WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid earth applications

  1. Recent advances in rare earth doped alkali-alkaline earth borates for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali; Verma, Kartikey; Kumar, Deepak; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    As a novel class of inorganic phosphor, the alkali-alkaline earth borate phosphors have gained huge attention due to their charming applications in solid-state lighting (SSL) and display devices. The current research drive shows that phosphors based on the alkali-alkaline earth borates have transformed the science and technology due to their high transparency over a broad spectral range, their flexibility in structure and durability for mechanical and high-laser applications. Recent advances in various aspects of rare-earth (RE) doped borate based phosphors and their utilizations in SSL and light emitting diodes are summarized in this review article. Moreover, the present status and upcoming scenario of RE-doped borate phosphors were reviewed in general along with the proper credential from the existing literature. It is believed that this review is a sole compilation of crucial information about the RE-doped borate phosphors in a single platform.

  2. Application of TOPEX Altimetry for Solid Earth Deformation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyongki Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the use of satellite radar altimetry to detect solid Earth deformation signals such as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA. Our study region covers moderately flat land surfaces seasonally covered by snow/ice/vegetation. The maximum solid Earth uplift of ~10 mm yr-1 is primarily due to the incomplete glacial isostatic rebound that occurs around Hudson Bay, North America. We use decadal (1992 - 2002 surface height measurements from TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry to generate height changes time series for 12 selected locations in the study region. Due to the seasonally varying surface characteristics, we first perform radar waveform shape classification and have found that most of the waveforms are quasi-diffuse during winter/spring and specular during summer/fall. As a result, we used the NASA £]-retracker for the quasi-diffuse waveforms and the Offset Center of Gravity or the threshold retracker for the specular waveforms, to generate the surface height time series. The TOPEX height change time series exhibit coherent seasonal signals (higher amplitude during the winter and lower amplitude during the summer, and the estimated deformation rates agree qualitatively well with GPS vertical velocities, and with altimeter/tide gauge combined vertical velocities around the Great Lakes. The TOPEX observations also agree well with various GIA model predictions, especially with the ICE-5G (VM2 model with differences at 0.2 ¡_ 1.4 mm yr-1, indicating that TOPEX has indeed observed solid Earth deformation signals manifested as crustal uplift over the former Laurentide Ice Sheet region.

  3. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaiah, Nathani

    2011-01-01

    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  4. The Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2005-02-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  5. Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

    Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60°C for >129 days, ALSC > 55°C for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh

  6. Propagation Velocity of Solid Earth Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the significant considerations in most of the geodetic investigations is to take into account the outcome of Solid Earth tides on the location and its consequent impact on the time series of coordinates. In this research work, the propagation velocity resulting from the Solid Earth tides between the Indian stations is computed. Mean daily coordinates for the stations have been computed by applying static precise point positioning technique for a day. The computed coordinates are used as an input for computing the tidal displacements at the stations by Gravity method along three directions at 1-minute interval for 24 hours. Further the baseline distances are computed between four Indian stations. Computation of the propagation velocity for Solid Earth tides can be done by the virtue of study of the concurrent effect of it in-between the stations of identified baseline distance along with the time consumed by the tides for reaching from one station to another. The propagation velocity helps in distinguishing the impact at any station if the consequence at a known station for a specific time-period is known. Thus, with the knowledge of propagation velocity, the spatial and temporal effects of solid earth tides can be estimated with respect to a known station. As theoretically explained, the tides generated are due to the position of celestial bodies rotating about Earth. So the need of study is to observe the correlation of propagation velocity with the rotation speed of the Earth. The propagation velocity of Solid Earth tides comes out to be in the range of 440-470 m/s. This velocity comes out to be in a good agreement with the Earth's rotation speed.

  7. The International Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G.; Pierce, M.; Rundle, J.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J.; Granat, R.; Lyzenga, G.; McLeod, D.; Grant, L.

    2004-12-01

    We describe the architecture and initial implementation of the International Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (iSERVO). This has been prototyped within the USA as SERVOGrid and expansion is planned to Australia, China, Japan and other countries. We base our design on a globally scalable distributed "cyber-infrastructure" or Grid built around a Web Services-based approach consistent with the extended Web Service Interoperability approach. The Solid Earth Science Working Group of NASA has identified several challenges for Earth Science research. In order to investigate these, we need to couple numerical simulation codes and data mining tools to observational data sets. This observational data are now available on-line in internet-accessible forms, and the quantity of this data is expected to grow explosively over the next decade. We architect iSERVO as a loosely federated Grid of Grids with each country involved supporting a national Solid Earth Research Grid. The national Grid Operations, possibly with dedicated control centers, are linked together to support iSERVO where an International Grid control center may eventually be necessary. We address the difficult multi-administrative domain security and ownership issues by exposing capabilities as services for which the risk of abuse is minimized. We support large scale simulations within a single domain using service-hosted tools (mesh generation, data repository and sensor access, GIS, visualization). Simulations typically involve sequential or parallel machines in a single domain supported by cross-continent services. We use Web Services implement Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) using WSDL for service description and SOAP for message formats. These are augmented by UDDI, WS-Security, WS-Notification/Eventing and WS-ReliableMessaging in the WS-I+ approach. Support for the latter two capabilities will be available over the next 6 months from the NaradaBrokering messaging system. We augment these

  8. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  9. The application of micro-column solid phase extraction techniques for the determination of rare earth elements in actinide containing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, K.P.; Cummings, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The design and characterization of an argon segmented-solid phase extraction system is described. A 200 ul volume micro-column has been constructed for the preconcentration of rare earth elements (REEs) from salt matrices containing uranium. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer has been utilized for simultaneous detection of Sr, Y and the REEs (namely Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Pr, Sm) at levels ranging from 5- to 2000 ppm in LiCl/KCl samples containing U. Preconcentration factors of 100 fold have been demonstrated. The precision, linear dynamic range and column performance of the system will be presented. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Defect structure of cubic solid solutions of alkaline earth and rare earth fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenHartog, HW

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will consider the disorder in some cubic solid solutions consisting of one of the alkaline earth fluorides and one of the rare earth fluorides. This is an attractive group of model materials, because these materials have a rather simple overall cubic structure. We will discuss the

  11. Fabrication and sealing performance of rare-earth containing glass–ceramic seals for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdoli, H.; Alizadeh, P.; Agersted, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunity of using two rare-earth metal oxides in an aluminosilicate glass for seal applications was investigated in this work. Substitution of La2O3 with Y2O3 in the system changed thermal and physical properties such as transition temperature, flowing behavior, and thermal expansion....... The strongly bound structural unit in the network affected glass healing capability with a slower healing response. Higher activation energy (≥20%) was required for Y2O3 containing glass, consistent with in-situ XRD results which revealed its amorphous nature is maintained ~75°C above the other glass. Despite...... containing strontium in the composition, well bonded interface was obtained in contact with 8YSZ and SS430 ferritic stainless steel. The hermeticity of the glass seals was maintained after 100h isothermal aging at 800°C. Also the OCV showed insignificant fluctuations with stable average values after 24...

  12. Rare earths: occurrence, production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.K.S.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and processing of rare earth minerals, particularly of monazite, began in a modest way in 1880s for commercialized production of mantle for gas lighting. For all major applications up to mid-twentieth century- production of lighter flints, misch metal as a metallurgical alloying agent, colouring, decolourizing and polishing agents for glass, petroleum cracking catalysts and arc-carbons, unseparated or partially separated rare earths were adequate. These applications continue till today. With the development and industrial application of powerful techniques like ion exchange and solvent extraction for the separation of rare earths, the decades after 1960 saw increasing utilization of the specific properties of the individual rare earths. Some of these advanced technological applications include: special glass for optical systems including camera lenses, phosphors for colour television, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lighting, X-ray intensification screens, high intensity permanent magnets, electro optical devices, lasers, hydrogen storage materials, hydride rechargeable batteries, photomagnetic data storage systems, autoexhaust catalysts, special ceramics of unusual toughness, artificial diamonds and nonpoisonous plastic colorants. The topics covered in the book include rare earths: their story identity, rare earth resources, processing of ores and recovery of mixed rare earths products, separation and purification of rare earths, nonmetallic applications of rare earths, rare earth metals: production and applications, rare earth alloys and their applications, analysis of rare earth, processing of rare earth resources in India by Indian Rare Earth Ltd. and availability and market conditions

  13. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  14. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  15. High-Precision In Situ 87Sr/86Sr Analyses through Microsampling on Solid Samples: Applications to Earth and Life Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Di Salvo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical protocol for high-precision, in situ microscale isotopic investigations is presented here, which combines the use of a high-performing mechanical microsampling device and high-precision TIMS measurements on micro-Sr samples, allowing for excellent results both in accuracy and precision. The present paper is a detailed methodological description of the whole analytical procedure from sampling to elemental purification and Sr-isotope measurements. The method offers the potential to attain isotope data at the microscale on a wide range of solid materials with the use of minimally invasive sampling. In addition, we present three significant case studies for geological and life sciences, as examples of the various applications of microscale 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios, concerning (i the pre-eruptive mechanisms triggering recent eruptions at Nisyros volcano (Greece, (ii the dynamics involved with the initial magma ascent during Eyjafjallajökull volcano’s (Iceland 2010 eruption, which are usually related to the precursory signals of the eruption, and (iii the environmental context of a MIS 3 cave bear, Ursus spelaeus. The studied cases show the robustness of the methods, which can be also be applied in other areas, such as cultural heritage, archaeology, petrology, and forensic sciences.

  16. Immersive Visualization of the Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Immersive visualization using virtual reality (VR) display technology offers unique benefits for the visual analysis of complex three-dimensional data such as tomographic images of the mantle and higher-dimensional data such as computational geodynamics models of mantle convection or even planetary dynamos. Unlike "traditional" visualization, which has to project 3D scalar data or vectors onto a 2D screen for display, VR can display 3D data in a pseudo-holographic (head-tracked stereoscopic) form, and does therefore not suffer the distortions of relative positions, sizes, distances, and angles that are inherent in 2D projection and interfere with interpretation. As a result, researchers can apply their spatial reasoning skills to 3D data in the same way they can to real objects or environments, as well as to complex objects like vector fields. 3D Visualizer is an application to visualize 3D volumetric data, such as results from mantle convection simulations or seismic tomography reconstructions, using VR display technology and a strong focus on interactive exploration. Unlike other visualization software, 3D Visualizer does not present static visualizations, such as a set of cross-sections at pre-selected positions and orientations, but instead lets users ask questions of their data, for example by dragging a cross-section through the data's domain with their hands and seeing data mapped onto that cross-section in real time, or by touching a point inside the data domain, and immediately seeing an isosurface connecting all points having the same data value as the touched point. Combined with tools allowing 3D measurements of positions, distances, and angles, and with annotation tools that allow free-hand sketching directly in 3D data space, the outcome of using 3D Visualizer is not primarily a set of pictures, but derived data to be used for subsequent analysis. 3D Visualizer works best in virtual reality, either in high-end facility-scale environments such as CAVEs

  17. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  18. Estimation of solid earth tidal parameters and FCN with VLBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krásná, H.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of a space-geodetic technique VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) are influenced by a variety of processes which have to be modelled and put as a priori information into the analysis of the space-geodetic data. The increasing accuracy of the VLBI measurements allows access to these parameters and provides possibilities to validate them directly from the measured data. The gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun causes deformation of the Earth's surface which can reach several decimetres in radial direction during a day. The displacement is a function of the so-called Love and Shida numbers. Due to the present accuracy of the VLBI measurements the parameters have to be specified as complex numbers, where the imaginary parts describe the anelasticity of the Earth's mantle. Moreover, it is necessary to distinguish between the single tides within the various frequency bands. In this thesis, complex Love and Shida numbers of twelve diurnal and five long-period tides included in the solid Earth tidal displacement modelling are estimated directly from the 27 years of VLBI measurements (1984.0 - 2011.0). In this work, the period of the Free Core Nutation (FCN) is estimated which shows up in the frequency dependent solid Earth tidal displacement as well as in a nutation model describing the motion of the Earth's axis in space. The FCN period in both models is treated as a single parameter and it is estimated in a rigorous global adjustment of the VLBI data. The obtained value of -431.18 ± 0.10 sidereal days differs slightly from the conventional value -431.39 sidereal days given in IERS Conventions 2010. An empirical FCN model based on variable amplitude and phase is determined, whose parameters are estimated in yearly steps directly within VLBI global solutions. (author) [de

  19. Uncertainty analysis of atmospheric friction torque on the solid Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wind stress acquired from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP climate models and QSCAT satellite observations are analyzed by using frequency-wavenumber spectrum method. The spectrum of two climate models, i.e., ECMWF and NCEP, is similar for both 10 m wind data and model output wind stress data, which indicates that both the climate models capture the key feature of wind stress. While the QSCAT wind stress data shows the similar characteristics with the two climate models in both spectrum domain and the spatial distribution, but with a factor of approximately 1.25 times larger than that of climate models in energy. These differences show the uncertainty in the different wind stress products, which inevitably cause the atmospheric friction torque uncertainties on solid Earth with a 60% departure in annual amplitude, and furtherly affect the precise estimation of the Earth's rotation.

  20. Applicability of neutrino beams to Earth exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskij, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The projects on applicability of neutrino beams from high energy accelerators for geological exploration and study of the Earth structure are discussed. The GENIUS (Geological Exploration by Neutrino Induced Underground Sound) project is among them. It covers detecting and studying space-time characteristics of acoustic signal arising in case of neutrino interaction with Earth depth rocks discussed. The GEMINI (Geological Exploration with Muons Induced by neutrino interactions) project represents one more possibility for using geotron neutrino beam for the purpose of geological exploration. The GEOSCAN project represents the possibility for applying high energy neutrino beams for the purpose of the Earth translusence to determine the changes in the density of internal part of the Earth. The necessity of detailed investigations of the problem of applicability of neutrino beams in the field of the Earth exploration is pointed out

  1. Building Thematic and Integrated Services for European Solid Earth Sciences: the EPOS Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.; Cocco, M.

    2017-12-01

    EPOS (European Plate Observing System) has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. The research infrastructures (RIs) that EPOS is coordinating include: i) distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services; v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards; vi) access to geo-energy test beds. Here we present the activities planned for the implementation phase focusing on the TCS, the ICS and on their interoperability. We will discuss the data, data-products, software and services (DDSS) presently under

  2. ForM@Ter: a solid Earth thematic pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanciaux, Emilie; Jamet, Olivier; Mandea, Mioara; Diament, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Over the last years, several notable initiatives have been developed to provide Solid Earth sciences with an efficient research e-infrastructure. The EPOS project (European Plate Observing System) was included in the EFSRI roadmap in 2008. The 7th European frame program funded an e-science environment such as the Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe (VERCE). GEO supports the development of the Geohazard SuperSites and Natural Laboratories portal, while the ESA SSEP project (SuperSites exploitation plateform) is developing as an Helix Nebula usecase. Meanwhile, operational use of space data for emergency management is in constant progress, within the Copernicus services. This rich activity is still leaving some gaps between the data availability and its scientific use, either for technical reasons (big data issues) or due to the need for a better support in term of expert knowledge on the data, of software availability, or of data cost. French infrastructures for data distribution are organized around National Observatory Services (in situ data), scientific services participating to the International association of geodesy data centres and wider research infrastructures such as the Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français (RESIF) that is contributing to EPOS. The need for thematic cooperative platforms has been underlined over tha last years. In 2009, after a scientific prospective of the French national space agency (CNES) it becomes clear the urgent need to create thematic centres designed to federate the scientific community of Earth observation. Four thematic data centres are currently developing in France in the field of ocean , atmosphere, critical zone and solid Earth sciences. For Solid Earth research, the project - named ForM@Ter - was initiated at the beginning of 2012 to design, with the scientific community, the perimeter, structure and functions of such a thematic centre. It was launched by the CNES and the National

  3. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  4. Earthquake swarms and the semidiurnal solid earth tide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, F W

    1976-01-01

    Several correlations between peak earthquake activity during swarms and the phase and stress orientation of the calculated solid earth tide are described. The events correlating with the tide are clusters of swarm earthquakes. Swarm clusters from many sequences recorded over several years are used. Significant tidal correlations (which have less than a 5% chance of being observed if earthquakes were random) are found in the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Imperial Valley and northern Gulf of California, and larger (m/sub b/ greater than or equal to 5.0) aftershocks of the 1965 Rat Islands earthquake. In addition, sets of larger single earthquakes on Atlantic and north-east Pacific fracture zones are significantly correlated with the calculated solid tide. No tidal correlation, however, could be found for the Matsushiro Japan swarm of 1965 to 1967. The earthquake-tide correlations other than those of the Reykjanes Peninsula and Mid-Atlantic Ridge can be interpreted as triggering caused by enhancement of the tectonic stress by tidal stress, i.e. the alignment of fault and tidal principal stresses. All tidal correlations except in the Aleutians are associated with oceanic rifts or their landward extensions. If lithospheric plates are decoupled at active rifts, then tidal stresses channeled along the lithospheric stress guide may be concentrated at ridge-type plate boundaries. Tidal triggering of earthquakes at rifts may reflect this possible amplification of tidal strains in the weakened lithosphere at ridges. 25 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  6. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  7. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  8. The effects of the solid inner core and nonhydrostatic structure on the earth's forced nutations and earth tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Dan; Wahr, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper computes the effects of the solid inner core (IC) on the forced nutations and earth tides, and on certain of the earth's rotational normal modes. The theoretical results are extended to include the effects of a solid IC and of nonhydrostatic structure. The presence of the IC is responsible for a new, almost diurnal, prograde normal mode which involves a relative rotation between the IC and fluid outer core about an equatorial axis. It is shown that the small size of the IC's effects on both nutations and tides is a consequence of the fact that the IC's moments of inertia are less than 1/1000 of the entire earth's.

  9. Application of Ontologies for Big Earth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Boening, C.

    2014-12-01

    Connected data is smarter data! Earth Science research infrastructure must do more than just being able to support temporal, geospatial discovery of satellite data. As the Earth Science data archives continue to expand across NASA data centers, the research communities are demanding smarter data services. A successful research infrastructure must be able to present researchers the complete picture, that is, datasets with linked citations, related interdisciplinary data, imageries, current events, social media discussions, and scientific data tools that are relevant to the particular dataset. The popular Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies is a collection of ontologies and concepts designed to improve discovery and application of Earth Science data. The SWEET ontologies collection was initially developed to capture the relationships between keywords in the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). Over the years this popular ontologies collection has expanded to cover over 200 ontologies and 6000 concepts to enable scalable classification of Earth system science concepts and Space science. This presentation discusses the semantic web technologies as the enabling technology for data-intensive science. We will discuss the application of the SWEET ontologies as a critical component in knowledge-driven research infrastructure for some of the recent projects, which include the DARPA Ontological System for Context Artifact and Resources (OSCAR), 2013 NASA ACCESS Virtual Quality Screening Service (VQSS), and the 2013 NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) projects. The presentation will also discuss the benefits in using semantic web technologies in developing research infrastructure for Big Earth Science Data in an attempt to "accommodate all domains and provide the necessary glue for information to be cross-linked, correlated, and discovered in a semantically rich manner." [1] [1] Savas Parastatidis: A platform for all that we know

  10. Building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences: the EPOS integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    EPOS has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, not limited to scientists, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. A long-term integration plan is necessary to accomplish the EPOS mission. EPOS is presently in its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS Preparatory Phase project and consists of two key activities: the legal establishment of the EPOS-ERIC and the EPOS IP project. The EPOS implementation phase will last from 2015 to 2019. Key objectives of the project are: implementing Thematic Core Services (TCS), the domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS; building the Integrated Core

  11. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  12. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  13. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  14. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  15. Plan for Living on a Restless Planet Sets NASA's Solid Earth Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Baker, Victor R.; Bloxham, Jeremy; Booth, Jeffrey; Donnellan, Andrea; Elachi, Charles; Evans, Diane; Rignot, Eric; Burbank, Douglas; Chao, Benjamin F.; Chave, Alan; Gillespie, Alan; Herring, Thomas; Jeanloz, Raymond; LaBrecque, John; Minster, Bernard; Pittman, Walter C., III; Simons, Mark; Turcotte, Donald L.; Zoback, Mary Lou C.

    What are the most important challenges facing solid Earth science today and over the next two decades? And what is the best approach for NASA, in partnership with other agencies, to address those challenges? A new report, Living on a Restless Planet, provides a blueprint for answering these questions. The top priority for a new spacecraft mission in the area of solid Earth science over the next 5 years, according to this report, is a satellite dedicated to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). At the request of NASA, the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG) developed a strategy for the highest priority objectives in solid Earth science for the space agency over the next 25 years. The strategy addresses six challenges that are of fundamental scientific importance, have strong implications for society, and are amenable to substantial progress through a concerted series of scientific observations from space.

  16. Zero drift and solid Earth tide extracted from relative gravimetric data with principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjuan Yu; Jinyun Guo; Jiulong Li; Dapeng Mu; Qiaoli Kong

    2015-01-01

    Zero drift and solid Earth tide corrections to static relative gravimetric data cannot be ignored. In this paper, a new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm is presented to extract the zero drift and the solid Earth tide, as signals, from static relative gravimetric data assuming that the components contained in the relative gravimetric data are uncorrelated. Static relative gravity observations from Aug. 15 to Aug. 23, 2014 are used as statistical variables to separate the signal and...

  17. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  18. Technology Thrust for Future Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  19. Nuclear methods: applications to Earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of radioactivity phenomenon occurred almost 100 years ago, in 1896, and constituted the base for new perspectives in many disciplines, including the Earth sciences. The initial works in this field, during the first quarter of the Century, established that the series of radioactive decay of long lifetime Uranium 238, Uranium 235 and Thorium 232 present radioactive isotopes of several elements which are physically and chemically different. The chemical differentiation of the Earth during its evolution has concentrated in the crust the major part of the radioactive materials. The application of radioactive in balance which occur as a consequence of chemical and physical differences, has evolve quickly, and the utilization of natural radioactive isotopes can be detach in two major headings: geologic clocks and tracers. The applications cover a wide spectra of geological, oceanographical, volcanic, hydrological, paleoclimatic and archaeological problems. In this paper, a description of radioactive phenomenon is presented, as well as the chemical and physical properties of the natural radioactive elements, the measurement methods and, finally, some examples of the uses in chronology and as radioactive tracers will be presented, doing an emphasis of some results obtained in Mexico. (Author)

  20. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  1. Immobilization of Radioactive Rare Earth oxide Waste by Solid Phase Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Gil; Park, Hwan Seo; Kim, Hwan Young; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

    2010-01-01

    In the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, LiCl-KCl waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides are generated. The radioactive rare earth oxides are recovered by co-oxidative precipitation of rare earth elements. The powder phase of rare earth oxide waste must be immobilized to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal. The immobilization of these waste developed in this study involves a solid state sintering of the waste with host borosilicate glass and zinc titanate based ceramic matrix (ZIT). And the rare-earth monazite which synthesised by reaction of ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate with the rare earth oxides waste, were immobilized with the borosilicate glass. It is shown that the developed ZIT ceramic wasteform is highly resistant the leaching process, high density and thermal conductivity.

  2. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  3. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  4. Use of satellite gravimetry for estimating recent solid Earth changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Since its launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery & Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides a global mapping of the time variations of the Earth's gravity field for the recent period. Official centers such as Center of Space Research (CSR) in Austin, TX, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA and GeoForschungZentrum (GFZ) in Potsdam, Germany, provide 10-day and monthly solutions of Stokes coefficients (i.e., spherical harmonic coefficients of the geopotential) up to harmonic degree 50-60 (or, equivalently, a spatial resolution of 300-400 km) for the timespan 2002-2012. Tiny variations of the gravity measured by GRACE are mainly due to the total water storage change on continents. Therefore, these solutions of water mass can be used to correct other datasets, and then isolate the gravity signatures of large and sudden earthquakes, as well as of the continuous Post Glacial Rebound (PGR) rate. As these measured seasonal variations of continental hydrology represent the variations of water mass load, it is also possible to derive the deformation of the terrestrial surface associated to this varying load using Love numbers. These latter numbers are obtained by assuming an elastic Earth model. In the center of the Amazon basin, the seasonal displacements of the surface due to hydrology reach amplitudes of a few centimeters typically. Time-series of GRACE-based radial displacement of the surface can be analysed and compared with independent local GPS records for validation.

  5. Solid state chemistry of rare earth oxides. Final report, September 1, 1950--July 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyring, L.

    1977-07-01

    Work under Contract E(11-1)-1109 and its antecedents has been primarily for the purpose of obtaining detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and structural information on the complex rare earth oxides of praseodymium and terbium. These systems exhibit homologous series of ordered phases, order-disorder transformations, wide-range nonstoichiometric phases, chemical hysteresis in two-phase regions and many other solid state reaction phenomena. Fluorite-related materials of importance to ERDA occur as nuclear fuels, radiation power sources, insulators and solid electrolytes. The rare earth oxides serve directly as model systems for such similar materials and, in a more general sense, they serve as models of solids in general since they exhibit nearly the full range of solid state properties

  6. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  7. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  8. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  9. Solid State nuclear track detector - [Part] III : applications in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Nand

    1992-01-01

    The present article describes the applications of solid state nuclear track detection techniques in different branches of science (e.g. life sciences, nuclear physics, cosmic ray and solar physics, earth sciences, teaching laboratories) and technology with selected examples from voluminous literature available on the subject. (author). 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  11. Rapid Ice-Sheet Changes and Mechanical Coupling to Solid-Earth/Sea-Level and Space Geodetic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations in gravitational and rotational potentials caused by climate driven mass redistribution on the earth's surface, such as ice sheet melting and terrestrial water storage, affect the spatiotemporal variability in global and regional sea level. Here we present a numerically accurate, computationally efficient, high-resolution model for sea level. Unlike contemporary models that are based on spherical-harmonic formulation, the model can operate efficiently in a flexible embedded finite-element mesh system, thus capturing the physics operating at km-scale yet capable of simulating geophysical quantities that are inherently of global scale with minimal computational cost. One obvious application is to compute evolution of sea level fingerprints and associated geodetic and astronomical observables (e.g., geoid height, gravity anomaly, solid-earth deformation, polar motion, and geocentric motion) as a companion to a numerical 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet simulation, thus capturing global signatures of climate driven mass redistribution. We evaluate some important time-varying signatures of GRACE inferred ice sheet mass balance and continental hydrological budget; for example, we identify dominant sources of ongoing sea-level change at the selected tide gauge stations, and explain the relative contribution of different sources to the observed polar drift. We also report our progress on ice-sheet/solid-earth/sea-level model coupling efforts toward realistic simulation of Pine Island Glacier over the past several hundred years.

  12. Recycling of rare earths from Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps by solid state chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Froehlich, Peter; Bertau, Martin; Golon, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Solid state chlorination with NH 4 Cl comprises a method for rare earth recycling apart from pyro- or hydrometallurgical strategies. The examined partially Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps are rich in rare earths like La, Ce, Tb and Gd, but especially in Y and Eu. By mixing with NH 4 Cl and heating up to NH 4 Cl decomposition temperature in a sublimation reactor, Y and Eu could be transferred selectively into their respective metal chlorides with high yields. The yield and selectivity depend on temperature and the ratio of NH 4 Cl to fluorescent lamp scraps, which were varied systematically.

  13. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for earth station authorizations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25...

  14. Fluorescence line-narrowing studies of rare earths in disordered solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This dissertation is made up of two experimental studies dealing with apparently diverse topics within the subject of rare earths (RE) in solids. The first study, described in Part II, concerns the vibrations of a disordered host material about an optically active rare-earth ion as manifested by vibrationally-assisted-electronic, or vibronic transitions. Part III of the dissertation describes an investigation of the influence of site anisotropy on the purely electronic, laser transition of Nd 3+ in glass. These two studies are bound together by the common experimental technique of laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN). By exciting fluorescence with monochromatic light of well-characterized polarization, one may select and observe the response of a single subset of the optically active ions and obtain information that is usually masked by the inhomogeneous nature of disordered solids

  15. Technology and human purpose: the problem of solids transport on the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids") on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of) form resistance - impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment) and air (dust). The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities), and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The latter property

  16. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  17. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  18. Development and application of earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  19. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  20. Sea-level and solid-Earth deformation feedbacks in ice sheet modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Klemann, Volker; Thoma, Malte; Grosfeld, Klaus; Martinec, Zdeněk

    2014-05-01

    The interactions of ice sheets with the sea level and the solid Earth are important factors for the stability of the ice shelves and the tributary inland ice (e.g. Thomas and Bentley, 1978; Gomez et al, 2012). First, changes in ice extent and ice thickness induce viscoelastic deformation of the Earth surface and Earth's gravity field. In turn, global and local changes in sea level and bathymetry affect the grounding line and, subsequently, alter the ice dynamic behaviour. Here, we investigate these feedbacks for a synthetic ice sheet configuration as well as for the Antarctic ice sheet using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet and shelf model, coupled to a viscoelastic solid-Earth and gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model. The respective ice sheet undergoes a forcing from rising sea level, warming ocean, and/or changing surface mass balance. The coupling is realized by exchanging ice thickness, Earth surface deformation and sea level periodically. We apply several sets of viscoelastic Earth parameters to our coupled model, e.g. simulating a low-viscous upper mantle present at the Antarctic Peninsula (Ivins et al., 2011). Special focus of our study lies on the evolution of Earth surface deformation and local sea level changes, as well as on the accompanying grounding line evolution. N. Gomez, D. Pollard, J. X. Mitrovica, P. Huybers, and P. U. Clark 2012. Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet-sea level model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01013, doi:10.1029/2011JF002128. E. R. Ivins, M. M. Watkins, D.-N. Yuan, R. Dietrich, G. Casassa, and A. Rülke 2011. On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003-2009, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B02403, doi: 10.1029/2010JB007607 R. H. Thomas and C. R. Bentley 1978. A model for Holocene retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Quaternary Research, 10 (2), pages 150-170, doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(78)90098-4.

  1. A new research project on the interaction of the solid Earth and the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Kazama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Doi, K.; Suganuma, Y.; Okuno, J.; Araya, A.; Kaneda, H.; Aoyama, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A new research project of "Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas" funded by JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) has recently been launched. The title of the project is "Giant reservoirs of heat/water/material: Global environmental changes driven by Southern Ocean and Antarctic Ice Sheet", and as a five years project, is aiming to establish a new research area for Antarctic environmental system science. The project consists of 7 research topics, including Antarctic ice sheet and Southern ocean sciences, new observation methodology, modeling and other interdisciplinary topics, and we are involved in the topic A02-2, "Interaction of the solid Earth and the Antarctic Ice Sheet". The Antarctic ice sheet, which relates to the global climate changes through the sea level rise and ocean circulation, is an essential element of the Earth system for predicting the future environment changes. Thus many studies of the ice sheet changes have been conducted by means of geomorphological, geological, geodetic surveys, as well as satellite gravimetry and satellite altimetry. For these studies, one of the largest uncertainties is the effects of GIA. Therefore, GIA as a key to investigate the interaction between the solid Earth and the ice sheet changes, we plan to conduct geomorphological, geological and geodetic surveys in the inland mountain areas and the coastal areas including the surrounding areas of a Japanese station Syowa in East Antarctica, where the in-situ data for constraining GIA models are very few. Combining these new observations with other in-site data, various satellite data and numerical modeling, we aim to estimating a precise GIA model, constructing a reliable ice melting history after the last glacial maximum and obtaining the viscoelastic structure of the Earth's interior. In the presentation, we also show the five years research plans as well. This study was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 17H06321.

  2. Making interdisciplinary solid Earth modeling and analysis tools accessible in a diverse undergraduate and graduate classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    I present results from ongoing, NSF-CAREER funded educational and research efforts that center around making numerical tools in seismology and geodynamics more accessible to a broader audience. The goal is not only to train students in quantitative, interdisciplinary research, but also to make methods more easily accessible to practitioners across disciplines. I describe the two main efforts that were funded, the Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment (SEATREE, geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/), and a new Numerical Methods class. SEATREE is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate using solid Earth research tools in the undergraduate and graduate classroom and for interdisciplinary, scientific collaboration. We use only open-source software, and most programming is done in the Python computer language. We strive to make use of modern software design and development concepts while remaining compatible with traditional scientific coding and existing, legacy software. Our goals are to provide a fully contained, yet transparent package that lets users operate in an easy, graphically supported "black box" mode, while also allowing to look under the hood, for example to conduct numerous forward models to explore parameter space. SEATREE currently has several implemented modules, including on global mantle flow, 2D phase velocity tomography, and 2D mantle convection and was used at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and at a 2010 CIDER summer school tutorial. SEATREE was developed in collaboration with engineering and computer science undergraduate students, some of which have gone on to work in Earth Science projects. In the long run, we envision SEATREE to contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, and making (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. The other project is a set of lecture notes and Matlab exercises on Numerical Methods in solid Earth, focusing on finite difference and element methods. The

  3. ForM@Ter: a French Solid Earth Research Infrastructure Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandea, M.; Diament, M.; Jamet, O.; Deschamps-Ostanciaux, E.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, some noteworthy initiatives to develop efficient research e-infrastructures for the study of the Earth's system have been set up. However, some gaps between the data availability and their scientific use still exists, either because technical reasons (big data issues) or because of the lack of a dedicated support in terms of expert knowledge of the data, software availability, or data cost. The need for thematic cooperative platforms has been underlined over the last years, as well as the need to create thematic centres designed to federate the scientific community of Earth's observation. Four thematic data centres have been developed in France, covering the domains of ocean, atmosphere, land, and solid Earth sciences. For the Solid Earth science community, a research infrastructure project named ForM@Ter was launched by the French Space Agency (CNES) and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), with the active participation of the National institute for geographical and forestry information (IGN). Currently, it relies on the contributions of scientists from more than 20 French Earth science laboratories.Preliminary analysis have showed that a focus on the determination of the shape and movements of the Earth surface (ForM@Ter: Formes et Mouvements de la Terre) can federate a wide variety of scientific areas (earthquake cycle, tectonics, morphogenesis, volcanism, erosion dynamics, mantle rheology, geodesy) and offers many interfaces with other geoscience domains, such as glaciology or snow evolution. This choice motivates the design of an ambitious data distribution scheme, including a wide variety of sources - optical imagery, SAR, GNSS, gravity, satellite altimetry data, in situ observations (inclinometers, seismometers, etc.) - as well as a wide variety of processing techniques. In the evolving context of the current and forthcoming national and international e-infrastructures, the challenge of the project is to design a non

  4. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  5. iSERVO: Implementing the International Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory by Integrating Computational Grid and Geographical Information Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Mehmet; Aydin, Galip; Donnellan, Andrea; Fox, Geoffrey; Granat, Robert; Grant, Lisa; Lyzenga, Greg; McLeod, Dennis; Pallickara, Shrideep; Parker, Jay; Pierce, Marlon; Rundle, John; Sayar, Ahmet; Tullis, Terry

    2006-12-01

    We describe the goals and initial implementation of the International Solid Earth Virtual Observatory (iSERVO). This system is built using a Web Services approach to Grid computing infrastructure and is accessed via a component-based Web portal user interface. We describe our implementations of services used by this system, including Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data grid services for accessing remote data repositories and job management services for controlling multiple execution steps. iSERVO is an example of a larger trend to build globally scalable scientific computing infrastructures using the Service Oriented Architecture approach. Adoption of this approach raises a number of research challenges in millisecond-latency message systems suitable for internet-enabled scientific applications. We review our research in these areas.

  6. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  7. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  8. Interatomic bonding in solids fundamentals, simulation, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Levitin , Valim

    2013-01-01

    The connection between the quantum behavior of the structure elements of a substance and the parameters that determine the macroscopic behavior of materials has a major influence on the properties exhibited by different solids. Although quantum engineering and theory should complement each other, this is not always the case. This book aims to demonstrate how the properties of materials can be derived and predicted from the features of their structural elements, generally electrons. In a sense, electronic structure forms the glue holding solids together and it is central to determining struct

  9. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  10. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  11. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  12. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  13. SESAR: Addressing the need for unique sample identification in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Lenhardt, C.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The study of solid earth samples is key to our knowledge of Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. The data generated provide the basis for models and hypotheses in all disciplines of the Geosciences from tectonics to magmatic processes to mantle dynamics to paleoclimate research. Sample-based data are diverse ranging from major and trace element abundances, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios of rocks, minerals, fluid or melt inclusions, to age determinations and descriptions of lithology, texture, mineral or fossil content, stratigraphic context, physical properties. The usefulness of these data is critically dependent on their integration as a coherent data set for each sample. If different data sets for the same sample cannot be combined because the sample cannot be unambiguously recognized, valuable information is lost. The ambiguous naming of samples has been a major problem in the geosciences. Different samples are often given identical names, and there is a tendency for different people analyzing the same sample to rename it in their publications according to local conventions. This situation has generated significant confusion, with samples often losing their "history", making it difficult or impossible to link available data. This has become most evident through the compilation of geochemical data in relational databases such as PetDB, NAVDAT, and GEOROC. While the relational data structure allows linking of disparate data for samples published in different references, linkages cannot be established due to ambiguous sample names. SESAR is a response to this problem of ambiguous naming of samples. SESAR will create a common clearinghouse that provides a centralized registry of sample identifiers, to avoid ambiguity, to systematize sample designation, and ensure that all information associated with a sample would in fact be unique. The project will build a web-based digital registry for solid earth samples that will provide for the first time a way to

  14. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  15. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  16. Distribution of rare-earths in solid solution crandalita- goyazita of Sapucaia (Bonito-Para)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da; Melo Costa, W.A. de

    1987-01-01

    The Crandallite are predominant in the lateritic phosphates of Sapucaia, in the form of the solid solution Crandallite (Cn)- Goyazite (Gz)-Florencite (Fl). The Crandallite-Goyazite is predominant, where the maximum proportion of Florencite is Cn 60 Cz 34.8 Fl 5.2 - This proportion of Florencite is relatively high for laterites, and for this case having up to 1,374% weight of TR 2 O 3 in the total sample. The light rare elements are predominant over the heavy ores, and are illustrated in the distribution curve normalized for the chondrites. This curve is partially comparable with the curve for Apatite presents slight negative anomaly for the element Europium, and slight positive anomaly for The elements Thulium. The geochemical caracteristics for the rare earths in this group allow the prediction for the original rock for the laterites. (author) [pt

  17. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1992-01-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  18. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  19. Potential of the solid-Earth response for limiting long-term West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Pollard, David; Klemann, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is assumed to be inherently unstable because it is grounded below sea level in a large part, where the bedrock deepens from today's grounding line towards the interior of the ice sheet. Idealized simulations have shown that bedrock uplift due to isostatic adjustment of the solid Earth and the associated sea-level fall may stop the retreat of such a marine-based ice sheet (Gomez et al., 2012). Here, we employ a coupled model for ice-sheet dynamics and solid-Earth dynamics, including a gravitationally consistent description of sea level, to investigate the influence of the viscoelastic Earth structure on the WAIS' future stability (Konrad et al. 2015). For this, we start from a steady-state condition for the Antarctic Ice Sheet close to present-day observations and apply atmospheric and oceanic forcing of different strength to initiate the retreat of the WAIS and investigate the effect of the viscoelastic deformation on the ice evolution for a range of solid-Earth rheologies. We find that the climate forcing is the primary control on the occurrence of the WAIS collapse. However, for moderate climate forcing and a weak solid-Earth rheology associated with the West Antarctic rift system (asthenosphere viscosities of 3x10^19 Pa s or less), we find that the combined effect of bedrock uplift and gravitational sea-level fall limits the retreat to the Amundsen Sea embayment on millennial time scales. In contrast, a stiffer Earth rheology yields a collapse under these conditions. Under a stronger climate forcing, weak Earth structures do not prevent the WAIS collapse; however, they produce a delay of up to 5000 years in comparison to a stiffer solid-Earth rheology. In an additional experiment, we test the impact of sea-level rise from an assumed fast deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. In cases when the climatic forcing is too weak to force WAIS collapse by itself, the additional rise in sea-level leads to disintegration of the WAIS

  20. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  1. Solid lithium ion conductors for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weppner, W.

    1985-01-15

    The phase equilibria and conductivities of the LiF-LiH, LiF-LiOH, LiF-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-LiCl and Li/sub 2/S-LiBr systems were investigated. All ternary single phases and two-phase mixtures are solid electrolytes which are thermodynamically stable in respect of reaction with elemental lithium (anode) and at practically useful, low lithium activities (cathode). The conductivity normally increases with decreasing thermodynamic stability and vice versa. The conductivity may be optimized in the case of solid solutions by selecting a composition with a decomposition voltage just above the value required by the cathode material employed. All materials are isotropic in structure and no dendrite formation was observed. This allows their use in rechargeable, thin film electrolyte batteries.

  2. Application of solid dosimeter to radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1988-01-01

    Individual exposure dose measuring devices are used to measure the dose of each person in facilities using radiations. Major devices of this type currently used in Japan include the film badge, thermoluminescence dosimeter, portable radiation dosimeter and fluorescent glass dosimeter. All of these devices except the portable radiation dosimeter are of a solid type. Various portable-type spatial dose rate measuring devices, generally called survey meters, are available to determine the spatial distribution of radiations. Major survey meters incorporates an ionization chamber, GM counter tube or scintillation counter, while BF 3 counting tubes are available for neutron measurement. Of these, the scintillation dosimeter is of a solid type. A new scintillation survey meter has recently been developed which incorporated a discrimination bias modulation circuit. Dosimeters incorporating an ionization chamber or a GM counter tube are generally used as portable alarms. Recently, a new solid-type alarm has been developed which incorporates a solicon radiation detector. Microcomputers are also used for self-diagnosis, data processing, automatic calibration, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. The interaction of the cretaceous-tertiary extinction bolide with the atmosphere, ocean, and solid earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of investigations, including those reported by Orth et al. (1981), have provided physical evidence for the impact of an extraterrestrial object on earth 65 million years ago. This time corresponds to the end of the cretaceous period. This impact could, therefore, be responsible for the observed extinction of biological species at the end of the Mesozoic era. Among the species becoming extinct are found also flying and walking dinosaurs, which include all land animals that had masses greater than 25 kg. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the possibilities for the collision of earth with 10 km-size object, and the consequences produced by such a collision. It is found that the penetration of the atmosphere by the bolide creates a temporary hole in the atmosphere. The resulting flow fields can inject melt droplets and finely commuted solid particles into the atmosphere. Short-term effects of heating, followed by dust induced worldwide cooling, may provide several mechanisms for the observed extinction of the species.

  4. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  5. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  6. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  7. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  8. Synthesis of amino acid rare earth complexes and its application in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, G.-T.; Lian, P.; Hu, Y.H.; Guo, G.-R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The application of rare-earth compounds in agriculture has been widely reported. So far, most rare-earth compounds used in agriculture were inorganic salt and they were difficult to be absorbed by croup. The synthesis method and structure of amino acid rare-earth complexes have been reported. In this paper, we reported the preparation of mixed amino acids rare-earth complexes and their application in agriculture. The mixed amino acids were obtained by hydrolysis of waste natural protein. Rare earth was lanthanum oxide(99%). Mixed amino acids lanthanum complexes(MALa) was prepared according to the previous method. Investigation to the effect of croup by MALa, we have make tests of citrus, rice and mung bean. The results show as follows: 1) When the experiment group citrus was sprinkled twice 400ppm MALa at bouquet stage and young fruit stage, the sugar, morose, sucrose, soluble solid matter and vitamin C of fruit were increased 21%, 20%, 22%, 22% and 6% as compared to the control group, respectively. The area of leaf and foliage branch in Spring were also increased 4.6% and 2.2%. 2) When the rice was sprinkled 300ppm MALa at early tillering stage, the productively of rice was addition to 10-15%, and the relative effect of prevention was 45.61% for sheath and culm blight of rice. 3) In the test of mungbean growth, the low consistency of MALa ( 250ppm) retain from sprouting seed. As the same time, it was similar action to seeding growth. Preliminary results indicated MLAa could used as the plant growth regulation agent on the croup. Investigation to the effect of MALa on other croup and the mechanism of biological effect on the croup are still going on

  9. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  10. The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

  11. Application of AMS radiocarbon in earth system science studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Jin; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ryul

    2001-01-01

    Radiocarbon, a cosmic ray-produced isotope, is one of the most important tracers in Earth system sciences. The strong involvement of carbon in the biosphere and its half life of 5720 years are reflected in appropriate applications in archeology, as well as in the Earth system sciences. Radiocarbon dating had an important turning point in 1977 with the discovery that mass spectrometry with tandem acceleration could be used to measure C-14. This new technique, known as AMS or accelerator mass spectrometry reduced the required sample size to the order of mg, three orders of magnitude smaller than for conventional techniques, thus opening the range of applicability of C-14 studies to a much wider range of samples. However, the application has been complicated by two major activities of human beings on a global scale: the extensive usage of fossil fuel since the industrial revolution and nuclear testing in the atmosphere, which have influenced the natural balance of radiocarbon in the atmosphere. However, the separation of bomb-produced carbon from natural background carbon has produced a very fruitful understanding of the global carbon cycle and the conveyor belt system in the ocean, which will be essential for understanding global environmental problems, such as global warming, in the coming century. Carbon cycle studies in Korea have been made since the early 1990s. The studies include monitoring of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere, stable isotope studies, and carbon cycle studies in the sea around Korea. The opening of ths AMS facility at Seoul National University (SNU) will enhance carbon studies in Earth system sciences greatly in the future

  12. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  13. Rare-earth-doped materials with application to optical signal processing, quantum information science, and medical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, R. L.; Thiel, C. W.; Sun, Y.; Böttger, Thomas; Macfarlane, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Unique spectroscopic properties of isolated rare earth ions in solids offer optical linewidths rivaling those of trapped single atoms and enable a variety of recent applications. We design rare-earth-doped crystals, ceramics, and fibers with persistent or transient "spectral hole" recording properties for applications including high-bandwidth optical signal processing where light and our solids replace the high-bandwidth portion of the electronics; quantum cryptography and information science including the goal of storage and recall of single photons; and medical imaging technology for the 700-900 nm therapeutic window. Ease of optically manipulating rare-earth ions in solids enables capturing complex spectral information in 105 to 108 frequency bins. Combining spatial holography and spectral hole burning provides a capability for processing high-bandwidth RF and optical signals with sub-MHz spectral resolution and bandwidths of tens to hundreds of GHz for applications including range-Doppler radar and high bandwidth RF spectral analysis. Simply stated, one can think of these crystals as holographic recording media capable of distinguishing up to 108 different colors. Ultra-narrow spectral holes also serve as a vibration-insensitive sub-kHz frequency reference for laser frequency stabilization to a part in 1013 over tens of milliseconds. The unusual properties and applications of spectral hole burning of rare earth ions in optical materials are reviewed. Experimental results on the promising Tm3+:LiNbO3 material system are presented and discussed for medical imaging applications. Finally, a new application of these materials as dynamic optical filters for laser noise suppression is discussed along with experimental demonstrations and theoretical modeling of the process.

  14. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  15. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  16. Inversion of Solid Earth's Varying Shape 2: Using Self-Consistency to Infer Static Ocean Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Clarke, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed a spectral approach to invert for the redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface given precise global geodetic measurements of the solid Earth's geometrical shape. We used the elastic load Love number formalism to characterize the redistributed mass as a spherical harmonic expansion, truncated at some degree and order n. [Clarke and Blewitt, this meeting]. Here we incorporate the additional physical constraint that the sea surface in hydrostatic equilibrium corresponds to an equipotential surface, to infer the non-steric component of static ocean topography. Our model rigorously accounts for self-gravitation of the ocean, continental surface mass, and the deformed solid Earth, such that the sea surface adopts a new equipotential surface consistent with ocean-land mass exchange, deformation of the geoid, deformation of the sea floor, and the geographical configuration of the oceans and continents. We develop a self-consistent spectral inversion method to solve for the distribution of continental surface mass that would generate geographic variations in relative mean sea level such that the total (ocean plus continental) mass distribution agrees with the original geodetic estimates to degree and order n. We apply this theory to study the contribution of seasonal inter-hemispheric (degree-1) mass transfer to seasonal variation in static ocean topography, using a published empirical seasonal model for degree-1 surface loading derived using GPS coordinate time series from the global IGS network [Blewitt et al., Science 294, 2,342-2,345, 2001]. The resulting predictions of seasonal variations of relative sea level strongly depend on location, with peak variations ranging from 3 mm to 19 mm. The largest peak variations are predicted in mid-August around Antarctica and the southern hemisphere in general; the lowest variations are predicted in the northern hemisphere. Corresponding maximum continental loading occurs in Canada and Siberia at the water

  17. Noble gas mass spectrometry. Application to earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Nobuo [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1983-03-01

    The method for the isotopic analysis of trace noble gas is described briefly, and the theoretical background of the application to earth science is discussed. Furthermore, the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in volcanic gases and hot spring gases from various areas in Japan, and /sup 3/He//sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratios in mantle-origi nated rocks and minerals are presented. The examples of the application of these results to the field of earth science are introduced. The magma activity which is specific to the considered volcano is identified from the decrease in /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio with the process of volcanic activity. The possibility of earthquake prediction by the measurement of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio is suggested from the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in the gas sampled from an earthquake fault. The isotopes of He and Ar in a diamond were analyzed, and from these results, the isotope composition in mantle when the diamond had been formed was estimated. The mantle model that the mantle is constituted from upper depleted mantle and lower fertile mantle is explained, based on the results of the analysis of He and Ar isotopes in various volcanic eruptions.

  18. Rare-earth magnet applications in energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in the field of development and variety of new applications of rare-earth and rare-earth transition metal magnets. High energy content Nd-Fe-B magnet system which competes with superconducting magnets is very promising for the use in energy conversion machines, levitation systems, magnetic resonance investigation and other magnetic applications. Energy conversion machines such as motors and generators are of interest in this context. Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials as its components. Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic material. In both cases symmetry and symmetry breaking play an important role. Symmetry exists above curie temperature, as temperature is lowered symmetry is broken due to spontaneous magnetisation. Author and coworkers developed some new and highest efficiency, permanent magnet based, electronically controlled, dynamically synchronised pulsed dc linear and rotational motors which are briefly described here. Based on such experience and considering field interactions inside material under dynamical conditions and special geometrical situations, order-disorder processes, symmetry breaking and energy transfer on the basis of manifold aspects as a cooperative many body interaction, thermal fluctuations, zero-point energy, dissipation of energy, entropy exchange are discussed in context of conversion of environmental heat into electricity as suggested by Tripathi earlier. (orig.)

  19. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  20. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  1. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  2. Multidisciplinary projects and investigations on the solid earth geophysics; Metodi e prospettive per una maggiore conoscenza della crosta terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slejko, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Trieste (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Physical phenomena that occur in the solid part of the Earth are investigated by Solid Earth Geophysics together with problems related to the shape, location, and characteristics of the different parts that constitute the Earth. Repeated measurements lead the scientists to model the past evolution of the various processes as well as to forecast the future ones. Various disciplines refer to Solid Earth Geophysics, they are: Seismology, Gravimetry, Magnetometry, Geothermics, Geodesy, Geo electromagnetism, and Seismic Exploration. A special citation is due to Applied Geophysics, which are devoted to the identification of minerals, energetic and natural resources. The National Group of Solid Earth Geophysics was constituted in 1978 by CNR for promoting, developing, and coordinating researches related to Solid Earth Geophysics. The limited annual financial budget has conditioned the realisation of relevant multi-disciplinary projects. Nevertheless, important results were obtained in all different fields of Geophysics and were disseminated during the annual conference of the Group. A summary review of the main topics treated during the last conference is given here and some ideas for future research projects are presented. [Italian] La Geofisica della Terra Solida e' quella branca delle scienze e delle tecnologie che prende in considerazione dei fenomeni connessi con le caratteristiche fisiche della parte solida della Terra. La complessita' della costituzione della Terra e della sua evoluzione nel tempo implica che vengano prese in considerazione tutte le fenomenologie che si riescono a misurare e che costituiscono branche diverse della Geofisica: la Sismologia, la Gravimetria, la Magnetometria, la Geotermia, la Geodesia, il Geoelettromagnetismo, la Geofisica applicata. Ognuna di queste branche della Geofisica ha avuto in passato uno sviluppo quasi del tutto indipendente con collaborazioni o integrazioni dirtte ad obiettivi specifici, limitati anche nel tempo

  3. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  4. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  5. Applications of liquid state physics to the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    New results derived for application to the earth's outer core using the modern theory of liquids and the hard-sphere model of liquid structure are presented. An expression derived in terms of the incompressibility and pressure is valid for a high-pressure liquid near its melting point, provided that the pressure is derived from a strongly repulsive pair potential; a relation derived between the melting point and density leads to a melting curve law of essentially the same form as Lindemann's law. Finally, it is shown that the 'core paradox' of Higgins and Kennedy (1971) can occur only if the Gruneisen parameter is smaller than 2/3, and this constant is larger than this value in any liquid for which the pair potential is strongly repulsive.

  6. Production and Innovative Applications of Cryogenic Solid Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    For over two decades Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing cryogenic pellet injectors for fueling hot, magnetic fusion plasmas. Cryogenic solid pellets of all three hydrogen isotopes have been produced in a size range of 1- to 10-mm diameter and accelerated to speeds from <100 to ∼3000 m/s. The pellets have been formed discretely by cryocondensation in gun barrels and also by extrusion of cryogenic solids at mass flow rates up to ∼0.26 g/s and production rates up to ten pellets per second. The pellets traverse the hot plasma in a fraction of a millisecond and continuously ablate, providing fresh hydrogenic fuel to the interior of the plasma. From this initial application, uses of this technology have expanded to include (1) cryogenic xenon drops or solids for use as a debris-less target in a laser plasma source of X-rays for advanced lithography systems, (2) solid argon and carbon dioxide pellets for surface cleaning or decontamination, and (3) methane pellets in a liquid hydrogen bath for use as an innovative moderator of cold neutrons. Methods of production and acceleration/transport of these cryogenic solids will be described, and examples will be given of their use in prototype systems

  7. EPOS-WP16: A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calignano, Elisa; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, Chris; Willingshofer, Ernst; Drury, Martyn; van Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, Francesca; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    research activities into Geo-resources and Geo-storage, Geo-hazards and Earth System Evolution. Regarding the provision of physical access to laboratories the current situation is such that access to WP16's laboratories is often based on professional relations, available budgets, shared interests and other constraints. In WP16 we aim at reducing the present diversity and non-transparency of access rules and replace ad-hoc procedures for access by a streamlined mechanisms, objective rules and a transparent policy. We work on procedures and mechanisms regulating application, negotiation, evaluation, feedback, selection, admission, approval, feasibility check, setting-up, use, monitoring and dismantling. In the end laboratories should each have a single point providing clear and transparent information on the facility itself, its services, access policy, data management policy and the legal terms and conditions for use of equipment. Through its role as an intermediary and information broker, EPOS will acquire a wealth of information from Research Infrastructures and users on the establishment of efficient collaboration agreements.

  8. Rare earths: critical elements for various applications and challenges in their separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    High purity rare earths oxides, metal and alloys find wide applications in high tech area such as nuclear energy, permanent magnets, materials for storing hydrogen, phosphors, laser, etc. Rare earths consists a group of 15 elements from La to Lu in the periodic table and it also includes Sc and Y. Due to similar chemical nature owing to common oxidation state of +3, rare earths are very difficult to separate from each other. They have very low separation factors with acidic extractants like D2EHPA and EHEHPA and hence require large number of stages in various cascade of extraction process. Monazite (a source of rare earths, thorium and uranium) is processed at IREL to separate rare earths from thorium and uranium. The rare earths are fractionated into three groups namely light rare earths (LRE), middle rare earths (MRE) and heavy rare earths (HRE) by solvent extraction method employing EHEHPA as extractant

  9. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  10. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  11. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: leo.morf@bd.zh.ch [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  12. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morf, Leo S.; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  13. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  14. Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences Photogrammetry is often considered one of the most precise and versatile surveying techniques. The same camera and analysis software can be used for measurements from sub-millimetre to kilometre scale. Such a measurement device is well suited for application by earth scientists working in the field. In this case a small toolset and a straight forward setup best fit the needs of the operator. While a digital camera is typically already part of the field equipment of an earth scientist the main focus of the field work is often not surveying. Lack in photogrammetric training at the same time requires an easy to learn, straight forward surveying technique. A photogrammetric method was developed aimed primarily at earth scientists for taking accurate measurements in the field minimizing extra bulk and weight of the required equipment. The work included several challenges. A) Definition of an upright coordinate system without heavy and bulky tools like a total station or GNS-Sensor. B) Optimization of image acquisition and geometric stability of the image block. C) Identification of a small camera suitable for precise measurements in the field. D) Optimization of the workflow from image acquisition to preparation of images for stereo measurements. E) Introduction of students and non-photogrammetrists to the workflow. Wooden spheres were used as target points in the field. They were more rugged and available in different sizes than ping pong balls used in a previous setup. Distances between three spheres were introduced as scale information in a photogrammetric adjustment. The distances were measured with a laser distance meter accurate to 1 mm (1 sigma). The vertical angle between the spheres was measured with the same laser distance meter. The precision of the measurement was 0.3° (1 sigma) which is sufficient, i.e. better than inclination measurements with a geological compass. The upright

  15. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  16. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  17. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on science, technology and applications of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are extensively used in clean energy applications like wind turbines, hybrid car batteries/electric motors, solar energy collectors, permanent magnets, phosphors, multifunctional pigments, thin film technologies, defence - related systems, etc. The use of rare earth elements in modern technology has increased several folds over the past few years in both domestic and international sectors due to the growing economy. The current global demand for rare earths is expected to provide a myriad of business opportunities for rare earth industries across the world including India for the utilization of rare earths in green energy, technology and industry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  20. Geodesy by radio interferometry - Determinations of baseline vector, earth rotation, and solid earth tide parameters with the Mark I very long baseline radio interferometery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R. J.; Ma, C.; Wildes, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-seven very long baseline radio interferometry experiments performed between 1972 and 1978 are analyzed and estimates of baseline vectors between six sites, five in the continental United States and one in Europe are derived. No evidence of significant changes in baseline length is found. For example, with a statistical level of confidence of approximately 85 percent, upper bounds on such changes within the United States ranged from a low of 10 mm/yr for the 850 km baseline between Westford, Massachusetts, and Green Bank, West Virginia, to a high of 90 mm/yr for the nearly 4000 km baseline between Westford and Goldstone, California. Estimates for universal time and for the x component of the position of the earth's pole are obtained. For the last 15 experiments, the only ones employing wideband receivers, the root-mean-square differences between the derived values and the corresponding ones published by the Bureau International de l'Heure are 0.0012 s and 0.018 arc sec respectively. The average value obtained for the radial Love number for the solid earth is 0.62 + or - 0.02 (estimated standard error).

  1. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Applications of Trajectory Solid Angle for Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Po Kee; Wong, Adam E.; Wong, Anita

    2002-01-01

    In 1974, a well-known research problem in Statistical Mechanics entitled 'To determine and define the probability function P.sub.2 of a particle hitting a predetermined area, given all its parameters of generation and ejection' was openly solicited for its solution from research and development organizations in U.S.A. One of many proposed solutions of the problem, initiated at that time, is by means of the Trajectory Solid Angle (TSA). TSA is defined as the integral of the dot product of the unit tangent of the particle's trajectory to the vector area divided by the square of the position vector connecting between the point of ejection and that of the surface to be hit. The invention provides: (1) The precise and the unique solution of a previously unsolved P.sub.2 problem: (2) Impacts to the governmental NRC safety standards and DOD weapon systems and many activities in the Department of Energy; (3) Impacts to update the contents of text books of physics and mathematics of all levels; (4) Impacts to the scientific instruments with applications in high technologies. The importance of Trajectory Solid Angle can be quoted from a letter by the late Institute Professor P. M. Morse of MIT who reviewed the DOE proposal P7900450 (reference No. 7) in 1979 and addressed to the inventor. 'If the Trajectory Solid Angle is correct it will provide a revolutionary concept in physics'. (authors)

  3. Ambient Seismic Source Inversion in a Heterogeneous Earth: Theory and Application to the Earth's Hum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, Laura; Sager, Korbinian; Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    The sources of ambient seismic noise are extensively studied both to better understand their influence on ambient noise tomography and related techniques, and to infer constraints on their excitation mechanisms. Here we develop a gradient-based inversion method to infer the space-dependent and time-varying source power spectral density of the Earth's hum from cross correlations of continuous seismic data. The precomputation of wavefields using spectral elements allows us to account for both finite-frequency sensitivity and for three-dimensional Earth structure. Although similar methods have been proposed previously, they have not yet been applied to data to the best of our knowledge. We apply this method to image the seasonally varying sources of Earth's hum during North and South Hemisphere winter. The resulting models suggest that hum sources are localized, persistent features that occur at Pacific coasts or shelves and in the North Atlantic during North Hemisphere winter, as well as South Pacific coasts and several distinct locations in the Southern Ocean in South Hemisphere winter. The contribution of pelagic sources from the central North Pacific cannot be constrained. Besides improving the accuracy of noise source locations through the incorporation of finite-frequency effects and 3-D Earth structure, this method may be used in future cross-correlation waveform inversion studies to provide initial source models and source model updates.

  4. Using GPS and GRACE data to assess Solid Earth elastic parameters at regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to combine GPS and GRACE data for regional scale cross check and validation especially of the most commonly used PREM (Preliminary Earth Reference Model). In form of h and k Love numbers, global PREM is very often used to simulate elastic rebound due to present-day ice mass loss......, to derive the mass distribution produced by the observed GRACE time series, and it is also used for atmospheric loading correction both in GPS and in GRACE dealiasing products. GRACE data provide load estimates, usually given as water equivalent mass distribution, from which one derives the Earth elastic...... response, by convolution with suitable elastic green functions, relying on selected Earth model and related layering and elastic parameters. We calculate at regional scale the time series of monthly uplift associated with the mass redistribution observed by GRACE implementing the high resolution technique...

  5. A study on variation in position of an Indian station due to solid earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    position of a station and its subsequent influence on the computation and interpretation of time series of coordinates ... signals (such as ocean tide loading and errors in .... moon or full moon. Neap tide is that when the Sun,. Earth, and Moon are aligned in perpendicular line, due to which they form destructive interface and.

  6. New Data Services for Polar Investigators from Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ferrini, V.; Morton, J. J.; Arko, R. A.; McLain, K.; O'hara, S. H.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K. A.; IEDA Team, I.

    2013-12-01

    Accessibility and preservation of data is needed to support multi-disciplinary research in the key environmentally sensitive Polar Regions. IEDA (Integrated Earth Data Applications) is a community-based data facility funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational solid earth data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. IEDA tools and services relevant to the Polar Research Community include the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Data System (ASODS), the U.S. Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC), GeoMapApp, as well as a number of services for sample-based data (SESAR and EarthChem). In addition to existing tools, which assist Polar investigators in archiving their data, and creating DIF records for global searches in AMD, IEDA recently added several new tools and services that will provide further support for investigators with the data life cycle process. These include a data management plan (http://www.iedadata.org/compliance/plan) and data compliance reporting tool (http://www.iedadata.org/compliance/report) that will help investigators comply with the requirements of funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF). Data, especially from challenging Polar Regions, are likely to be used by other scientists for future studies. Therefore, data acknowledgment is an important concern of many investigators. To encourage data acknowledgments by data users, we link references of publications (when known) to datasets and cruises registered within the ASODS system as part of our data curation services (http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/antarctic/references.php). In addition, IEDA offers a data publication service to register scientific data with DOI's, making data sets citable as publications with attribution to investigators as authors. IEDA is a publication agent of the DataCite consortium. Offering such services provides additional incentives

  7. High-Definition Television (HDTV) Images for Earth Observations and Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Holland, S. Douglas; Runco, Susan K.; Pitts, David E.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Andrefouet, Serge M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of Detailed Test Objective 700-17A, astronauts acquired Earth observation images from orbit using a high-definition television (HDTV) camcorder, Here we provide a summary of qualitative findings following completion of tests during missions STS (Space Transport System)-93 and STS-99. We compared HDTV imagery stills to images taken using payload bay video cameras, Hasselblad film camera, and electronic still camera. We also evaluated the potential for motion video observations of changes in sunlight and the use of multi-aspect viewing to image aerosols. Spatial resolution and color quality are far superior in HDTV images compared to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) video images. Thus, HDTV provides the first viable option for video-based remote sensing observations of Earth from orbit. Although under ideal conditions, HDTV images have less spatial resolution than medium-format film cameras, such as the Hasselblad, under some conditions on orbit, the HDTV image acquired compared favorably with the Hasselblad. Of particular note was the quality of color reproduction in the HDTV images HDTV and electronic still camera (ESC) were not compared with matched fields of view, and so spatial resolution could not be compared for the two image types. However, the color reproduction of the HDTV stills was truer than colors in the ESC images. As HDTV becomes the operational video standard for Space Shuttle and Space Station, HDTV has great potential as a source of Earth-observation data. Planning for the conversion from NTSC to HDTV video standards should include planning for Earth data archiving and distribution.

  8. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for... Union. (d) Earth station applicants requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S.-licensed space... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  10. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  11. Comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar Earth Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will provide research and trajectory design analysis to develop a NASA Cis-Lunar / Earth-Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application. A compendium...

  12. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    -level. Those cycles were detected as a result of the pioneering work on the stratigraphic record of sedimentary basins and continental margins from all over the world by Peter Vail, Bilal Haq and others from Exxon. It was at this time, that sedimentary basins became a frontier in the integration of quantitative geology and geophysics. Sedimentary basins do not only provide a powerful source of information on the evolution of the underlying lithosphere and climate fluctuations, but also contain mankind's main reservoirs of geo-energy and geo-resources. It was Peter Ziegler, head of global geology at Shell International, who was the prime mentor in my somewhat unexpected scientific journey in sedimentary basins. These became the main research target of the Tectonics research group I established in 1988 in Amsterdam. In these years it became increasingly evident that the rheology of the lithosphere exerts a crucial control on the evolution of basins, but also on continental topography. It is on this topic that the cooperation over more than two decades with Evgenii Burov, addressing issues like the rheological structure of Europe's lithosphere, rift shoulder uplift and the interplay of lithospheric folding and mantle-lithosphere interactions, has, been very fruitful. Another unexpected milestone has been the opportunity to build up, parallel to the research efforts in field studies and numerical modeling, an analogue tectonic laboratory in our group. This brings me to another issue, also completely unforeseen: the integration of earth science in Europe, particularly taking off after the disappearance of the Iron Curtain. For my group, the latter marked the beginning of a very fruitful cooperation in particular with the groups of Frank Horvath in Budapest and Cornel Dinu in Bucharest, addressing the fascinating solid Earth dynamics of the Carpathians and Pannonian basin. Over the last few years, it has been become evident that integration in the solid earth science is the way to

  13. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Mabee, B.; Wulf Tregar, S.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. There is a need to substantiate the benefits of Earth science applications in socially and economically meaningful terms in order to demonstrate return on investment and to prioritize investments across data products, modeling capabilities, and information systems. However, methods and techniques for quantifying the value proposition of Earth observations are currently not fully established. Furthermore, it has been challenging to communicate the value of these investments to audiences beyond the Earth science community. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. The VALUABLES Consortium will focus on three pillars: (a) a research pillar that will apply existing and innovative methods to quantify the socioeconomic benefits of information from Earth observations; (b) a capacity building pillar to catalyze interdisciplinary linkages between Earth scientists and social scientists; and (c) a communications pillar that will convey the value of Earth observations to stakeholders in government, universities, the NGO community, and the interested public. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing and future activities of the VALUABLES Consortium, provide a brief overview of frameworks to quantify the socioeconomic value of Earth observations, and describe how Earth scientists and social scientist can get involved in the Consortium's activities.

  14. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  15. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  16. Application of solid-phase antibodies to radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConway, M.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of polymeric microparticle, Dynospheres and reprecipitated acid-hydrolysed nylon 6/6, and two methods of activating these particles with either tresyl chloride or carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) prior to covalent linkage of antibodies were investigated with a view towards their respective adoption for the preparation of general solid-phase reagents for immunoassay applications. Activation of each particle and coupling of antibodies was rapid irrespective of the activator. CDI proved to be the activator of choice since it was cheap, less hazardous, more efficient and less pH dependent than tresyl chloride. Both types of microparticle remain buoyant during the RIA incubation periods and form stable pellets after centrifugation. In second antibody applications immobilisation of the first antibody occurs with a short incubation period of 30 min. Nylon microparticles have a higher antibody-coupling capacity and are the particles of choice in both first and second antibody applications. However, the nylon microparticles possess marginally higher non-specific binding characteristics. (Auth.)

  17. Application of solid-phase microextraction in analytical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz

    2007-08-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a miniaturized and solvent-free sample preparation technique for chromatographic-spectrometric analysis by which the analytes are extracted from a gaseous or liquid sample by absorption in, or adsorption on, a thin polymer coating fixed to the solid surface of a fiber, inside an injection needle or inside a capillary. In this paper, the present state of practical performance and of applications of SPME to the analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and hair in clinical and forensic toxicology is reviewed. The commercial coatings for fibers or needles have not essentially changed for many years, but there are interesting laboratory developments, such as conductive polypyrrole coatings for electrochemically controlled SPME of anions or cations and coatings with restricted-access properties for direct extraction from whole blood or immunoaffinity SPME. In-tube SPME uses segments of commercial gas chromatography (GC) capillaries for highly efficient extraction by repeated aspiration-ejection cycles of the liquid sample. It can be easily automated in combination with liquid chromatography but, as it is very sensitive to capillary plugging, it requires completely homogeneous liquid samples. In contrast, fiber-based SPME has not yet been performed automatically in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. The headspace extractions on fibers or needles (solid-phase dynamic extraction) combined with GC methods are the most advantageous versions of SPME because of very pure extracts and the availability of automatic samplers. Surprisingly, substances with quite high boiling points, such as tricyclic antidepressants or phenothiazines, can be measured by headspace SPME from aqueous samples. The applicability and sensitivity of SPME was essentially extended by in-sample or on-fiber derivatization. The different modes of SPME were applied to analysis of solvents and inhalation narcotics, amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites

  18. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  19. Leachability of rare earth elements (REEs) from solid wastes generated during chemical processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Pillai, P.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to assess the leachability of REEs from solid wastes generated in monazite processing. Leachability of REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) and Y from PbS-Ba(Ra)SO 4 (Mixed cake) and Effluent Treatment Plant cake (calcium hydroxy apatite) has been studied using rain water as the leachant. Studies indicate that 23 -60 % of the REEs gets leached out from the mixed cake in the first 24 hours. From the ETP cake, the percentage of REEs leached out were negligible. The results provide inputs for hazards evaluation in accidental situations resulting in breach of integrity of the waste storages. (author)

  20. Using Interactive Visualization to Analyze Solid Earth Data and Geodynamics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality

  1. Thermodynamics analysis of the rare earth metals and their alloys with indium in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassiliev, V.P.; Benaissa, Ablazeze; Taldrik, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gibbs energies of formation vs. RE atomic numbers in REIn 3 . Highlights: •Set of experimental values was collected for REIn 3 phases. •Thermodynamic functions of formation were calculated at 298 K and 775 K. •Experimental and calculated values were compared. -- Abstract: Nonlinear correlative analyses between thermodynamic and some physico-chemical properties of rare-earth metals (RE) and their alloys with indium are performed for the isostructural phases RE and REIn 3 . The thermodynamics values (Gibbs energies of formation, enthalpies of formation, and entropies of formation at 298 K and 775 K and standard entropies) of LnIn 3 phases are calculated on the basis of calorimetry and potentiometry results. The proposed correlation between physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties agrees for all the isostructural phases REX (X are others elements of the periodic table). The resulting thermodynamic data are recommended for metallurgical handbook

  2. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste...

  3. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation of...

  4. Ternary and quaternary solid solutions in rare earth alloy phases with the CaCu5-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malani, G.K.; Raman, A.; Mohanty, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Crystal structural data were analyzed in seleced CaCu 5 -type ternary and quaternary solid solutions to assess the crystal chemical characteristics and stability features of the CaCu 5 -type structure in rare earth containing alloy phases. LaNi 5 was found to dissolve 100 mol% LaCu 5 , 100 mol% ErNi 5 , about 50 mol% LaIr 5 , 40 mol% 'LaMn 5 ', 20 mol% 'LaFe 5 ', and 25 mol% ErRh 5 . In contrast, LaCo 5 did not dissolve any Mn or any of the other elements other than Al - it dissolved about 20 mol% 'LaAl 5 '. LaCu 5 behaves similar to LaNi 5 in solid solutions. From the lack of solubility of any other element in LaFe 5 , LaCo 5 , LaRh 5 , and LaIr 5 and their great instability, these are inferred to be borderline cases in the realm of the CaCu 5 -type structure. In the CaCu 5 and related crystal structures, Ir is compatible with Ni, but not with Co or Rh, and Rh is not compatible with either Ni or Ir. (orig.) [de

  5. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  6. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  7. Rare-earth magnets and their applications. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, L.; Mueller, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: permanent magnets, rare- earth magnets, manufacturing, markets, powder metallurgy, sintering, mechanical alloying, nanocrystalline magnets, Curie temperature, domain structure, exchange coupling, stoichiometry effects, coercive force, remanence, magnetisation distribution, demagnetisation, mechanical properties, deformation behaviour, microstructure, grain size effects, texture, magnetic anisotropy, hydrogen assisted processing, nitriding, hydrogen embrittlement, permanent magnet motors, permanent magnet generators, brushless machines, linear motors, DC motors, AC motors, servomotors, magnetic levitation, magnetic field calculations, magnetic damping, magnet system design, system optimisation, corrosion protection, magnetometers, hard magnetic films, magnetostriction, magnetic multilayers, spin glass behaviour

  8. Variable valence of praseodymium in rare-earth oxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchinskaya, M.V.; Merezhinskii, K.Y.; Tikhonov, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Solid solutions of elevated praseodymium oxide content have interesting electrical properties, making them the basis for the manufacture of high-temperature electrically conducting materials. Establishment of the composition-structure-valence state relationships enables control of the material properties. The authors performed investigations using a thermogravimetric apparatus with an electronic microbalance of type EM-5-3M, and using x-ray phase analysis of powders (DRON-1 diffractometer, CuK /SUB alpha/ -radiation). The authors also studied the kinetics of praseodymium oxidation with a thermogravimetric apparatus under isothermal conditions. Evaluation of the results with the equation of Kolmogorov, Erofeev, and Avraam indicates that the process is limited by the chemical oxidation of praseodymium and not by diffusion

  9. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  10. Women in EPOS: the role of women in a large pan-European Research Infrastructure for Solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calignano, Elisa; Freda, Carmela; Baracchi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Women are outnumbered by men in geosciences senior research positions, but what is the situation if we consider large pan-European Research Infrastructures? With this contribution we want to show an analysis of the role of women in the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): a planned research infrastructure for European Solid Earth sciences, integrating national and transnational research infrastructures to enable innovative multidisciplinary research. EPOS involves 256 national research infrastructures, 47 partners (universities and research institutes) from 25 European countries and 4 international organizations. The EPOS integrated platform demands significant coordination between diverse solid Earth disciplinary communities, national research infrastructures and the policies and initiatives they drive, geoscientists and information technologists. The EPOS architecture takes into account governance, legal, financial and technical issues and is designed so that the enterprise works as a single, but distributed, sustainable research infrastructure. A solid management structure is vital for the successful implementation and sustainability of EPOS. The internal organization relies on community-specific Working Packages (WPs), Transversal WPs in charge of the overall EPOS integration and implementation, several governing, executive and advisory bodies, a Project Management Office (PMO) and the Project Coordinator. Driven by the timely debate on gender balance and commitment of the European Commission to promote gender equality in research and innovation, we decided to conduct a mapping exercise on a project that crosses European national borders and that brings together diverse geoscience disciplines under one management structure. We present an analysis of women representation in decision-making positions in each EPOS Working Package (WP Leader, proxy, legal, financial and IT contact persons), in the Boards and Councils and in the PMO

  11. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  12. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pober, D. F.; Roy, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  13. Ted Madden's Network Methods: Applications to the Earth's Schumann Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Yu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ted Madden made clever use of electrical circuit concepts throughout his long career in geophysical research: induced polarization, DC resistivity, magnetotellurics, Schumann resonances, the transport properties of rocks and even elasticity and the brittle failure of stressed rocks. The general methods on network analogies were presented in a terse monograph (Madden, 1972) which came to be called "The Grey Peril" by his students, named more for the challenge of deciphering the material as for the color of its cover. This talk will focus on Ted's first major use of the transmission line analogy in treating the Earth's Schumann resonances. This approach in Madden and Thompson (1965) provided a greatly simplified two-dimensional treatment of an electromagnetic problem with a notable three-dimensional structure. This skillful treatment that included the role of the Earth's magnetic field also led to predictions that the Schumann resonance energy would leak into space, predictions that have been verified nearly 50 years later in satellite observations. An extension of the network analogy by Nelson (1967) using Green's function methods provides a means to treat the inverse problem for the background Schumann resonances for the global lightning activity. The development of Madden's methods will be discussed along with concrete results based on them for the monitoring of global lightning.

  14. Method for calculating solid-solid phase transitions at high temperature: An application to N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchta, B.; Etters, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Two similar techniques for calculating solid-solid phase transitions at high temperatures are developed, where the contribution of the entropy may be a decisive factor. They utilize an artificial reversible path from one phase to another by application of a control parameter. Thermodynamic averages are calculated using constant-volume and constant-pressure Monte Carlo techniques. An application to N 2 O at room temperature shows that the cubic Pa3 to orthorhombic Cmca transition occurs near 4.9-GPa pressure, very close to the value calculated at very low temperatures. These results support experimental evidence that the transition pressure is virtually independent of temperature

  15. Crystal field parameters with Wannier functions: application to rare-earth aluminates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Knížek, Karel; Kuneš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 20 (2013), "205139-1"-"205139-7" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0713 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal-field * rare earths * Wannier functions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.205139

  16. Seismic imaging at the cross-roads: Active, passive, exploration and solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, N.; Stephenson, R.; Carbonell, R.

    2017-10-01

    Science has grown from our need to understand the world around us. Seismology is no different, with earthquakes and their destructive effect on society providing the motivation to understand the Earth's seismic wavefield. The question of when seismology as a science really began is an interesting one, but it is unlikely that there will ever be a universally agreed-upon date, partly because of the incompleteness of the historical record, and partly because the definition of what constitutes science varies from person to person. For instance, one could regard 1889 as the true birth of seismology, because that is when the first distant earthquake was detected by an instrument; in this case Ernst von Rebeur-Paschwitz detected an earthquake in Japan using a pendulum in Potsdam, Germany (Ben-Menahem, 1995). However, even the birth of instrumental seismology could be contested; the so-called Zhang Heng directional ;seismoscope; (detects ground motion but not as a function of time) was invented in 132 CE (Rui and Yan-xiang, 2006), and is said to have detected a four-hundred mile distant earthquake which was not felt at the location of the instrument (Needham, 1959; Dewey and Byerly, 1969). Prior to instrumental seismology, observations of earthquakes were not uncommon; for instance, Aristotle provided a classification of earthquakes based on the nature of observed ground motion (Ben-Menahem, 1995).

  17. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He — Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  19. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  20. Artificial intelligence applications concepts for the remote sensing and earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Roelofs, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following potential applications of AI to the study of earth science are described: (1) intelligent data management systems; (2) intelligent processing and understanding of spatial data; and (3) automated systems which perform tasks that currently require large amounts of time by scientists and engineers to complete. An example is provided of how an intelligent information system might operate to support an earth science project.

  1. Application of Photocured Polymer Ion Selective Membranes for Solid-State Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Abramova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of conducting polymers with additional functional groups for a solid contact formation and photocurable membranes as sensitive elements of solid-state chemical sensors is discussed. Problems associated with application of UV-curable polymers for sensors are analyzed. A method of sensor fabrication using copolymerized conductive layer and sensitive membrane is presented and the proof of concept is confirmed by two examples of solid-contact electrodes for Ca ions and pH.

  2. Investigation of aluminosilicate refractory for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Paul Steven

    Stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been demonstrated to provide clean and reliable electricity through electro-chemical conversion of various fuel sources (CH4 and other light hydrocarbons). To become a competitive conversion technology the costs of SOFCs must be reduced to less than $400/kW. Aluminosilicate represents a potential low cost alternative to high purity alumina for SOFC refractory applications. The objectives of this investigation are to: (1) study changes of aluminosilicate chemistry and morphology under SOFC conditions, (2) identify volatile silicon species released by aluminosilicates, (3) identify the mechanisms of aluminosilicate vapor deposition on SOFC materials, and (4) determine the effects of aluminosilicate vapors on SOFC electrochemical performance. It is shown thermodynamically and empirically that low cost aluminosilicate refractory remains chemically and thermally unstable under SOFC operating conditions between 800°C and 1000°C. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the aluminosilicate bulk and surface identified increased concentrations of silicon at the surface after exposure to SOFC gases at 1000°C for 100 hours. The presence of water vapor accelerated surface diffusion of silicon, creating a more uniform distribution. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling showed aluminosilicate remains stable in dry air, but the introduction of water vapor indicative of actual SOFC gas streams creates low temperature (active anode interface.

  3. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health: Moving from Research to Operational End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate NASA's applied science programs efforts to transition from research to operations to benefit society. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in health research and the transition to operational end users.

  4. Syntheses and characterizations of rare earth doped phospho-silicated apatites: application to nuclear waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Apatite matrices have been developed for the conditioning of actinides from spent fuels of PWR reactors. Silicated apatites (britholites) containing actinides and lanthanides have been discovered in the natural environment. Synthetic analogues of these britholites can be obtained by solid-solid reaction at high temperature. The compounds of the solid solution of fluorinated britholites are synthesized by the double substitution of (Ca 2+ , PO 4 3- ) by (Ln 3+ , SiO 4 4- ). Trivalent lanthanides are chemical analogues of trivalent actinides. The synthesis was performed with La, Nd and Eu. This study allows to demonstrate that the chemical immobilization comes from the fixation of rare earths at the atomic scale, thanks to their participation to the mineral structure. In part 1, the criteria for the formulation of a matrix for the conditioning of separate radionuclides are given. The structure and the different methods of apatite preparation are shown. Part 2 treats of the study of the solid solution, of the elaboration of the Ca 9 Nd 1 (SiO 4 ) 5 F 2 ceramic and of its physico chemical characterization. The last part deals with the localization of rare earths in the apatite structure, determined by europium luminescence and X-ray diffraction on monocrystal. (J.S.) [fr

  5. Principles and applications of colorimetric solid-phase extraction with negligible depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Neil C.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) is an integrated technique in which an analyte is selectively concentrated onto a disk and then quantitated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This paper describes the results of an investigation that applies the concept of negligible depletion (ND) to C-SPE, representing the first application of ND concepts to solid-phase extractions. The approach relies on passing the minimal volume of sample through the disk required to reach an equilibrium in which the concentration of analyte in the sample entering and exiting the disk are equal. At this point, the amount of analyte extracted by the disk is proportional to the sample concentration but is independent of the sample volume passed through the disk. With this new method, called C-SPE/ND, the precise measurement of sample volume is no longer necessary. The work herein details the general principles of this new methodology, and validates its basic tenets in an investigation of the extraction of the organic dye methyl violet. The analytical capabilities of C-SPE/ND are then demonstrated by its application to measurements of iodine. Iodine is a biocide increasingly used as a simple and effective disinfectant for water in locations where municipal water treatment systems are potentially compromised. Thus, the ability to operate C-SPE in an ND mode notably enhances the broad-based utility of this methodology as a reliable and an easy-to-use analysis tool for water quality assessments. Since iodine is also the biocide used on NASAs Space Shuttle, C-SPE/ND has the potential to overcome problems associated with the removal of air bubbles entrapped in a water sample in the microgravity environment encountered in space exploration. Extensions of C-SPE/ND to facile determinations of other water quality parameters with respect to both earth- and space-based needs are briefly discussed

  6. Nanotubes of rare earth cobalt oxides for cathodes of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacanell, Joaquin [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A. Gabriela [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM. Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bellino, Martin G.; Lamas, Diego G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-02

    In this work we studied the electrochemical properties of cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) prepared with nanotubes of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO). Their nanostructures consist of agglomerated nanoparticles in tubular structures of sub-micrometric diameter. The resulting cathodes are highly porous both at the micro- and the nanoscale. This fact increases significantly the access to active sites for the oxygen reduction. We investigated the influence of the diameter of the precursor nanotubes on the polarization resistance of the LSCO cathodes on CeO{sub 2}-10 mol.% Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SDC) electrolytes under air atmosphere, evaluated in symmetrical [LSCO/SDC/LSCO] cells. Our results indicate an optimized performance when the diameter of precursor nanotubes is sufficiently small to become dense nanorods after cathode sintering. We present a phenomenological model that successfully explains the behavior observed and considers that a small starting diameter acts as a barrier that prevents grains growth. This is directly related with the lack of contact points between nanotubes in the precursor, which are the only path for the growth of ceramic grains. We also observed that a conventional sintering process (of 1 h at 1000 C with heating and cooling rates of 10 C min{sup -1}) has to be preferred against a fast firing one (1 or 2 min at 1100 C with heating and cooling rates of 100 C min{sup -1}) in order to reach a higher performance. However, a good adhesion of the cathode can be achieved with both methods. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy diffusion is enhanced while decreasing LSCO particle size. This indicates that the high performance of our nanostructured cathodes is not only related with the increase of the number of active sites for oxygen reduction but also to the fact that the nanotubes are formed by nanoparticles. (author)

  7. Neutron applications in earth, energy and environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Liyuan; Schober, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This text is a comprehensive overview of neutron scattering techniques that enhance the study of materials at the micro and nanoscale. The well structured volume provides introductions to various neutron applications from leading experts in the field.

  8. High-Precision Global Geodetic Systems: Revolution And Revelation In Fluid And 'Solid' Earth Tracking (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. H.; Altamimi, Z.; Blewitt, G.; Carter, W. E.; Cazenave, A. A.; Davis, J. L.; Dragert, H.; Feary, D. A.; Herring, T.; Larson, K. M.; Ries, J. C.; Sandwell, D. T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past half-century, space geodetic technologies have changed profoundly the way we look at the planet, not only in the matter of details and accuracy, but also in the matter of how the entire planet changes with time, even on “human” time scales. The advent of space geodesy has provided exquisite images of the ever-changing land and ocean topography and global gravity field of the planet. We now enjoy an International Terrestrial Reference System with a time-dependent geocenter position accurate to a few millimeters. We can image small and large tectonic deformations of the surface before, during, and after earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. We measure both the past subtle changes as well as the recent dramatic changes in the ice sheets, and track global and regional sea-level change to a precision of a millimeter per year or better. The remarkable achievements of Earth observing missions over the past two decades, and the success of future international missions described in the Decadal Survey depend both implicitly and explicitly on the continued availability and enhancement of a reliable and resilient global infrastructure for precise geodesy, and on ongoing advances in geodetic science that are linked to it. This allows us to deal with global scientific, technological and social issues such as climate change and natural hazards, but the impact of the global precise geodetic infrastructure also permeates our everyday lives. Nowadays drivers, aviators, and sailors can determine their positions inexpensively to meter precision in real time, anywhere on the planet. In the foreseeable future, not only will we be able to know a vehicle’s position to centimeter accuracy in real time, but also to control that position, and thus introduce autonomous navigation systems for many tasks which are beyond the reach of “manual” navigation capabilities. This vision will only be realized with sustained international support of the precise global geodetic

  9. Solid-solid phase change thermal storage application to space-suit battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.; Morehouse, Jeffrey H.

    1989-01-01

    High cell temperatures are seen as the primary safety problem in the Li-BCX space battery. The exothermic heat from the chemical reactions could raise the temperature of the lithium electrode above the melting temperature. Also, high temperature causes the cell efficiency to decrease. Solid-solid phase-change materials were used as a thermal storage medium to lower this battery cell temperature by utilizing their phase-change (latent heat storage) characteristics. Solid-solid phase-change materials focused on in this study are neopentyl glycol and pentaglycerine. Because of their favorable phase-change characteristics, these materials appear appropriate for space-suit battery pack use. The results of testing various materials are reported as thermophysical property values, and the space-suit battery operating temperature is discussed in terms of these property results.

  10. NASA Applied Sciences Program. Overview Presentation; Discovering and Demonstrating Innovative and Practical Applications of Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Goal 1: Enhance Applications Research Advance the use of NASA Earth science in policy making, resource management and planning, and disaster response. Key Actions: Identify priority needs, conduct applied research to generate innovative applications, and support projects that demonstrate uses of NASA Earth science. Goal 2: Increase Collaboration Establish a flexible program structure to meet diverse partner needs and applications objectives. Key Actions: Pursue partnerships to leverage resources and risks and extend the program s reach and impact. Goal 3:Accelerate Applications Ensure that NASA s flight missions plan for and support applications goals in conjunction with their science goals, starting with mission planning and extending through the mission life cycle. Key Actions: Enable identification of applications early in satellite mission lifecycle and facilitate effective ways to integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning

  11. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  12. The tandetron: applications to earth sciences and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontugne, M.

    1996-01-01

    The TANDETRON is a mass spectrometer coupled with a tandem accelerator. Its main advantage is being able to measure the radioactivity of C 14 in samples thousand times smaller than those allowed in classical β-counting methods. Some applications to paleoclimatology and archaeology are described. (A.C.)

  13. Production, properties, and applications of hydrocolloid cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Amos

    2005-02-01

    Many common synthetic and edible materials are, in fact, cellular solids. When classifying the structure of cellular solids, a few variables, such as open vs. closed cells, flexible vs. brittle cell walls, cell-size distribution, cell-wall thickness, cell shape, the uniformity of the structure of the cellular solid and the different scales of length are taken into account. Compressive stress-strain relationships of most cellular solids can be easily identified according to their characteristic sigmoid shape, reflecting three deformation mechanisms: (i) elastic distortion under small strains, (ii) collapse and/or fracture of the cell walls, and (iii) densification. Various techniques are used to produce hydrocolloid (gum) cellular solids. The products of these include (i) sponges, obtained when the drying gel contains the occasionally produced gas bubbles; (ii) sponges produced by the immobilization of microorganisms; (iii) solid foams produced by drying foamed solutions or gels containing oils, and (iv) hydrocolloid sponges produced by enzymatic reactions. The porosity of the manufactured cellular solid is subject to change and depends on its composition and the processing technique. The porosity is controlled by a range of methods and the resulting surface structures can be investigated by microscopy and analyzed using fractal methods. Models used to describe stress-strain behaviors of hydrocolloid cellular solids as well as multilayered products and composites are discussed in detail in this manuscript. Hydrocolloid cellular solids have numerous purposes, simple and complex, ranging from dried texturized fruits to carriers of vitamins and other essential micronutrients. They can also be used to control the acoustic response of specific dry food products, and have a great potential for future use in countless different fields, from novel foods and packaging to medicine and medical care, daily commodities, farming and agriculture, and the environmental, chemical

  14. Development and Application of Solid Phase Extraction Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    for the addition of organic modifier, sample load volume, conditioning solvent, washing solvent and ... Solid phase extraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water samples, ... such as polymeric, activated carbon or silica modified with.

  15. Earth Remote Sensing for Weather Forecasting and Disaster Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Bell, Jordan; Case, Jonathan; Cole, Tony; Elmer, Nicholas; McGrath, Kevin; Schultz, Lori; Zavodsky, Brad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's constellation of current missions provide several opportunities to apply satellite remote sensing observations to weather forecasting and disaster response applications. Examples include: Using NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, and the NASA/NOAA Suomi-NPP VIIRS missions to prepare weather forecasters for capabilities of GOES-R; Incorporating other NASA remote sensing assets for improving aspects of numerical weather prediction; Using NASA, NOAA, and international partner resources (e.g. ESA/Sentinel Series); and commercial platforms (high-res, or UAV) to support disaster mapping.

  16. EUDAT strategies for handling dynamic data in the solid Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Evans, Peter; Kemps-Snijder, Mark; Heikkinen, Jani; Buck, Justin; Misutka, Jozef; Drude, Sebastian; Fares, Massimo; Cacciari, Claudio; Fiameni, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Some dynamic data is generated by sensors which produce data streams that may be temporarily incomplete (owing to latencies or temporary interruptions of the transmission lines between the field sensors and the data acquisition centres) and that may consequently fill up over time (automatically or after manual intervention). Dynamic data can also be generated by massive crowd sourcing where, for example, experimental collections of data can be filled up at random moments. The nature of dynamic data makes it difficult to handle for various reasons: a) establishing valid policies that guide early replication for data preservation and access optimization is not trivial, b) identifying versions of such data - thus making it possible to check their integrity - and referencing the versions is also a challenging task, and c) performance issues are extremely important since all these activities must be performed fast enough to keep up with the incoming data stream. There is no doubt that both applications areas (namely data from sensors and crowdsourcing) are growing in their relevance for science, and that appropriate infrastructure support (by initiatives such as EUDAT) is vital to handle these challenges. In addition, data must be citeable to encourage transparent, reproducible science, and to provide clear metrics for assessing the impact of research, which also drives funding choices. Data stream in real time often undergo changes/revisions while they are still growing, as new data arrives, and they are revised as missing data is recovered, or as new calibration values are applied. We call these "dynamic" data sets, DDS. A common form of DDS is time series data in which measurements are obtained on a regular schedule, with a well-defined sample rate. Examples include the hourly temperature in Barcelona, and the displacement (a 3-D vector quantity) of a seismograph from its rest position, which may record at a rate of 100 or more samples per second. These form streams

  17. Recycling of rare earths from Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps by solid state chlorination; Rueckgewinnung Seltener Erden aus quecksilberbelasteten Leuchtstoffen mittels Feststoffchlorierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Tom; Froehlich, Peter; Bertau, Martin [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Golon, Katja [FNE Entsorgungsdienste GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Solid state chlorination with NH{sub 4}Cl comprises a method for rare earth recycling apart from pyro- or hydrometallurgical strategies. The examined partially Hg-containing fluorescent lamp scraps are rich in rare earths like La, Ce, Tb and Gd, but especially in Y and Eu. By mixing with NH{sub 4}Cl and heating up to NH{sub 4}Cl decomposition temperature in a sublimation reactor, Y and Eu could be transferred selectively into their respective metal chlorides with high yields. The yield and selectivity depend on temperature and the ratio of NH{sub 4}Cl to fluorescent lamp scraps, which were varied systematically.

  18. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  19. Solid state nuclear track detectors and their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1993-09-01

    Passive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are electrically non conductive solids, mainly used for the registration of α-particles and neutron induced recoils. The stability of the particle tracks in the solid allow longer integration periods, what is essential for the measurement of small, time variant radiation exposures. This report gives an overview on non-photographic track detectors, their processing, dosimetric properties and examples for their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  1. Tunable solid-state laser technology for applications to scientific and technological experiments from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Taylor, L. V.

    1986-01-01

    Current plans for the Earth Observing System (EOS) include development of a lidar facility to conduct scientific experiments from a polar orbiting platforms. A recommended set of experiments were scoped, which includes techniques of atmospheric backscatter (Lidar), Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), altimetry, and retroranging. Preliminary assessments of the resources (power, weight, volume) required by the Eos Lidar Facility were conducted. A research program in tunable solid state laser technology was developed, which includes laser materials development, modeling and experiments on the physics of solid state laser materials, and development of solid state laser transmitters with a strong focus on Eos scientific investigations. Some of the system studies that were conducted which highlight the payoff of solid state laser technology for the Eos scientific investigations will be discussed. Additionally, a summary of some promising research results which have recently emerged from the research program will be presented.

  2. Application of liquid-liquid extraction in separation of rare earths [Paper No. : V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.M.; Krishnan, N.P.K.; Murthy, T.K.S.; Swaminathan, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The rare earths consist of fifteen elements which have very similar chemical properties and are difficult to separate from each other. Since they exist together in all naturally occurring minerals their separation is one of the important and difficult aspects of their technology. Liquid-liquid extraction has proved to be an efficient technique for their separation. The two important extraction systems that find practical and large scale application, the nitric acid + tri-n-butyl phosphate, and mineral acid (particularly hydrochloric acid) + organo phosphoric acid (like di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid), are briefly reviewed. The factors affecting the extraction and separation of rare earths in the two systems are discussed. On an industrial scale the extraction process is very often employed for an initial concentration of the desired rare earths from complex mixtures. The final purification is generally achieved by the ion exchange method. The utility of the solvent extraction process for the upgrading of selected rare earths-europium, samarium and gadolinium-from a mixed rare earth chloride, derived from monazite, is illustrated by the work carried out in this laboratory and pilot plant operation at the Alwaye plant of M/s. Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (author)

  3. Pegasus Workflow Management System: Helping Applications From Earth and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, G.; Deelman, E.; Vahi, K.; Silva, F.

    2010-12-01

    Pegasus WMS is a Workflow Management System that can manage large-scale scientific workflows across Grid, local and Cloud resources simultaneously. Pegasus WMS provides a means for representing the workflow of an application in an abstract XML form, agnostic of the resources available to run it and the location of data and executables. It then compiles these workflows into concrete plans by querying catalogs and farming computations across local and distributed computing resources, as well as emerging commercial and community cloud environments in an easy and reliable manner. Pegasus WMS optimizes the execution as well as data movement by leveraging existing Grid and cloud technologies via a flexible pluggable interface and provides advanced features like reusing existing data, automatic cleanup of generated data, and recursive workflows with deferred planning. It also captures all the provenance of the workflow from the planning stage to the execution of the generated data, helping scientists to accurately measure performance metrics of their workflow as well as data reproducibility issues. Pegasus WMS was initially developed as part of the GriPhyN project to support large-scale high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments. Direct funding from the NSF enabled support for a wide variety of applications from diverse domains including earthquake simulation, bacterial RNA studies, helioseismology and ocean modeling. Earthquake Simulation: Pegasus WMS was recently used in a large scale production run in 2009 by the Southern California Earthquake Centre to run 192 million loosely coupled tasks and about 2000 tightly coupled MPI style tasks on National Cyber infrastructure for generating a probabilistic seismic hazard map of the Southern California region. SCEC ran 223 workflows over a period of eight weeks, using on average 4,420 cores, with a peak of 14,540 cores. A total of 192 million files were produced totaling about 165TB out of which 11TB of data was saved

  4. EPR of free radicals in solids I trends in methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Anders; Lund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    In its updated 2nd edition, this book surveys methods and applications of EPR in the study of free radical processes in solids. The focus is on trends in methods for extracting structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices.

  5. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  6. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  7. Evidences of the expanding Earth from space-geodetic data over solid land and sea level rise in recent two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the space-geodetic data recorded at globally distributed stations over solid land spanning a period of more than 20-years under the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008, our previous estimate of the average-weighted vertical variation of the Earth's solid surface suggests that the Earth's solid part is expanding at a rate of 0.24 ± 0.05 mm/a in recent two decades. In another aspect, the satellite altimetry observations spanning recent two decades demonstrate the sea level rise (SLR rate 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/a, of which 1.8 ± 0.5 mm/a is contributed by the ice melting over land. This study shows that the oceanic thermal expansion is 1.0 ± 0.1 mm/a due to the temperature increase in recent half century, which coincides with the estimate provided by previous authors. The SLR observation by altimetry is not balanced by the ice melting and thermal expansion, which is an open problem before this study. However, in this study we infer that the oceanic part of the Earth is expanding at a rate about 0.4 mm/a. Combining the expansion rates of land part and oceanic part, we conclude that the Earth is expanding at a rate of 0.35 ± 0.47 mm/a in recent two decades. If the Earth expands at this rate, then the altimetry-observed SLR can be well explained.

  8. Defining the Application Readiness of Products when Developing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in Earth Science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of Earth Science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. These applications help hazard mitigation and decision-making in government, private, and civic institutions working to reduce its impact on human wellbeing. Policy guidance and knowledge of product maturity can influence mission design as well as development of product applications in user organizations. Ensuring that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive is a critical outcome from engagement of user communities. Tracking the applications and product maturity help improve the use of data. NASA's Applications Readiness Levels reduce cost and increase the confidence in applications. ARLs help identify areas where NASA products are most useful while allowing the user to leverage products in early development as well as those ready for operational uses. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can use ARLs to ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies and the development of products are integrated into user organizations organically. ARLs and user integration provide a perspective on the maturity and readiness of a products ability to influence policy and decision-making. This paper describes the mission application development process at NASA and within the Earth Science Directorate. We present the successes and challenges faced by NASA data users and explain how ARLs helps link NASA science to the appropriate policies and decision frameworks. The methods presented here can be adapted to other programs and institutions seeking to rapidly move

  9. 2. International workshop Solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The 2. Workshop on Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) held in Dubna, 24-26 Mar 1992. Possibilities of SSNTD applications in the fields of high and low energy physics, dosimetry and radioecology were discussed

  10. Microstructural evolution of nanograin nickel-zirconia cermet anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the structure, microstructure, porosity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of the anode material thus synthesized in order to find its suitability for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode application

  11. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David; Ingram, Patrick; Kodzius, Rimantas; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Yoon, Euisik; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell

  12. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  13. Creating a FIESTA (Framework for Integrated Earth Science and Technology Applications) with MagIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (https://earthref.org/MagIC) has recently developed a containerized web application to considerably reduce the friction in contributing, exploring and combining valuable and complex datasets for the paleo-, geo- and rock magnetic scientific community. The data produced in this scientific domain are inherently hierarchical and the communities evolving approaches to this scientific workflow, from sampling to taking measurements to multiple levels of interpretations, require a large and flexible data model to adequately annotate the results and ensure reproducibility. Historically, contributing such detail in a consistent format has been prohibitively time consuming and often resulted in only publishing the highly derived interpretations. The new open-source (https://github.com/earthref/MagIC) application provides a flexible upload tool integrated with the data model to easily create a validated contribution and a powerful search interface for discovering datasets and combining them to enable transformative science. MagIC is hosted at EarthRef.org along with several interdisciplinary geoscience databases. A FIESTA (Framework for Integrated Earth Science and Technology Applications) is being created by generalizing MagIC's web application for reuse in other domains. The application relies on a single configuration document that describes the routing, data model, component settings and external services integrations. The container hosts an isomorphic Meteor JavaScript application, MongoDB database and ElasticSearch search engine. Multiple containers can be configured as microservices to serve portions of the application or rely on externally hosted MongoDB, ElasticSearch, or third-party services to efficiently scale computational demands. FIESTA is particularly well suited for many Earth Science disciplines with its flexible data model, mapping, account management, upload tool to private workspaces, reference metadata, image

  14. Research Progress of the Gravity Field Application in Earth's Geodynamics and Interior Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Heping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of deep internal structure and internal dynamics of the earth has always been a hot topic in the field of basic geoscience research.Traditional approach relies mainly on seismic technology. However, in recent decades, the innovation of modern gravity observation technology (especially the successful application of high-precision superconducting gravity technology makes it possible to detect the earth's internal dynamics and physical information. In this paper, we summarize the research progress of Chinese group in detecting the earth's free oscillation, free core nutation, inner core translational oscillation, tidal model and polar tide and the internal structure by using modern high-precision gravity technology in recent years.

  15. Policy for Robust Space-based Earth Science, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Escobar, Vanessa Marie; Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro-Pérez, Maria Pilar; Doorn, Bradley; Macauley, Molly K.; Friedl, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in earth science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of earth science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. Policy guidance can influence the degree to which user needs influence mission design and when, and ensure that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies. This paper describes the mission development process in NASA and ESA and compares and contrasts the successes and challenges faced by these agencies as they try to balance science and applications within their missions.

  16. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  17. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system: applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

  19. Analytical Applications of Solid and Paste Amalgam Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Barek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2009), s. 189-203 ISSN 1040-8347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : solid amalgam electrodes * voltammetry * paste amalgam electrodes * reference amalgam electrodes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.621, year: 2009

  20. Application of solid state track detector to neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takao

    1979-01-01

    Though solid state track detectors (SSTD) are radiation measuring instrument for heavy charged particles by itself, it can be used as radiation measuring instrument for neutrons, if nuclear reactions such as (n, f) or (n, α) reaction are utilized. Since the means was found, which permits to observe the tracks of heavy charged particles in a solid with an optical microscope by chemically etching the tracks to enlarge them to etch pits, various types of detectors have been developed for the purpose of measuring neutron dose. The paper is described on the materials and construction of the SSTDs for neutron dosimetry, and the sensitivity is explained with mathematical equations. The features of neutron dosimetry with SSTDs are as follows: They are compact, and scarcely disturb neutron field, thus delicate dose distribution can be known; integration measurement is possible regardless of dose rate values because of integrating type detectors; it is not influenced by β-ray or γ-ray except the case when there is high energy radiation such as causing photonuclear reactions or high dose such as degrading solids, it has pretty high sensitivity; track fading is negligible during the normal measuring time around room temperature; and the etching images of tracks are relatively clear, and various automatic counting systems can be employed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Solid state fermentation (SSF): diversity of applications to valorize waste and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi-Jiménez, M A; Hernández-Martínez, R

    2017-05-01

    Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes. The success of applying solid state fermentation to a specific process is affected by the nature of specific microorganisms and substrates. An exhaustive number of microorganisms able to grow in a solid matrix are presented, including fungus such as Aspergillus or Penicillum for antibiotics, Rhizopus for bioactive compounds, Mortierella for biodiesel to bacteria, Bacillus for biosurfactant production, or yeast for bioethanol.

  2. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  3. High End Computing Technologies for Earth Science Applications: Trends, Challenges, and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, John (Technical Monitor); Biswas, Rupak; Yan, Jerry C.; Brooks, Walter F.; Sterling, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Earth science applications of the future will stress the capabilities of even the highest performance supercomputers in the areas of raw compute power, mass storage management, and software environments. These NASA mission critical problems demand usable multi-petaflops and exabyte-scale systems to fully realize their science goals. With an exciting vision of the technologies needed, NASA has established a comprehensive program of advanced research in computer architecture, software tools, and device technology to ensure that, in partnership with US industry, it can meet these demanding requirements with reliable, cost effective, and usable ultra-scale systems. NASA will exploit, explore, and influence emerging high end computing architectures and technologies to accelerate the next generation of engineering, operations, and discovery processes for NASA Enterprises. This article captures this vision and describes the concepts, accomplishments, and the potential payoff of the key thrusts that will help meet the computational challenges in Earth science applications.

  4. Adsorption by powders and porous solids principles, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rouquerol, Jean; Llewellyn, Philip; Maurin, Guillaume; Sing, Kenneth SW

    2013-01-01

    The declared objective of this book is to provide an introductory review of the various theoretical and practical aspects of adsorption by powders and porous solids with particular reference to materials of technological importance. The primary aim is to meet the needs of students and non-specialists who are new to surface science or who wish to use the advanced techniques now available for the determination of surface area, pore size and surface characterization. In addition, a critical account is given of recent work on the adsorptive properties of activated carbons, oxides, clays and zeolit

  5. Survey of Hyperspectral Earth Observation Applications from Space in the Sentinel-2 Context

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Transon; Raphaël d’Andrimont; Alexandre Maugnard; Pierre Defourny

    2018-01-01

    In the last few decades, researchers have developed a plethora of hyperspectral Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing techniques, analysis and applications. While hyperspectral exploratory sensors are demonstrating their potential, Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite remote sensing is now providing free, open, global and systematic high resolution visible and infrared imagery at a short revisit time. Its recent launch suggests potential synergies between multi- and hyper-spectral data. This st...

  6. Adsorbed Polymer Nanolayers on Solids: Mechanism, Structure and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani Kuntal

    In this thesis, by combining various advanced x-ray scattering, spectroscopic and other surface sensitive characterization techniques, I report the equilibrium polymer chain conformations, structures, dynamics and properties of polymeric materials at the solid-polymer melt interfaces. Following the introduction, in chapter 2, I highlight that the backbone chains (constituted of CH and CH2 groups) of the flattened polystyrene (PS) chains preferentially orient normal to the weakly interactive substrate surface via thermal annealing regardless of the initial chain conformations, while the orientation of the phenyl rings becomes randomized, thereby increasing the number of surface-segmental contacts (i.e., enthalpic gain) which is the driving force for the flattening process of the polymer chains even onto a weakly interactive solid. In chapter 3, I elucidate the flattened structures in block copolymer (BCP) thin films where both blocks lie flat on the substrate, forming a 2D randomly phase-separated structure irrespective of their microdomain structures and interfacial energetics. In chapter 4, I reveal the presence of an irreversibly adsorbed BCP layer which showed suppressed dynamics even at temperatures far above the individual glass transition temperatures of the blocks. Furthermore, this adsorbed BCP layer plays a crucial role in controlling the microdomain orientation in the entire film. In chapter 5, I report a radically new paradigm of designing a polymeric coating layer of a few nanometers thick ("polymer nanolayer") with anti-biofouling properties.

  7. Applications of lipid nanocarriers for solid tumors therapy: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lidiane Correia de; Souza, Leonardo Gomes; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Lima, Eliana Martins; Taveira, Stephania Fleury; Taveira, Eliseu Jose Fleury

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Lipid nanocarriers are systems used to target drugs to its site of action and have attracted attention of the scientific community because they are biocompatible and biodegradable. These systems can target drugs to solid tumors, providing sustained drug release in the site of action, thus increasing the utility of the antineoplastic chemotherapy. Objective: To review the available literature on in vivo experiments with lipid nanocarriers containing cytotoxic drugs for solid tumors treatment. Method: A search study was carried out in Pubmed R database from 2007 to 2011, with subject descriptors: liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, cancer and in vivo, with the boolean operator 'and' among them, in English. Results: 1,595 papers related to the use of liposomes and 77 related to lipid nanoparticles were found. Few studies reported in vivo experiments with lipid nanoparticles (28 papers) compared to liposomes (472 papers), since liposomes were developed two decades before lipid nanoparticles. Four liposomal medicines have already been approved and are used in the clinic while only one medicine containing lipid nanoparticles is in phase I of clinical studies. Conclusion: The number of papers related to the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment is increasing rapidly, making important to know the different kinds of nanocarriers and, especially, those which are already used in the clinic. There are only few clinical studies on lipid nanocarriers; however, these systems present an enormous potential to improve the clinical practice in oncology. (author)

  8. Large-scale Labeled Datasets to Fuel Earth Science Deep Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Miller, J.

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning has revolutionized computer vision and natural language processing with various algorithms scaled using high-performance computing. However, generic large-scale labeled datasets such as the ImageNet are the fuel that drives the impressive accuracy of deep learning results. Large-scale labeled datasets already exist in domains such as medical science, but creating them in the Earth science domain is a challenge. While there are ways to apply deep learning using limited labeled datasets, there is a need in the Earth sciences for creating large-scale labeled datasets for benchmarking and scaling deep learning applications. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, we are using deep learning for a variety of Earth science applications where we have encountered the need for large-scale labeled datasets. We will discuss our approaches for creating such datasets and why these datasets are just as valuable as deep learning algorithms. We will also describe successful usage of these large-scale labeled datasets with our deep learning based applications.

  9. Abstracts of 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals Materials Science and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The solid state crystals are the modern materials being very interesting from the view point of actual and possible applications in microelectronics, optics, laser materials, detectors etc. 12. Conference on Solid State Crystals, Materials Science and Applications, Zakopane'99 created the review forum for broad range of investigations on topics related to; crystal growth and doping, new materials preparation, thin layer structure, physical properties and special methods for electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties measurements of obtained materials. The insulating, semiconducting and superconducting monocrystals, polycrystals and also amorphous glasses have been investigated and their possible applications discussed. 52 oral lectures and 128 posters have been presented in the course of the conference

  10. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials

  11. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-01

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB 6 , SrB 6 , BaB 6 and the ternary hexaborides Ca x Sr 1−x B 6 , Ca x Ba 1−x B 6 , Sr x Ba 1−x B 6 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB 6 (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials

  12. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Leite, D. Will

    2009-01-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  13. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  14. Applicability of Solid Solution Heat Treatments to Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work evaluates the influence of both density and size on the treatability of Aluminum-based (6000 series foam-parts subjected to a typical solid solution heat treatment (water quenching. The results are compared with those obtained for the bulk alloy, evaluating the fulfilment of cooling requirements. Density of the foams was modeled by tomography analysis and the thermal properties calculated, based on validated density-scaled models. With this basis, cooling velocity maps during water quenching were predicted by finite element modeling (FEM in which boundary conditions were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem. Simulations under such conditions have been validated experimentally. Obtained results address incomplete matrix hardening for foam-parts bigger than 70 mm in diameter with a density below 650 kg/m3. An excellent agreement has been found in between the predicted cooling maps and final measured microhardness profiles.

  15. Manipulation of volumetric solids with applications to sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2002-01-01

    that it is reasonable to classify the tools in a sculpting system according to whether the tools tend to deform the sculpted object or work according to the paradigm of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG). Existing volume sculpting systems are surveyed, and it is found that almost all systems provide sculpting tools...... representation where the meaning of a voxel is shortest distance. The deformative tools are based on a specialization of the Level Set Method. The main advantage of using the Level Set Method is that it is a very generic technique as opposed to methods previously proposed. The main task here has been to restrict....... The most important disadvantage of the volume representation is its lack of support for features at different scales. By choosing a volume representation, we implicitly choose a scale, and features that are very small with respect to that scale are essentially un-representable. As a solution, I propose...

  16. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  17. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  18. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Prosen

    2014-01-01

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several...

  19. Survey of Hyperspectral Earth Observation Applications from Space in the Sentinel-2 Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Transon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, researchers have developed a plethora of hyperspectral Earth Observation (EO remote sensing techniques, analysis and applications. While hyperspectral exploratory sensors are demonstrating their potential, Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite remote sensing is now providing free, open, global and systematic high resolution visible and infrared imagery at a short revisit time. Its recent launch suggests potential synergies between multi- and hyper-spectral data. This study, therefore, reviews 20 years of research and applications in satellite hyperspectral remote sensing through the analysis of Earth observation hyperspectral sensors’ publications that cover the Sentinel-2 spectrum range: Hyperion, TianGong-1, PRISMA, HISUI, EnMAP, Shalom, HyspIRI and HypXIM. More specifically, this study (i brings face to face past and future hyperspectral sensors’ applications with Sentinel-2’s and (ii analyzes the applications’ requirements in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. Eight main application topics were analyzed including vegetation, agriculture, soil, geology, urban, land use, water resources and disaster. Medium spatial resolution, long revisit time and low signal-to-noise ratio in the short-wave infrared of some hyperspectral sensors were highlighted as major limitations for some applications compared to the Sentinel-2 system. However, these constraints mainly concerned past hyperspectral sensors, while they will probably be overcome by forthcoming instruments. Therefore, this study is putting forward the compatibility of hyperspectral sensors and Sentinel-2 systems for resolution enhancement techniques in order to increase the panel of hyperspectral uses.

  20. Durability and Mechanical Performance of PMMA/Stone Sludge Nanocomposites for Acrylic Solid Surface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah EL-Bashir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic solid surface sheets were prepared by mixing different kinds of stone sludge fillers (SSF in Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanocomposites. PMMA nanocomposite syrups were made using free radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA, then two kinds of nanofillers were added, namely, hydrophilic nanosilica and clay Halloysite nanotubules (HNTs. Acrylic solid surface sheets were manufactured by mixing the syrups with SSFs. The morphology of the produced sheets was studied using optical, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM that revealed the uniform distribution of stone sludge in the polymeric matrix. The study of the physical properties showed promising mechanical performance and durability of PMMA/SSF nanocomposites for acrylic solid surface applications.

  1. Application of SolidWorks Plastic in the Training in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova Bakalova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article is presented an example of the application of SolidWorks the training in mechanical engineering. The main features of the design of the parts intended for injection molding are mentioned. SolidWorks allows all these recommendations to be implemented when creating the details. The text explains the simulation settings that are made in SolidWorks Plastics when simulating injection molding. Through a specific example referred to how to make an analysis of the results obtained.

  2. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  3. Emanation thermal analysis. Application in solid state chemistry, analytical chemistry and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Tel'deshi, Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Voluminous material on application of emenation thermal analysis for investigation of solids is systematized. General concepts and historical review of development of the method are given. Methods of introduction of inert gases into solids are considered. Theoretical aspects of inert gas evolution from solids labelled by radioactive gas or its maternal isotope are stated. The methods for measuring inert gases are considered. The possibilities, limitations and perspectives of development of radiometric emanation methods for the solution of various problems of analytical chemistry and thechnology are discussed

  4. Emerging applications of spark plasma sintering in all solid-state lithium-ion batteries and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongzheng; Liu, Jian

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state batteries have received increasing attention due to their high safety aspect and high energy and power densities. However, the development of solid-state batteries is hindered by inferior solid-solid interfaces between the solid-state electrolyte and electrode, which cause high interfacial resistance, reduced Li-ion and electron transfer rate, and limited battery performance. Recently, spark plasma sintering (SPS) is emerging as a promising technique for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode pellets with clean and intimate solid-solid interfaces. During the SPS process, the unique reaction mechanism through the combination of current, pressure and high heating rate allow the formation of desirable solid-solid interfaces between active material particles. Herein, this work focuses on the overview of the application of SPS for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode in all solid-state Li-ion batteries, and beyond, such as solid-state Li-S and Na-ion batteries. The correlations among SPS parameters, interfacial resistance, and electrochemical properties of solid-state electrolytes and electrodes are discussed for different material systems. In the end, we point out future opportunities and challenges associated with SPS application in the hot area of solid-state batteries. It is expected that this timely review will stimulate more fundamental and applied research in the development of solid-state batteries by SPS.

  5. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  6. Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and Their Applications in Earth Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview and discussion of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and their applications in Earth science data discovery. The GCMD Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled keywords covering the Earth science disciplines, including: science keywords, service keywords, data centers, projects, location, data resolution, instruments and platforms. Controlled vocabularies (keywords) help users accurately, consistently and comprehensively categorize their data and also allow for the precise search and subsequent retrieval of data. The GCMD Keywords are a community resource and are developed collaboratively with input from various stakeholders, including GCMD staff, keyword users and metadata providers. The GCMD Keyword Landing Page and GCMD Keyword Community Forum provide access to keyword resources and an area for discussion of topics related to the GCMD Keywords. See https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords

  7. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  8. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m2 array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O'C.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2001-01-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon -1 during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of ∼150 m 2 sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74≤Z≤87), is reported

  9. APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL METHODS TO THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Bulimaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a synthesis analysis of application of chemical methods for the development of technologies of hazardous waste management. Here are offered some technologies of neutralization of the waste containing hexacyanofferates, galvanic wastes and those with contain of vanadium, which are collected at Power Thermoelectric Plants.

  10. New organic binary solids with phenolic coformers for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draguta, Sergiu; Fonari, Marina S.; Leonova, Evgenia; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2015-10-01

    Five binary adducts between N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 1, N,N-diethyl-4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethenyl]aniline) 2, N,N-dimethyl-4-[(E)-pyridin-3-yldiazenyl]aniline 3, and coformers that include 4-nitrophenol I, 4-nitrobenzoic acid II, benzene-1,3-diol III, and 2,4-dinitrophenol IV were synthesized to follow the factors influencing the formation of polar crystals. New solids were characterized by melting points and absorption spectra, while their structures were proven by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Adducts differ by the components' ratio and position of the acidic hydrogen atom, thus giving examples of four new cocrystals and one salt. The single crystal X-ray analysis revealed the acentric packing for two compounds, 1 (I) and 3(3) (III) that crystallize in the Pca21 and P1 space groups. The melting point data and the cut-off wavelength from absorption spectra show that these materials are stable till relatively high temperatures and transparent in a wide range of spectrum.

  11. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photolysis, Sonolysis and Sonophotolysis with Solid Solutions of Rare Earth, Gallium and Indium Oxides as Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Penconi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the hydrogen production by photolysis, sonolysis and sonophotolysis of water in the presence of newly synthesized solid solutions of rare earth, gallium and indium oxides playing as catalysts. From the experiments of photolysis, we found that the best photocatalyst is the solid solution Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 doped by sulphur atoms. In experiments of sonolysis, we optimized the rate of hydrogen production by changing the amount of water, adding ethanol and tuning the power of our piezoelectric transducer. Finally, we performed sonolysis and sonophotolysis experiments in the presence of S:Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 finding a promising synergistic effect of UV-visible electromagnetic waves and 38 kHz ultrasound waves in producing H2.

  12. Inverter fed high-speed solid-rotor induction motors for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppunen, J.; Pyrhoenen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (LUT) (Finland); Alamaeki, J. [Rotatek Finland Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    An inverter fed 250 kW, 9000 min{sup -1} solid-rotor induction motor drive for an industrial compressor application is introduced. New designing methods for the electric motor have made it possible to create a high efficiency high-speed solid-rotor induction motor. The results of the research work are new motor structures that are also easy and economical to manufacture. This technology is very reliable and economical for compressor and pump applications in power range from 100 kW to 1000 kW. (orig.)

  13. Computer language Mathsy and applications to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.; Budgor, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high-level interactive mathematics and graphics computer language, Mathsy, is discussed and demonstrated with sample applications. Mathsy is an interpretive, interactive, mathematical, array processing, and graphics system. Among its diverse uses in the laser fusion project at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it has enabled the conceptualization of a new algorithm to compute the density of electron or phonon states spectra which requires no root solving

  14. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  15. Artificial neural networks application for solid fuel slagging intensity predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakietek Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slagging issues present in pulverized steam boilers very often lead to heat transfer problems, corrosion and not planned outages of boilers which increase the cost of energy production and decrease the efficiency of energy production. Slagging especially occurs in regions with reductive atmospheres which nowadays are very common due to very strict limitations in NOx emissions. Moreover alternative fuels like biomass which are also used in combustion systems from two decades in order to decrease CO2 emissions also usually increase the risk of slagging. Thus the prediction of slagging properties of fuels is not the minor issue which can be neglected before purchasing or mixing of fuels. This however is rather difficult to estimate and even commonly known standard laboratory methods like fusion temperature determination or special indexers calculated on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses, very often have no reasonable correlation to real boiler fuel behaviour. In this paper the method of determination of slagging properties of solid fuels based on laboratory investigation and artificial neural networks were presented. A fuel data base with over 40 fuels was created. Neural networks simulations were carried out in order to predict the beginning temperature and intensity of slagging. Reasonable results were obtained for some of tested neural networks, especially for hybrid feedforward networks with PCA technique. Consequently neural network model will be used in Common Intelligent Boiler Operation Platform (CIBOP being elaborated within CERUBIS research project for two BP-1150 and BB-1150 steam boilers. The model among others enables proper fuel selection in order to minimize slagging risk.

  16. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  17. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  18. EPR of free radicals in solids II trends in methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Anders; Lund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    EPR of Free Radicals in Solids: Trends in Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. presents a critical two volume review of the methods and applications of EPR (ESR) for the study of free radical processes in solids. Emphasis is on the progress made in the developments in EPR technology, in the application of sophisticated matrix isolation techniques and in the advancement in quantitative EPR that have occurred since the 1st edition was published. Improvements have been made also at theoretical level, with the development of methods based on first principles and their application to the calculation of magnetic properties as well as in spectral simulations. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids II focuses on the trends in applications of experimental and theoretical methods to extract structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices by continuous wave (CW) and pulsed techniques in nine chapters written by experts in the field. It examines the studies involving radiation- and photo-induced in...

  19. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  20. Shape memory polymer cellular solid design for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, L; Bertoldi, S; Tanzi, M C; Farè, S; Haugen, H J

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are an emerging class of active materials whose response can be easily tailored via modifications of the molecular parameters and optimization of the transformation processes. In this work, we originally demonstrated that a correct coupling of polymer transformation processes (co-extrusion with chemical blowing agents, salt co-extrusion/particulate leaching, solvent casting/particulate leaching) and SMPs allows one to obtain porous structures with a broad spectrum of morphological properties resulting in tunable thermo-mechanical and shape recovery properties. Such a wide range of properties could fulfil the specifications of medical applications in which the use of SMP-based foams can be envisaged

  1. Folding and unfolding of large-size shell construction for application in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenina, Irena; Pestrenin, Valery; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    A future exploration of space requires a technology of large module for biological, technological, logistic and other applications in Earth orbits [1-3]. This report describes the possibility of using large-sized shell structures deployable in space. Structure is delivered to the orbit in the spaceship container. The shell is folded for the transportation. The shell material is either rigid plastic or multilayer prepreg comprising rigid reinforcements (such as reinforcing fibers). The unfolding process (bringing a construction to the unfolded state by loading the internal pressure) needs be considered at the presence of both stretching and bending deformations. An analysis of the deployment conditions (the minimum internal pressure bringing a construction from the folded state to the unfolded state) of large laminated CFRP shell structures is formulated in this report. Solution of this mechanics of deformable solids (MDS) problem of the shell structure is based on the following assumptions: the shell is made of components whose median surface has a reamer; in the separate structural element relaxed state (not stressed and not deformed) its median surface coincides with its reamer (this assumption allows choose the relaxed state of the structure correctly); structural elements are joined (sewn together) by a seam that does not resist rotation around the tangent to the seam line. The ways of large shell structures folding, whose median surface has a reamer, are suggested. Unfolding of cylindrical, conical (full and truncated cones), and large-size composite shells (cylinder-cones, cones-cones) is considered. These results show that the unfolding pressure of such large-size structures (0.01-0.2 atm.) is comparable to the deploying pressure of pneumatic parts (0.001-0.1 atm.) [3]. It would be possible to extend this approach to investigate the unfolding process of large-sized shells with ruled median surface or for non-developable surfaces. This research was

  2. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF 2 glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Observations on the reliability of COTS-device-based solid state data recorders operating in low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Surrey Space Centre's experience in using different coding schemes and hardware configurations to protect data and protect data and software stored in COTS-device (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) based memories on-board operational spacecraft in low Earth orbit. (author)

  4. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Solid Residue of El-Sela Ore, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.; Sharaby, C.M.; Elnagar, W.A.; Khawassek, Y.M.; Abdo, Sh.M.

    2015-01-01

    The study area of Gabal El Sela at Halaib environ is located at about 20 km west of Abu Ramad City, Egypt. An uraniferous ore material associated with REE was subjected to sulphuric acid leaching for extraction of uranium mainly followed by solid liquid separation through filtration then washing. Physical upgrading was performed upon the dry residue. Chemical treatment by 50% NaOH was carried out where about 250 g residue ground at - 200 mesh were agitated at solid / liquid ratio of 1/2 for one hour. The cake was filtered then dri ed at 100 º C . T he dried cake was subject ed to dissolution by conc. HCl at 80 º C at a solid / liquid ratio 1:1 for one hour . More than 98% of REE was leached out , and then the leach liquor was subjected to selective precipitation by HF and oxalic acid then calcination of REE oxalate

  5. A review of the applications to solids of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzemius, R.J.; Capellen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The review is intended to provide a panoramic view of the broadening applications of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry. In these applications a laser beam has been used to excite a solid specimen to the ionized state or to the vaporized state in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The review is divided into two main sections: Analytical features and applications. The analytical features section has been subdivided into five areas: Detection sensitivity, ionisation efficiency, collection efficiency, quantification, and crater-depth analysis. Applications have been separated into ten different areas: Biological, carbon, fossil fuels, gaseous impurities, geological, inorganics, isotopic analysis, metals, organics and polymers. (EBE)

  6. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  7. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  8. Technical note: New applications for on-line automated solid phase extraction

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, John D.

    1997-01-01

    This technical note explains the disadvantages of manual solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques and the benefits to be gained with automatic systems. The note reports on a number of general and highly specific applications using the Sample Preparation Unit OSP-2A.

  9. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Muhl, Thuy Thanh

    2018-01-01

    For use of metal supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast startup, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the Technical...

  10. Concept of Quantum Geometry in Optoelectronic Processes in Solids: Application to Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Morimoto, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    The concept of topology is becoming more and more relevant to the properties and functions of electronic materials including various transport phenomena and optical responses. A pedagogical introduction is given here to the basic ideas and their applications to optoelectronic processes in solids. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as

  12. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  13. Plasmonic crystal based solid substrate for biomedical application of SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Carlo F.; Mehn, Dora; Picciolini, Silvia; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Pellacani, Paola; Frangolho, Ana; Marchesini, Gerardo; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that combines the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the good sensitivity provided by the enhancement of the signal observed when a molecule is located on (or very close to) the surface of suitable nanostructured metallic materials. The availability of cheap, reliable and easy to use SERS substrates would pave the road to the development of bioanalytical tests that can be used in clinical practice. SERS, in fact, is expected to provide not only higher sensitivity and specificity, but also the simultaneous and markedly improved detection of several targets at the same time with higher speed compared to the conventional analytical methods. Here, we present the SERS activity of 2-D plasmonic crystals made by polymeric pillars embedded in a gold matrix obtained through the combination of soft-lithography and plasma deposition techniques on a transparent substrates. The use of a transparent support material allowed us to perform SERS detection from support side opening the possibility to use these substrates in combination with microfluidic devices. In order to demonstrate the potentialities for bioanalytical applications, we used our SERS active gold surface to detect the oxidation product of apomorphine, a well-known drug molecule used in Parkinson's disease which has been demonstrated being difficult to study by traditional HPLC based approaches.

  14. Computational multiscale modeling of fluids and solids theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauser, Martin Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The idea of the book is to provide a comprehensive overview of computational physics methods and techniques, that are used for materials modeling on different length and time scales. Each chapter first provides an overview of the basic physical principles which are the basis for the numerical and mathematical modeling on the respective length-scale. The book includes the micro-scale, the meso-scale and the macro-scale, and the chapters follow this classification. The book explains in detail many tricks of the trade of some of the most important methods and techniques that are used to simulate materials on the perspective levels of spatial and temporal resolution. Case studies are included to further illustrate some methods or theoretical considerations. Example applications for all techniques are provided, some of which are from the author’s own contributions to some of the research areas. The second edition has been expanded by new sections in computational models on meso/macroscopic scales for ocean and a...

  15. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subba Ramu, M.C.; Mishra, U.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environment, fast neutron and radon daughter inhalation dose. Recent developments in the field of dosimetry seem to be promising. In fast neutron dosimetry, track etch detectors can be used without inclusion of fissile materials by using the electrochemical etching technique. These detectors can provide important information in the energy range upto 250 keV. Survey of this range of energy with TLD is difficult because they are extremely energy dependent and over-respond to low energy neutrons. Measurement of radon using track detectors can help to lower the cost of the radon dosimeters. Certain detectors are sensitive to alpha particles from radon and their progeny. Higher sensitivity permits their use in a passive type of personnel dosimeter, which does not require the troublesome aspects of air sampling for the collection of radon daughter samples. (author), 38 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets and their applications, August 31 - September 2, 1982, and third international symposium on magnetic anisotropy and coercivity in rare earth-transition metal alloys, September 3, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The first part (workshop) is concerned specifically with applications of rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets. The session headings are 1) electro-mechanical applications 2) electronic and miscellaneous applications 3) magneto-mechanical applications plus workshop on measurement methods 4) new materials and processes 5) industrial applications of REPM and future aspects. The second part (symposium) is concerned with physical properties of specific rare earth-transition metal alloys. (G.Q.)

  17. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  18. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  19. Stationkeeping of Lissajous Trajectories in the Earth-Moon System with Applications to ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, D. C.; Pavlak, T. A.; Howell, K. C.; Woodard, M. A.; Woodfork, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the last few decades, several missions have successfully exploited trajectories near the.Sun-Earth L1 and L2 libration points. Recently, the collinear libration points in the Earth-Moon system have emerged as locations with immediate application. Most libration point orbits, in any system, are inherently unstable. and must be controlled. To this end, several stationkeeping strategies are considered for application to ARTEMIS. Two approaches are examined to investigate the stationkeeping problem in this regime and the specific options. available for ARTEMIS given the mission and vehicle constraints. (I) A baseline orbit-targeting approach controls the vehicle to remain near a nominal trajectory; a related global optimum search method searches all possible maneuver angles to determine an optimal angle and magnitude; and (2) an orbit continuation method, with various formulations determines maneuver locations and minimizes costs. Initial results indicate that consistent stationkeeping costs can be achieved with both approaches and the costs are reasonable. These methods are then applied to Lissajous trajectories representing a baseline ARTEMIS libration orbit trajectory.

  20. Past and future application of solid-state detectors in manned spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space missions can be reduced by careful mission planning and appropriate measures, such as provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be eliminated. The reason for that is the high penetration capability of the radiation components owing to their high energies. Radiation is therefore an acknowledged primary concern for manned spaceflight and is a potentially limiting factor for long-term orbital and interplanetary missions. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin and of the radiation belts, as well as of secondary particles produced in interactions of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the earth. The complexity even increases by placing a spacecraft into this environment owing to the interaction of the radiation components with the shielding material. Therefore it is a challenge to provide for appropriate measurements in this radiation field, coping with the limited resources on experiment power and mass. Solid-state dosemeters were already chosen for measurements in the first manned flights. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) especially found a preferred application because they are light-weighted, need no power supply and they are tissue-equivalent. Most of the data available until 1996 were gathered by using these passive detectors; this especially holds for heavy ion particle spectra. The systems, supplemented by converter foils or fission detectors and bubble detectors, provide information on dose, particle flux-, energy- and linear energy transfer spectra of the ionising radiation and neutron fluxes and doses. From 1989, silicon detectors were used for dose and flux measurements and later on for particle spectrometry. Silicon detectors were demonstrated as a powerful tool for the description of space radiation environment. Optical simulated luminescence (OSL) detectors have now been introduced as a

  1. Proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Kishore, Sangeeta; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    The proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications (SSNTD-17) contains a number of research papers on different areas of solid state nuclear track detectors. It provides a common scientific platform to the scientists for sharing their knowledge and reviews the present state-of-art and advancements in the field of solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications and also some aspects of nuclear energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Rebuttal of the existence of solid rare earth bicarbonates and the crystal structure of holmium nitrate pentahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincke, Christine; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-16

    The synthesis routes of Gd(HCO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O and Ho(HCO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O, which are the only known bicarbonates of rare earth metals, were refuted and the published crystal structures were discussed. Because of the structural relationship of Ho(HCO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O to rare earth nitrate hexahydrates,[] the synthesis of holmium nitrate hydrate was considered and the crystal structure of Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O was determined to crystallize in the triclinic space group P1 (no. 2) with a = 6.5680(14) Aa, b = 9.503(2) Aa, c = 10.462(2) Aa, α = 63.739(14) , β = 94.042(2) and γ = 76.000(16) . The crystal structure consists of isolated [Ho(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] polyhedra and non-coordinating water molecules. It is isotypic to other rare earth nitrate pentahydrates. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. A compact 500 MHz 4 kW Solid-State Power Amplifier for accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, M., E-mail: marcos.gaspar@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ferreira, L.F.R. [Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Garvey, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-05-01

    We present the development of a compact narrow-band Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA). We foresee a promising application of solid-state amplifiers specifically in accelerators for new generation synchrotron light sources. Such a new technology has reached a competitive price/performance ratio and expected lifetime in comparison with klystron and IOT amplifiers. The increasing number of synchrotron light sources using 500 MHz as base frequency justifies the effort in the development of the proposed amplifier. Two different techniques are also proposed to improve the control and performance of these new distributed amplification systems which we call, respectively, complete distributed system and forced compression.

  4. A compact 500 MHz 4 kW Solid-State Power Amplifier for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Ferreira, L.F.R.; Garvey, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the development of a compact narrow-band Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA). We foresee a promising application of solid-state amplifiers specifically in accelerators for new generation synchrotron light sources. Such a new technology has reached a competitive price/performance ratio and expected lifetime in comparison with klystron and IOT amplifiers. The increasing number of synchrotron light sources using 500 MHz as base frequency justifies the effort in the development of the proposed amplifier. Two different techniques are also proposed to improve the control and performance of these new distributed amplification systems which we call, respectively, complete distributed system and forced compression.

  5. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  6. Framework for Processing Citizens Science Data for Applications to NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Albayrak, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science (or crowdsourcing) has drawn much high-level recent and ongoing interest and support. It is poised to be applied, beyond the by-now fairly familiar use of, e.g., Twitter for natural hazards monitoring, to science research, such as augmenting the validation of NASA earth science mission data. This interest and support is seen in the 2014 National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, the 2015 White House forum on citizen science and crowdsourcing, the ongoing Senate Bill 2013 (Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Act of 2015), the recent (August 2016) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) call for public participation in its newly-established Citizen Science Domain Working Group, and NASA's initiation of a new Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program (along with its first citizen science-focused solicitation for proposals). Over the past several years, we have been exploring the feasibility of extracting from the Twitter data stream useful information for application to NASA precipitation research, with both "passive" and "active" participation by the twitterers. The Twitter database, which recently passed its tenth anniversary, is potentially a rich source of real-time and historical global information for science applications. The time-varying set of "precipitation" tweets can be thought of as an organic network of rain gauges, potentially providing a widespread view of precipitation occurrence. The validation of satellite precipitation estimates is challenging, because many regions lack data or access to data, especially outside of the U.S. and in remote and developing areas. Mining the Twitter stream could augment these validation programs and, potentially, help tune existing algorithms. Our ongoing work, though exploratory, has resulted in key components for processing and managing tweets, including the capabilities to filter the Twitter stream in real time, to extract location information, to filter for exact phrases, and to plot tweet distributions. The

  7. Application of the nuclear gages in dynamic sedimentology for the solid transport study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamdasni, Y.

    1994-02-01

    The problems caused by the solid particle transport in rivers, dams, harbors, estuaries and in navigation channels have considerable economical consequences. The technical difficulties met when trying to limit or manage these problems are very important because of lack of knowledge. The nuclear gages and the radioactive tracers can be the measurement and monitoring means which, associated to the conventional techniques, permit to develop strongly the knowledge in the solid transport field. This report gives the modes of solid transport and the problems caused by these transports and exposes the physical properties of the fine sediments and their behavior under the hydrodynamic effects. In the same way, it deals with the theory of the nuclear gages, often applied in dynamic sedimentology and gives some examples of their applications. 29 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (F.M.)

  8. ROADNET: A Real-time Data Aware System for Earth, Oceanographic, and Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Hansen, T.; Lindquist, K.; Ludascher, B.; Orcutt, J.; Rajasekar, A.

    2003-12-01

    The Real-time Observatories, Application, and Data management Network (ROADNet) Program aims to develop an integrated, seamless, and transparent environmental information network that will deliver geophysical, oceanographic, hydrological, ecological, and physical data to a variety of users in real-time. ROADNet is a multidisciplinary, multinational partnership of researchers, policymakers, natural resource managers, educators, and students who aim to use the data to advance our understanding and management of coastal, ocean, riparian, and terrestrial Earth systems in Southern California, Mexico, and well off shore. To date, project activity and funding have focused on the design and deployment of network linkages and on the exploratory development of the real-time data management system. We are currently adapting powerful "Data Grid" technologies to the unique challenges associated with the management and manipulation of real-time data. Current "Grid" projects deal with static data files, and significant technical innovation is required to address fundamental problems of real-time data processing, integration, and distribution. The technologies developed through this research will create a system that dynamically adapt downstream processing, cataloging, and data access interfaces when sensors are added or removed from the system; provide for real-time processing and monitoring of data streams--detecting events, and triggering computations, sensor and logger modifications, and other actions; integrate heterogeneous data from multiple (signal) domains; and provide for large-scale archival and querying of "consolidated" data. The software tools which must be developed do not exist, although limited prototype systems are available. This research has implications for the success of large-scale NSF initiatives in the Earth sciences (EarthScope), ocean sciences (OOI- Ocean Observatories Initiative), biological sciences (NEON - National Ecological Observatory Network) and

  9. Coupling integrated assessment and earth system models: concepts and an application to land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Lawrence, P.; Ren, X.

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration between the integrated assessment modeling (IAM) and earth system modeling (ESM) communities is increasing, driven by a growing interest in research questions that require analysis integrating both social and natural science components. This collaboration often takes the form of integrating their respective models. There are a number of approaches available to implement this integration, ranging from one-way linkages to full two-way coupling, as well as approaches that retain a single modeling framework but improve the representation of processes from the other framework. We discuss the pros and cons of these different approaches and the conditions under which a two-way coupling of IAMs and ESMs would be favored over a one-way linkage. We propose a criterion that is necessary and sufficient to motivate two-way coupling: A human process must have an effect on an earth system process that is large enough to cause a change in the original human process that is substantial compared to other uncertainties in the problem being investigated. We then illustrate a test of this criterion for land use-climate interactions based on work using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and land use scenarios from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), in which we find that the land use effect on regional climate is unlikely to meet the criterion. We then show an example of implementing a one-way linkage of land use and agriculture between an IAM, the integrated Population-Economy-Technology-Science (iPETS) model, and CESM that produces fully consistent outcomes between iPETS and the CESM land surface model. We use the linked system to model the influence of climate change on crop yields, agricultural land use, crop prices and food consumption under two alternative future climate scenarios. This application demonstrates the ability to link an IAM to a global land surface and climate model in a computationally efficient manner.

  10. Beyond 3-D: The New Spectrum of Lidar Applications for Earth and Ecological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Hofle, Bernhard; Vierling, Lee A.; Abellan, Antonio; Asner, Gregory P.; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Glennie, Craig L.; Joerg, Phillip C.; LeWinter, Adam L.; Magney, Troy S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Capturing and quantifying the world in three dimensions (x,y,z) using light detection and ranging (lidar) technology drives fundamental advances in the Earth and Ecological Sciences (EES). However, additional lidar dimensions offer the possibility to transcend basic 3-D mapping capabilities, including i) the physical time (t) dimension from repeat lidar acquisition and ii) laser return intensity (LRI?) data dimension based on the brightness of single- or multi-wavelength (?) laser returns. The additional dimensions thus add to the x,y, and z dimensions to constitute the five dimensions of lidar (x,y,z, t, LRI?1... ?n). This broader spectrum of lidar dimensionality has already revealed new insights across multiple EES topics, and will enable a wide range of new research and applications. Here, we review recent advances based on repeat lidar collections and analysis of LRI data to highlight novel applications of lidar remote sensing beyond 3-D. Our review outlines the potential and current challenges of time and LRI information from lidar sensors to expand the scope of research applications and insights across the full range of EES applications.

  11. Impression creep properties of a semi-solid processed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, B.; Razavi, H.; Miresmaeili, S.M.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The creep properties of a thixoformed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements were studied under shear modulus-normalized stresses ranging from 0.0225 to 0.035 at temperatures of 150-212 o C using the impression creep technique. Analysis of the creep mechanism based on a power-law equation indicated that pipe diffusion-controlled dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism during creep. The alloy has a better creep resistance than high-pressure die-cast magnesium-aluminum alloy.

  12. Application of rainbow refractometry for measurement of droplets with solid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wu, Xue-cheng; Cao, Jian-zheng; Chen, Ling-hong; Gréhan, Gerard; Cen, Ke-fa

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of droplets with solid inclusions is of great research interest and has wide industrial applications. Reported here is a theoretical and experimental investigation of the measurement of droplets with solid inclusions using rainbow refractometry. A rainbow extinction model of a droplet with solid inclusions was deduced based on Beer-Lambert's Law. It takes into account the volume concentration, relative size, scattering efficiency of the solid inclusion, and liquid refractive index. An acoustic levitation system for a single droplet and a global rainbow instrumentation system for spray were integrated to study the effect of the H2O-CaCO3 suspension droplets on the rainbow signal and the measured parameters. The results showed that the rainbow encountered unusual disturbances, introduced by the solid inclusions, but its overall structure was not destroyed. Discoveries also included that for volume concentrations of 2.5% or less the CaCO3 particles with diameters below 4 μm had little effect on the measured parameters of the host droplet. The extinction characteristic was also analyzed. The rainbow extinction model failed to quantity the volume concentration of CaCO3, but succeeded in its qualitative analysis.

  13. Application of delayed X-ray spectrometry to the analysis of some rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, A.E.; Mboweni, R.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of delayed x-ray spectrometry preceded by isotope-source thermal neutron activation for the specific determination of some rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho) in small powdered samples was evaluated. The feasibility study relied heavily on the low-energy sensitivity of the detector used. Detection of the delayed x-rays was achieved with a 100-mm 2 Ge detector with the ability to produce optimum photopeak-to-noise ratios. The rare earth elements were chosen on the basis of their inherent favourable nuclear properties for producing a practicable x-ray yield and on the demand for their analysis. Analytical results are presented over a range of concentrations for the elements of interest and the potential of the technique for application to their general routine analysis is discussed. Interferences from the sample matrix can be suppressed to an extent that makes the method almost independent of the matrix. This and other features make the technique a strong rival to conventional activation analysis. (author)

  14. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  15. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  16. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m{sup 2} array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J. E-mail: jd@cp.dias.ie; Thompson, A.; O' Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O' C.; Wenzel, K.-P

    2001-06-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon{sup -1} during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of {approx}150 m{sup 2} sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74{<=}Z{<=}87), is reported.

  17. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction in the sample preparation of environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Helena

    2014-05-23

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  18. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prosen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc. published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  19. An initial applications study of ceria-gadolinia solid oxide fuel cells: V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Mould, B.

    1998-11-01

    Fuel cells are categorised by their electrolytes, and the solid oxide fuel cell is so called because its electrolyte consists of a solid ceramic oxide. Commonly this has been a form of zirconia, though other materials are now being considered for their different electrical properties. One of these, ceria doped with gadolinia, shows promise for use in lower temperature regimes than zirconia, and may open up different areas of a future market for consideration. This report considers the opportunities for ceria-gadolinia solid oxide fuel cell systems by comparing them with the application requirements in markets where fuel cells may have potential. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are analysed, together with the state of the art in research and development. The direction in which research effort needs to move to address some of the issues is assessed. The report then draws conclusions regarding the potential of ceria-gadolinia in solid oxide fuel cell systems and in the energy markets as a whole. It should be noted that while this report is an applications study, some technology assessment has been included. Much of this is found in Volume 2. (author)

  20. Enabling Extreme Scale Earth Science Applications at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V. G.; Mozdzynski, G.; Hamrud, M.; Deconinck, W.; Smith, L.; Hack, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Facility (OLCF), established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), welcomes investigators from universities, government agencies, national laboratories and industry who are prepared to perform breakthrough research across a broad domain of scientific disciplines, including earth and space sciences. Titan, the OLCF flagship system, is currently listed as #2 in the Top500 list of supercomputers in the world, and the largest available for open science. The computational resources are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program, sponsored by the U.S. DOE Office of Science. In 2014, over 2.25 billion core hours on Titan were awarded via INCITE projects., including 14% of the allocation toward earth sciences. The INCITE competition is also open to research scientists based outside the USA. In fact, international research projects account for 12% of the INCITE awards in 2014. The INCITE scientific review panel also includes 20% participation from international experts. Recent accomplishments in earth sciences at OLCF include the world's first continuous simulation of 21,000 years of earth's climate history (2009); and an unprecedented simulation of a magnitude 8 earthquake over 125 sq. miles. One of the ongoing international projects involves scaling the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model to over 200K cores of Titan. ECMWF is a partner in the EU funded Collaborative Research into Exascale Systemware, Tools and Applications (CRESTA) project. The significance of the research carried out within this project is the demonstration of techniques required to scale current generation Petascale capable simulation codes towards the performance levels required for running on future Exascale systems. One of the techniques pursued by ECMWF is to use Fortran2008 coarrays to overlap computations and communications and

  1. MAKE SUPER-EARTHS, NOT JUPITERS: ACCRETING NEBULAR GAS ONTO SOLID CORES AT 0.1 AU AND BEYOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Ormel, Chris W., E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: ormel@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Close-in super-Earths having radii 1-4 R {sub ⊕} may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10 M {sub ⊕} cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at ∼0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H{sub 2} dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H{sub 2} dissociation are universal, timescales for core instability tend not to vary with orbital distance—and to be alarmingly short for 10 M {sub ⊕} cores. Nevertheless, in the thicket of parameter space, we identify two scenarios, not mutually exclusive, that can reproduce the preponderance of percent-by-mass atmospheres for super-Earths at ∼0.1 AU, while still ensuring the formation of Jupiters at ≳ 1 AU. Scenario (a): planets form in disks with dust-to-gas ratios that range from ∼20× solar at 0.1 AU to ∼2× solar at 5 AU. Scenario (b): the final assembly of super-Earth cores from mergers of proto-cores—a process that completes quickly at ∼0.1 AU once begun—is delayed by gas dynamical friction until just before disk gas dissipates completely. Both scenarios predict that the occurrence rate for super-Earths versus orbital distance, and the corresponding rate for Jupiters, should trend in opposite directions, as the former population is transformed into the latter: as

  2. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  3. Multisatellite systems with linear structure and their application for continuous coverage of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulskiy, V. K.

    2005-01-01

    Multisatellite systems with linear structure (SLS) are defined, and their application for a continuous global or zonal coverage of the Earth’s surface is justified. It is demonstrated that in some cases these systems turned out to be better than usually recommended kinematically regular systems by G.V. Mozhaev, delta systems of J.G. Walker, and polar systems suggested by F.W. Gobets, L. Rider, and W.S. Adams. When a comparison is made using the criterion of a minimum radius of one-satellite coverage circle, the SLS beat the other systems for the majority of satellite numbers from the range 20 63, if the global continuous single coverage of the Earth is required. In the case of a zonal continuous single coverage of the latitude belt ±65°, the SLS are preferable at almost all numbers of satellites from 38 to 100, and further at any values up to 200 excluding 144.

  4. The applications of rare earth elements in enhancement of crop and pasture production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peverill, K.; Maheswaran, J.; Meehan, B.; Buckingham, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) as trace nutrients in agriculture is widely practised in the People's Republic of China. Since 1972, results of Chinese research trials involving applications of small amounts of REEs to a wide range of crops and livestock have been reported. Experimental work on the effect of REEs on plant growth has received very limited attention outside China. In 1993, a collaborative research program initiated by the State Chemistry Laboratory and RMIT University in Victoria, Australia began to investigate the physiological and biochemical effects of REEs on a number of crops and pastures. The program has involved extensive pot trials on inert substrates and soils, together with several field trials on crops and pastures; the trials have shown clearly that under certain conditions REEs can have a pronounced positive effect on plant growth. This paper reviews the work carried out over the past five years under this program

  5. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-01-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO 2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO 2 adsorption performance. Highlights: ► Location of extraframework Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ cations was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR. ► Level of Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. ► Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. ► Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO 2 adsorbents.

  6. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  7. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    OpenAIRE

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as broad tunability of bandgap, defect tolerance, high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and high emission color purity (narrow full-width at half maximum). In this review, the photophysical propert...

  8. High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions. (orig.)

  9. The development of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L.; Iacobaeus, C.; Francke, T.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pavlopoulos, N.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.

    2004-01-01

    There are several applications and fundamental research areas which require the detection of VUV light at cryogenic temperatures. For these applications we have developed and successfully tested special designs of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes able to operate at low temperatures: sealed gaseous detectors with MgF2 windows and windowless detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated, that both primary and secondary (due to the avalanche multiplication inside liquids) scintillation lights could be recorded by photosensitive gaseous detectors. The results of this work may allow one to significantly improve the operation of some noble liquid gas TPCs.

  10. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  11. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  12. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  13. Bis(imidazolin-2-iminato) rare earth metal complexes: synthesis, structural characterization, and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambitas, Alexandra G; Melcher, Daniel; Hartenstein, Larissa; Roesky, Peter W; Daniliuc, Constantin; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2012-06-18

    Reaction of anhydrous rare earth metal halides MCl(3) with 2 equiv of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH) and 2 equiv of trimethylsilylmethyl lithium (Me(3)SiCH(2)Li) in THF furnished the complexes [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] (M = Sc, Y, Lu). The molecular structures of all three compounds were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The coordination spheres around the pentacoordinate metal atoms are best described as trigonal bipyramids. Reaction of YbI(2) with 2 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) and 2 equiv of the imino ligand Im(Dipp)NH in tetrahydrofuran did not result in a divalent complex, but instead the Yb(III) complex [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)YbI(THF)(2)] was obtained and structurally characterized. Treatment of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] with 1 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) resulted in the formation of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)M(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(n)]. The coordination arrangement of these compounds in the solid state at the metal atoms is similar to that found for the starting materials, although the introduction of the neosilyl ligand induces a significantly greater distortion from the ideal trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(2)] was used as precatalyst in the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization reaction of various terminal aminoalkenes and of one aminoalkyne. The complex showed high catalytic activity and selectivity. A comparison with the previously reported dialkyl yttrium complex [(Im(Dipp)N)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2)(THF)(3)] showed no clear tendency in terms of activity.

  14. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Astronaut Photography of the Earth: A Long-Term Dataset for Earth Systems Research, Applications, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth observations dataset obtained by humans in orbit using handheld film and digital cameras is freely accessible to the global community through the online searchable database at https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov, and offers a useful compliment to traditional ground-commanded sensor data. The dataset includes imagery from the NASA Mercury (1961) through present-day International Space Station (ISS) programs, and currently totals over 2.6 million individual frames. Geographic coverage of the dataset includes land and oceans areas between approximately 52 degrees North and South latitudes, but is spatially and temporally discontinuous. The photographic dataset includes some significant impediments for immediate research, applied, and educational use: commercial RGB films and camera systems with overlapping bandpasses; use of different focal length lenses, unconstrained look angles, and variable spacecraft altitudes; and no native geolocation information. Such factors led to this dataset being underutilized by the community but recent advances in automated and semi-automated image geolocation, image feature classification, and web-based services are adding new value to the astronaut-acquired imagery. A coupled ground software and on-orbit hardware system for the ISS is in development for planned deployment in mid-2017; this system will capture camera pose information for each astronaut photograph to allow automated, full georegistration of the data. The ground system component of the system is currently in use to fully georeference imagery collected in response to International Disaster Charter activations, and the auto-registration procedures are being applied to the extensive historical database of imagery to add value for research and educational purposes. In parallel, machine learning techniques are being applied to automate feature identification and classification throughout the dataset, in order to build descriptive metadata that will improve search

  16. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm 2 O 3 ) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd 2 O 3 ), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce 0,8 (SmGd) 0,2 O 1,9 powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO 2 and other containing 51% of Sm 2 O 3 and 30% of Gd 2 O 3 , both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m 2 .g -1 ) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the employment of hydrothermal treatment (about 100 m 2 .g -1

  17. Thermal properties of rare earth cobalt oxides and of La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Yu. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Solov'ev, L. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction data for the crystal structure, phase composition, and molar specific heat for La1‒ x Gd x CoO3 cobaltites in the temperature range of 300-1000 K have been analyzed. The behavior of the volume thermal expansion coefficient in cobaltites with isovalent doping in the temperature range of 100-1000 K is studied. It is found that the β( T) curve exhibits two peaks at some doping levels. The rate of the change in the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions is calculated for the compounds under study taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. With the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, it is demonstrated that the low-temperature peak in the thermal expansion shifts with the growth of the pressure toward higher temperatures and at pressure P ˜ 7 GPa coincides with the second peak. The similarity in the behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient in the La1- x Gd x CoO3 compounds with the isovalent substitution and the undoped LnCoO3 compound (Ln is a lanthanide) is considered. For the whole series of rare earth cobalt oxides, the nature of two specific features in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and thermal expansion is revealed and their relation to the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions and to the insulator-metal transition is established.

  18. Applications of wavelet-based compression to multidimensional earth science data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    A data compression algorithm involving vector quantization (VQ) and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to two different types of multidimensional digital earth-science data. The algorithm (WVQ) is optimized for each particular application through an optimization procedure that assigns VQ parameters to the wavelet transform subbands subject to constraints on compression ratio and encoding complexity. Preliminary results of compressing global ocean model data generated on a Thinking Machines CM-200 supercomputer are presented. The WVQ scheme is used in both a predictive and nonpredictive mode. Parameters generated by the optimization algorithm axe reported, as are signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements of actual quantized data. The problem of extrapolating hydrodynamic variables across the continental landmasses in order to compute the DWT on a rectangular grid is discussed. Results are also presented for compressing Landsat TM 7-band data using the WVQ scheme.The formulation of the optimization problem is presented along with SNR measurements of actual quantized data. Postprocessing applications are considered in which the seven spectral bands are clustered into 256 clusters using a k-means algorithm and analyzed using the Los Alamos multispectral data analysis program, SPECTRUM, both before and after being compressed using the WVQ program.

  19. Applications of wavelet-based compression to multidimensional earth science data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    A data compression algorithm involving vector quantization (VQ) and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to two different types of multidimensional digital earth-science data. The algorithm (WVQ) is optimized for each particular application through an optimization procedure that assigns VQ parameters to the wavelet transform subbands subject to constraints on compression ratio and encoding complexity. Preliminary results of compressing global ocean model data generated on a Thinking Machines CM-200 supercomputer are presented. The WVQ scheme is used in both a predictive and nonpredictive mode. Parameters generated by the optimization algorithm axe reported, as are signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements of actual quantized data. The problem of extrapolating hydrodynamic variables across the continental landmasses in order to compute the DWT on a rectangular grid is discussed. Results are also presented for compressing Landsat TM 7-band data using the WVQ scheme.The formulation of the optimization problem is presented along with SNR measurements of actual quantized data. Postprocessing applications are considered in which the seven spectral bands are clustered into 256 clusters using a k-means algorithm and analyzed using the Los Alamos multispectral data analysis program, SPECTRUM, both before and after being compressed using the WVQ program.

  20. Gamma rays shielding and sensing application of some rare earth doped lead-alumino-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    Seven rare earth (Sm3+, Eu3+ and Nd3+) doped lead alumino phosphate glasses were prepared. The protective and sensing measures from gamma rays were analysed in terms of parameters viz. density (ρ), refractive index, energy band gap (Eg), mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number (Zeff) and buildup factors (energy absorption EABF as well as exposure buildup factor EBF). The energy dependent parameters (mfp, Zeff, EABF and EBF) were investigated in the energy region from 15 keV to 15 MeV. EABF and EBF values were observed to be maximum in the intermediate energy region. Besides, the EABF and EBF values for the prepared samples are shown to have strong dependence on chemical composition of the glass at lower energy, whereas, it is almost independent of chemical composition in higher energy region. The prepared glass samples are found to have potential applications in radiation shielding as well as radiation sensing, which further find numerous applications in the field of medicine and industry.

  1. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  2. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  3. Riding the Hype Wave: Evaluating new AI Techniques for their Applicability in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Zhang, J.; Maskey, M.; Lee, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Every few years a new technology rides the hype wave generated by the computer science community. Converts to this new technology who surface from both the science community and the informatics community promulgate that it can radically improve or even change the existing scientific process. Recent examples of new technology following in the footsteps of "big data" now include deep learning algorithms and knowledge graphs. Deep learning algorithms mimic the human brain and process information through multiple stages of transformation and representation. These algorithms are able to learn complex functions that map pixels directly to outputs without relying on human-crafted features and solve some of the complex classification problems that exist in science. Similarly, knowledge graphs aggregate information around defined topics that enable users to resolve their query without having to navigate and assemble information manually. Knowledge graphs could potentially be used in scientific research to assist in hypothesis formulation, testing, and review. The challenge for the Earth science research community is to evaluate these new technologies by asking the right questions and considering what-if scenarios. What is this new technology enabling/providing that is innovative and different? Can one justify the adoption costs with respect to the research returns? Since nothing comes for free, utilizing a new technology entails adoption costs that may outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, these technologies may require significant computing infrastructure in order to be utilized effectively. Results from two different projects will be presented along with lessons learned from testing these technologies. The first project primarily evaluates deep learning techniques for different applications of image retrieval within Earth science while the second project builds a prototype knowledge graph constructed for Hurricane science.

  4. RIMS: An Integrated Mapping and Analysis System with Applications to Earth Sciences and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A. A.; Glidden, S.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    A web-based information and computational system for analysis of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrologic data have been developed. The System allows visualization, data exploration, querying, manipulation and arbitrary calculations with any loaded gridded or vector polygon dataset. The system's acronym, RIMS, stands for its core functionality as a Rapid Integrated Mapping System. The system can be deployed for a Global scale projects as well as for regional hydrology and climatology studies. In particular, the Water Systems Analysis Group of the University of New Hampshire developed the global and regional (Northern Eurasia, pan-Arctic) versions of the system with different map projections and specific data. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth sciences and education. The key Web server/client components of the framework include (a) a visualization engine built on Open Source libraries (GDAL, PROJ.4, etc.) that are utilized in a MapServer; (b) multi-level data querying tools built on XML server-client communication protocols that allow downloading map data on-the-fly to a client web browser; and (c) data manipulation and grid cell level calculation tools that mimic desktop GIS software functionality via a web interface. Server side data management of the system is designed around a simple database of dataset metadata facilitating mounting of new data to the system and maintaining existing data in an easy manner. RIMS contains "built-in" river network data that allows for query of upstream areas on-demand which can be used for spatial data aggregation and analysis of sub-basin areas. RIMS is an ongoing effort and currently being used to serve a number of websites hosting a suite of hydrologic, environmental and other GIS data.

  5. Is the Spencer-Attix cavity equation applicable for solid-state detectors irradiated in megavoltage electron beams?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobit, P.N.; Sandison, G.A.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of the Spencer-Attix cavity equation in determining absorbed doses in water using solid state detectors irradiated by megavoltage electron beams have been examined. The calculations were performed using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. This work is an extension of a recently published article examining the perturbation of dose by solid state detectors in megavoltage electron beams. (orig.)

  6. The future of diode pumped solid state lasers and their applicability to the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Hackel, L.

    1994-03-01

    The largest commercial application of high power lasers is for cutting and welding. Their ability to increase productivity by introducing processing flexibility and integrated automation into the fabrication process is well demonstrated. This paper addresses the potential importance of recent developments in laser technology to further impact their use within the automotive industry. The laser technology we will concentrate upon is diode laser technology and diode-pumped solid-state laser technology. We will review present device performance and cost and make projections for the future in these areas. Semiconductor laser arrays have matured dramatically over the last several years. They are lasers of unparalleled efficiency (greater than 50%), reliability (greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation), and offer the potential of dramatic cost reductions (less than a dollar per watt). They can be used directly in many applications or can be used to pump solid-state lasers. When used as solid-state laser pump arrays, they simultaneously improve overall laser efficiency, reduce size, and improve reliability.

  7. Recent advances in solid state NMR and its application to ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    The basic principles of solid state NMR are explained. Four application examples contained amorphous glass, determination of defects of oxide crystal, nano particle and ionic materials. The structure of inorganic glass is measured by 29 Si, 11 B, 31 P and 23 Na NMR and Magic Angle Spinning NMR (MAS-NMR), chemical species near hydrogen by Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) method, and hydrogen by Combined Rotation And Multiple Pulse Spectroscopy (CRAMPS) and MAS-NMR. Hydrous and anhydrous silicate glass with condensed 17 O was measured by 17 O Multi Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQ/MAS). 27 Al in slags was analyzed by 27 Al 5Q-MAS. 89 Y NMR spectrum of YSZ (Yttria Stabilization Zirconia, Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 ) was explained. The ion transfer phenomena in the electrolyte are observed directly by the solid state NMR. (S.Y.)

  8. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  9. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  10. Spectrally selective molecular doped solids: spectroscopy, photophysics and their application to ultrafast optical pulse processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The persistent spectral hole-burning (PSHB) phenomenon observed in molecular doped polymers cooled down to liquid helium temperatures allows the engraving of spectral structures in the inhomogeneous absorption profile of the material. This phenomenon known since 1974 has became a fruitful field for the study of the intimacy of complex molecular systems in the solid state, revealing high-resolution spectroscopy, photophysics, photochemistry and dynamics of molecular doped amorphous media, organic as well as inorganic. A PSHB molecular doped solid can be programmed in spectral domain and therefore, it can be converted in an optical processor capable to achieve user-defined optical functions. Some aspects of this field are illustrated in the present paper. An application is presented where a naphthalocyanine doped polymer film is used in a demonstrative experiment to prove that temporal aberration free re-compression of ultra-short light pulses is feasible. Perspectives for the coherent control of light fields or photochemical processes are also evoked

  11. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  12. Selective laser spectroscopy of molecules and ions in solids: a history, fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A history of the development of selective laser spectroscopy is presented, beginning with a pioneering work by Yu. V. Denisov and V. A. Kizel in 1967, who were the first to demonstrate the possibility of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of luminescence spectra of impurity ions in glasses upon monochromatic resonance excitation. Selective excitation of optical centers can be achieved due to existence of zero-phonon transitions corresponding to narrow homogeneous zero-phonon lines in the spectra of impurity centers in solids, which are hidden in broad inhomogeneous optical bands upon usual nonselective excitation. The fundamentals of zero-phonon transition spectroscopy are considered and the mechanism of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of optical spectra of ions and molecules in crystals and amorphous solids under selective laser excitation of luminescence and persistent hole burning in absorption spectra is presented in detail. Various applications of selective laser spectroscopy for fundamental and applied studies are discussed.

  13. Recent advances in syntheses and biomedical applications of nano-rare earth metal-organic framework materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pengyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years,the syntheses of nano-rare earth metal-organic framework (MOF materials and their applications in biomedicine,especially in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer have attracted extensive attentions.On the one hand,nano-rare earth MOFs,which have unique optical and magnetic properties,are promising multimodal imaging contrast agents for biomedical imaging,such as fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.On the other hand,nano-rare earth MOFs have various compositions and structures,and excellent intrinsic properties such as large specific surface area,high pore volume and tunable pore size,which enable them to perform as promising nanoplatforms for drug delivery.Therefore,nano-rare earth MOFs may provide a new platform for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.In this article,the recent advances in the syntheses of nano-rare earth MOFs and their applications in biomedicine are summarized.

  14. Effects of long-term application of municipal solid waste compost on speciation and availability of heavy metals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Achiba, W.; Lakdar, A.; Verloo, M. G.; Gabteni, N.; Jedidi, N.; Gallali, T.

    2009-01-01

    The application of municipal solid waste compost in agriculture provides a valuable source of plant nutrients and soil fertility. Nevertheless, heavy metals accumulation may be a problem. A seven-year field study was carried out to investigate the effects of farmyard manure (40 and 120 t/ha) and municipal solid waste compost (40, 80 and 120 t/ha) application on the total content, speciation and availability of heavy metals in a calcareous Tunisian soil without vegetation. (Author)

  15. Novel solid state lasers for Lidar applications at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, G.; Galzerano, G.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Laporta, P.

    2005-09-01

    A review on the results achieved by our group in the development of novel solid-state lasers for Lidar applications at 2 μm is presented. These lasers, based on fluoride crystals (YLF4, BaY2F8, and KYF4) doped with Tm and Ho ions, are characterized by high-efficiency and wide wavelength tunability around 2 μm. Single crystals of LiYF4, BaY2F8, and KYF4 codoped with the same Tm3+ and Ho3+ concentrations were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The full spectroscopic characterization of the different laser crystals and the comparison between the laser performance are presented. Continuous wave operation was efficiently demonstrated by means of a CW diode-pumping. These oscillators find interesting applications in the field of remote sensing (Lidar and Dial systems) as well as in high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, frequency metrology, and biomedical applications.

  16. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... effect for long life-times than regular short time changes of operation. In order to address lifetime testing it is suggested to build a testing program consisting of defined modules that represent different application profiles, such as one module at constant conditions, followed by modules at one set...

  17. Disseminated Museum Displays and Participation of Students from Underrepresented Populations in Polar Research: Education and Outreach for Joint Projects in GPS and Seismology Solid Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K.; Taber, J.

    2006-12-01

    Two Antarctic projects developed by solid earth scientists in the GPS and seismology communities have rich education and outreach activities focused on disseminating information gleaned from this research and on including students from underrepresented groups. Members of the UNAVCO and IRIS research consortia along with international partners from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Italy, New Zealand and the U.K. aim to deploy an ambitious GPS/seismic network to observe the Antarctic glaciological and geologic system using a multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated approach. The second project supports this network. UNAVCO and IRIS are designing and building a reliable power and communication system for autonomous polar station operation which use the latest power and communication technologies for ease of deployment and reliable multi-year operation in severe polar environments. This project will disseminate research results through an IPY/POLENET web-based museum style display based on the next-generation "Museum Lite" capability primarily supported by IRIS. "Museum Lite" uses a standard PC, touch-screen monitor, and standard Internet browsers to exploit the scalability and access of the Internet and to provide customizable content in an interactive setting. The unit is suitable for research departments, public schools, and an assortment of public venues, and can provide wide access to real-time geophysical data, ongoing research, and general information. The POLENET group will work with members of the two consortia to provide content about the project and polar science in general. One unit is to be installed at Barrow's Ilisagvit College through the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium, one at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and two at other sites to be determined (likely in New Zealand/Australia and in the U.S.). In January, 2006, Museum Lite exhibit was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Evaluation of this prototype is underway. These

  18. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL's). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL's which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL's are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications

  19. On-Orbit Camera Misalignment Estimation Framework and Its Application to Earth Observation Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwoo Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for precise alignment of imaging sensors and attitude sensors before launch, the accuracy of pre-launch alignment is limited. The misalignment between attitude frame and camera frame is especially important as it is related to the localization error of the spacecraft, which is one of the essential factors of satellite image quality. In this paper, a framework for camera misalignment estimation is presented with its application to a high-resolution earth-observation satellite—Deimos-2. The framework intends to provide a solution for estimation and correction of the camera misalignment of a spacecraft, covering image acquisition planning to mathematical solution of camera misalignment. Considerations for effective image acquisition planning to obtain reliable results are discussed, followed by a detailed description on a practical method for extracting many GCPs automatically using reference ortho-photos. Patterns of localization errors that commonly occur due to the camera misalignment are also investigated. A mathematical model for camera misalignment estimation is described comprehensively. The results of simulation experiments showing the validity and accuracy of the misalignment estimation model are provided. The proposed framework was applied to Deimos-2. The real-world data and results from Deimos-2 are presented.

  20. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  1. Application of high-precision two-way ranging to Galileo Earth-1 encounter navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, V. M.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    The application of precision two-way ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the Galileo spacecraft's approach to its first Earth encounter (December 8, 1990). Analysis of previous S-band (2.3-GHz) ranging data acquired from Galileo indicated that under good signal conditions submeter precision and 10-m ranging accuracy were achieved. It is shown that ranging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. A range data filtering technique, in which explicit modeling of range measurement bias parameters for each station pass is utilized, is shown to largely remove the systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle-finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy of the Galileo orbit solutions obtained with S-band Doppler and precision ranging were found to be consistent with simple theoretical calculations, which predicted that angular accuracies of 0.26-0.34 microrad were achievable. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was marginally better than that obtained using delta-differenced one-way range (delta DOR), the principal data type that was previously used to obtain spacecraft angular position measurements operationally.

  2. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Solid Targets for Space and Aerospace Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Goncalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, G.; Baba, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes successful results obtained by a new type of plasma source, named as Vaporization of Solid Targets (VAST), for treatment of materials for space and aerospace applications, by means of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Here, the solid element is vaporized in a high pressure glow discharge, being further ionized and implanted/deposited in a low pressure cycle, with the aid of an extra electrode. First experiments in VAST were run using lithium as the solid target. Samples of silicon and aluminum alloy (2024) were immersed into highly ionized lithium plasma, whose density was measured by a double Langmuir probe. Measurements performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed clear modification of the cross-sectioned treated silicon samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that lithium was implanted/deposited into/onto the surface of the silicon. Implantation depth profiles may vary according to the condition of operation of VAST. One direct application of this treatment concerns the protection against radiation damage for silicon solar cells. For the case of the aluminum alloy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the appearance of prominent new peaks. Surface modification of A12024 by lithium implantation/deposition can lower the coefficient of friction and improve the resistance to fatigue of this alloy. Recently, cadmium was vaporized and ionized in VAST. The main benefit of this element is associated with the improvement of corrosion resistance of metallic substrates. Besides lithium and cadmium, VAST allows to performing PIII and D with other species, leading to the modification of the near-surface of materials for distinct purposes, including applications in the space and aerospace areas.

  3. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  4. Zirconium-hydride solid zero power reactor and its application research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shenghuo; Luo Zhanglin; Su Zhuting

    1994-10-01

    The Zirconium Hydride Solid Zero Power Reactor built at China Institute of Atomic Energy is introduced. In the reactor Zirconium-hydride is used as moderator, plexiglass as reflector and U 3 O 8 with enrichment of 20% as the fuel, Since its initial criticality, the physical characteristics and safety features have been measured with the result showing that the reactor has sound stability and high sensitivity, etc. It has been successfully used for the personnel training and for the testing of reactor control instruments and experiment devices. It also presents the special advantage for the pre-research of some applications

  5. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  6. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  7. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  8. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  9. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  10. THE USE OF LAPTOP COMPUTERS, TABLETS AND GOOGLE EARTH/GOOGLE MAPS APPLICATIONS DURING GEOGRAPHY CLUB SEMINARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN GALBIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aim to investigate the use of Google Earth and Google Maps Applications on tablet and laptop computers. The research was carried out during the Geography Club seminars organized at “Radu Petrescu” High School in the 2013-2014 school year. The research involved 13 students in various gymnasium and high school grades. The activities included: navigation with Google Earth/Maps, image capturing techniques, virtual tours, measuring distances or river lengths, identifying relief forms, and locating geographical components of the environment. In order to retrieve students’ opinions regarding the use of tablets and laptop computers with these two applications, they were asked to respond to a questionnaire after the activities took place. Conclusions revealed that students enjoyed using these applications with laptops and tablets and that the learning process during Geography classes became more interesting.

  11. Application of process tomography in gas-solid fluidised beds in different scales and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. G.; Che, H. Q.; Ye, J. M.; Tu, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Yang, W. Q.; Ocone, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-solid fluidised beds are commonly used in particle-related processes, e.g. for coal combustion and gasification in the power industry, and the coating and granulation process in the pharmaceutical industry. Because the operation efficiency depends on the gas-solid flow characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the flow behaviour. This paper is about the application of process tomography, including electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave tomography (MWT), in multi-scale gas-solid fluidisation processes in the pharmaceutical and power industries. This is the first time that both ECT and MWT have been applied for this purpose in multi-scale and complex structure. To evaluate the sensor design and image reconstruction and to investigate the effects of sensor structure and dimension on the image quality, a normalised sensitivity coefficient is introduced. In the meantime, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis based on a computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model and a two-phase fluid model (TFM) is used. Part of the CPFD-TFM simulation results are compared and validated by experimental results from ECT and/or MWT. By both simulation and experiment, the complex flow hydrodynamic behaviour in different scales is analysed. Time-series capacitance data are analysed both in time and frequency domains to reveal the flow characteristics.

  12. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: esm041@mail.harvard.edu

    2016-01-18

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  13. Solid waste management with the help of vermicomposting and its applications in crop improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of solid waste has become one of the biggest problems that we are facing today. Vermicomposting is the better option to tackle with this problem. Vermicomposting is the process of conversion of organic wastes by earthworms to valuable humus like material which is used as a natural soil conditioner. Vermicomposting is environment friendly and cost effective technique for solid waste management. Vermicomposting serves two main purposes for the welfare of humans as it helps in the degradation of solid waste and the cast produced during this process is used as a natural fertilizer. Vermicompost is much better than chemical fertilizer because it is not associated with any kind of risk. Earthworms are potentially important creatures that are capable of transforming garbage into gold. Eisenia fetida is the most commonly used species of earthworms for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process and should be maintained up to 32°C with the moisture content of 60-80%. Earthworms break down organic matter and leave behind castings that are an exceptionally valuable fertilizer. Vermicomposting has many applications in crop improvement such as pathogen destruction, water holding capacity of soil, improved crop growth and yield, improved soil physical, chemical and biological properties and production of plant growth regulators.

  14. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  15. Application of earth building materials for low-income housing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics, properties, problems and other factors associated with earth materials for building houses, especially in the tropical regions of the world are identified. The inter-relationships among these factors which inhibit the adoption of earth materials and the recommendations for overcoming the problems in a ...

  16. Commercial alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses for sealing solid oxide cell stacks. Part I: Development of glass-ceramic microstructure and thermomechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Karsten; Balic-Zunic, Tonci

    2018-01-01

    Sealing performance in solid oxide cell (SOC) stacks and the devitrification process of commercially available alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses containing 48‐61 mol% SiO2, 18‐28 mol% CaO, 1‐7 mol% MgO, 7‐10 mol% Al2O3, 1‐11 mol% B2O3 plus minor amounts of Na2O, K2O, FeO, and TiO2 were...... investigated and quantified through analysis of phase assemblages as function of heat treatments above the glass transition temperatures using the electron microprobe and powder X‐ray diffraction. For two of these glasses devitrification behavior was compared to the devitrification behavior of similar glasses...... produced in the laboratory. Glasses were characterized after annealing in air at 800°C and 850°C for up to 6 weeks. Even though the glasses lie within a relatively narrow compositional range, sealing performance and the resulting microstructures differed significantly. Best thermomechanical properties...

  17. A perfectly matched layer for fluid-solid problems: Application to ocean-acoustics simulations with solid ocean bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent a......A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range......-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique....... The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation...

  18. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  19. Stratospheric platforms: a novel technological support for Earth observation and remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Fabio; Lo Presti, Letizia; Magli, Enrico; Mulassano, Paolo; Olmo, Gabriella

    2001-12-01

    The international community agrees that the new technology based on the use of Unmanned Air Vehicles High Altitude Very long Endurance (UAV-HAVE) could play an important role for the development of remote sensing and telecommunication applications. A UAV-HAVE vehicle can be described as a low- cost flying infrastructure (compared with satellites) optimized for long endurance operations at an altitude of about 20 km. Due to such features, its role is similar to satellites, with the major advantages of being less expensive, more flexible, movable on demand, and suitable for a larger class of applications. According to this background, Politecnico di Torino is involved as coordinator in an important project named HeliNet, that represent one of the main activities in Europe in the field of stratospheric platforms, and is concerned with the development of a network of UAV-HAVE aircraft. A key point of this project is the feasibility study for the provision of several services, namely traffic monitoring, environmental surveillance, broadband communications and navigation. This paper reports preliminary results on the HeliNet imaging system and its remote sensing applications. In fact, many environmental surveillance services (e.g. regional public services for agriculture, hydrology, fire protection, and more) require very high-resolution imaging, and can be offered at a lower cost if operated by a shared platform. The philosophy behind the HeliNet project seems to be particularly suitable to manage such missions. In particular, we present a system- level study of possible imaging payloads to be mounted on- board of a stratospheric platform to collect Earth observation data. Firstly, we address optical payloads such as multispectral and/or hyperspectral ones, which are a very short-term objective of the project. Secondly, as an example of mid-term on-board payload, we examine the possibility to carry on the platform a light-SAR system. For both types of payload, we show

  20. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  1. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly reducing interfering monovalent and divalent cation concentrations (e

  2. Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A multi-fuel approach for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Tarkeshwar C.; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the oxygen ion transport properties at the electrode–electrolyte interface (EEI) of the SOFC for the first time. • This ion transport plays a key role in the overall performance of SOFCs with different fuels. • The GIIB mechanism is also studied for the first time. • GIIB is assumed to be the prime reason for low power density and ion conductivity at the EEI when using hydrocarbon fuels. • Due to its scalability, a fuel cell can serve as a power source for on-chip applications and all portable equipment. - Abstract: The impact of oxygen ion transport at the electrolyte–electrode interface of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell using different fuels is investigated. Model validation is performed to verify the results versus the reported values. Furthermore, as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreases, the diffusivity of the oxygen ion increases. This increase in diffusivity is observed because the number of hydrogen atoms available as the reacting species increases in fuels with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The oxygen ion conductivity and output power density decrease as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the fuels decreases. The reason behind this impact is the formation of a gas-induced ion barrier at the electrode–electrolyte interface by the CO_2 molecules formed during the reaction at the interface, thus blocking the flow of oxygen ions. As the oxygen ions become blocked, the output current contribution from the reaction also decreases and thereby affects the overall performance of the micro-solid oxide fuel cell. The experimental verification confirms this because of a significant decrease in the output power density. Furthermore, as per the application in portable devices, the appropriate choice of fuel can be chosen so that the micro-solid oxide fuel cell operates at the maximum power density.

  3. Application of 241Am EDXRF to the determination of rare earth samples of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Li Biaoguo

    1998-01-01

    A rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) analysis system is established to determine rare earth concentrations. The characteristic K-shell series X-rays of rare earths were excited by a 1.1 x 10 9 Bq 241 Am radioisotope source. The spectra were recorded and analyzed using a multi-channel analyzer, employing a high-purity Ge detector. In this method, the Compton scattering peak, absorption of elements, and specific simplification are considered. Samples of light, middle and heavy rare earths during separation processes in both hydrochloride solution and rare earth loaded organic phases were analyzed off-line. Some comparative results measured by ICP are also given. The results show that the method can be used for a wide range of rare earth concentrations (0.1-300 g l -1 rare earth oxide). Being rapid, effective, precise and non-destructive, the method can be applied to on-line analysis to determine rare earth concentrations during separation by solvent extraction. (orig.)

  4. Applications and Properties of Ionic Liquid- Based Gels and Soft Solid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bret Alan McGinness

    2011-12-01

    Solid-liquid composites (gels) have a combination of properties that afford new material applications in which high solute diffusion is desirable. These composites have a soft-solid mechanical integrity and will not flow under gravity, but entrain a liquid matrix (i.e. 60-98 mass %) which allows for high diffusion and high reactivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) are molten organic salts with a melting point below room temperature and negligible vapor pressure. If the RTILs are used as the liquid component of a gel, then the gel matrix will not evaporate (unlike other organic solvents) and may be used for long term applications. This thesis research applies RTIL gels for two new applications; carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation and chemical warfare agent (CWA) barrier and decontamination. Separating CO2 from the flue gas of coal and gas fired power-plants is an increasingly economically and environmentally important gas separation. In this first study, RTIL gels are cast in a supported membrane and gas permeability and ideal selectivity are measured. The RTIL matrix has an inherent affinity for CO2 and provides a high diffusion, hence high permeability (i.e. 500-700 barrer). The solidifying component is a low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) which through physical bonding interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking and van der Walls forces) forms an entangled network which provides mechanical stability (i.e. increase trans-membrane pressure required to expel selective material from the support). In these studies two LMOGs and five RTILs are used to make supported gel membranes and determine gas permeability and temperature dependent trends. The second application for RTIL gels is a decontaminating barrier for CWAs and toxic industrial compounds (TICs). In these studies a layer of RTIL gel is applied on top of a substrate contaminated with a CWA simulant (i.e. chloroethylethylsulfide, CEES). The gel performs well as a barrier, preventing CEES

  5. From Earth to Space: Application of Biological Treatment for the Removal of Ammonia from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen; Adam, Niklas; White, Dawn; Ghosh, Amlan; Seidel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Managing ammonia is often a challenge in both drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. Ammonia is unregulated in drinking water, but its presence may result in numerous water quality issues in the distribution system such as loss of residual disinfectant, nitrification, and corrosion. Ammonia concentrations need to be managed in wastewater effluent to sustain the health of receiving water bodies. Biological treatment involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate through a two-step process. While nitrification is common in the environment, and nitrifying bacteria can grow rapidly on filtration media, appropriate conditions, such as the presence of dissolved oxygen and required nutrients, need to be established. This presentation will highlight results from two ongoing research programs - one at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the other at a drinking water facility in California. Both programs are designed to demonstrate nitrification through biological treatment. The objective of NASA's research is to be able to recycle wastewater to potable water for spaceflight missions. To this end, a biological water processor (BWP) has been integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). Bacteria mineralize organic carbon to carbon dioxide as well as ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system testing planned for this year is expected to produce water that requires only a polishing step to meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. The pilot study in California is being conducted on Golden State Water Company's Yukon wells that have hydrogen sulfide odor

  6. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative: evolution of scientific investigations to applicable science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soja, Amber J; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2012-01-01

    The letters collected in this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on ‘Environmental, socio-economic and climatic changes in Northern Eurasia and their feedbacks to the global Earth system’ represent the third special issue based on the results of research within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI: http://neespi.org) program domain. Through the years, NEESPI researchers have presented a diverse array of articles that represent a variety of spatial scales and demonstrate the degree to which abrupt climatic and socio-economic changes are acting across Northern Eurasia and feed back to the global Earth system. (synthesis and review)

  7. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  8. A service for the application of data quality information to NASA earth science satellite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Xing, Z.; Fry, C.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Huang, T.; Chen, G.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2016-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables that can be applied as thresholds to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables could be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 161 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process for the user until they understand the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a NASA ACCESS project, is addressing these issues and concerns. The project has developed an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, data discovery, and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well-defined URLs and web service specifications has also been implemented. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be demonstrated.

  9. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  10. The TPAC Digital Library: A Web Application for Publishing Large Catalogs of Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Pugh, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing (TPAC) has developed a rich web-based application that publishes large catalogs of scientific datasets. The TPAC Digital Library provides a user interface for viewing, searching, and accessing the catalog data collections, as well as enabling data services for user access. The product also provides management functions for librarians of digital data collections. The search features allow files to be selected graphically based on geospatial extent, or by file name, variable name, attribute value, and by tag. Alternatively, there is a file manager style interface that provides a direct route to the data. The interface is specifically geared towards discovery and access of earth science data files, which makes it intuitive and easy to navigate. Files can be downloaded, or accessed through OPeNDAP, GridFTP, WCS, Matlab and other interfaces. The digital library can harvest metadata from THREDDS, Hyrax, IPCC catalogs and other instances of the digital library. The product is freely available under an open-source license, and is currently deployed by a small but active user base. It has existed since 2005, and remains under constant development by TPAC and other contributors (including the Australian Bureau of Meteorology). Current development initiatives will allow interoperability with library service protocols, as well as other data archive organizations and scientific bodies for data reference transparency. There is a project in progress that will allow the data collection’s owner to attach attribute information, access rights, and meta-data to the data collection to conform to various user community and service standards. Future releases will allow publishers to attach media rich information about the data collection, as well as additional information about scientific results, and papers and web pages that reference the data collection. The presentation will discuss the current implementation, and future directions.

  11. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  12. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF THE DIODE-PUMPED SOLID-STATE LASER FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Arkhipov

    2015-11-01

    within 1 °С. Optical schematic diagram of the laser resonator keeps the laser beam divergence not exceeding a diffraction limit more than twice under a light pump power of 100 W. We have also shown that to increase the lasing efficiency, slab multilayer dielectric coatings made of SiO2 и ZrO2 should be used. Practical Relevance. We have proposed original design of the diode pumped solid-state laser module optimizing the generation and pump modes of solid-state lasers by the temperature stabilization technique for laser diode array and by compensation of the slab aberrations. The techniques are also applicable under space conditions; that is an important factor at developing the space-based lasers.

  13. Application of Copper Cladding Aluminum Composites in UHV Portable Earthing and Short-circuiting Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the heavy weight and inconvenience when carrying and installing copper earthing wires on the UHV transmission lines, in this paper, we present the use of copper clad aluminum(CCA composite materials as a lightweight method for UHV earthing wire conductor. Theoretical calculations and tests of the fusing current in a short time for copper and CCA material are conducted. The results show that the theoretical value of the earthing wire conductor's fusing current corresponds with the test value on condition of the conductor cross section greater than 4mm2 as well as fusing time less than 1.5s. The CCA-10 earthing wires get 36.2% weight reduction compared with copper wires.

  14. The application of extraction chromatography for analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, B.; Cukovic, M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for rapid analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates is proposed. The method is based on the use of an HDEHP extraction chromatographic column, which makes possible quantitative separations of alkaline earth ions from macroamounts of uranium(VI). Composition of alkaline earth uranates, based on regression analysis, are presented. The results, which show that under the given experimental conditions alkaline earth triuranates precipitate, are in good agreement with previous data from same laboratory. In addition the HDEHP extraction chromatographic column can be suggested as a tool for separation of representative fission products from irradiated uranium for the purpose of determination of the burn-up factor of nuclear reactor materials. (T.G.)

  15. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  16. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  17. In Situ Generated Colloid Transport of Cu and Zn in Reclaimed Mine Soil Profiles Associated with Bio solids Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.O.; Karathanasis, A.D.; Matocha, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Areas reclaimed for agricultural uses following coal mining often receive bio solids applications to increase organic matter and fertility. Transport of heavy metals within these soils may be enhanced by the additional presence of bio solids colloids. Intact monoliths from reclaimed and undisturbed soils in Virginia and Kentucky were leached to observe Cu and Zn mobility with and without bio solids application. Transport of Cu and Zn was observed in both solution and colloid associated phases in reclaimed and undisturbed forest soils, where the presence of unweathered spoil material and bio solids amendments contributed to higher metal release in solution fractions. Up to 81% of mobile Cu was associated with the colloid fraction, particularly when gabbiest was present, while only up to 18% of mobile Zn was associated with the colloid fraction. The colloid bound Cu was exchangeable by ammonium acetate, suggesting that it will release into groundwater resources.

  18. In Situ Generated Colloid Transport of Cu and Zn in Reclaimed Mine Soil Profiles Associated with Bio solids Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.O.; Karathanasis, A.D.; Matocha, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Areas reclaimed for agricultural uses following coal mining often receive bio solids applications to increase organic matter and fertility. Transport of heavy metals within these soils may be enhanced by the additional presence of bio solids colloids. Intact monoliths from reclaimed and undisturbed soils in Virginia and Kentucky were leached to observe Cu and Zn mobility with and without bio solids application. Transport of Cu and Zn was observed in both solution and colloid associated phases in reclaimed and undisturbed forest soils, where the presence of unweathered spoil material and bio solids amendments contributed to higher metal release in solution fractions. Up to 81% of mobile Cu was associated with the colloid fraction, particularly when gibbsite was present, while only up to 18% of mobile Zn was associated with the colloid fraction. The colloid bound Cu was exchangeable by ammonium acetate, suggesting that it will release into groundwater resources.

  19. A methodology for developing strategic municipal solid waste management plans with an application in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, A P

    2010-11-01

    A rational approach for developing optimal municipal solid waste (MSW) management plans comprises the strategic and the detailed planning phases. The present paper focuses on the former, the objective of which is to screen management alternatives so as to select the ones that are able to fulfil all legal and other management requirements with reasonable cost. The analysis considers the transportation, treatment and final disposal of the commingled wastes that remain after the application of material recovery at the source programmes and comprises 10 elements, four of which are region-dependent and the remaining ones application-dependent. These elements and their inter-dependencies are described and the entire methodology is applied to Greece. The application considers the existing regional plans and shows that they are incompatible with the existing EU Directives, as well as overly expensive. To address this problem, a new plan is developed in accordance with the rational planning principles of the present methodology. The comparative evaluation of the above alternatives shows that the existing regional plans, in addition to being incompatible with the applicable EU Directives, require 4.3 to 4.8 times (3.7 to 4.4 billion €) higher capital investment and their annual cost is at least 2.1 to 2.3 times (590 to 735 million € year(-1)) higher in comparison with the new national plan.

  20. Advances in CMOS solid-state photomultipliers for scintillation detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, James F.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Johnson, Erik B.; McClish, Mickel; Dokhale, Purushotthom; Shah, Kanai S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Chapman, Eric [Radiation Monitoring Devices, 44 Hunt Street, Watertownm, MA 02472 (United States); Augustine, Frank L., E-mail: JChristian@RMDInc.co [Augustine Engineering, 2115 Park Dale Ln, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) are a compact, lightweight, potentially low-cost alternative to a photomultiplier tube for a variety of scintillation detector applications, including digital-dosimeter and medical-imaging applications. Manufacturing SSPMs with a commercial CMOS process provides the ability for rapid prototyping, and facilitates production to reduce the cost. RMD designs CMOS SSPM devices that are fabricated by commercial foundries. This work describes the characterization and performance of these devices for scintillation detector applications. This work also describes the terms contributing to device noise in terms of the excess noise of the SSPM, the binomial statistics governing the number of pixels triggered by a scintillation event, and the background, or thermal, count rate. The fluctuations associated with these terms limit the resolution of the signal pulse amplitude. We explore the use of pixel-level signal conditioning, and characterize the performance of a prototype SSPM device that preserves the digital nature of the signal. In addition, we explore designs of position-sensitive SSPM detectors for medical imaging applications, and characterize their performance.

  1. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Huang; Jin Zhang; Neil P. Young; Henry J. Snaith; Patrick S. Grant

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that u...

  2. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  3. Studies on the rare earth complexes with pyridine derivatives and their N-oxide(II) - Synthesis and properties of fluorescent solid complexes of samarium, europium, gadolium and terbium chlorides with 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyu, T.; Ning, T.; Yingli, Z.; Jiyuan, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solid complexes of rare earth nitrates perchlorates and thiocyanates with 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (bipyO/sub 2/) have been reported. However, the corresponding complexes of other rear earth chlorides have not been investigated except lanthanum, cerium and yttrium. As an extension of our previous work on the synthesis of complexes of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides wiht bipoyO/sub 2/, the authors have now prepared fluorescent solid complexes of samarium, europium, gadolium and terbium chlorides with biphyO/sub 2/, using methanol as a reaction medium. The new synthesized compounds have been identified by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, conductometry, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray powder diffraction

  4. Simulation technique for slurries interacting with moving parts and deformable solids with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Kamrin, Ken

    2018-04-01

    A numerical method for particle-laden fluids interacting with a deformable solid domain and mobile rigid parts is proposed and implemented in a full engineering system. The fluid domain is modeled with a lattice Boltzmann representation, the particles and rigid parts are modeled with a discrete element representation, and the deformable solid domain is modeled using a Lagrangian mesh. The main issue of this work, since separately each of these methods is a mature tool, is to develop coupling and model-reduction approaches in order to efficiently simulate coupled problems of this nature, as in various geological and engineering applications. The lattice Boltzmann method incorporates a large eddy simulation technique using the Smagorinsky turbulence model. The discrete element method incorporates spherical and polyhedral particles for stiff contact interactions. A neo-Hookean hyperelastic model is used for the deformable solid. We provide a detailed description of how to couple the three solvers within a unified algorithm. The technique we propose for rubber modeling/coupling exploits a simplification that prevents having to solve a finite-element problem at each time step. We also developed a technique to reduce the domain size of the full system by replacing certain zones with quasi-analytic solutions, which act as effective boundary conditions for the lattice Boltzmann method. The major ingredients of the routine are separately validated. To demonstrate the coupled method in full, we simulate slurry flows in two kinds of piston valve geometries. The dynamics of the valve and slurry are studied and reported over a large range of input parameters.

  5. Rare earth taggants in-printing ink - its potential in forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Chodhury, R.K.; Maind, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000-ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports in the form of small circles having diameter 10-15 mm each and then analyzed. In the case of PIXE, a proton beam of energy 4 MeV and in the case of EDXRF a radioisotope source of 241 Am (100 mCi) was used to excite the samples. The PIXE analysis showed well-resolved rare-earth LX-rays and EDXRF analysis showed the K X-rays of rare earths. The aim of this study is to see the efficacy of homogeneous mixing of inorganic taggants in offset printing ink with the objective to establish linear relation of intensity (signal) against concentrations/ amounts of taggant(s) and to derive the minimum detection limit, by EDXRF and PIXE. The feasibility study of determination of rare-earth elements in offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates was examined. In the present study, we have used the facility of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique for identification of rare earths in tagged printing ink on paper support. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  6. Application of gamma-ray absorptiometry in the hydraulic transport of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanger, H.U.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; The, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development and application of advanced γ-ray absorptiometry techniques that may successfully be applied for the non-contact determination of medium density, local space concentrations, particle drift speeds and mass flows in transport systems. This improves the accuracy of density analysis and allows the measurement of the individual solid fraction contents in three-component flows, such as coal and rock or sediment and brine in water. Likewise, solid-air-water mixtures in air-lift systems may be analysed. Sufficient differences in the attenuation coefficients (i.e. mass density and/or chemical Z number) are requisites of this technique. The chemical composition of the components should be constant, more or less, and has to be known. The particle size does not affect the measurement up to a critical value which depends strongly on the material composition and the γ-ray energies used. For measuring the mean drift velocity of particles, a γ-ray transmission device with two equivalent radioactive sources and detectors is utilized. Both gamma-ray gates are arranged in a properly chosen distance, one after the other in the direction of flow. By using cross-correlation analysis, phase shift and mean velocity can be deduced from the dc-current modulations at the detector outputs. At the same time this measuring principle delivers the mean particle size and the size distribution in conveyor flows. Combination of space concentration and drift velocity yields the mass transport per unit time. (HP) [de

  7. A solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence spectrophotometer: Development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    A new solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) instrument (CPL-200CD) was successfully developed for measuring true CPL spectra for optically anisotropic samples on the basis of the Stokes-Mueller matrix approach. Electric components newly installed in the CPL-200CD include a pulse motor-driven sample rotation holder and a 100 kHz lock-in amplifier to achieve the linearly polarized luminescence measurement, which is essential for obtaining the true CPL signal for optically anisotropic samples. An acquisition approach devised for solid-state CPL analysis reduces the measurement times for a data set by ca. 98% compared with the time required in our previous method. As a result, the developed approach is very effective for samples susceptible to light-induced degradation. The theory and implementation of the method are described, and examples of its application to a CPL sample with macroscopic anisotropies are provided. An important advantage of the developed instrument is its ability to obtain molecular information for both excited and ground states because circular dichroism measurements can be performed by switching the monochromatic light to white light without rearrangement of the sample.

  8. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  9. High-density equation of state for helium and its application to bubbles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-06-01

    Helium, produced by transmutations or injected, causes bubble formation in solids at elevated temperatures. For small bubbles, the gas pressure required to balance the surface tension reaches values which far exceed those obtainable in experiments to measure the equation of state for helium gas. Therefore, empirical gas laws cannot be considered applicable to the fluid-like densities existing in small bubbles. In order to remedy this situation, an equation of state for helium was developed from the theory of the liquid state. At very low densities, this theoretically derived equation of state agrees with experimental results. For high densities, however, gas pressures are predicted which are significantly higher than those derived from the ideal gas law, but also significantly lower than pressures obtained with the van der Waals law. When applied to equilibrium bubbles in solids, it is found that the high-density equation of state leads to less bubble swelling than the van der Waals law, but more than the ideal gas law. Furthermore, the number of helium atoms in equilibrium bubbles is nearly independent of temperature

  10. Rare earths: harvesting basic research for technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagatap, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, rare earths are increasingly becoming a versatile platform for basic research that presents enormous technological potentials. A variety of nano-sized inorganic matrices varying from oxides, phosphates, gallates and aluminates, tungstates, stannates, vanadates to fluorides doped with different lanthanide ions have been synthesized and their optical properties have been investigated in the Chemistry Group, BARC. Another interesting application is laser cooling of solids using rare earth doped glasses with potential applications in remote cooling of electronic devices. Combining the luminescence properties of rare earths with photonic crystals is yet another potent area with wide ranging applications. In this presentation we provide an overview of these developments with examples from the R and D programs of the Chemistry Group, BARC

  11. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  12. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  14. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose Jr.; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  15. Applications of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector to ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Hattori, Atsuto; Oda, Keiji; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Yuji; Sakaki, Hironao; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kondo, Kiminori; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2012-01-01

    CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector, which was developed for optical lens, has been applied for various field such as radon surveys, measurement of galactic cosmic ray, cell irradiation experiment and so on. The CR-39 detectors have the great advantages of being insensitive to high energy photons and electrons and capable of detecting only ions in the mixed fields such as laser driven relativistic plasmas. Though there are some analytical methods of CR-39 to diagnose ion beam, unfortunately, only few researchers in the field of plasma know the methods. This article looks at how to use CR-39 detectors and introduce the accomplishment of the joint study JAEA and Kobe Univ. for application of CR-39 detectors to ion beam diagnosis. (author)

  16. The application of life cycle assessment to integrated solid waste management. Pt. 1: Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clift, R.; Doig, A.; Finnveden, G.

    2000-07-01

    Integrated Waste Management is one of the holistic approaches to environmental and resource management which are emerging from applying the concept of sustainable development. Assessment of waste management options requires application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper summarizes the methodology for applying LCA to Integrated Waste Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) developed for and now used by the UK Environment Agency, including recent developments in international fora. Particular attention is devoted to system definition leading to rational and clear compilation of the Life Cycle Inventory, with appropriate 'credit' for recovering materials and/or energy from the waste. LCA of waste management is best seen as a way of structuring information to help decision processes. (Author)

  17. New generation Li+ NASICON glass-ceramics for solid state Li+ ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelakshi; Dalvi, Anshuman

    2018-04-01

    Lithiumion conducting NASICON glass-ceramics have been prepared by a novel planetary ball milling assisted synthesis route. Structural, thermal and electrical investigations have been carried out on the novel composites composed of LiTi(PO4)3 (LTP) and 50[Li2SO4]-50[Li2O-P2O5] ionic glass reveal interesting results. Composites were prepared keeping the concentration of the ionic glass fixed at 20 wt%. X-ray diffraction and diffe rential thermal analysis confirm the glass-ceramic formation. Moreover, the structure of LTP remains intact during the glass -ceramic formation. Electrical conductivity of the glass-ceramic composite is found to be higher than that of the pristine glass (50LSLP) and LTP. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of LTP exhibit improvement in composite. Owing to high ionic conductivity and thermal stability, novel glass -ceramic seems to be a promising candidate for all solid-state battery applications.

  18. Some problems in mechanics of growing solids with applications to AM technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are an exciting area of the modern industrial revolution and have applications in engineering, medicine, electronics, aerospace industry, etc. AM enables cost-effective production of customized geometry and parts by direct fabrication from 3D data and mathematical models. Despite much progress in AM technologies, problems of mechanical analysis for AM fabricated parts yet remain to be solved. This paper deals with three main mechanical problems: the onset of residual stresses, which occur in the AM process and can lead to failure of the parts, the distortion of the final shape of AM fabricated parts, and the development of technological solutions aimed at improving existing AM technologies and creating new ones. An approach proposed deals with the construction of adequate analytical model and effective methods for the simulation of AM processes for fabricated solid parts.

  19. Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tolias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  20. Applications of a solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to the micro-determination of ABO blood group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fenqiang; Guo Jingyuan

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) method which has been improved. The research included the tests of its methodological parameters, sensitivity, accuracy, and the studies on its applications to the detection of blood group substances in varied forensic biological materials. The coefficient variation of intra-assay was 5.6%, and that of inter-assay was 10.15%. As to its applications to the forensic serology, the ABO blood groups of human bloodstain, hair follicular tissues and salivary stains had been tested and the results were satisfying. Later, 50 unknown type bloodly samples had been blind tested. The judging level used to identify the positive and negative wells was 800 cpm, that meant, if the radioactive count of a well were over 800 cpm, it was determined as a positive well, if that of a well were below 800 cpm, it was negative well. As SPRIA is a method of micro-determination which can micro-test the blood group antigens contained in varied forensic biological materials, it should has a good future of its applications to the forensic medicine fields

  1. Proceedings of the twentieth national conference on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) - A class of passive detectors, developed by R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price and R.M. Walker in the early 1960s have found numerous applications in various fields of science and technology. SSNTDs have been recognized as very potential and effective tools in exploring various areas of research. The intrinsic features of SSNTDs like low cost , availability, versatility and their remarkable stability have contributed to applications in a wide range of fields opening up new vistas which were practically unthinkable and unbelievable about a decade or two ago. Apart from the direct applications of far reaching consequences in nuclear physics, other areas as diverse as bio-medical sciences, cosmic rays and space physics, environmental research, geochronology and geophysics, materials sciences, lunar science, meteorites and tektites; microanalysis, mine safety, nuclear technology, uranium prospecting and most recently nano/micro technology etc., have been greatly influenced by SSNTDs. They have a very important role to play in radiation measurement, micro technology and dosimetry and thus are potential enough in spreading awareness about the radiation environment and its impact on the general public and the academic peers. In order to disseminate the knowledge generated in this fast growing field, there is a need to bring material science and radiation community on a common platform and discuss various operational and radiation protection aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Design and fabrication of a foldable 3D silicon based package for solid state lighting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskij, R; Liu, P; Van Zeijl, H W; Mimoun, B; Zhang, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Miniaturization of solid state lighting (SSL) luminaires as well as reduction of packaging and assembly costs are of prime interest for the SSL lighting industry. A novel silicon based LED package for lighting applications is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of 5 rigid Si tiles connected by flexible polyimide hinges with embedded interconnects (ICs). Electrical, optical and thermal characteristics were taken into consideration during design. The fabrication process involved polyimide (PI) application and patterning, aluminium interconnect integration in the flexible hinge, LED reflector cavity formation and metalization followed by through wafer DRIE etching for chip formation and release. A method to connect chip front to backside without TSVs was also integrated into the process. Post-fabrication wafer level assembly included LED mounting and wirebond, phosphor-based colour conversion and silicone encapsulation. The package formation was finalized by vacuum assisted wrapping around an assembly structure to form a 3D geometry, which is beneficial for omnidirectional lighting. Bending tests were performed on the flexible ICs and optical performance at different temperatures was evaluated. It is suggested that 3D packages can be expanded to platforms for miniaturized luminaire applications by combining monolithic silicon integration and system-in-package (SiP) technologies. (paper)

  3. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  4. The Maximum Entropy Production Principle: Its Theoretical Foundations and Applications to the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kleidon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP principle has been remarkably successful in producing accurate predictions for non-equilibrium states. We argue that this is because the MEP principle is an effective inference procedure that produces the best predictions from the available information. Since all Earth system processes are subject to the conservation of energy, mass and momentum, we argue that in practical terms the MEP principle should be applied to Earth system processes in terms of the already established framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the appropriate scales.

  5. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregiroux, D.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR 3+ ) orthophosphate with a general formula TR 3+ PO 4 , is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR 3+ PO 4 powders (with TR 3+ = La 3+ to Gd 3+ , Pu 3+ and Am 3+ ). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce 4+ , U 4+ , Pu 4+ ) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR 3+ PO 4 pellets. The determination of some mechanical and thermal

  6. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO2 fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Toru; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO 2 glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO 2 fibers are smaller than those from SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K

  7. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Peter Kelly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE2Fe14B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 105-106K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH)max for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the

  8. Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the investigation and development of Bragggrating-based integrated cavities for the rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 (aluminium oxide) waveguide platform, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, with the primary purpose of realizing

  9. Application progress of solid 29Si, 27Al NMR in the research of cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chunhua; Wang Xijian; Li Dongxu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is an effective method for the research of cement-based materials. Now it focuses on using solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR to research the hydration structure of the cement-based materials in cement chemistry. Purpose: A theoretical guidance is proposed for solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR technology used in cement chemistry research. Methods: We reviewed the application of solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR in the cement-based materials and analyzed the problem among the researches. Results: This paper introduced an fundamental, relevant-conditions and basic parameters of NMR, and studied the technical parameters of solid 29 Si and 27 Ai NMR together with the relationship among the hydration structure of cement based material. Moreover, this paper reviewed the related domestic and overseas achievements in the research of hydration structure of the cement-based materials using solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR. Conclusion: There were some problems in the research on cement-based materials by technology of solid 29 Si and 27 Al NMR. NMR will promote the Hydration theory of cement-based material greatly. (authors)

  10. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  11. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  12. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  13. Harnessing Systems Engineering Methodology in Using Earth Science Research Data for Real Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, Fritz S.; Zanoni, Vicki M.

    2004-01-01

    For the last three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing an enormous amount of useful data and information serving to broaden our understanding of the home planet as a system. NASA's Earth science program has deployed about 18 complex satellites and is in the process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in this decade. At the same time, the European Community and many other countries such as Russia, France, India, Japan, and China have also significantly contributed to Earth science research. To date, the majority of such efforts have concentrated on expanding our scientific understanding of the multiple nonlinear and chaotic processes of Earth's behavior. In recent years, legislators and stakeholders have put serious pressure on the science community to devote more attention to making use of scientific results for societal benefit. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural efficiency, disaster management, air quality and public health that can directly take advantage of Earth science results to analyze and predict large scale problems and conditions. This is becoming even more important now that we live in a global economy interconnected via the internet and transportation systems; regional environmental conditions can have far reaching impact across continental boundaries. These factors dictate requirements for global data that can help us assess and control the devastating problems of famine, water resources, wildfires, human health and more. To do this requires a serious, organized, and systematic approach that transfers fundamental research products to the applied sciences domain. This paper presents a systems engineering and management process that can effectively make such transfer of data to the user community. Examples are presented on how the above decision making framework can help in solving critical problems such as the spread of vector borne

  14. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, Dave, E-mail: amit0@astro.washington.edu [NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  15. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, Dave

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  16. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  17. Electrical discharge phenomena application for solid fossil fuels in-situ conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharkin, A A; Lopatin, V V; Martemyanov, S M; Koryashov, I A

    2014-01-01

    The application of high voltage to oil shale initiates partial discharges (PDs) with the following treeing like in insulating dielectrics. Critical PDs and treeing with a high propagation rate occur under the low electrical intensity ∼10 2 V/cm due to oil shale's high porosity, heterogeneity and anisotropy. The completed discharge occurs as a result of these phenomena. Carbonization is initiated around a plasma channel at the treeing stage and extended during electromagnetic action time. Carbonized rock electrical resistance decreases by 8÷10 degrees to 10 ohm·cm, and shale and coal could be heated by Joule heat in carbonized volume and discharge plasma. A high-current supply is necessary for this heating stage. Also, a high- voltage supply with steep-grade characteristics can be used for PDs and treeing initiating and heating the carbonized rock with low resistance. Thus, these phenomena allow in-situ processing in order to produce a flammable gas and synthetic oil from inferior solid fossil fuels by pyrolytic conversion. Computations show that the ratio between energy derived from gas flaming and energy for shale conversion is more than fifty. Therefore, oil shale conversion with the help of electrical discharge phenomena application can be very efficient, as it needs little energy

  18. Characterization of solid UV curable 3D printer resins for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we report a simple method to evaluate biocompatibility of solid UV cross-linked resin as a material for microfluidic devices that can be used for biological applications. We evaluated the biocompatibility of the material in two different ways (1) determining if the UV cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (2) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-CRP antibodies and C- reactive protein (CRP) proteins were allowed to agglutinate. Six different types of 3D printer resins were compared to test the biocompatibility. The study showed that only few among them could be used for fabrication of micro channels and that had least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions. Through these studies it is possible to estimate the curing time of various resin and their type of interaction with biomolecules. This study finds importance in on-chip tissue engineering and organ-on-chip applications.

  19. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  20. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  1. Applicability of UV laser-induced solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Eva; Meyer, Hans; Weigel, Diana; Pritzke, Heinz; Posch, Tjorben N; Kler, Pablo A; Schürmann, Klaus; Roscher, Jörg; Huhn, Carolin

    2014-10-01

    High production output of solid pharmaceutical formulations requires fast methods to ensure their quality. Likewise, fast analytical procedures are required in forensic sciences, for example at customs, to substantiate an initial suspicion. We here present the design and the optimization of an instrumental setup for rapid and non-invasive characterization of tablets by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (with a UV-laser (λ ex = 266 nm) as excitation source) in reflection geometry. The setup was first validated with regard to repeatability, bleaching phenomena, and sensitivity. The effect on the spectra by the physical and chemical properties of the samples, e.g. their hardness, homogeneity, chemical composition, and granule grain size of the uncompressed material, using a series of tablets, manufactured in accordance with design of experiments, was investigated. Investigation of tablets with regard to homogeneity, especially, is extremely important in pharmaceutical production processes. We demonstrate that multiplicative scatter correction is an appropriate tool for data preprocessing of fluorescence spectra. Tablets with different physical and chemical characteristics can be discriminated well from their fluorescence spectra by subjecting the results to principal component analysis.

  2. Characterization of cellular solids in Ti6Al4V for orthopaedic implant applications: Trabecular titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E; Fusi, S; Pressacco, M; Paussa, L; Fedrizzi, L

    2010-07-01

    EBM (Electron Beam Melting) technology can be used successfully to obtain cellular solids in metallic biomaterials that can greatly increase osseointegration in arthroprothesis and at the same time maintain good mechanical properties. The investigated structures, called Trabecular Titanium, usually cannot be obtained by traditional machining. Two samples: (A) with a smaller single cell area and, (B) with a bigger single cell area, were produced and studied in this project. They have been completely characterized and compared with the results in similar literature pertinent to Ti6Al4V EBM structures. Relative density was evaluated using different methods, the mean diameter of the open porosities was calculated by Scanning Electron Microscope images; the composition was evaluated using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy; the microstructure (alpha-beta) was investigated using chemical etching and, the mechanical proprieties were investigated using UMTS. The mean porosity values resulted comparable with spongy bone (63% for A and 72% for B). The mean diameter of the single porosity (650 mum for A and 1400 mum for B) resulted compatible with the osseointegration data from the literature, in particular for sample A. The Vickers micro-hardness tests and the chemical etching demonstrated that the structure is fine, uniform and well distributed. The mechanical test proved that sample (A) was more resistant than sample (B), but sample (B) showed an elastic modulus almost equal to the value of spongy bone. The results of this study suggest that the two Ti6Al4V cellular solids can be used in biomedical applications to promote osseointegration demonstrating that they maybe successfully used in prosthetic implants. Additional implant results will be published in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Theory and Applications of Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy to Biomembrane Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolin

    Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the premiere biophysical methods that can be applied for addressing the structure and dynamics of biomolecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. It illustrates the general problem of determining the average biomolecular structure, including the motional mean-square amplitudes and rates of the fluctuations. Lineshape and relaxtion studies give us a view into the molecular properties under different environments. To help the understanding of NMR theory, both lineshape and relaxation experiments are conducted with hexamethylbezene (HMB). This chemical compound with a simple structure serves as a perfect test molecule. Because of its highly symmetric structure, its motions are not very difficult to understand. The results for HMB set benchmarks for other more complicated systems like membrane proteins. After accumulating a large data set on HMB, we also proceed to develop a completely new method of data analysis, which yields the spectral densities in a body-fixed frame revealing internal motions of the system. Among the possible applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we study the light activation mechanism of visual rhodopsin in lipid membranes. As a prototype of G-protein-coupled receptors, which are a large class of membrane proteins, the cofactor isomerization is triggered by photon absorption, and the local structural change is then propagated to a large-scale conformational change of the protein. Facilitation of the binding of transducin then passes along the visual signal to downstream effector proteins like transducin. To study this process, we introduce 2H labels into the rhodopsin chromophore retinal and the C-terminal peptide of transducin to probe the local structure and dynamics of these two hotspots of the rhodopsin activation process. In addition to the examination of local sites with solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) provides us the chance of

  5. Fully automated dissolution and separation methods for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry rock analysis. Application to the determination of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, K.; Mevelle, G.

    1987-01-01

    In rock analysis laboratories, sample preparation is a serious problem, or even an enormous bottleneck. Because this laboratory is production-oriented, this problem was attacked by automating progressively, different steps in rock analysis for major, minor and trace elements. This effort has been considerably eased by the fact that all sample preparation schemes in this laboratory for the past three decades have been based on an initial lithium borate fusion of rock samples and all analytical methods based on multi-element atomic emission spectrometry, with switch-over from solid analysis by arc/spark excitation to solution analysis by plasma excitation in 1974. The sample preparation steps which have been automated are: weighing of samples and fluxes, lithium borate fusion, dissolution and dilution of fusion products and ion-exchange separation of difficult trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE). During 1985 and 1986, these different unit operations have been assembled together as peripheral units in the form of a workstation, called LabRobStation. A travelling robot is the master of LabRobStation, with all peripheral units at its reach in 10 m 2 workspace. As an example of real application, the automated determination of REE, based on more than 8000 samples analysed during 1982 and 1986, is presented. (author)

  6. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  7. Application of heat pump by using the earth temperature gradient for winter heating and summer cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacevski, Marijan; Tanev, Pepi

    2003-01-01

    Because of the rapid technique development as well as modern human life, in order to satisfy the energy needs it is necessary to use a new apparatus and devices. In this manner, the electric power consumption, especially for heating and cooling, rapidly increases. One of the possible ways to reduce the consumption of electric energy for heating and cooling is that, to use heat pumps. In this paper a heat pump that uses the heat of the earth by a horizontal polyethylene pipe heat exchanger is proposed. Also, all parameters are examined and comparison with already existing ones is done. The heat gradient of the earth in spite of saving electrical energy is analyzed as well. (Original)

  8. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Quanyin Tan; Chao Deng; Jinhui Li

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation a...

  9. A simple magnetic model for intermetallics of rare earths: application to PrAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke, P.J. von; Palermo, L.; Silva, X.A. da.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified description of crystal field for rare earth ion systems, taking in account the first two energy levels is presented. The Hamiltonian is constructed using wave functions of these levels and, the equation of magnetic state is derived. The model is applied to PrAl 2 using experimental data of magnetization versus temperature. The parameters of magnetic behaviour at T = OK and T = T c are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  10. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  11. Bringing solid fuel ramjet projectiles closer to application - An overview of the TNO/RWMS technology demonstration programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.; Giusti, G.

    2005-01-01

    TNO executed a technology demonstration programme in co-operation with RWMS on the application of solid fuel ramjet propulsion technology to medium calibre air defence projectiles. From 2000 to 2004 a complete and integrated structural and aero-thermodynamic projectile design was conceived

  12. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of parameters for microwave heating of rare earth carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shaohua; Lin, Guo; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-09-01

    Microwave heating has been applied in the field of drying rare earth carbonates to improve drying efficiency and reduce energy consumption. The effects of power density, material thickness and drying time on the weight reduction (WR) are studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that RSM is feasible to describe the relationship between the independent variables and weight reduction. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the model is in accordance with the experimental data. The optimum experiment conditions are power density 6 w/g, material thickness 15 mm and drying time 15 min, resulting in an experimental weight reduction of 73%. Comparative experiments show that microwave drying has the advantages of rapid dehydration and energy conservation. Particle analysis shows that the size distribution of rare earth carbonates after microwave drying is more even than those in an oven. Based on these findings, microwave heating technology has an important meaning to energy-saving and improvement of production efficiency for rare earth smelting enterprises and is a green heating process.

  13. Data-driven exploration of copper mineralogy and its application to Earth's near-surface oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Eleish, A.; Runyon, S.; Prabhu, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ralph, J.; Golden, J. J.; Downs, R. T.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Hazen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition has changed radically throughout geologic history.1,2 The oxidation of our atmosphere, driven by biology, began with the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.5 Ga and has heavily influenced Earth's near surface mineralogy. Therefore, temporal trends in mineral occurrence elucidate large and small scale geologic and biologic processes. Cu, and other first-row transition elements, are of particular interest due to their variation in valance state and sensitivity to ƒO2. Widespread formation of oxidized Cu mineral species (Cu2+) would not have been possible prior to the GOE and we have found that the proportion of oxidized Cu minerals increased steadily with the increase in atmospheric O2 on Earth's surface (see Fig. 1). To better characterize the changes in Cu mineralogy through time, we have employed advanced analytical and visualization methods. These techniques rely on large and growing mineral databases (e.g., rruff.info, mindat.org, earthchem.org, usgs.gov) and allow us to quantify and visualize multi-dimensional trends.5

  14. Application of neutron actication analysis to the determination of impurities in rare earth oxides produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Oliveira Lellis, L. de.

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes a method for trace analysis in high purity rare earth oxides. This method is an application of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results of analysis obtained in La 2 O 3 , CeO 2 , Pr 6 O 11 Nd 2 O 3 , Sm 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP are presented. A detailed study of the possible interference found in the neutron activation of these materials is also made. The sensitivity of the method is determined for impurities not detected in each sample. (author) [pt

  15. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    ASDC data for other client applications such as MATLAB, GrADS, and IDV. OPeNDAP has become a very popular alternative for data access especially at the university research level with over 375 OPeNDAP-accessible data sets registered nationally. Teacher workshops will be held each summer for five years to help teachers learn about incorporating NASA microsets in their curriculum. The next MY NASA DATA teacher workshop will be held at Langley Research Center July 25-29, 2005. Workshop participants will create microsets and lesson plans that they believe will help their students understand Earth system concepts. These lesson plans will be reviewed and shared online as user-contributed content.

  16. Quantification of uncertainty in first-principles predicted mechanical properties of solids: Application to solid ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2016-08-01

    associated with the DFT-calculated elastic properties of solid state Li-ion and Na-ion conductors.

  17. The application of Legacy Cycles in the development of Earth Science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K.; Abernathy, E.; Negrito, K.; McCall, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute for Geophysics in the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas at Austin actively contributes to K-12 education, including the development of rigorous Earth and Space Science curriculum designed for secondary school learning environments. Here we report on our efforts to apply an innovative new pedagogical approach, the Legacy Cycle, to scientific ocean drilling paleoclimate data from fossil corals collected offshore Barbados in 2006 and to the creation of a high school water resources education program for Texas high school students supported by a grant from the Texas Water Development Board. The Legacy Cycle makes use of the Internet and computer technology to engage students in extended inquiry learning. A series of inquiry activities are organized around a set of three driving questions, or challenges. Students mimic the work of scientists by generating ideas to address a given challenge, listening to multiple perspectives from experts on the topic, researching a set of sub-questions and revising their original ideas, testing their mettle with labs and quizzes, and finally composing a project or paper that answers the original challenge. The technology makes it easy for students to move through the challenges and the organizational framework since there are hyperlinks to each of the sections (and to reach the other challenges) at the bottom of each webpage. Students' final work is posted to the Internet for others to see, and in this way they leave behind their legacy. Our Legacy Cycle activities use authentic hydrologic, water quality, geochemical, geophysical data, as well as remotely sensed data such as is collected by satellites. They are aligned with the U.S. National Science Education Standards, the new Ocean, Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles (in development), and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science. The work represents a collaboration involving teachers from The University of

  18. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tolis, Athanasios I.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  19. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-01-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher

  20. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  1. Policy Document on Earth Observation for Urban Planning and Management: State of the Art and Recommendations for Application of Earth Observation in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet; King, Bruce; Xiaoli, Ding; Dowman, Ian; Quattrochi, Dale; Ehlers, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    A policy document on earth observation for urban planning and management resulting from a workshop held in Hong Kong in November 2006 is presented. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and scientists specializing in earth observation to interact with practitioners working in different aspects of city planning, in a complex and dynamic city, Hong Kong. A summary of the current state of the art, limitations, and recommendations for the use of earth observation in urban areas is presented here as a policy document.

  2. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  3. Solid ionic: these unusual materials applications in high-energy-density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, D.F.; Farrington, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The idea that ions can diffuse as rapidly in a solid as in an aqueous salt solution may seem strange to many chemists. But a variety of solids with high ionic conductivities are known. Compounds have been discovered that conduct anions (including F - and O 2- ) and cations (including monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations). These substances range from hard, refractory materials, such as sodium β-alumina, through softer compounds, such as silver iodide (AgI) to the very soft polymer electrolytes. They include compounds that are stoichiometric (AgI), nonstoichiometric (sodium β-alumina), or doped (calcia-stabilized zirconia). A variety of names have been applied to these materials: among them, solid electrolytes, superionic conductors, and fast-ion conductors. Fast-ion transport in solids is a lively area of study in solid-state chemistry and physics. High-conductivity solid electrolytes have revolutionized conventional concepts of ionic compounds, and their potential uses range from high-energy-density battery and fuel-cell electrolytes to chemical sensors and from lasers to phosphors. Devices using solid electrolytes are already available commercially-oxygen detectors for automotive pollution-control systems employ solid O 2- electrolytes, and solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are employed in heart pacemakers

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  5. Solid dispersion application in pharmaceutical technology: Methods of preparation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Medarević, Đorđe; Ibrić, Svetlana; Đuriš, Jelena; Đurić, Zorica

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of newly synthesized drugs exhibit low aqueous solubility, leading to poor bioavailability. Therefore, improving drug solubility and dissolution rate became one of the greatest challenges during formulation development. Solid dispersions formulation is one of the commonly investigated techniques for improving solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are dispersions of one or more drugs in an inert carrier (matrix) in the solid state prepared by melting, solvent, ...

  6. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  7. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  8. Stochastic disturbances and dynamics of thermal processes. With application to municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kessel, L.B.M.

    2003-06-11

    The main topic of this thesis is the research into the disturbances and dynamics of the Municipal and Solid Waste Combustion (MSWC) process. As already said, the MSWC process suffers from large disturbances in the calorific value. At the start of this research it was obvious that for a good process analysis of the dynamics more information about the disturbances would be necessary. Therefore, a new on-line calorific value sensor was developed, which is described in chapter 2. The new on-line calorific value sensor makes it possible to monitor on-line important process variables like the calorific value and the water content of the fuel. The sensor is used to collect data from four different MSWC plants. Results from these MSWC plants will be presented. A comparison with traditional off-line methods and possible applications will be discussed as well. After revealing the main disturbances of the process the study of the process dynamics can be performed. A mathematical dynamic model of the process is very useful for studying the dynamics of a process. Therefore, in chapter 3 a general model for the dynamics of thermal processes is derived. This general model is applied to MSWC, which yields a completely new model description of the MSWC process. However, a model has to be validated with practical data. Unfortunately, MSWC plants suffer from large disturbances, which makes a good validation complicated. As no good information for the validation of processes like MSWC was available in literature, new validation techniques have been applied to MSWC plants. The validation results will be presented. The results from the validation experiments will show that the combustion process in practice can become completely different when different primary air temperatures are used. Two situations with different primary air temperatures will be discussed in detail including the application of the derived dynamic model to explain the differences. When the disturbances are measured

  9. Kinects as sensors in earth science: glaciological, geomorphological, and hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, K. D.; Russo, T. A.; Norris, B. K.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Beem, L.; Walter, J. I.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The $150 Kinect (a video game input device used with the Microsoft Xbox system) can be used by earth scientists as a sensor. The device contains a visual wavelength camera, a depth-sensing camera, and three accelerometers. Because of the efforts of the hacking community it is now easy to communicate with a Kinect from a standard personal computer. We present initial results from two test sites: 1) On the surface of a glacier in Alaska where we tracked ice, water, and debris, and 2) From a lake and stream in New Jersey, where we evaluated device capabilities to image below the water surface in lentic and lotic environments.

  10. Assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell tri-generation system for building applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental assessment of a first-of-its-kind tri-generation system. • High tri-generation efficiencies of 68–71%. • Inclusion of liquid desiccant provides efficiency increase of 9–15%. • System only economically viable with a government’s financial support. - Abstract: The paper provides a performance analysis assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) liquid desiccant tri-generation system for building applications. The work presented serves to build upon the current literature related to experimental evaluations of SOFC tri-generation systems, particularly in domestic built environment applications. The proposed SOFC liquid desiccant tri-generation system will be the first-of-its-kind. No research activity is reported on the integration of SOFC, or any fuel cell, with liquid desiccant air conditioning in a tri-generation system configuration. The novel tri-generation system is suited to applications that require simultaneous electrical power, heating and dehumidification/cooling. There are several specific benefits to the integration of SOFC and liquid desiccant air conditioning technology, including; very high operational electrical efficiencies even at low system capacities and the ability to utilise low-grade thermal energy in a (useful) cooling process. Furthermore, the novel tri-generation system has the potential to increase thermal energy utilisation and thus the access to the benefits achievable from on-site electrical generation, primarily; reduced emissions and operating costs. Using empirical SOFC and liquid desiccant component data, an energetic, economic and environmental performance analysis assessment of the novel system is presented. Significant conclusions from the work include: (1) SOFC and liquid desiccant are a viable technological pairing in the development of an efficient and effective tri-generation system. High tri-generation efficiencies in the range of 68–71% are attainable. (2) The inclusion of

  11. Does the conductivity of interconnect coatings matter for solid oxide fuel cell applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Claudia; Fefekos, Alexander G.; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The present work aims to quantify the influence of typical interconnect coatings used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on area specific resistance (ASR). To quantify the effect of the coating, the dependency of coating thickness on the ASR is examined on Crofer 22 APU at 600 °C. Three different Co coating thicknesses are investigated, 600 nm, 1500 nm, and 3000 nm. Except for the reference samples, the material is pre-oxidized prior to coating to mitigate the outward diffusion of iron and consequent formation of poorly conducting (Co,Fe)3O4 spinel. Exposures are carried out at 600 °C in stagnant laboratory air for 500 h and subsequent ASR measurements are performed. Additionally the microstructure is investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On all pre-oxidized samples, a homogenous dense Co3O4 top layer is observed beneath which a thin layer of Cr2O3 is present. As the ASR values range between 7 and 12 mΩcm2 for all pre-oxidized samples, even though different Co3O4 thicknesses are observed, the results strongly suggest that for most applicable cases the impact of the coating on ASR is negligible and the main contributor is Cr2O3.

  12. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-11-01

    Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gelcasting of strontium doped lanthanum manganite for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Haleem, B.; Bhuvana, R.; Udayakumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are devices that offer high efficiency power output with negligible emissions. Cathode supported tubular SOFCs consist of porous cathode tubes made up of strontium doped lanthanum manganite, La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (LSM) that work as functional component as well as structural support for the rest of the cell components. Gelcasting is one of the most suitable methods for the fabrication of porous ceramics. This paper describes the fabrication of porous LSM cathode by gelcasting process. Gelcasting parameters such as monomer concentration, powder volume fraction, pH of the slurry, etc were optimized. Slow drying of green specimens minimized warpage and cracking. Sintered specimens with controlled porosity were obtained by the use of suitable pore-forming agents. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of sintered specimens was measured, which was found matching with the CTE values of cell components reported in the literature. These results have shown the suitability of the gelcast generated LSM cathodes for SOFC applications. (author)

  14. A large deformation theory of solids subject to electromagnetic loads and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, I.; Sasaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    A large deformation theory of deformable solids is proposed in which the interaction with electromagnetic fields is taken into account. Weak forms of the Maxwell's equations in a fixed reference configuration together with the balance of momentum constitute the governing equations for our theory. The weak forms of the Maxwell's equations in a reference configuration can be derived by the direct transformation from spatial weak forms. The results coincide with the weak forms obtained from the local expressions by Lax and Nelson though we made a distinction between the covariant and contravariant vector explicitly. For the deformable body subject to the electromagnetic fields, weak forms of the Ampere's law and/or the Faraday's law, when combined with the weak form of the balance of momentum, can serve as the governing equations of the theory. As is known, however, these equations are not sufficient to describe the response of a specific material due to a given loading. As for the momentum balance, we need the dependency of stress on the deformation and objective constitutive equations of hyperelasticity, hypoelasticity and inelasticity are available. Parallel to these, objective constitutive equations for the electromagnetism are discussed. As an application of the theory, linearized equations for quasi-static deformation under magnetic field is derived based on the vector potential formulation. (author)

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds: Overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sara; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Campos, Débora; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2017-06-13

    Drug delivery systems, accompanied by nanoparticle technology, have recently emerged as prominent solutions to improve the pharmacokinetic properties, namely bioavailability, of therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received much attention from researchers due to their potential to protect or improve drug properties. SLNs have been reported to be an alternative system to traditional carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles. Phenolic compounds are widespread in plant-derived foodstuffs and therefore abundant in our diet. Over the last decades, phenolic compounds have received considerable attention due to several health promoting properties, mostly related to their antioxidant activity, which can have important implications for health. However, most of these compounds have been associated with poor bioavailability being poorly absorbed, rapidly metabolized and eliminated, which compromises its biological and pharmacological benefits. This paper provides a systematic review of the use of SLNs as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds, in order to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations of these compounds and improved nutraceutical potential. In vitro studies, as well as works describing topical and oral treatments will be revisited and discussed. The classification, synthesis, and clinical application of these nanomaterials will be also considered in this review article.

  16. Production of tannase under solid-state fermentation and its application in detannification of guava juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Beniwal, Vikas; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Surender; Pathera, Ashok Kumar; Ray, Aradhita

    2014-01-01

    Guava juice is known to be rich in antioxidant activity due a high level of vitamins A and C. However, tannins present in the guava juice form tannin-protein complexes that affect the utilization of vitamins and minerals and inhibit digestive enzymes. Beside this, bitterness and cloudiness are the other major problems of juice industries. The present study aimed to utilize a low-cost substrate (tea residue) for the production of tannase and its application in detannification of guava juice. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce tannase from Aspergillus niger. Maximum tannase (1.86 U/g dry substrate) production was observed at 30°C after 96 hr of the incubation period. The optimum pH of the moistening agent was found to be 5.0. Partially purified enzyme using ammonium sulfate precipitation was subjected to guava juice treatment at a level of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% for 30 and 60 min. Decrease in tannic acid content of guava juice was found to be 17.60, 29.04, and 44.38% after 30 min and 40.59, 53.69, and 59.23% after 60 min, respectively.

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of planar solid oxide fuel cells for power generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q. [AlliedSignal Aerospce Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for a variety of electric power generation application. The planar design offers simple cell geometry, high power density, and multiple fabrication and gas manifolding options. Planar SOFC technology has received much attention recently, and significant progress has been made in this area. Recent effort at AlliedSignal has focused on the development of high-performance, lightweight planar SOFCs, having thin-electrolyte films, that can be operated efficiently at reduced temperatures (< 1000{degrees}C). The advantages of reduced-temperature operation include wider material choice (including use of metallic interconnects), expected longer cell life, reduced thermal stress, improved reliability, and reduced fuel cell cost. The key aspect in the development of thin-film SIFCs is to incorporate the thin electrolyte layer into the desired structure of cells in a manner that yields the required characteristics. AlliedSignal has developed a simple and cost-effective method based on tape calendering for the fabrication of thin-electrolyte SOFCs. Thin-electrolyte cells made by tape calendering have shown extraordinary performance, e.g., producing more than 500mW/cm{sup 2} at 700{degrees}C and 800mW/cm{sup 2} at 800{degrees}C with hydrogen as fuel and air is oxidant. thin-electrolyte single cells have been incorporated into a compliant metallic stack structure and operated at reduced and operated at reduced-temperature conditions.

  19. Fabrication and Application of (1-x) NaCl+xKCl Solid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi Kyi Lwin

    2011-12-01

    (1-X)NaCl+xKCl solid solution are prepared by the starting materials NaCl (0.9, 0.95) in equal molar ratio. The solid solutions are heat-treated at various temperature and XRD analyses are carried out for the solid solutions to examine the crystalline phase, crystallographic orientation and lattice parameters. The electrical properties of the solutions are determined by using the conductometer. The solid solutions are utilized as crystal oscillator and outcoming frequencies, capacitances and dielectric constants are also investigated.

  20. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Mei, E-mail: zhangmei@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Jingbo [The Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China.

  1. Studies and applications of nuclear tracks in solids in basic science and technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Khan, E.U.

    2008-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is now a well-established tool for the detection of charged particles with stopping power greater than a certain threshold value. Being a passive detection system, it existed in the form of primordial crystals and hence qualified to be regarded as the 'oldest' member of the nuclear detection systems. Since the advent of its laboratory use in 1958, the technique was adopted by different laboratories at different times all over the world. Pakistan is one of the countries that established an SSNTD-laboratory in the earliest developmental stage of the technique. Consequently, significant contributions were made by a small but energetic group of scientists toward the methodology of the technique as well as its applications in diverse areas such as nuclear physics, cosmology, material science, geology, geophysics, bio-medical physics and environmental science. In this article we will attempt to present a brief summary of the important advances made in the development of this technique and its innovative applications by Pakistani researchers in various fields of science and technology. As elsewhere in the world, the technique is not ubiquitous in all nuclear research laboratories in Pakistan because of the well-known limitations of the detection system. However, the number of workers involved in research studies has been growing over the years. These included both the fresh researchers as well as those who shifted from other research interests. This has resulted in a healthy reinforcement of the manpower engaged in SSNTD-based research work. After a selective presentation of the on-going investigations based on the use of SSNTDs in Pakistan, some comments are made for the possible future directions of progress. To put the Pakistani experience in international perspective, it is emphasized that the unique features of SSNTDs are facing serious challenges from rapid advances in high precision electronic detectors. The

  2. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO 3 /g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO 3 /g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China

  3. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  4. Rare-earth hafnium oxide materials for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, D. D; Bates, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Several ceramic materials based on rare-earth hafnium oxides have been identified as potential high-temperature electrodes and low-temperature current leadouts for open cycle coal-fired MHD generator channels. The electrode-current leadouts combination must operate at temperatures between 400 and 2000K with an electrical conductivity greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The electrodes will be exposed to flowing (linear flow rates up to 100 m/s) potassium seeded coal combustion gases (plasma core temperatures between 2400 to 3200/sup 0/K) and coal slag. During operation the electrodes must conduct direct electric current at densities near 1.5 amp/cm/sup 2/. Consequently, the electrodes must be resistant to electrochemical decompositions and interactions with both the coal slag and potassium salts (e.g., K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The current leadout materials are placed between the hot electrodes and the water-cooled copper structural members and must have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ between 1400 and 400/sup 0/K. The current leadouts must be thermally and electrochemically compatible with the electrode, copper, and potassium salts. Ideally, the electrodes and current leadouts should exhibit minimal ionic conductivity. The fabrication, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical corrosion of rare-earth hafnium oxide materials are discussed. (WHK)

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Materials for Additive Construction: Applications on Earth, the Moon, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Erick; Edmunson, Jennifer; Fiske, Michael; Christiansen, Eric; Miller, Josh; Davis, Bruce Alan; Read, Jon; Johnston, Mallory; Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    Additive Construction is the process of building infrastructure such as habitats, garages, roads, berms, etcetera layer by layer (3D printing). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pursuing additive construction to build structures using resources available in-situ. Using materials available in-situ reduces the cost of planetary missions and operations in theater. The NASA team is investigating multiple binders that can be produced on planetary surfaces, including the magnesium oxide-based Sorel cement; the components required to make Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), the common cement used on Earth, have been found on Mars. The availability of OPC-based concrete on Earth drove the USACE to pursue additive construction for base housing and barriers for military operations. Planetary and military base structures must be capable of resisting micrometeoroid impacts with velocities ranging from 11 to 72km/s for particle sizes 200 micrometers or more (depending on protection requirements) as well as bullets and shrapnel with a velocity of 1.036km/s with projectiles 5.66mm diameter and 57.40mm in length, respectively.

  6. Bioactivity of diatomaceous earth to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in different application conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto H. Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of diatomaceous earth (DE at different ambient temperatures on adult Sitophilus zeamais and progeny, using different doses and exposure periods. The experiments were performed in Petri dishes containing 40 g of the whole corn kernel, treated with DE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kg Mg-1. Each dish was infested with 25 S. zeamais adults and kept at climatic chambers under temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC. The insect mortality was recorded after six and 15 days from the beginning of the bioassays. The grains evaluated at 15 days were separated from insects and kept in the dishes for another 75 days under the same temperature conditions. After this period the effect of ambient temperature and of diatomaceous earth doses on the emergence of S. zeamais in the F1 generation was evaluated. It was found that the mortality of S. zeamais increased with the higher dose and temperature during the exposure period of six and 15 days. The number of insects emerged reduced with increasing temperature in these two exposure periods. The increase of temperature and exposure period favored the efficacy of DE in lower doses for control of S. zeamais.

  7. Analyze satellite-tracking laser data in order to study satellite ephemerides, solid-Earth and ocean tides and laser system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    The decrease in the semimajor axis of Lageos is considerably larger than expected. Gravitational effects, reference system effects, solar radiation pressure, Earth albedo pressure, neutral atmospheric drag, the Poynting Robertson Effect, and electrodynamic effects were used in explaining the observations. Quick look data provided are used to determine the Earth's polar motion and length of day. This process is routine, and provides these geophysical data every five days.

  8. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne Hong

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  9. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, Saeed A

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  10. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical report describes the experimental part of a program on thermal radiation properties of reactor materials. A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 μ to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 0 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  11. Modelling elasticity in solids using active cubes - application to simulated operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to elastic modelling of human tissue based on the use of 3D solid active models-active cubes (M. Bro-Nielsen, 1994)-and a shape description based on the metric tensor in a solid. Active cubes are used because they provide a natural parameterization of the surface a...

  12. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  13. Applications of beam-foil spectroscopy to atomic collisions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    Some selected papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Beam-Foil Spectroscopy, whose results are of particular pertinence to ionic collision phenomena in solids, are reviewed. The topics discussed include solid target effects and means of surmounting them in the measurement of excited projectile ion lifetimes for low-energy heavy element ions; the electron emission accompanying the passage of heavy particles through solid targets; the collision broadening of X rays emitted from 100 keV ions moving in solids; residual K-shell excitation in chlorine ions penetrating carbon; comparison between 40 MeV Si on gaseous SiH4 targets at 300 mtorr and 40 MeV Si on Al; and the emergent surface interaction in beam-foil spectroscopy. A distinct overlap of interests between the sciences of beam-foil spectroscopy and atomic collisions in solids is pointed out.

  14. A new perturbation theory of solids and fluids and its applications to high-pressure melting problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, F.H.

    1990-05-01

    A statistical mechanical theory that can describe both solids and fluids in a self-consistent way is described. This theory utilizes a optimized reference potential whose repulsive range shrinks with density. A unique feature of the new theory is that solid- and fluid-phase thermodynamic properties are both computed within a single theoretical framework. Hence, it allows us to study melting phenomena in a self-consistent manner. For solids, the new theory treats both harmonic and anharmonic effects in thermodynamic properties on equal footing. Applications to several model and rare gas systems show that the new theory can accurately predict fluid, solid, and fluid-solid transition properties. Effective pair potentials inferred from the analysis of krypton and xenon isotherms contain short- and long-range modifications to the Aziz-Slaman pair potential. The long-range correction is repulsive and originates from the Axilrod-Teller three-body force, while the short-range correction probably originates from many-body forces. Using the computed melting curves of krypton and neon, we discuss the range of validity of the corresponding states principle for rare gas systems. 68 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Solar radiation pressure application for orbital motion stabilization near the Sun-Earth collinear libration point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Shmyrov, Alexander; Shmyrov, Vasily

    2018-05-01

    Orbital maneuvering in a neighborhood of the collinear libration point L1 of Sun-Earth system has specific properties, primarily associated with the instability L1. For a long stay in this area of space the stabilization problem of orbital motion requires a solution. Numerical experiments have shown that for stabilization of motion it is requires very small control influence in comparison with the gravitational forces. On the other hand, the stabilization time is quite long - months, and possibly years. This makes it highly desirable to use solar pressure forces. In this paper we illustrate the solar sail possibilities for solving of stabilization problem in a neighborhood L1 with use of the model example.

  16. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Fares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.

  17. Assessment of applicability index for better management of municipal solid waste: a case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2018-06-01

    Selection of suitable municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options is one of the major challenges in urban areas of the developing countries. Success of MSWM requires accurate data of generation rate, composition and physico-chemical characteristics of solid wastes. Improper handling of solid waste can have significant environmental and aesthetical impacts. The present study proposes a new method (applicability index - P ik values) for identifying the most appropriate disposal option with the help of applicability values of Composting-C P , Incineration-I P and Landfill-L P for individual components of MSW based on the results of the physico-chemical analysis of the collected representative solid waste samples from the study area, Dhanbad, India. The mean values of moisture content, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, volatile organic carbon, fixed carbon, ash content, density and calorific values (CV) of individual components were used as input values in this process. Based on the proposed applicability index (P ik ), the highest P ik values were obtained for incineration (I P ) for plastics, polythene, paper, coconut shell, wood, cardboard, textile, thermocol (polystyrene), rubber, sugarcane bagasse, cow dung and leather wastes (I P  > C P  > L P ) due to high CV of these solid waste components; the highest P ik values were obtained for composting (C P ) of kitchen waste (C P  > I P  > L P ); and the highest P ik values for inert wastes were obtained for landfill option (L P  > I P  > C P ). The highest P ik value for a particular waste for a specific treatment option signifies that the waste is suitable for treatment/disposal using that option.

  18. Optimized Solid Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Dendrons Applicable as Scaffolds for Radiolabeled Bioactive Multivalent Compounds Intended for Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the commonly applied solution phase synthesis of dendritic scaffolds is cumbersome and time-consuming, a synthesis strategy was developed that allows for the efficient assembly of acid amide bond-based highly modular dendrons on solid support via standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocols. The obtained dendritic structures comprised up to 16 maleimide functionalities and were derivatized on solid support with the chelating agent DOTA. The functionalized dendrons furthermore could be efficiently reacted with structurally variable model thiol-bearing bioactive molecules via click chemistry and finally radiolabeled with 68Ga. Thus, this solid phase-assisted dendron synthesis approach enables the fast and straightforward assembly of bioactive multivalent constructs for example applicable as radiotracers for in vivo imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET.

  19. Bow shock studies at Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars with applications to the solar-planetary interaction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A series of bow shock studies conducted for the purpose of investigating the interaction between the solar wind and the terrestrial planets is presented. Toward this end appropriate modeling techniques have been developed and applied to the bow wave observations at Venus, Earth, and Mars. For Mercury the measurements are so few in number that no accurate determination of shock shape was deemed possible. Flow solutions generated using the observed bow wave surface as a boundary condition in a single fluid variable obstacle shape gasdynamic model produced excellent fits to the measured width and shape of the earth's magnetosheath. This result and the observed ordering of shock shape and position by upstream sonic Mach number provide strong support for the validity of the gasdynamic approximation. At Mercury the application of earth type models to the individual Mariner 10 boundry crossings has led to the determination of an effective planetary magnetic moment of 6+-2 x 10 22 G-cm 3 . Consistent with the presence of a small terrestrial style magnetosphere, southward interplanetary magnetic fields were found to significantly reduce the solar wind stand-off distance most probably through the effects of dayside magnetic reconnection. For Venus the low altitude solar wind flow field derived from gasdynamic modeling of bow shock location and shape indicates that a fraction of the incident streamlines are absorbed by the neutral atmosphere near the ionopause; approximately 1% and 8%, respectively, in the solar maximum Pioneer Venus and solar minimum Venera measurements. Accordingly, it appears that cometary processes must be included in model calculations of the solar wind flow about Venus. At Mars the moderate height of the gasdynamic solar wind-obstacle interface and the weakness of the Martian ionosphere/atmosphere are found to be incompatible with a Venus type interaction

  20. A discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter for the advection of non-diffusive fields in solid Earth geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Billen, Magali I.

    2017-02-01

    Mineral composition has a strong effect on the properties of rocks and is an essentially non-diffusive property in the context of large-scale mantle convection. Due to the non-diffusive nature and the origin of compositionally distinct regions in the Earth the boundaries between distinct regions can be nearly discontinuous. While there are different methods for tracking rock composition in numerical simulations of mantle convection, one must consider trade-offs between computational cost, accuracy or ease of implementation when choosing an appropriate method. Existing methods can be computationally expensive, cause over-/undershoots, smear sharp boundaries, or are not easily adapted to tracking multiple compositional fields. Here we present a Discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter (abbreviated as DG-BP) using a second order Runge-Kutta, strong stability-preserving time discretization method for the advection of non-diffusive fields. First, we show that the method is bound-preserving for a point-wise divergence free flow (e.g., a prescribed circular flow in a box). However, using standard adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) there is an over-shoot error (2%) because the cell average is not preserved during mesh coarsening. The effectiveness of the algorithm for convection-dominated flows is demonstrated using the falling box problem. We find that the DG-BP method maintains sharper compositional boundaries (3-5 elements) as compared to an artificial entropy-viscosity method (6-15 elements), although the over-/undershoot errors are similar. When used with AMR the DG-BP method results in fewer degrees of freedom due to smaller regions of mesh refinement in the neighborhood of the discontinuity. However, using Taylor-Hood elements and a uniform mesh there is an over-/undershoot error on the order of 0.0001%, but this error increases to 0.01-0.10% when using AMR. Therefore, for research problems in which a continuous field method is desired the DG

  1. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application......A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  2. Thermal characterization of indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode electron beam gun for melting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, B.; Gupta, S.; Malik, P.; Mishra, K.K.; Jha, M.N.; Kandaswamy, E.; Martin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam melting gun with indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode was designed, fabricated and characterized experimentally. The thermal simulation and optical analysis of the electron gun was carried out to estimate the power required to achieve the emission temperature of the solid cathode, to obtain the temperature distribution in the assembly and the beam transportation. On the basis of the thermal simulation and electron optics, the electron gun design was finalised. The electron gun assembly was fabricated and installed in the vacuum chamber for carrying out the experiment to find the actual temperature distribution. Thermocouple and two colour pyrometer were used to measure the temperature at various locations in the electron gun. The attenuation effect of the viewing port glass of the vacuum chamber was compensated in the final reading of the temperature measured by the pyrometer. The temperature of solid cathode obtained by the experiment was found to be 2800K which is the emission temperature of solid cathode. (author)

  3. Chemical cleavage reactions of DNA on solid support: application in mutation detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotton Richard GH

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional solution-phase Chemical Cleavage of Mismatch (CCM method is time-consuming, as the protocol requires purification of DNA after each reaction step. This paper describes a new version of CCM to overcome this problem by immobilizing DNA on silica solid supports. Results DNA test samples were loaded on to silica beads and the DNA bound to the solid supports underwent chemical modification reactions with KMnO4 (potassium permanganate and hydroxylamine in 3M TEAC (tetraethylammonium chloride solution. The resulting modified DNA was then simultaneously cleaved by piperidine and removed from the solid supports to afford DNA fragments without the requirement of DNA purification between reaction steps. Conclusions The new solid-phase version of CCM is a fast, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of mismatches and mutations.

  4. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  5. Manifold dynamics in the Earth-Moon system via isomorphic mapping with application to spacecraft end-of-life strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro; Giancotti, Marco; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    application of manifold dynamics to defining suitable, convenient end-of-life strategies for spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Seven distinct options are identified, and lead to placing the spacecraft into the final disposal orbit, which is either (a) a lunar capture orbit, (b) a lunar impact trajectory, (c) a stable lunar periodic orbit, or (d) an outer orbit, never approaching the Earth or the Moon. Two remarkable properties that relate the velocity variations with the spacecraft energy are employed for the purpose of identifying the optimal locations, magnitudes, and directions of the velocity impulses needed to perform the seven transfer trajectories. The overall performance of each end-of-life strategy is evaluated in terms of time of flight and propellant budget.

  6. Application of lattice-gas cellular automata to the Brownian motion of solids in suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.J.C.; Colvin, M.E.; Frenkel, D.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptation of lattice-gas cellular automata to the simulation of solid-fluid suspensions is described. The method incorporates both dissipative hydrodynamic forces and thermal fluctuations. At low solid densities, theoretical results for the drag force on a single disk and the viscosity of a suspension of disks are reproduced. The zero--shear-rate viscosity has been obtained over a range of packing fractions and results indicate that simulations of three-dimensional suspensions are feasible

  7. On application of asymmetric Kan-like exact equilibria to the Earth magnetotail modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovinskiy, Daniil B.; Kubyshkina, Darya I.; Semenov, Vladimir S.; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Kiehas, Stefan A.

    2018-04-01

    A specific class of solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, developed by means of generalization of the well-known Harris-Fadeev-Kan-Manankova family of exact two-dimensional equilibria, is studied. The examined model reproduces the current sheet bending and shifting in the vertical plane, arising from the Earth dipole tilting and the solar wind nonradial propagation. The generalized model allows magnetic configurations with equatorial magnetic fields decreasing in a tailward direction as slow as 1/x, contrary to the original Kan model (1/x3); magnetic configurations with a single X point are also available. The analytical solution is compared with the empirical T96 model in terms of the magnetic flux tube volume. It is found that parameters of the analytical model may be adjusted to fit a wide range of averaged magnetotail configurations. The best agreement between analytical and empirical models is obtained for the midtail at distances beyond 10-15 RE at high levels of magnetospheric activity. The essential model parameters (current sheet scale, current density) are compared to Cluster data of magnetotail crossings. The best match of parameters is found for single-peaked current sheets with medium values of number density, proton temperature and drift velocity.

  8. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal design of earth-moving machine elements with cusp catastrophe theory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitukhin, A. V.; Skobtsov, I. G.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design problem solution for the operator of an earth-moving machine with a roll-over protective structure (ROPS) in terms of the catastrophe theory. A brief description of the catastrophe theory is presented, the cusp catastrophe is considered, control parameters are viewed as Gaussian stochastic quantities in the first part of the paper. The statement of optimal design problem is given in the second part of the paper. It includes the choice of the objective function and independent design variables, establishment of system limits. The objective function is determined as mean total cost that includes initial cost and cost of failure according to the cusp catastrophe probability. Algorithm of random search method with an interval reduction subject to side and functional constraints is given in the last part of the paper. The way of optimal design problem solution can be applied to choose rational ROPS parameters, which will increase safety and reduce production and exploitation expenses.

  10. On the Large-Scaling Issues of Cloud-based Applications for Earth Science Dat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Next generation science data systems are needed to address the incoming flood of data from new missions such as NASA's SWOT and NISAR where its SAR data volumes and data throughput rates are order of magnitude larger than present day missions. Existing missions, such as OCO-2, may also require high turn-around time for processing different science scenarios where on-premise and even traditional HPC computing environments may not meet the high processing needs. Additionally, traditional means of procuring hardware on-premise are already limited due to facilities capacity constraints for these new missions. Experiences have shown that to embrace efficient cloud computing approaches for large-scale science data systems requires more than just moving existing code to cloud environments. At large cloud scales, we need to deal with scaling and cost issues. We present our experiences on deploying multiple instances of our hybrid-cloud computing science data system (HySDS) to support large-scale processing of Earth Science data products. We will explore optimization approaches to getting best performance out of hybrid-cloud computing as well as common issues that will arise when dealing with large-scale computing. Novel approaches were utilized to do processing on Amazon's spot market, which can potentially offer 75%-90% costs savings but with an unpredictable computing environment based on market forces.

  11. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  12. Localized-itinerant magnetism: a simple model with applications to intermetallic of heavy rare-earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke Perlingueiro, P.J. von.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated various magnetic quantities of a system consisting of conduction electrons coupled to localized spins. In obtaining the magnetic state equations (which relate the ionic and electronic magnetisations to temperature and the model parameters) we have adopted the molecular field approximation. This simple model is of interest to the magnetism of the heavy rare earth intermettallics. For these systems the localized spin is that of the 4f shell; it is described by the parameters g (the Lande's factor) and J (the total angular momentum of the 4f electrons in the ground state). We derive an analytical linear relation between the critical temperature and The Gennes Factors J(J+1)(g-1) which is experimentally observed for RAl 2 . A fitting between the experimental points and the theoretical prediction gives for the exchange parameter the value J o = 48.6 meV. We have also performed a parametric study of the model, using a rectangular energy density of states. The results are shown on tables and diagrams. (author) [pt

  13. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  14. Application of rare-earth magnets in high-performance electric machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Some state of the art developments of high-performance machines using rare-earth magnets are reviewed with particular examples drawn from a number of novel machine designs developed jointly by the Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) and CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics. These designs include an 1800 W, 1060 rev/min, 98% efficient solar car in-wheel motor using a Halbach magnet array, axial flux, and ironless winding; a 1200 W, 3000 rev/min, 91% efficient solar-powered, water-filled, submersible, bore-hole pump motor using a surface magnet rotor; a 500 W, 10000 rev/min, 87% efficient, oil-filled, oil-well tractor motor using a 2-pole cylindrical magnet rotor and slotless winding; a 75 kW, 48000 rev/min, 97% efficient, high-speed compressor drive with 2-pole cylindrical magnet rotor, slotted stator, and refrigerant cooling; and a 20 kW, 211 rev/min, 87% efficient, direct-drive generator for wind turbines with very low starting torque using an outer rotor with surface magnets and a slotted stator. (orig.)

  15. AMS exposure dating : a case study from Himalaya and Tibet and its application potentials in earth science studies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has made possible low level (10 -6 atoms/gm) measurements of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I isotopes in geological materials. Early studies investigated 10 Be atoms of cosmogenic nuclides produced mainly in the atmosphere (called garden variety), which subsequently admixed with the geological material from land surfaces get transported into the ocean waters and fixed in the ocean sediments. Subsequently, focus shifted to in-situ produced long-lived isotopes in quartz and their measurement in the terrestrial samples. This opened a new field of exposure dating and its potential applications in earth sciences and their role to study the time controlled processes resulting in diverse geomorphic landforms

  16. Recent results of examination of the applicability of polyoxonium compounds to the extraction separation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalova, M.

    1992-01-01

    Macrocyclic polyethers possess an extraordinary ability to bond with high selectivity to metal ions. The salt-polyether complex is formed by ion-dipole interaction between the cation and the negatively charged oxygen atoms symmetrically positioned in the polyether ring. Compounds of cyclic polyethers can be employed as extractants in solvent extraction systems, which not only can be applied to the separation of ions but also can provide information on the mechanism of the complexation. The process of extraction of lanthanides in the presence of hydrophobic counter-ions is described, and the calculated equilibrium constants are given. A survey is presented of the application of polyoxonium compounds to the extraction separation of rare earths. (M.D.). 12 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs

  17. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2011-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  18. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2007-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  19. Luminescent rare earth vanadate nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ and Bi3 for sensing and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alberto; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Zyuzin, Mikhail; Hartmann, Raimo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting interest in nanomedicine due to their potential medical applications, ranging from optical biolabels and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to carriers for drug and gene delivery for disease therapy.[1] Rare earth (RE) based nanophosphors exhibit important advantages compared with other available luminescent materials, such as quantum dots and nanostructures functionalized with organic dyes, due to their lower toxicities, photostabilities, high thermal and chemical stabilities, high luminescence quantum yields, and sharp emission bands.[2] Yttrium orthovanadate NPs doped with Eu3+ and Bi3+, functionalized with poly acryl acid (PAA), and excitable by near-ultraviolet light have been synthesized by homogeneous precipitation at 120 °C from solutions of rare earth precursors (yttrium acetylacetonate and europium nitrate), bismuth nitrate, sodium orthovanadate, and PAA, in an ethylene glycol/water mixture. Quasispheres with sizes from 93 to 51 nm were obtained. The as synthesized NPs were already functionalized with PAA. The NPs showed the typical red luminescence of Eu3+, which can be excited with near-UV light through an energy transfer from the vanadate anion. The presence of Bi3+ shifts the maximum of the broad excitation band from 280 nm to 342 nm. This excitation path is much more efficient than the direct excitation of the Eu3+ electronic levels, and results in a much higher luminescence. The NPs can be uptaken by HeLa cells, and are eventually located in the lysosomes after being internalized. Finally, the functionalization with PAA provides -COOH anchors for adding functional ligands of biomedical interest that can be used for sensing applications.

  20. Generating Southern Africa Precipitation Forecast Using the FEWS Engine, a New Application for the Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; Husak, G. J.; Friedrichs, M.; Funk, C. C.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence-based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The network of FEWS NET analysts and scientists require flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. Because they often work in bandwidth-limited regions, lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets are preferred for their work. To support food security analysis FEWS NET developed a custom interface for the Google Earth Engine (GEE). GEE is a platform developed by Google to support scientific analysis of environmental data in their cloud computing environment. This platform allows scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data, leveraging Google's vast computational resources for purposes of detecting changes and monitoring the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). CHIRPS precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. In this talk we introduce the FEWS Engine interface. We present an application that highlights the utility of FEWS Engine for forecasting the upcoming seasonal precipitation of southern Africa. Specifically, the current state of ENSO is assessed and used to identify similar historical seasons. The FEWS Engine compositing tool is used to examine rainfall and other environmental data for these analog seasons. The application illustrates the unique benefits of using FEWS Engine for on-the-fly food security scenario development.

  1. A Global Capacity Building Vision for Societal Applications of Earth Observing Systems and Data: Key Questions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix; Granger, Stephanie; Thomas, Amy; Saah, David; Ganz, David; Mugo, Robinson; Murthy, M. S. R.; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; hide

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building using Earth observing (EO) systems and data (i.e., from orbital and nonorbital platforms) to enable societal applications includes the network of human, nonhuman, technical, nontechnical, hardware, and software dimensions that are necessary to successfully cross the valley [of death; see NRC (2001)] between science and research (port of departure) and societal application (port of arrival). In many parts of the world (especially where ground-based measurements are scarce or insufficient), applications of EO data still struggle for longevity or continuity for a variety of reasons, foremost among them being the lack of resilient capacity. An organization is said to have resilient capacity when it can retain and continue to build capacity in the face of unexpected shocks or stresses. Stresses can include intermittent power and limited Internet bandwidth, constant need for education on ever-increasing complexity of EO systems and data, communication challenges between the ports of departure and arrival (especially across time zones), and financial limitations and instability. Shocks may also include extreme events such as disasters and losing key staff with technical and institutional knowledge.

  2. Large scale inverse problems computational methods and applications in the earth sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Scheichl, Robert; Freitag, Melina A; Kindermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book is thesecond volume of three volume series recording the ""Radon Special Semester 2011 on Multiscale Simulation & Analysis in Energy and the Environment"" taking place in Linz, Austria, October 3-7, 2011. The volume addresses the common ground in the mathematical and computational procedures required for large-scale inverse problems and data assimilation in forefront applications.

  3. A comparison of Doppler lidar wind sensors for Earth-orbit global measurement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Now, there are four Doppler lidar configurations which are being promoted for the measurement of tropospheric winds: (1) the coherent CO2 Lidar, operating in the 9 micrometer region using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure CO2 gas discharge laser transmitter, and heterodyne detection; (2) the coherent Neodymium doped YAG or Glass Lidar, operating at 1.06 micrometers, using flashlamp or diode laser optical pumping of the solid state laser medium, and heterodyne detection; (3) the Neodymium doped YAG/Glass Lidar, operating at the doubled frequency (at 530 nm wavelength), again using flashlamp or diode laser pumping of the laser transmitter, and using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection; and (4) the Raman shifted Xenon Chloride Lidar, operating at 350 nm wavelength, using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure XeCl gas discharge laser transmitter at 308 nm, Raman shifted in a high pressure hydrogen cell to 350 nm in order to avoid strong stratospheric ozone absorption, also using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection. Comparisons of these four systems can include many factors and tradeoffs. The major portion of this comparison is devoted to efficiency. Efficiency comparisons are made by estimating the number of transmitted photons required for a single pulse wind velocity estimate of + or - 1 m/s accuracy in the middle troposphere, from an altitude of 800 km, which is assured to be reasonable for a polar orbiting platform.

  4. A generalized approach to wheat yield forecasting using earth observations: Data considerations, application and relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, Inbal

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. The issue of food security has rapidly risen to the top of government agendas around the world as the recent lack of food access led to unprecedented food prices, hunger, poverty, and civil conflict. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world's crop production, for stabilizing food prices, developing effective agricultural policies, and for coordinating responses to regional food shortages. Earth Observations (EO) data offer a practical means for generating such information as they provide global, timely, cost-effective, and synoptic information on crop condition and distribution. Their utility for crop production forecasting has long been recognized and demonstrated across a wide range of scales and geographic regions. Nevertheless it is widely acknowledged that EO data could be better utilized within the operational monitoring systems and thus there is a critical need for research focused on developing practical robust methods for agricultural monitoring. Within this context this dissertation focused on advancing EO-based methods for crop yield forecasting and on demonstrating the potential relevance for adopting EO-based crop forecasts for providing timely reliable agricultural intelligence. This thesis made contributions to this field by developing and testing a robust EO-based method for wheat production forecasting at state to national scales using available and easily accessible data. The model was developed in Kansas (KS) using coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series data in conjunction with out-of-season wheat masks and was directly applied in Ukraine to assess its transferability. The model estimated yields within 7% in KS and 10% in Ukraine of final estimates 6 weeks prior to harvest. The relevance of adopting such methods to

  5. Effect of composition in the development of carbamazepine hot-melt extruded solid dispersions by application of mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Ioannis, Nikolakakis; Ibric, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of hot-melt extrusion for the formulation of carbamazepine (CBZ) solid dispersions, using polyethyleneglycol-polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate grafted copolymer (Soluplus, BASF, Germany) and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Poloxamer 407). In agreement with the current Quality by Design principle, formulations of solid dispersions were prepared according to a D-optimal mixture experimental design, and the influence of formulation composition on the properties of the dispersions (CBZ heat of fusion and release rate) was estimated. Prepared solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and hot stage microscopy, as well as by determination of the dissolution rate of CBZ from the hot-melt extrudates. Solid dispersions of CBZ can be successfully prepared using the novel copolymer Soluplus. Inclusion of Poloxamer 407 as a plasticizer facilitated the processing and decreased the hardness of hot-melt extrudates. Regardless of their composition, all hot-melt extrudates displayed an improvement in the release rate compared to the pure CBZ, with formulations having the ratio of CBZ : Poloxamer 407 = 1 : 1 showing the highest increase in CBZ release rate. Interactions between the mixture components (CBZ and polymers), or quadratic effects of the components, play a significant role in overall influence on the CBZ release rate. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The mathematics behind Inge Lehmann's discovery that the inner core of the Earth is solid is explained using data collected around the Earth on seismic waves and their travel time through the Earth.

  7. Chromite/titanate based perovskites for application as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudmich, G.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Gonzalez Cuenca, M.M.; Jungen, W.; Zipprich, W.M.; Tietz, F.

    2000-01-01

    Perovskites containing lanthanides, partially substituted by alkaline-earth elements and transition metals like Cr, Ti, Fe or Co show a very broad range of physical properties. Therefore several perovskite materials, based on lanthanum chromite and strontium titanate were synthesised and

  8. Development of Zinc Tin Nitride for Application as an Earth Abundant Photovoltaic Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Angela N.

    In recent years, many new potential absorber materials based on earth-abundant and non-toxic elements have been predicted. These materials, often made in thin film form and known to absorb light 10-1000 times more e ciently than crystalline silicon, could lower module cost and enable broader solar deployment. One such material is zinc tin nitride (ZnSnN 2), a II-IV-nitride analog of the III-nitride materials, which was identified as a suitable solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, large absorption coefficient, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, initial attempts at synthesis resulted in degenerate n-type carrier density. Computational work on the point defect formation energies for this material revealed three donor defects were likely the cause; specifically SnZn antisites, VN sites, and ON substitutions. Given this framework, a defect-driven hypothesis was proposed as a starting point for the present work: if each donor defect could be addressed by tuning deposition parameters, n-type degeneracy may be defeated. By using combinatorial co- sputtering to grow compositionally-graded thin film samples, n-type carrier density was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to state-of-the-art. This reduction in carrier density was observed for zinc-rich samples, which supported the defect-driven hypothesis initially proposed. These results and their implications are the topic of Chapter 2. Further carrier density control in zinc-rich ZTN was achieved via hydrogen incorporation and post-growth annealing. This strategy was hypothesized to operate by passivating acceptor defects to avoid self-compensation, which were then activated by hydrogen drive- out upon annealing. Carrier density was reduced another order of magnitude using this technique, which is presented in Chapter 3. After defeating n-type degeneracy, a deeper understanding of the electronic structure was pursued. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study electronic

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, F.; Dincer, I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive steady state modelling and thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell integrated with Gas Turbine power cycle (DU-SOFC/GT). The use of urea as direct fuel mitigates public health and safety risks associated with the use of hydrogen and ammonia. The integration scheme in this study covers both oxygen ion-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-O) and hydrogen proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-H). Parametric case studies are carried out to investigate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance of the system. The results reveal that the fuel cell exhibited the highest level of exergy destruction among other system components. Furthermore, the SOFC-O based system offers better overall performance than that with the SOFC-H option mainly due to the detrimental reverse water-gas shift reaction at the SOFC anode as well as the unique configuration of the system.

  10. Estimated refractive index and solid density of DT, with application to hollow-microsphere laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, C.K.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Hendricks, C.D.; Souers, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The literature values for the 0.55-μm refractive index N of liquid and gaseous H 2 and D 2 are combined to yield the equation (N - 1) = [(3.15 +- 0.12) x 10 -6 ]rho, where rho is the density in moles per cubic meter. This equation can be extrapolated to 300 0 K for use on DT in solid, liquid, and gas phases. The equation is based on a review of solid-hydrogen densities measured in bulk and also by diffraction methods. By extrapolation, the estimated densities and 0.55-μm refractive indices for DT are given. Radiation-induced point defects could possibly cause optical absorption and a resulting increased refractive index in solid DT and T 2 . The effect of the DT refractive index in measuring glass and cryogenic DT laser targets is also described

  11. Chimeric Antigen Receptors T Cell Therapy in Solid Tumor: Challenges and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Mirzaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACT employing engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs has demonstrated promising antitumor effects in advanced hematologic cancers, such as relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, supporting the translation of ACT to non-hematological malignancies. Although CAR T cell therapy has made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematological cancers, in solid tumors success has been limited likely due to heterogeneous antigen expression, immunosuppressive networks in the tumor microenvironment limiting CAR T cell function and persistence, and suboptimal trafficking to solid tumors. Here, we outline specific approaches to overcome barriers to CAR T cell effectiveness in the context of the tumor microenvironment and offer our perspective on how expanding the use of CAR T cells in solid tumors may require modifications in CAR T cell design. We anticipate these modifications will further expand CAR T cell therapy in clinical practice.

  12. Overview of solid state lasers with applications as LIDAR transmitters and optical image amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.C.; Basiev, T.T.; Zverev, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: This talk will review the current status of solid state lasers. Then a specific class of solid state lasers, Raman lasers, will be discussed as a specific example of new technology development. The spectroscopic properties of the materials are used in these lasers is presented and the use of these materials in shared-, coupled-, and external-resonator laser systems is described. System design parameters affecting efficiency, beam quality, and temporal pulse width are discussed. Examples will be presented of the use of these lasers for transmitters in atmospheric and marine imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems and in optical amplifiers

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Julio [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Zhao, Fu, E-mail: fzhao@purdue.edu [Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-11-06

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Julio; Zhao, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  15. Electrochemical transformations of oxygen and the defect structure of solid solutions on the basis of alkaline earth metal ortho-vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodos, M.Ya.; Belysheva, G.M.; Brajnina, Kh.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of iso- and heterovalent substitution in the structure of alkaline earth metal ortho-vanadates and synthesis conditions, simulating the definite type of their crystal lattice disordering, on the character of potentiodynamic anodic-cathodic curves has been investigated by the method of cyclic voltammetry. Correlation between signals observed and the defect structure of oxide compounds is refined. Oxygen chemisorption is shown to be determined by concentration of nonequilibrium oxygen vacancies, which formation is accompanied by appearance of quasi-free electrons

  16. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) for pulmonary application: a review of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Zimmer, A; Pardeike, J

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery by inhalation is a noninvasive means of administration that has following advantages for local treatment for airway diseases: reaching the epithelium directly, circumventing first pass metabolism and avoiding systemic toxicity. Moreover, from the physiological point of view, the lung provides advantages for systemic delivery of drugs including its large surface area, a thin alveolar epithelium and extensive vasculature which allow rapid and effective drug absorption. Therefore, pulmonary application is considered frequently for both, the local and the systemic delivery of drugs. Lipid nanoparticles - Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers - are nanosized carrier systems in which solid particles consisting of a lipid matrix are stabilized by surfactants in an aqueous phase. Advantages of lipid nanoparticles for the pulmonary application are the possibility of a deep lung deposition as they can be incorporated into respirables carriers due to their small size, prolonged release and low toxicity. This paper will give an overview of the existing literature about lipid nanoparticles for pulmonary application. Moreover, it will provide the reader with some background information for pulmonary drug delivery, i.e., anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system, formulation requirements, application forms, clearance from the lung, pharmacological benefits and nanotoxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent Developments and Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Food and Environmental Analysis—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Merkle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME is a simple, sensitive, rapid and solvent-free technique for the extraction of analytes from gaseous, liquid and solid samples and takes a leading position among microextraction methods. Application of SPME in sample preparation has been increasing continuously over the last decade. It is most often used as an automatized fiber injection system coupled to chromatographic separation modules for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and also allows for the trace analysis of compounds in complex matrices. Since SPME was first introduced in the early 1990s, several modifications have been made to adapt the procedure to specific application requirements. More robust fiber assemblies and coatings with higher extraction efficiencies, selectivity and stability have been commercialized. Automation and on-line coupling to analytical instruments have been achieved in many applications and new derivatization strategies as well as improved calibration procedures have been developed to overcome existing limitations regarding quantitation. Furthermore, devices using tubes, needles or tips for extraction instead of a fiber have been designed. In the field of food analysis, SPME has been most often applied to fruit/vegetables, fats/oils, wine, meat products, dairy and beverages whereas environmental applications focus on the analysis of air, water, soil and sediment samples.

  18. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lori; Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason E.; Bell, Jordan; McGrath, Kevin; Cole, Tony

    2016-01-01

    NASA SPoRT (Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center) provided MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to WFOs (Weather Forecast Offices) in Alabama to support April 27th, 2011 damage assessments across the state. SPoRT was awarded a NASA Applied Science: Disasters Feasibility award to investigate the applicability of including remote sensing imagery and derived products into the NOAA/NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather System) Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). Proposal team was awarded the 3-year proposal to implement a web mapping service and associate data feeds from the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) to provide satellite imagery and derived products directly to the NWS thru the DAT. In the United States, NOAA/NWS is charged with performing damage assessments when storm or tornado damage is suspected after a severe weather event. This has led to the development of the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), an application for smartphones, tablets and web browsers that allows for the collection, geo-location, and aggregation of various damage indicators collected during storm surveys.

  19. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  20. EXTASE - An Experimental Thermal Probe for Applications in Snow Research and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2002-12-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the Rosetta Lander (MUPUS) thermal probe, funded by DLR. The application of this probe is to be tested in different fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost etc. The system consists of the probe itself with a portable field electronic and a computer for control of the system and storage of the data. The probe penetrates the surface ca. 32 cm deep and provides a temperature profile (16 sensors) and thermal conductivity profile of the penetrated layer. The main advantages of the probe in comparison to common temperature profile measurement methods are: - no need to excavate material - minimized influence of the probe on the temperature field - minimized modification of the microstructure of the studied medium. Presently we are concentrating on agriculture (soil humidity) and snow research. Further applications could be e.g.: monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, volcanology and ground truth for remote sensing. We present the general concept of the probe and also data obtained during different field measurement campaigns with prototypes of the probe.