric sciences in our projects Earth Today and Museums Teaching Planet Earth, which introduced her to the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation). She has served many roles at ESIP, including creating the Standing Committee for Education and serving as vice president. ESIP recognized her many accomplishments with its President's Award in 2012. At TERC her education and outreach efforts have blossomed. She was the lead author of the "Earth as a System" investigation of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. She was a member of the original Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) Data Access Working Group in 2001, where the idea for a cookbook-like resource to facilitate the use of Earth science data by teachers and students resulted in her leading the development of the "Earth Exploration Toolbook" (EET), which allows teachers to easily access and use real scientific data in the classroom. Her efforts were recognized with the EET being awarded Science Magazine's Science Prize for Online Research in Education in 2011.

  18. 稀土固体超强酸催化a-蒎烯异构化反应%Study on the Rare Earth Solid Superacids SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 Catalyzed a-Pinene Isomerization

    陈慧宗; 周国斌; 徐景士; 刘显亮


      The preparation of the rare earth solid superacid SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 and a-pinene isomerization catalyzed by SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 were studied. The conditions for preparation of SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 and isomerization of a-pinene were optimized. It indicates that the catalyst has fair high catalytic activity and selectivity for a-pinene isomerization and the main product is camphene. The changes of structure and profile of SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3 calcinated under different temperature were determined by IR, XRD and SEM.%  首次研究了稀土固体超强酸SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3的制备及其催化a-蒎烯的异构化反应,得出最佳条件。结果表明,该催化剂对a-蒎烯的异构化反应具有很高的催化活性和选择性,主产物为莰烯。用IR、XRD、SEM等手段分析了不同焙烧温度的SO42-/TiO2-Nd2O3的结构和形貌变化。

  19. Determination of trace/ultratrace rare earth elements in environmental samples by ICP-MS after magnetic solid phase extraction with Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite.

    Su, Shaowei; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin; Xiao, Zuowei


    A novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite (MPANI-GO) was prepared through a simple noncovalent method and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in tea leaves and environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The prepared MPANI-GO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters affecting MPANI-GO MSPE of REEs have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) for REEs were in the range of 0.04-1.49 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=20 ng L(-1), n=7) were 1.7-6.5%. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analyzing a Certified Reference Material of GBW 07605 tea leaves. The method was also successfully applied for the determination of trace REEs in tea leaves and environmental water samples. The developed MPANI-GO MSPE-ICP-MS method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, high enrichment factor and is suitable for the analysis of trace REEs in samples with complex matrix.

  20. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    Smerd, S F


    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  1. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Eppelbaum, L. V.


    localization of archaeological targets: An introduction. Geoinformatics, 11, No.1, 19-28. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2005. Multilevel observations of magnetic field at archaeological sites as additional interpreting tool. Proceed. of the 6th Conference of Archaeological Prospection, Roma, Italy, 4 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2007a. Localization of Ring Structures in Earth's Environments. Proceed. of the 7th Conference of Archaeological Prospection. Nitra, Slovakia, 145-148. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2007b. Revealing of subterranean karst using modern analysis of potential and quasi-potential fields. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Denver, USA, 797-810. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2008a. Remote operated vehicle geophysical survey using magnetic and VLF methods: proposed schemes for data processing and interpretation. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Philadelphia, USA, 938-963. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2008b. On the application of near-surface temperature investigations for delineation of archaeological targets. Trans. of the 1st International Workshop on Advances in Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management, Rome, Italy, 179-183. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2009. Application of microgravity at archaeological sites in Israel: some estimation derived from 3D modeling and quantitative analysis of gravity field. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Denver, USA, 10 pp. Eppelbaum, L. and Ben-Avraham, Z., 2002. On the development of 4D geophysical Data Base of archaeological sites in Israel. Trans. of the Conf. of the Israel Geol. Soc. Ann. Meet., MaHagan - Lake Kinneret, Israel, p.21. Eppelbaum, L., Ben-Avraham, Z., and Itkis, S., 2003a. Ancient Roman Remains in Israel provide a challenge for physical-archaeological modeling techniques. First Break, 21 (2), 51-61. Eppelbaum, L.V., Ben-Avraham, Z., and Itkis, S.E., 2003b

  2. Paraná-Etendeka lithosphere modeling according to GOCE observations and geophysical constraints: improvement of PERLA project

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla


    One of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth's deep interior, and their relationship to the Earth-surface changes. PERLA project is a part of the challenge of ESA's Living Planet program to investigate the Solid Earth, and in particular the lithosphere of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP). At the present stage the study is focusing on the upper mantle, the source of the magma. The aim is to motivate the asymmetry of the shallow volcanic effusion of the Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, that in Paraná is wide, thick and represented by the basaltic layer of Serra Geral Formation, while in Etendeka it is rare and spanned. Viceversa the alkaline magmatism shows similar effusions along the region with dyke swarms and associated alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite complexes from Early Creataceous to Paleogene age. ESA's Living Planet program offers a suite of scientific satellites, the Earth Explorers, and in this context PERLA adopts the newest GOCE satellite mission products. The Marussi tensor field and especially its vertical component show a positive anomaly along the coastline sector of both the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive anomalies are also related to the deeper Moho under the northern part of Paraná basin, in South America (SAM) and the Etendeka continental part. Here we aim to define the detail of masses between crust and upper mantle by modeling the Marussi Tensor components and the invariants. The invariants are easier to understand because they are independent of the reference system. The forward model uses Tesseroids. The density model is compared with recent seismologic models, and is performed according to the results provided by the physical laws governing rock densities and seismic velocity of lithosphere in function of temperature and pressure combined with laboratory measurements of a great number of

  3. Técnica de bombeio e prova para medidas de absorção de estado excitado e de emissão estimulada, em materiais sólidos dopados com íons terras raras Pump-probe technique for excited state absorption and stimulated emission measurements in rare earth ion doped solid materials

    Andrea Simone Stucchi de Camargo


    Full Text Available Rare earth ion doped solid state materials are the most important active media of near-infrared and visible lasers and other photonic devices. In these ions, the occurrence of Excited State Absorptions (ESA, from long lived electronic levels, is commonplace. Since ESA can deeply affect the efficiencies of the rare earth emissions, evaluation of these transitions cross sections is of greatest importance in predicting the potential applications of a given material. In this paper a detailed description of the pump-probe technique for ESA measurements is presented, with a review of several examples of applications in Nd3+, Tm3+ and Er3+ doped materials.

  4. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah


    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  5. Geophysical tomography in engineering geology: an overview

    Patella, D


    An overview of the tomographic interpretation method in engineering geophysics is presented, considering the two approaches of the deterministic tomography inversion, developed for rock elasticity analysis, and the probability tomography imaging developed in the domain of potential fields methods. The theoretical basis of both approaches is shortly outlined before showing a laboratory and a field application.

  6. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.


    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called 'data fusion' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  7. Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.

    Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B


    Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (≥5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research.

  8. Predictability of extreme values in geophysical models

    Sterk, A.E.; Holland, M.P.; Rabassa, P.; Broer, H.W.; Vitolo, R.


    Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small) values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical model

  9. Planet Earth, Humans, Gravity and Their Connection to Natural Medicine-Essence from a 5000 Yrs Old Ancient Pedagogy

    Lakshmanan, S.; Monsanto, C.; Radjendirane, B.


    According to the Ancient Indian Science, the fundamental constituents of planet earth are the five elements (Solid, Liquid, Heat, Air and Akash (subtlest energy field)). The same five elements constitute the human body. The Chinese and many other native traditions have used their deep understanding of these elements to live in balance with the planet. David Suzuki has elaborated on this key issue in his classic book, The Legacy: "Today we are in a state of crisis, and we must join together to respond to that crisis. If we do so, Suzuki envisions a future in which we understand that we are the Earth and live accordingly. All it takes is imagination and a determination to live within our, and the planet's, means". Gravity, the common force that connects both the body and earth plays a major role in the metabolism as well as the autonomous function of different organs in the body. Gravity has a direct influence on the fruits and vegetables that are grown on the planet as well. As a result, there is a direct relationship among gravity, food and human health. My talk will cover the missing link between the Earth's Gravity and the human health. A new set of ancient axioms will be used to address this and many other issues that are remain as "major unsolved problems" linking modern Geophysical and Health sciences.

  10. New airborne geophysical data from the Waterberg Coalfield

    Fourie, CJS


    Full Text Available in 1920, but little exploration has been done since. Coaltech Research Association commissioned an Airborne Geophysical Survey of the area to enhance the structural understanding of the basin. The airborne geophysical survey was a major contribution...

  11. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  12. Dynamics of solid state coherent light sources

    Pollnau, M.; Di Bartolo, B.; Forte, O.


    This book chapter aims at reviewing in brief the fundamentals of rare-earth-ion spectroscopy in dielectric solids, with special emphasis on energy-transfer upconversion between neighboring active ions in a solid-state host lattice. The energy-level scheme of the 4f sub-shell of rare-earth ions is ex

  13. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.


    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  14. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz


    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (; this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  15. Geophysical Constraints on Sediment Dispersal Systems

    Johnstone, Elizabeth Anne Carruthers

    Geophysical and geological approaches were employed to understand sediment dispersal systems and their response to various forcing functions (i.e., sea level fluctuations, tectonic deformation, sediment supply, and climate change). Two end member marine environments were studied; one with high precipitation and sediment discharge (Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea) and the other with low precipitation and sediment discharge (Oceanside Littoral Cell). The high-sedimentation rate in the Gulf of Papua (GoP) yields high-fidelity records of Earth history. As part of the NSF Margins Source-to-Sink (S2S) program, we acquired CHIRP and core data across the GoP continental shelf that complemented onshore and offshore research in the region. CHIRP seismic data imaged three Holocene sedimentary lobes. The older Central lobe is downlapped by two younger lobes to the north and south. Sediment analysis showed that the older Central lobe has an elemental signature similar to the younger Northern lobe with both sourced from the Purari River watershed and lobe migration appears to be climatically controlled. The Southern lobe has elemental signatures more consistent with the Fly River watershed. Our results suggest the northern rivers began depositing sediments on the shelf during the Holocene sea level rise in the central region of the GoP and migrated abruptly north at ~2 kybp. Conversely, during the early Holocene transgression, sediments in the Fly drainage system were sequestered onshore infilling accommodation created in the large low-relief coastal plain during the sea level rise. Upon infilling the onshore accommodation, the Fly River delivered sediment to the ocean and formed the Southern lobe. Such differences in onshore storage capacity may introduce a lag between low-gradient rivers (Type I) with a large coastal plain versus high-gradient river systems (Type II) with small coastal plains. The second study site is in the sediment-starved Oceanside Littoral Cell (OCL) of

  16. Informing groundwater models with near-surface geophysical data

    Herckenrath, Daan

    of the geophysical data. The CHI-S yielded a geophysical model that could never be obtained with a separate geophysical inversion. Furthermore, we applied a CHI-S to evaluate the potential for time-lapse relative gravimetry (TL-RG) and magnetic resonance sounding (TL-MRS) to improve the estimation of aquifer...

  17. Field Geophysics Class at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Mario


    Ecuador's erupting Volcán Tungurahua was the recent site of a 3-week graduate-level geophysical course on volcanoes, hosted by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IG-EPN) and the Department of Earth Science at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT). Sixteen students from 12 universities and four countries participated in the intensive course, which entailed broadband seismometer and infrasound sensor deployment followed by subsequent data processing, analysis, interpretation, and result synthesis. Hardware for the course was provided by the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) through the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) as well as the IG-EPN and NMT geophysics programs. Since the start of its most recent eruptive period (in 1999), Tungurahua has proved itself a reliable source of both seismicity and infrasound radiating from its typically open vent. As such, Tungurahua provides the ultimate outdoor teaching laboratory where students can deploy instruments for just a few days and then collect earthquake and explosion data. Tungurahua's activity in June 2009 did not disappoint class participants: Frequent earthquakes included long-period and volcano tectonic events, various types of tremor events, and explosion earthquakes manifested by booming “cannon-shot” blasts. Some of the explosion shock waves were recorded 10 kilometers from the vent with excess pressure amplitudes greater than 50 pascals in the infrasonic band. Had these intense sounds been audible, their sound pressure levels at 10 kilometers would have been in excess of about 130 decibels!

  18. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    Spichak, Viacheslav V


    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  19. Transforming the representations of preschool-age children regarding geophysical entities and physical geography



    Full Text Available A semi-structured interview was individually administered to 76 preschoolers. The interview raised questions about the conceptual understanding of certain geophysical entities. A teaching intervention designed to attempt an understanding of the relationship between them and earth’s surface was implemented with groups of 5-9 children in order to help children construct a more “realistic” model of earth. The intervention’s effectiveness was consequently evaluated (after two weeks using an interview similar to that conducted prior to the intervention. The results of the study indicated that prior to the intervention many children faced difficulties in descriptive understanding of even familiar geographic features, such as rivers, lakes and islands. After the intervention the majority of children readily conceptualized certain aspects of most of the geophysical entities and correlated them with earth’s surface. Educational and research implications are discussed.


    Hakan ALP


    Full Text Available In this study, it was compared Fourier Transformation using widely in analysing of geophysics data and image processing and Wavelet Transformation using in image processing, boundary analysis and recently years in use geophysical data analysis. It was applicated and compared two transformations in the both geophysical data and fundamental functions. Then the results obtained were evaluated. In this study it was compared two transformation using earthquake records and Bouger gravity anomalies map of Hatay region geophysical data. At the end of the our study it was clearly seen that wavelet transform can be used by geophysical data analysing.

  1. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    GV Last; DG Horton


    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  2. Rotation and Magnetism of Earth's Inner Core

    Glatzmaier; Roberts


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super- rotation of Earth's solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth's magnetic field.

  3. Geophysical and Chemical Weathering Signatures Across the Deep Weathered-Unweathered Granite Boundary of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    Richter, D., Jr.; Bacon, A. R.; Brantley, S. L.; Holbrook, W. S.


    To understand the relationship between geophysical measurements and chemical weathering at Earth's surface, we combine comprehensive chemical and physical analyses of a 70-m granite weathering profile in the Southern Piedmont in the southeastern United States. The research site is in the uplands of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory and is similar to many geomorphically stable, ancient, and highly-weathered Ultisol soils of the region. Surface and downhole geophysical analyses suggest significant physical changes to depths of about 40 m, where geophysical properties are consistent with competent and unweathered granite. At this depth, surface refraction velocities increase to >4.5 km/s; variations in downhole sonic velocities decrease by more than two-fold; and deviations in the downhole caliper log sharply decrease as well. Forty meters depth is also the depth of initiation of plagioclase feldspar weathering, as inferred from bulk geochemical measurement of the full 70-m deep core. Specifically, element-depth profiles, cast as mass transfer coefficient profiles using Ti and Zr as immobile elements, document inferred loss of plagioclase in the depth interval between 15 and 40-m depth. Plagioclase feldspar is the most abundant of the highly reactive minerals in the granite. Such a wide reaction front is characteristic of weathering granites. Some loss of K is observed at these depths but most K loss, as well as Mg loss, occurs at shallower depths. Nearby geophysical profiles and 3D stress models have been interpreted as showing that seismic velocities decrease at 40 m depth due to opening of fractures as rock is exhumed toward the surface. Given our interpretations of both the geochemical and geophysical data, we infer that the onset of chemical weathering of feldspar coincides with the opening of these fractures. The data highlight the ability of geochemistry and geophysics to complement each other and enrich our understanding of Earth's Critical Zone.

  4. The geophysical impact of the Aristoteles mission

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Klingele, E.; Sabadini, R.; Tinti, S.; Zerbini, Suzanna


    The importance of a precise, high resolution gradiometric and magnetometric mission in some topics of geophysical interest is stressed. Ways in which the planned Aristoteles mission can allow the geophysical community to improve the knowledge and the physical understanding of several important geodynamical processes involving the coupled system consisting of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and upper mantle are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the inversion of anomalous density structures in collision and subduction zones by means of the joint use of gradiometric and seismic tomographic data. Some modeling efforts accomplished to study the capability of the mission to invert the rheological parameters of the lithosphere and upper mantle through the gravimetric signals of internal and surface density anomalies are described.

  5. Development of geophysical data management system

    Lee, Tai-Sup; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Gu, Sung-Bon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    (1) Development of a complete geophysical database system under C/S environment for data management. (2) Development of database system for the general user, who has not special knowledge of database, under the Internet environment. (3) Operation of the Web service for the general user. (4) Development of the stand-alone database system for a small-scale research group such as college and engineering consultant firms. (author). 15 refs.

  6. FY97 Geophysics Technology Area Plan.


    Under the High-frequency Active Auroral Research drag and to provide accurate winds and composition Program ( HAARP ), research was initiated to assess...Satellite Communications FY Fiscal Year GP Geophysics GPS Global Positioning System HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program BF High...and Combat Operations 3,14 Global Positioning System (GPS) ii,5,6,8,9,12,17 High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) 8,11 Industrial

  7. Geophysical, geological, environmental and technical program guidelines



    The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has created a set of guidelines which describe the information needed by the Board for authorizations relating to geophysical, geological, environmental or geotechnical programs. The guidelines also describe the review process that will be followed in considering a proponent`s application. Since these guidelines are subordinate to the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation (Newfoundland) Act, proponents must refer to both in preparing their development applications.

  8. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); McEvilly, T.V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Morrison, H.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering


    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten


    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  10. Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics

    Newman, William I.


    Graduate students in the natural sciences - including not only geophysics and space physics but also atmospheric and planetary physics, ocean sciences, and astronomy - need a broad-based mathematical toolbox to facilitate their research. In addition, they need to survey a wider array of mathematical methods that, while outside their particular areas of expertise, are important in related ones. While it is unrealistic to expect them to develop an encyclopedic knowledge of all the methods that are out there, they need to know how and where to obtain reliable and effective insights into these broader areas. Here at last is a graduate textbook that provides these students with the mathematical skills they need to succeed in today's highly interdisciplinary research environment. This authoritative and accessible book covers everything from the elements of vector and tensor analysis to ordinary differential equations, special functions, and chaos and fractals. Other topics include integral transforms, complex analysis, and inverse theory; partial differential equations of mathematical geophysics; probability, statistics, and computational methods; and much more. Proven in the classroom, Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics features numerous exercises throughout as well as suggestions for further reading. * Provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to the subject * Covers vector and tensor analysis, ordinary differential equations, integrals and approximations, Fourier transforms, diffusion and dispersion, sound waves and perturbation theory, randomness in data, and a host of other topics * Features numerous exercises throughout * Ideal for students and researchers alike * An online illustration package is available to professors

  11. Final Report DOE Contract No. DE-FG36-04G014294 ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP P.E. Malin, S.A. Onacha, E. Shalev Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham, NC 27708

    Malin, Peter E.; Shalev, Eylon; Onacha, Stepthen A.


    In this final report, we discuss both theoretical and applied research resulting from our DOE project, ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP. The abstract below begins with a general discussion of the problem we addressed: the location and characterization of “blind” geothermal resources using microearthquake and magnetotelluric measurements. The abstract then describes the scientific results and their application to the Krafla geothermal area in Iceland. The text following this abstract presents the full discussion of this work, in the form of the PhD thesis of Stephen A. Onacha. The work presented here was awarded the “Best Geophysics Paper” at the 2005 Geothermal Resources Council meeting, Reno. This study presents the modeling of buried fault zones using microearthquake and electrical resistivity data based on the assumptions that fluid-filled fractures cause electrical and seismic anisotropy and polarization. In this study, joint imaging of electrical and seismic data is used to characterize the fracture porosity of the fracture zones. P-wave velocity models are generated from resistivity data and used in locating microearthquakes. Fracture porosity controls fluid circulation in the hydrothermal systems and the intersections of fracture zones close to the heat source form important upwelling zones for hydrothermal fluids. High fracture porosity sites occur along fault terminations, fault-intersection areas and fault traces. Hydrothermal fault zone imaging using resistivity and microearthquake data combines high-resolution multi-station seismic and electromagnetic data to locate rock fractures and the likely presence fluids in high temperature hydrothermal systems. The depths and locations of structural features and fracture porosity common in both the MT and MEQ data is incorporated into a joint imaging scheme to constrain resistivity, seismic velocities, and locations of fracture systems. The imaging of the

  12. Snowball Earth


    In the ongoing quest to better understand where life may exist elsewhere in the Universe, important lessons may be gained from our own planet. In particular, much can be learned from planetary glaciation events that Earth suffered ∼600 million years ago, so-called `Snowball Earth' episodes. I begin with an overview of how the climate works. This helps to explain how the ice-albedo feedback effect can destabilise a planet's climate. The process relies on lower temperatures causing more ice to ...

  13. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  14. National Report for the International Association of Geodesy of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 2011-2014

    Savinykh, V P; Malkin, Z; Pobedinsky, G; Stoliarov, I A; Sermiagin, R; Zotov, L; Gorshkov, V; Shestakov, N; Steblov, G; Dokukin, P; Ustinov, A


    In this National Report are given major results of researches conducted by Russian geodesists in 2011-2014 on the topics of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). This report is prepared by the Section of Geodesy of the National Geophysical Committee of Russia. In the report prepared for the XXVI General Assembly of IUGG (Czhech Republic, Prague, 22 June - 2 July 2015), the results of principal researches in geodesy, geodynamics, gravimetry, in the studies of geodetic reference frame creation and development, Earth's shape and gravity field, Earth's rotation, geodetic theory, its application and some other directions are briefly described. For some objective reasons not all results obtained by Russian scientists on the problems of geodesy are included in the report.

  15. MarsTwin: an M-mission to Mars with two geophysical laboratories

    Dehant, V. M.; Breuer, D.; Grott, M.; Spohn, T.; Lognonne, P.; Read, P. L.; Vennerstroem, S.; Banerdt, B.


    Mars-Twin - a mission proposed for the running ESA cosmic vision M call - if selected it will be the first European mission to focus on interior processes and the early evolution of Mars, providing essential constraints for models of the thermal, geochemical, and geologic evolution of Mars and for a better understanding of SNC meteorites and future samples from Mars. Our fundamental understanding of the interior of the Earth comes from geophysics, geodesy, geochemistry, geomagnetism, and petrology. For geophysics, seismology, geodesy, magnetic field measurements, and surface heat flow have revealed the basic internal layering of the Earth, its thermal structure, its gross compositional stratification, as well as significant lateral variations in these quantities. The landers will also provide meteorological stations to monitor the Martian meteorology and climate and to obtain new measurements in the Martian boundary layer. The Mars-Twin mission will fill a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system by performing an in-situ investigation of the interior of an Earth-like planet other than our own. Mars-Twin will provide unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. This investigation has been ranked as a high priority in virtually every set of European, US and international high-level planetary science recommendations for the past 30 years, and the objectives for the Mars-Twin mission are derived directly from these recommendations. In addition to geophysics, the mission will provide important constraints for the Astrobiology of Mars by helping to understand why Mars fails to have a magnetic field, by helping to understand the evolution of the climate, and by providing a limit to the chemoautrophic biosphere through a measurement of the heat flow. The paper will also address the synergy between the lander instruments and the possible orbiter instruments.

  16. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Popov, Aleksey


    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  17. Global Bathymetric Prediction For Ocean Modeling and Marine Geophysics

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)


    We proposed to construct a complete bathymetric map of the oceans at a 3-10 km resolution by combining all of the available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years with high resolution marine gravity information provided by the Geosat, ERS-1/2, and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. Detailed bathymetry is essential for understanding physical oceanography and marine geophysics. Currents and tides are controlled by the overall shapes of the ocean basins as well as the smaller sharp ocean ridges and seamounts. Because erosion rates are low in the deep oceans, detailed bathymetry reveals the mantle convection patterns, the plate boundaries, the cooling/subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, the oceanic plateaus, and the distribution of off-ridge volcanoes. We proposed to: (1) Accumulate all available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years; (2) Use the short wavelength (< 160 km) satellite gravity information to interpolate between sparse ship soundings; (3) Improve the resolution of the marine gravity field using enhanced estimates along repeat altimeter profiles together with the dense altimeter measurements; (4) Refine/improve bathymetric predictions using the improved resolution gravity field and also by investigating computer-intensive methods for bathymetric prediction such as inverse theory; and (5) Produce a 'Globe of the Earth' similar to the globe of Venus prepared by the NASA Magellan investigation. This will also include the best available digital land data.

  18. Final Report DOE Contract No. DE-FG36-04G014294 ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP P.E. Malin, S.A. Onacha, E. Shalev Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham, NC 27708

    Malin, Peter E.; Shalev, Eylon; Onacha, Stepthen A.


    In this final report, we discuss both theoretical and applied research resulting from our DOE project, ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP. The abstract below begins with a general discussion of the problem we addressed: the location and characterization of “blind” geothermal resources using microearthquake and magnetotelluric measurements. The abstract then describes the scientific results and their application to the Krafla geothermal area in Iceland. The text following this abstract presents the full discussion of this work, in the form of the PhD thesis of Stephen A. Onacha. The work presented here was awarded the “Best Geophysics Paper” at the 2005 Geothermal Resources Council meeting, Reno. This study presents the modeling of buried fault zones using microearthquake and electrical resistivity data based on the assumptions that fluid-filled fractures cause electrical and seismic anisotropy and polarization. In this study, joint imaging of electrical and seismic data is used to characterize the fracture porosity of the fracture zones. P-wave velocity models are generated from resistivity data and used in locating microearthquakes. Fracture porosity controls fluid circulation in the hydrothermal systems and the intersections of fracture zones close to the heat source form important upwelling zones for hydrothermal fluids. High fracture porosity sites occur along fault terminations, fault-intersection areas and fault traces. Hydrothermal fault zone imaging using resistivity and microearthquake data combines high-resolution multi-station seismic and electromagnetic data to locate rock fractures and the likely presence fluids in high temperature hydrothermal systems. The depths and locations of structural features and fracture porosity common in both the MT and MEQ data is incorporated into a joint imaging scheme to constrain resistivity, seismic velocities, and locations of fracture systems. The imaging of the

  19. Research and Teaching About the Deep Earth

    Williams, Michael L.; Mogk, David W.; McDaris, John


    Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More; Virtual Workshop, 17-19 February and 24-26 February 2010; Images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring new excitement about deep-Earth processes and connections between Earth's internal systems and plate tectonics. The new results and the steady progress of Earthscope's USArray across the country are also providing a special opportunity to reach students and the general public. The pace of discoveries about the deep Earth is accelerating due to advances in experimental, modeling, and sensing technologies; new data processing capabilities; and installation of new networks, especially the EarthScope facility. EarthScope is an interdisciplinary program that combines geology and geophysics to study the structure and evolution of the North American continent. To explore the current state of deep-Earth science and ways in which it can be brought into the undergraduate classroom, 40 professors attended a virtual workshop given by On the Cutting Edge, a program that strives to improve undergraduate geoscience education through an integrated cooperative series of workshops and Web-based resources. The 6-day two-part workshop consisted of plenary talks, large and small group discussions, and development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities.

  20. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram


    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  1. Geophysical Hunt for Chromite in Ophiolite

    Mubarik Ali


    Full Text Available Ophiolite of Oman are famous world over, and are favorite for exploring chromite, which is a source of chromium that is used widely in steel, nichrome, and plating and painting industries. The best known chromite deposits are found in the Bushveld complex of South africa, however countries like Pakistan and Oman are also contributing but less than 2% of the world production. Chromite is found in the mantle rocks such as peridotite and its altered products. Large economic deposits are generally found in stratiform structure and the smaller ones in pod-like or tabular lenses. In Oman the chromite deposits occur in Oman ophiolite (Semile, mainly in the mantle sequence comprising harzburgite and dunite. The mining efforts for chromite in Oman are in progress but not on scientific grounds. On a site called Izki (670 m asl the chromite was expected on the top of a hill in a small area (150x50 m of ophiolite, and mining through pitting procedure was tried over there but remained unsuccessful. Geophysical methods were applied in the same area to search out the possibility of the existence of the ore. Since chromite is denser, more conductive and magnetically less susceptible deposit as compared to the host rocks harzburgite and serpentinite, it is expected that the existence of a shallow sizable ore body would generate favorable gravity, magnetic, and resistivity signals. The integrated geophysical study (gravity, magnetic and resistivity reveals the probability of chromite within 30 m depth. For confirmation the drilling was recommended on a point upto a depth of 35 meters. The drilling could not be continued beyond 12 meters depth due to reasons known to the lease owner. The drilling showed harzburgite up to 8 meters depth, then a chromite layer of 0.7 meter thickness, after that harzburgite started for the next 3 meters depth. This state of affairs confirms not only the presence of chromite but also the revealing power of geophysics.

  2. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.


    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  3. Characterising Super-Earths

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  4. Output and Property and Disposal of Solid Waste from Rare Earth Industry in Maoniuping Mine Area in Mianning,Sichuan%四川冕宁牦牛坪矿区稀土行业固体废物产生量、属性与处理方式



    论述了四川冕宁牦牛坪矿区稀土工业产生的固体废物的来源及产生量;对稀土工业固体废物的活度浓度进行了分析;对废石弃渣、尾矿砂、铈富集物、铁钍渣、铅渣中和废水污泥渣的浸出毒性进行了研究;提出稀土工业固体废物应坚持废物最小化、资源化和分类处理的原则。%This paper discusses the source and output of solid wastes of rare earth industry in Sichuan.The activity concentration of the solid wastes was analyzed.The infusion toxicity of the discarded ores,the tailings,the waste accumulating cerium,the waste with ferrum and thorium,the waste with lead,and the sludge of wastewater were tested.The principles of producing the least output of solid wastes,reusing solid waste,and treating solid wastes by category should be implemented all the time.

  5. Constitution and structure of earth's mantle

    Zunino, Andrea; Khan, Amir; Cupillard, Paul


    This chapter describes a quantitative approach that integrates data and results from mineral physics, petrological analyses, and geophysical inverse calculations to map geophysical data directly for mantle composition and thermal state. Seismic tomography has proved an important tool to image...... the inaccessible parts of the Earth. Computation of physical properties using thermodynamic models is described and discussed, and an application of the joint inverse methodology is illustrated in a case study where mantle composition and thermal state beneath continental Australia is determined directly from...... seismic data. There is a growing consensus that the cause of the imaged wavespeed anomalies not only relates to variations in temperature, but also bears a strong compositional component. However, separation of thermal and chemical effects from seismic wave speeds alone is difficult and is further...

  6. Auroral phenomenology and magnetospheric processes earth and other planets

    Keiling, Andreas; Bagenal, Fran; Karlsson, Tomas


    Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series. Many of the most basic aspects of the aurora remain unexplained. While in the past terrestrial and planetary auroras have been largely treated in separate books, Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets takes a holistic approach, treating the aurora as a fundamental process and discussing the phenomenology, physics, and relationship with the respective planetary magnetospheres in one volume. While there are some behaviors common in auroras of the diffe

  7. A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Slater, L.D.; Robinson, J.L.; Williams, J.H.; Boyden, C.L.; Werkema, D.D.; Lane, J.W.


    Geophysical technologies have the potential to improve site characterization and monitoring in fractured rock, but the appropriate and effective application of geophysics at a particular site strongly depends on project goals (e.g., identifying discrete fractures) and site characteristics (e.g., lithology). No method works at every site or for every goal. New approaches are needed to identify a set of geophysical methods appropriate to specific project goals and site conditions while considering budget constraints. To this end, we present the Excel-based Fractured-Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST). We envision the FRGT-MST (1) equipping remediation professionals with a tool to understand what is likely to be realistic and cost-effective when contracting geophysical services, and (2) reducing applications of geophysics with unrealistic objectives or where methods are likely to fail.

  8. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.


    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.


    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  10. Effect of regularization parameters on geophysical reconstruction

    Zhou Hui; Wang Zhaolei; Qiu Dongling; Li Guofa; Shen Jinsong


    In this paper we discuss the edge-preserving regularization method in the reconstruction of physical parameters from geophysical data such as seismic and ground-penetrating radar data.In the regularization method a potential function of model parameters and its corresponding functions are introduced.This method is stable and able to preserve boundaries, and protect resolution.The effect of regularization depends to a great extent on the suitable choice of regularization parameters.The influence of the edge-preserving parameters on the reconstruction results is investigated and the relationship between the regularization parameters and the error of data is described.

  11. Predictability of extreme values in geophysical models

    A. E. Sterk


    Full Text Available Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical models. We study whether finite-time Lyapunov exponents are larger or smaller for initial conditions leading to extremes. General statements on whether extreme values are better or less predictable are not possible: the predictability of extreme values depends on the observable, the attractor of the system, and the prediction lead time.

  12. Melting of iron close to Earth's inner core boundary conditions and beyond

    Harmand, M; Mazevet, S; Bouchet, J; Denoeud, A; Dorchies, F; Feng, Y; Fourment, C; Galtier, E; Gaudin, J; Guyot, F; Kodama, R; Koenig, M; Lee, H J; Miyanishi, K; Morard, G; Musella, R; Nagler, B; Nakatsutsumi, M; Ozaki, N; Recoules, V; Toleikis, S; Vinci, T; Zastrau, U; Zhu, D; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A


    Several important geophysical features such as heat flux at the Core-Mantle Boundary or geodynamo production are intimately related with the temperature profile in the Earth's core. However, measuring the melting curve of iron at conditions corresponding to the Earth inner core boundary under pressure of 330 GPa has eluded scientists for several decades. Significant discrepancies in previously reported iron melting temperatures at high pressure have called into question the validity of dynamic measurements. We report measurements made with a novel approach using X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser source coupled to a laser shock experiment. We determine the state of iron along the shock Hugoniot up to 420 GPa (+/- 50) and 10800 K (+/- 1390) and find an upper boundary for the melting curve of iron by detecting solid iron at 130 GPa and molten at 260, 380 and 420 GPa along the shock Hugoniot. Our result establishes unambiguous agreement between dynamic measurement and recent extrapo...

  13. Heat transfer in earth science studies

    Carrigan, C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Chu, T.Y. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    Earth scientists have long recognized that quantitative models of heat and mass transfer are fundamental to understanding many geophysical phenomena. Transport models have been used to simulate a wide range of earth processes from the crystallization of rock melts to those global mechanisms responsible for driving lithospheric plates and the geodynamo. Since the elegant conductive cooling models of igneous instrusions by Lovering and Jaeger in the 1930's and 1940's, calculations have evolved in their sophistication with the realization of the importance of convective transport and the advent of new methods and supercomputers. Many of the modeling techniques currently used by geoscientists have been adapted from techniques that were originally developed to solve engineering problems. Processes, such as those involving magma transport in volcanic systems, may often be understood by establishing their dynamical similarity with a well-studied engineering application. This book contains a series of papers regarding heat transfer and earth science studies.

  14. Earth Sciences report, 1989--1990

    Younker, L.W.; Peterson, S.J.; Price, M.E. (eds.)


    The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, environmental, and basic research programs. The Department comprises more than 100 professional scientific personnel spanning a variety of subdisciplines: geology, seismology, physics, geophysics, geochemistry, geohydrology, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Resident technical support groups add significant additional technical expertise, including Containment Engineering, Computations, Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Science, and Technical Information. In total, approximately 180 professional scientists and engineers are housed in the Earth Sciences Department, making it one of the largest geo-science research groups in the nation. Previous Earth Sciences reports have presented an outline of the technical capabilities and accomplishments of the groups within the Department. In this FY 89/90 Report, we have chosen instead to present twelve of our projects in full-length technical articles. This Overview introduces those articles and highlights other significant research performed during this period.

  15. Looking at the earth from space

    Geller, Marvin A.


    Some of the scientific accomplishments attained in observing the earth from space are discussed. A brief overview of findings concerning the atmosphere, the oceans and sea ice, the solid earth, and the terrestrial hydrosphere and biosphere is presented, and six examples are examined in which space data have provided unique information enabling new knowledge concerning the workings of the earth to be derived. These examples concern stratospheric water vapor, hemispheric differences in surface and atmosphere parameters, Seasat altimeter mesoscale variability, variability of Antarctic sea ice, variations in the length of day, and spaceborne radar imaging of ancient rivers. Future space observations of the earth are briefly addressed.

  16. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.


    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Minimax approach to inverse problems of geophysics

    Balk, P. I.; Dolgal, A. S.; Balk, T. V.; Khristenko, L. A.


    A new approach is suggested for solving the inverse problems that arise in the different fields of applied geophysics (gravity, magnetic, and electrical prospecting, geothermy) and require assessing the spatial region occupied by the anomaly-generating masses in the presence of different types of a priori information. The interpretation which provides the maximum guaranteed proximity of the model field sources to the real perturbing object is treated as the best interpretation. In some fields of science (game theory, economics, operations research), the decision-making principle that lies in minimizing the probable losses which cannot be prevented if the situation develops by the worst-case scenario is referred to as minimax. The minimax criterion of choice is interesting as, instead of being confined to the indirect (and sometimes doubtful) signs of the "optimal" solution, it relies on the actual properties of the information in the results of a particular interpretation. In the hierarchy of the approaches to the solution of the inverse problems of geophysics ordered by the volume and quality of the retrieved information about the sources of the field, the minimax approach should take special place.

  18. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach

    Christensen, Nikolas I.

    Nearly 80 years ago, Yugoslavian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic recognized, while studying a Balkan earthquake, that velocities of seismic waves increase abruptly at a few tens of kilometers depth , giving rise to the seismological definition of the crust. Since that discovery, many studies concerned with the nature of both the continental and oceanic crusts have appeared in the geophysical literature.Recently, interest in the continental crust has cascaded. This is largely because of an infusion of new data obtained from major reflection programs such as the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) and British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) and increased resolution of refraction studies. In addition, deep continental drilling programs are n ow in fashion. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach is a summary of present knowledge of the continental crust. Meissner has succeeded in writing a book suited to many different readers, from the interested undergraduate to the professional. The book is well documented , with pertinent figures and a complete and up-to-date reference list.

  19. Satellites provide new insights into polar geophysics

    Laxon, Seymour; McAdoo, David

    A revolution in polar geophysics is under way thanks to altimeter data, which the ERS satellites have been collecting since 1991. Geophysical surveys in the polar regions have long been hampered by inaccessibility, particularly in areas that are covered yearround by sea ice or land ice. As a result the major remaining uncertainties in global tectonic models of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tend to lie in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. In fact, major tectonic plate boundaries have been hypothesized, but not confirmed, for both regions. In the Arctic, a divergent plate boundary associated with the Mesozoic opening of the Canada Basin has been proposed [e.g., Lawver et al., 1990] while in the Antarctic a divergent boundary, active during the late Cretaceous in the Amundsen Sea, has been hypothesized [Cande et al., 1995; Stock and Molnar, 1987]. Due to the acute sparseness of seafloor surveys in these areas, however, no one has been able to prove that these plate boundaries actually existed, nor has anyone been able to locate extinct remnants of the boundaries. High-resolution marine gravity fields (Figures 1 and 2) derived from satellite altimeter data are now redressing this problem of sparse surveys.

  20. New perspectives on superparameterization for geophysical turbulence

    Majda, Andrew J. [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Prototype Climate Modelling, NYU Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Grooms, Ian, E-mail: [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)


    This is a research expository paper regarding superparameterization, a class of multi-scale numerical methods designed to cope with the intermittent multi-scale effects of inhomogeneous geophysical turbulence where energy often inverse-cascades from the unresolved scales to the large scales through the effects of waves, jets, vortices, and latent heat release from moist processes. Original as well as sparse space–time superparameterization algorithms are discussed for the important case of moist atmospheric convection including the role of multi-scale asymptotic methods in providing self-consistent constraints on superparameterization algorithms and related deterministic and stochastic multi-cloud parameterizations. Test models for the statistical numerical analysis of superparameterization algorithms are discussed both to elucidate the performance of the basic algorithms and to test their potential role in efficient multi-scale data assimilation. The very recent development of grid-free seamless stochastic superparameterization methods for geophysical turbulence appropriate for “eddy-permitting” mesoscale ocean turbulence is presented here including a general formulation and illustrative applications to two-layer quasigeostrophic turbulence, and another difficult test case involving one-dimensional models of dispersive wave turbulence. This last test case has randomly generated solitons as coherent structures which collapse and radiate wave energy back to the larger scales, resulting in strong direct and inverse turbulent energy cascades.

  1. Direct Statistical Simulation of Geophysical Flows

    Marston, Brad; Chini, Greg; Tobias, Steve


    Statistics of models of geophysical and astrophysical fluids may be directly accessed by solving the equations of motion for the statistics themselves as proposed by Lorenz nearly 50 years ago. Motivated by the desire to capture seamlessly multiscale physics we introduce a new approach to such Direct Statistical Simulation (DSS) based upon separating eddies by length scale. Discarding triads that involve only small-scale waves, the equations of motion generalize the quasi-linear approximation (GQL) and are able to accurately reproduce the low-order statistics of a stochastically-driven barotropic jet. Furthermore the two-point statistics of high wavenumber modes close and thus generalize second-order cumulant expansions (CE2) that employ zonal averaging. This GCE2 approach is tested on two-layer primitive equations. Comparison to statistics accumulated from numerical simulation finds GCE2 to be quantitatively accurate. DSS thus leads to new insight into important processes in geophysical and astrophysical flows. Supported in part by NSF DMR-1306806 and NSF CCF-1048701.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Cvetković Vladimir


    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  3. Geological and geophysical surveys of Visakhapatnam coast

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, K.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    Continuous records of the total earth's magnetic field and the surface sediment samples from the ocean bottom have been collected off Ramakrishna Beach and Lawsons Bay along the Visakhapatnam Coast. The magnetic data has recorded significant...

  4. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    McAdoo, B. G.


    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  5. Contribution of the airborne geophysical survey to the study of the regolith : A case study in southern Paris Basin.

    Prognon, François; Lacquement, Frédéric; DeParis, Jacques; Martelet, Guillaume; Perrin, José


    International audience; Studies of soil and subsoil, also called regolith, are at the crossroads of scientific new challenging questions as well as new environmental needs. Historically, geological maps were focussed on solid geology. Present societal needs increasingly require knowledge of regolith properties: superficial studies combining geology, geochemistry and geophysics become essential to better understand the natural processes which govern the repartition and evolution of subsoil for...

  6. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  7. The dose rate observed on 19-21 October 1989 and its modulation by geophysical effects.

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A; Dachev TsP; Bankov, N G; Petrov, V M; Bengin, V V


    The Liulin dosimeter-radiometer on the MIR space station detected the 19 October 1989 high energy solar proton event. These results show that the main particle increase contains protons with energies up to about 9 GeV. After the main particle onset the Liulin dosimeter observed a typical geomagnetic cutoff modulation of the dose rate from the solar particles as the MIR space station traversed magnetic latitudes. When the interplanetary shock and associated solar plasma enveloped the earth on 20 October between 14 and 17 UT the radiation exposure increased significantly due to the lowering of the geomagnetic cutoff. The analysis of this event shows how various geophysical phenomena can significantly modulate the dose rate encountered by earth-orbiting spacecraft.

  8. Multi-sensor geophysical constraints on crustal melt in the central Andes: the PLUTONS project

    Pritchard, M. E.; Comeau, M. J.; West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Mcfarlin, H. L.; Farrell, A. K.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; McNutt, S. R.; Michelfelder, G.; Diez, M.; Elliott, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Keyson, L.; Delgado, F.; Unsworth, M. J.


    The central Andes is a key global location to quantify storage, transport, and volumes of magma in the Earth's crust as it is home to the world's largest zone of partial melt (the Altiplano-Puna Magma or Mush Body, APMB) as well as the more recently documented Southern Puna Magma Body (SPMB). We describe results from the recently completed international PLUTONS project that focused inter-disciplinary study on two sites of large-scale surface uplift that presumably represent ongoing magmatic intrusions in the mid to upper crust - Uturuncu, Bolivia (in the center of the APMB) and Lazufre on the Chile-Argentina border (on the edge of the SPMB). In particular, a suite of geophysical techniques (seismology, gravity, surface deformation, and electro-magnetic methods) have been used to infer the current subsurface distribution and quantity of partial melts in combination with geochemical and lab studies on samples from the area. Both Uturuncu and Lazufre show separate geophysical anomalies in the upper and mid/lower crust (e.g., low seismic velocity, low resistivity, etc.) indicating multiple distinct reservoirs of magma and/or hydrothermal fluids with different properties. The characteristics of the geophysical anomalies differ somewhat depending on the technique used - reflecting the different sensitivity of each method to subsurface melt of different compositions, connectivity, and volatile content. For example, the depth to the top of the APMB is shallower in a joint ambient noise tomography and receiver function analysis compared to a 3D magnetotelluric inversion. One possibility is that the seismic methods are detecting brines above the APMB that do not have a large electromagnetic signature. Comparison of the geophysical measurements with laboratory experiments at the APMB indicate a minimum of 4-25% melt averaged over the region is needed -- higher melt volumes are permitted by the gravity and MT data and may exist in small regions. However, bulk melt values above

  9. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    Eppelbaum, Lev


    It is obvious that noninvasive geophysical methods are the main interpreting tools at the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts. Usually in these areas any excavations, drilling and infrastructure activity are forbidden or very strongly limited. According to field experience and results of numerous modeling (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2001, 2003; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2010, Itkis et al., 2003; Neishtadt et al., 2006), a set of applied geophysical methods may include the following types of surveys: (1) magnetic, (3) GPR (ground penetration radar), (3) gravity, (4) electromagnetic VLF (very low frequency), (5) ER (electric resistivity), (6) SP (self-potential), (7) IP (induced polarization), (8) SE (seismoelectric), and (9) NST (near-surface temperature). As it was shown in (Eppelbaum, 2005), interpretation ambiguity may be sufficiently reduced not only by integrated analysis of several geophysical methods, but also by the way of multilevel observations of geophysical fields. Magnetic, gravity and VLF measurements may be performed at different levels over the earth's surface (0.1 - 3 m), ER, SP and SE observations may be obtained with different depth of electrodes grounding (0.1 - 1 m), and NST sensor may be located at a depth of 0.8 - 2.5 m. GPR method usually allows measuring electromagnetic fields at various frequencies (with corresponding changing of the investigation depth and other parameters). Influence of some typical noise factors to geophysical investigations at archaeological sites was investigated in (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001). In many cases various constructions and walls are in the nearest vicinity of the examined artifacts. These constructions can be also utilized for carrying out geophysical measurements (magnetic, gravity and VLF) at different levels. Application of the modern ROV (remote operated vehicles) with registration of magnetic and VLF fields at

  10. Earth Science Education in Sudan

    Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.


    This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

  11. Technical Note: Calibration and validation of geophysical observation models

    Salama, M.S.; van der Velde, R.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Joseph, A.T.; O'Neill, P.E.; Lang, R.H.; Gish, T.; Werdell, P.J.; Su, Z.


    We present a method to calibrate and validate observational models that interrelate remotely sensed energy fluxes to geophysical variables of land and water surfaces. Coincident sets of remote sensing observation of visible and microwave radiations and geophysical data are assembled and subdivided i

  12. Application of geophysical methods to agriculture: An overview

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  13. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs


    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  14. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics special issue

    Recent advancements such as the availability of personal computers, technologies to store/process large amounts of data, the GPS, and GIS have now made geophysical methods practical for agricultural use. Consequently, there has been a rapid expansion of agricultural geophysics research just over the...

  15. Numerical Inversion of Integral Equations for Medical Imaging and Geophysics



  16. Atmosphere-earth angular momentum exchange and ENSO cycle

    钱维宏; 丑纪范


    The time series of the earth’s rotation rate, eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (Tss), sea level pressure (Psl) and atmospheric angular momentum (Maa) during 1976 -1989 are used to study the relation between atmosphere-earth angular momentum exchange and ENSO cycle. The result shows that (i) there are synergetic relationships among the variations of solid earth’s rotation, eastern equatorial Pacific T,, Psl, different latitude zonal Maa and global Maa; (ii) local atmosphere-ocean interaction over low-latitude area can form ENSO-like cycle through Hadley circulation; (iii) the solid earth and global atmosphere-ocean interaction can form some aperiodic behavior and asynchronous oscillations by mountain torque and earth spin anomalous friction torque acting on each component of solid earth-ocean-atmosphere system; and (iv) actual ENSO cycle is a phenomenon reflecting in Pacific basin through interaction among solid earth, global ocean and the atmosphere.

  17. Models of the earth's core

    Stevenson, D. J.


    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  18. Sulfur Earth

    de Jong, B. H.


    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  19. Geophysical couples” Discuss jobs, marriage

    Some 90 participants attended an open forum, “Dual Career Couples: Challenges and Opportunities,” on December 9 at the AGU Fall 1991 Meeting in San Francisco. Several couples summarized their experiences in “geophysical marriages” while the audience contributed questions and comments.Being forced to live apart was a common complaint among the married panelists. One couple on the panel—Karen Prestegaard of the University of Maryland and Jim Luhr of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Mineral Physics—have been able to live together only 2 years out of the last 10. Although employer guidelines do not officially prohibit hiring couples, Prestegaard and Luhr expressed frustration that many institutions not only will not do so, but also will not help the second partner find a job nearby.

  20. A mixture theory for geophysical fluids

    A. C. Eringen


    Full Text Available A continuum theory is developed for a geophysical fluid consisting of two species. Balance laws are given for the individual components of the mixture, modeled as micropolar viscous fluids. The continua allow independent rotational degrees of freedom, so that the fluids can exhibit couple stresses and a non-symmetric stress tensor. The second law of thermodynamics is used to develop constitutive equations. Linear constitutive equations are constituted for a heat conducting mixture, each species possessing separate viscosities. Field equations are obtained and boundary and initial conditions are stated. This theory is relevant to an atmospheric mixture consisting of any two species from rain, snow and/or sand. Also, this is a continuum theory for oceanic mixtures, such as water and silt, or water and oil spills, etc.

  1. Cosmic Muon Detection for Geophysical Applications

    László Oláh


    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for environmental, geophysical, or industrial applications. The device is a tracking detector based on the Close Cathode Chamber, an MWPC-like technology, allowing operation in natural underground caves or artificial tunnels, far from laboratory conditions. The compact, low power consumption system with sensitive surface of 0.1 m2 measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with a resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a detailed mapping of the rock thickness above the muon detector. Demonstration of applicability of the muon telescope (REGARD Muontomograph for civil engineering and measurements in artificial underground tunnels or caverns are presented.

  2. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    Saunders, R. S.


    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  3. Georadar - high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device

    Janez Stern


    Full Text Available Georadar is a high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device that was developed in the first part of the 1980's. In Slovenia it was first tested in 1991 on several objects of economicgeological, geotechnical and hydrogeologic nature.Here its usefulness in karst studied is presented. The first part of the paper deals with description of measurement procedure and methodological bases, and the second part with experience and results of case histories. Shown are radargrams from ornamental stone quarry Hotavlje, calcite mine Stahovica, Golobja jama karstcave near Divača and from highway construction site Razdrto-Čebulovica. All measurements were performed with the georadar instrument Pulse EKKO IV with a lOOMHz antenna according to the method of reflection profiling.

  4. Problems of data bases in geophysics

    Hartmann, G. K.

    Ten problems areas in the design and implementation of geophysical data bases are listed and briefly characterized. The emphasis is on software aspects, which are seen as critical given the current state of hardware technology. Topics examined include data sources and users; the difference between information-ordering schemes for the humanities and for the natural sciences; economic limitations on acquisition, evaluation, and storage of data; private versus public data; centralized, decentralized, and distributed computer systems; and the need for structured, transportable, and adequately documented software. A glossary of data terminology, extensive tables and block diagrams listing types of data and applications and illustrating ordering schemes, estimates of the data-processing and storage requirements of typical missions, and a summary of the CODMAC 1982 recommendations are provided.

  5. Software complex for geophysical data visualization

    Kryukov, Ilya A.; Tyugin, Dmitry Y.; Kurkin, Andrey A.; Kurkina, Oxana E.


    The effectiveness of current research in geophysics is largely determined by the degree of implementation of the procedure of data processing and visualization with the use of modern information technology. Realistic and informative visualization of the results of three-dimensional modeling of geophysical processes contributes significantly into the naturalness of physical modeling and detailed view of the phenomena. The main difficulty in this case is to interpret the results of the calculations: it is necessary to be able to observe the various parameters of the three-dimensional models, build sections on different planes to evaluate certain characteristics and make a rapid assessment. Programs for interpretation and visualization of simulations are spread all over the world, for example, software systems such as ParaView, Golden Software Surfer, Voxler, Flow Vision and others. However, it is not always possible to solve the problem of visualization with the help of a single software package. Preprocessing, data transfer between the packages and setting up a uniform visualization style can turn into a long and routine work. In addition to this, sometimes special display modes for specific data are required and existing products tend to have more common features and are not always fully applicable to certain special cases. Rendering of dynamic data may require scripting languages that does not relieve the user from writing code. Therefore, the task was to develop a new and original software complex for the visualization of simulation results. Let us briefly list of the primary features that are developed. Software complex is a graphical application with a convenient and simple user interface that displays the results of the simulation. Complex is also able to interactively manage the image, resize the image without loss of quality, apply a two-dimensional and three-dimensional regular grid, set the coordinate axes with data labels and perform slice of data. The

  6. Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences: A Tutorial

    L. Jouniaux


    in porous media, to be included in the special issue “Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences” of International Journal of Geophysics. We describe the methodology used for self-potential (SP and for seismoelectromagnetic measurements, for both field and laboratory experiments and for modelling. We give a large bibliography on the studies performed in hydrology to detect at distance the water flow, to deduce the thickness of the aquifer and to predict the hydraulic conductivity. The observation of SP has also been proposed to detect fractures in boreholes, to follow the hydraulic fracturing, and to predict the earthquakes. Moreover, we detail the studies on geothermal applications.

  7. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.


    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  8. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    Stacey, Frank D [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, PO Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)], E-mail:


    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10{sup 12} W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10{sup 4} : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical

  9. Expedited Site Characterization geophysics: Geophysical methods and tools for site characterization

    Goldstein, N.E.


    This report covers five classes of geophysical technologies: Magnetics; Electrical/electromagnetic; Seismic reflection; Gamma-ray spectrometry; and Metal-specific spectrometry. Except for radiometry, no other classes of geophysical tedmologies are specific for direct detection of the types of contaminants present at the selected sites. For each of the five classes covered, the report gives a general description of the methodology, its field use, and its general applicability to the ESC Project. In addition, the report gives a sample of the most promising instruments available for each class, including the following information: Hardware/software attributes; Purchase and rental costs; Survey rate and operating costs; and Other applicable information based on case history and field evaluations.

  10. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Y. Abedini


    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  11. Relevancy of mathematical support for geophysics determinations

    Vîlceanu, Clara-Beatrice; Grecea, Carmen; Muşat, Cosmin


    The importance of gravity in geodesy is recognized even since the 16th century. Starting with the experiments and theories of Galileo Galilei, the gravity and its global variation has continued to play an important role for those preoccupied with measuring the Earth's surface. The benefits of Physical Geodesy (studying the Earth's gravitational field) are extended to other disciplines such as Seismology, Oceanography, Volcanology etc. The aim of the present paper consists in highlighting the connection between gravity and the geodesist's profession. This was possible only throughout an extended study of Physical Geodesy realized with the support given by the International Gravity Office, Military Topographic Direction, The National Centre of Cartography and different specialists from these domains. Gravity represents the main factor which influences the Earth's shape and dimensions and when it comes to geodetic measurements, the gravity and its influence upon the measurements realized by specialists in geodesy has to be considered.

  12. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    Campbell, Wallace H


    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  13. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas


    -level time series from Lagos Argentino and Viedma yields the amplitudes and phases of the lake tides for the four major tidal constituents M2, S2, O1 and K1. The maximum amplitude, corresponding to the semi-diurnal moon tide M2 in Lago Argentino, amounts to 3 mm. For the four lakes under investigation the theoretical amplitudes and phases of seven constituents (Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, M2 and S2) are modelled accounting for the contributions of both the solid earth's body tides and the ocean tidal loading (Marderwald 2014). Both contributions involve a deformation of the earth surface and of the equipotential surfaces of the gravity field. For the load tide computation the global ocean tide model EOT11a (Savcenko and Bosch, 2012) and the Gutenberg-Bullen A earth model (Farrell, 1972) was applied and the conservation of water volume is taken into account. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations in Lagos Argentino and Viedma with the lake tide models indicates a phase shift which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of the employed global ocean tide model in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. REFERENCES: Farrell, W. E., (1972). Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Rev. Geophy. Space Phy., 10(3):761-797. Ivins, E., James, T., 2004. Bedrock response to Llanquihue Holocene and present-day glaciation in southernmost South America. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (L24613). Doi:10.1029/2004GL021500. Klemann, V., E. R. Ivins, Z. Martinec, and D. Wolf (2007), Models of active glacial isostasy roofing warm subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B09405, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004818. Lange, H., Casassa, G., Ivins, E. R., Schröder, L., Fritsche, M., Richter, A., Groh, A., Dietrich, R., (2014). Observed crustal uplift near the Southern Patagonian Icefield constrains improved viscoelastic Earth models. Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058419. Marderwald ER, 2014. Modelado de las mareas

  14. Radionuclide measurements, via different methodologies, as tool for geophysical studies on Mt. Etna

    Morelli, D., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Imme, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Altamore, I.; Cammisa, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); La Delfa, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy); Mangano, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Neri, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Patane, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy)


    Natural radioactivity measurements represent an interesting tool to study geodynamical events or soil geophysical characteristics. In this direction we carried out, in the last years, several radionuclide monitoring both in the volcanic and tectonic areas of the oriental Sicily. In particular we report in-soil Radon investigations, in a tectonic area, including both laboratory and in-site measurements, applying three different methodologies, based on both active and passive detection systems. The active detection devices consisted of solid-state silicon detectors equipped in portable systems for short-time measurements and for long-time monitoring. The passive technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The performances of the three methodologies were compared according to different kinds of monitoring. In general the results obtained with the three methodologies seem in agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated area.

  15. On the use of Cloud Profiling Radar to detect solid precipitation over Antarctica at different scales

    Milani, Lisa; Kulie, Mark S.; Casella, Daniele; D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Dietrich, Stefano; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Panegrossi, Giulia; Porcù, Federico; Sanò, Paolo; Wood, Norman B.


    Precipitation is a key geophysical parameter in understanding the Antarctic climate. However, the particular environmental conditions of the Continent make it difficult to measure directly solid precipitation rate and accumulation from either ground based instruments or passive space-borne sensors. A significant improvement in the study of solid precipitation over Antarctica is possible by using active space-borne instruments: the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a nadir-pointing 94 GHz radar, on board the low earth orbit CloudSat satellite. Five years (2006-2011) of CPR data and products over Antarctica are analyzed to investigate the characteristics of solid precipitation. The aim of this work is twofold: 1) to compare a global snowfall rate retrieval algorithm (Kulie and Bennartz, 2009) with the official CloudSat product (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) over the Antarctic environment, evaluating the sensitivity of the estimated snow fields to: ground clutter, choice of reflectivity-snowfall rate relationship (Z-S), presence of melting snow/liquid precipitation; 2) to provide snow fall rates and accumulation at different scales over Antarctica, evaluating the impact of background physiography and seasonal cycle on the precipitation distribution. Further comparisons are also performed with ERA-Interim snowfall fields and point-like snow stack height measurements by acoustic depth gauges. Results show that the difference between the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm and the 2C-SNOW-PROFILE product is mainly due to the choice of the Z-S relationship. Furthermore, despite the CPR limited temporal and spatial sampling capabilities, CPR is able to evidence precipitation characteristics difficult to study from conventional ground-based instruments, at spatial and temporal scales of interest for the study of the hydrological cycle over Antarctica. This is of particular relevance given that the CPR follow-on mission on EarthCare will ensure a long-term coverage.

  16. Surface Packages for Geophysical Exploration of Small Bodies

    Scheeres, D. J.


    The geophysical exploration of small rubble pile bodies is fundamentally important for understanding the mechanics of gravitationally bound aggregates. The mechanical and geotechnical properties of these bodies are not understood from an experimental perspective, and have only been studied theoretically and using numerical simulations. To carry out experiments in this environment requires the development and deployment of surface packages to the body surface to enable physical interactions and measurements. This talk will discuss how such experiments can be developed and used in the small body environment. It will particularly focuse on one approach that uses a combination of surface seismic sources and probes to measure the seismic properties of a rubble pile. The small body dynamical environment is particularly well suited for the deployment of such surface packages for exploration and scientific measurement purposes. This is mainly due to their meager gravity fields, which allow the delivery of complex instruments to the surface with impact speeds that are at most a meter per second — equivalent to dropping an object from less than a 5 cm height on Earth. Despite this seeming advantage, the delivery and mobility of such packages on the surface of a small body remains a challenging endeavor, and to date the delivery of surface packages to small bodies has had a mixed success rate. Issues that must be accounted for include the delivery trajectories for probes to the surface, motion on the surface of a small body, and interactions between a probe and a small body surface. Studies of all of these issues both theoretically and experimentally will be presented, along with proposed applications to achieve scientific goals on the surfaces of small bodies.

  17. DART: New Research Using Ensemble Data Assimilation in Geophysical Models

    Anderson, Jeffrey; Raeder, Kevin; Hoar, Tim; Collins, Nancy; Romine, Glen; Barre, Jerome; Gaubert, Benjamin; Arellano, Ave; Wuerth, Stephanie


    The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community facility for ensemble data assimilation developed and supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART provides a comprehensive suite of software, documentation, examples and tutorials that can be used for ensemble data assimilation research, operations, and education. Scientists and software engineers from the Data Assimilation Research Section at NCAR are available to actively support DART users who want to use existing DART products or develop their own new applications. Current DART users range from university professors teaching data assimilation, to individual graduate students working with simple models, through national laboratories doing operational prediction with large state-of-the-art models. DART runs efficiently on many computational platforms ranging from laptops through thousands of cores on the newest supercomputers. This poster focuses on several recent research activities using DART with geophysical models: 1). Using CAM/DART to understand whether OCO-2 Total Precipitable Water observations can be useful in numerical weather prediction. 2). Impacts of the synergistic use of Infra-red CO retrievals (MOPITT, IASI) in CAMCHEM/DART assimilations. 3). Assimilation and Analysis of Observations of Amazonian Biomass Burning Emissions by MOPITT (aerosol optical depth), MODIS (carbon monoxide) and MISR (plume height). 4). Long term evaluation of the chemical response of MOPITT-CO assimilation in CAM-CHEM/DART OSSEs for satellite planning and emission inversion capabilities. 5). Improved forward observation operators for land models that have multiple land use/land cover segments in a single grid cell, enabling studies of the inherent variability in a single gridcell. Future enhancements are also discussed: 1). The CICE component of the Community Earth System Model will be added to the existing suite of components, which can be used for data assimilation. 2). Fully coupled

  18. Analysis of the geophysical data using a posteriori algorithms

    Voskoboynikova, Gyulnara; Khairetdinov, Marat


    The problems of monitoring, prediction and prevention of extraordinary natural and technogenic events are priority of modern problems. These events include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the lunar-solar tides, landslides, falling celestial bodies, explosions utilized stockpiles of ammunition, numerous quarry explosion in open coal mines, provoking technogenic earthquakes. Monitoring is based on a number of successive stages, which include remote registration of the events responses, measurement of the main parameters as arrival times of seismic waves or the original waveforms. At the final stage the inverse problems associated with determining the geographic location and time of the registration event are solving. Therefore, improving the accuracy of the parameters estimation of the original records in the high noise is an important problem. As is known, the main measurement errors arise due to the influence of external noise, the difference between the real and model structures of the medium, imprecision of the time definition in the events epicenter, the instrumental errors. Therefore, posteriori algorithms more accurate in comparison with known algorithms are proposed and investigated. They are based on a combination of discrete optimization method and fractal approach for joint detection and estimation of the arrival times in the quasi-periodic waveforms sequence in problems of geophysical monitoring with improved accuracy. Existing today, alternative approaches to solving these problems does not provide the given accuracy. The proposed algorithms are considered for the tasks of vibration sounding of the Earth in times of lunar and solar tides, and for the problem of monitoring of the borehole seismic source location in trade drilling.


    Vlasov Alexander Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider some classes of problems of geomechanics that are resolved through the application of SIMULIA ABAQUS software. The tasks associated with the assessment of the zone of influence of structures produced on surrounding buildings and structures in the dense urban environment, as well as the tectonic and physical simulation of rifts with the purpose of identification of deformations of the Earth surface and other defects of lithospheric plates. These seemingly different types of tasks can be grouped together on the basis of common characteristics due to the complexity of numerical modeling problems of geomechanics and geophysics. Non-linearity of physical processes, complexity of the geological structure and variable thickness of layers, bed thinning layers, lenses, as well as singular elements, make it hard to consolidate different elements (for example, engineering and geological elements and associated structures of buildings in a single model. In this regard, software SIMULIA ABAQUS looks attractive, since it provides a highly advanced finite-element modeling technique, including a convenient hexahedral mesh generator, a wide range of models of elastic and plastic strain of materials, and the ability to work with certain geometric areas that interrelate through the mechanism of contacting surface pairs that have restrictions. It is noteworthy that the research also facilitates development of personal analytical methods designated for the assessment of physical and mechanical properties of heterogeneous materials as well as new solutions applicable in the vicinity of singular elements of the area that may be used in modeling together with ABAQUS software.

  20. Earth Science Computational Architecture for Multi-disciplinary Investigations

    Parker, J. W.; Blom, R.; Gurrola, E.; Katz, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Norton, C.


    Understanding the processes underlying Earth's deformation and mass transport requires a non-traditional, integrated, interdisciplinary, approach dependent on multiple space and ground based data sets, modeling, and computational tools. Currently, details of geophysical data acquisition, analysis, and modeling largely limit research to discipline domain experts. Interdisciplinary research requires a new computational architecture that is optimized to perform complex data processing of multiple solid Earth science data types in a user-friendly environment. A web-based computational framework is being developed and integrated with applications for automatic interferometric radar processing, and models for high-resolution deformation & gravity, forward models of viscoelastic mass loading over short wavelengths & complex time histories, forward-inverse codes for characterizing surface loading-response over time scales of days to tens of thousands of years, and inversion of combined space magnetic & gravity fields to constrain deep crustal and mantle properties. This framework combines an adaptation of the QuakeSim distributed services methodology with the Pyre framework for multiphysics development. The system uses a three-tier architecture, with a middle tier server that manages user projects, available resources, and security. This ensures scalability to very large networks of collaborators. Users log into a web page and have a personal project area, persistently maintained between connections, for each application. Upon selection of an application and host from a list of available entities, inputs may be uploaded or constructed from web forms and available data archives, including gravity, GPS and imaging radar data. The user is notified of job completion and directed to results posted via URLs. Interdisciplinary work is supported through easy availability of all applications via common browsers, application tutorials and reference guides, and worked examples with