Sample records for solid earth applications

  1. Application of TOPEX Altimetry for Solid Earth Deformation Studies

    Hyongki Lee


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the use of satellite radar altimetry to detect solid Earth deformation signals such as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA. Our study region covers moderately flat land surfaces seasonally covered by snow/ice/vegetation. The maximum solid Earth uplift of ~10 mm yr-1 is primarily due to the incomplete glacial isostatic rebound that occurs around Hudson Bay, North America. We use decadal (1992 - 2002 surface height measurements from TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry to generate height changes time series for 12 selected locations in the study region. Due to the seasonally varying surface characteristics, we first perform radar waveform shape classification and have found that most of the waveforms are quasi-diffuse during winter/spring and specular during summer/fall. As a result, we used the NASA £]-retracker for the quasi-diffuse waveforms and the Offset Center of Gravity or the threshold retracker for the specular waveforms, to generate the surface height time series. The TOPEX height change time series exhibit coherent seasonal signals (higher amplitude during the winter and lower amplitude during the summer, and the estimated deformation rates agree qualitatively well with GPS vertical velocities, and with altimeter/tide gauge combined vertical velocities around the Great Lakes. The TOPEX observations also agree well with various GIA model predictions, especially with the ICE-5G (VM2 model with differences at 0.2 ¡_ 1.4 mm yr-1, indicating that TOPEX has indeed observed solid Earth deformation signals manifested as crustal uplift over the former Laurentide Ice Sheet region.

  2. Compressibility and planetary interiors. [solid core theory applicable to Earth and Venus

    Bullen, K. E.


    Important confirmations that the Earth's inner core is solid have recently come from analyses of records of free Earth oscillations and from the apparent detection of the seismic phase PKJKP. Corresponding support is given to the theory which supplied the primary evidence for rigidity in the inner core. This theory requires the incompressibility and its gradient with respect to the pressure p to vary fairly smoothly with p inside planets, and supplies a potent restriction on the allowable variations of particular physical properties inside parts of planetary interiors. The theory is at present principally applicable to the Earth and Venus. The paper reviews some of the principal implications.

  3. Status of Research on Application of High Purity Rare Earth Oxides in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Ma Zhihong; Qiu Jufeng


    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high-efficient and environmentally friendly power generation system.The rare earth oxide materials are used extensively in the manufacturing of SOFC components.In particular, the CeO2doped with Gd2O3 or Sm2O3, lanthanide perovskite oxides are indispensable and key materials for developing the intermediate temperature SOFC.The research and development status of application of high purity rare earth oxides in SOFC was overviewed.The rare earth oxide-based and -doped materials were discussed for the SOFC components.Concerning the rare earth oxides applicable to SOFC, several topics were also pointed out for further researching and developing.

  4. DORIS applications for solid earth and atmospheric sciences

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Jayles, Christian; Rolland, Lucie


    DORIS is a French precise orbit determination system. However, in the past four years, through the creation of the International DORIS Service, a larger international cooperation was involved. Furthermore, the precision of its scientific applications (geodesy, geophysics) gradually improved and expanded to new fields (atmospheric sciences), leading, for example, to the publication of a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy. The goal of this manuscript is to present and explain these changes and to put them in perspective with current results obtained with other space geodetic techniques, such as GPS or Satellite Laser Ranging.

  5. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  6. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Paquet, P.


    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  7. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    Basavaiah, Nathani


    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  8. The Active Solid Earth

    Ebinger, Cynthia


    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  9. Viscosity near Earth's solid inner core



    Anomalous splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of oscillation of Earth's solid inner core is used to estimate the effective viscosity just outside its boundary. Superconducting gravimeter observations give periods of 3.5822 +/- 0.0012 (retrograde) and 4.0150 +/- 0.0010 (prograde) hours. With the use of Ekman layer theory to estimate viscous drag forces, an inferred single viscosity of 1.22 x 10(11) Pascal seconds gives calculated periods of 3.5839 and 4.0167 hours for the two modes, close to the observed values. The large effective viscosity is consistent with a fluid, solid-liquid mixture surrounding the inner core associated with the "compositional convection" that drives Earth's geodynamo.

  10. Applications in solid mechanics

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.


    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  11. Observing the solid Earth, oceans and land waters from space

    Cazenave A.


    Full Text Available In this article, we present a number of significant results related to the solid Earth and its fluid envelopes obtained in the recent years/decades using remote sensing techniques. We first discuss measurements of the Earth gravity field at different spatial scales and the recovery of seafloor topography from satellite altimetry. We briefly mention precise positioning results based on GPS and other space techniques, and applications to tectonic motions and crustal deformations. Next we discuss recent advances in ocean dynamics based on high-precision satellite altimetry missions, and focus on sea level rise. We also discuss how remote sensing techniques, including space gravimetry, inform on the mass balance of the ice sheets and corresponding contribution to sea level rise. As a final example, we report on the monitoring of surface water levels (lakes, rivers, floodplains by satellite altimetry and on total land water storage change at river basin scale, using space gravimetry observations.

  12. Fabrication and sealing performance of rare-earth containing glass–ceramic seals for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications


    The opportunity of using two rare-earth metal oxides in an aluminosilicate glass for seal applications was investigated in this work. Substitution of La2O3 with Y2O3 in the system changed thermal and physical properties such as transition temperature, flowing behavior, and thermal expansion...

  13. Interplay between solid Earth and biological evolution

    Höning, Dennis; Spohn, Tilman


    Major shifts in Earth's evolution led to progressive adaptations of the biosphere. Particularly the emergence of continents permitted efficient use of solar energy. However, the widespread evolution of the biosphere fed back to the Earth system, often argued as a cause for the great oxidation event or as an important component in stabilizing Earth's climate. Furthermore, biologically enhanced weathering rates alter the flux of sediments in subduction zones, establishing a potential link to the deep interior. Stably bound water within subducting sediments not only enhances partial melting but further affects the mantle rheology. The mantle responds by enhancing its rates of convection, water outgassing, and subduction. How crucial is the emergence and evolution of life on Earth to these processes, and how would Earth have been evolved without the emergence of life? We here discuss concepts and present models addressing these questions and discuss the biosphere as a major component in evolving Earth system feedback cycles.

  14. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa


    Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..

  15. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.


    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  16. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst


    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  17. Formation cause,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of rare earth solid wastes

    许涛; 彭会清


    Based on practical situation of rare earth industrial chain,production process and rare earth materials that could produce solid wastes on batch were discussed.Formation cause,formation volume,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of the solid wastes of rare earth hydrometallurgy slag,electrolysis slag,Fe-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,Co-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,rare earth hydrogen storage materials,rare earth polishing powders and rare earth catalysts were ...

  18. New interpretation of data of the Earth's solid core

    Guliyev, H. H.


    The commonly accepted scientific opinions on the inner core as the deformable solid globe are based on the solution of the problem on the distribution of elastic parameters in the inner structures of the Earth. The given solution is obtained within the necessary integral conditions on its self-weight, moment of inertia concerning the axes of rotation and periods of free oscillations of the Earth. It is shown that this solution does not satisfy the mechanics of the deformable solid body with sufficient local conditions following from basic principles concerning the strength, stability and actuality of velocities of propagation of elastic waves. The violation of local conditions shows that the inner core cannot exist in the form of the deformable solid body within the commonly accepted elastic parameters.

  19. Study on rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 solid electrolyte

    YAN Kai; ZHEN Qiang; Song Xiwen


    Five types of rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 superfine-powders were synthesized by a low-temperature combustion technique. The relevant solid electrolyte materials were also sintered by pressureless sintering at different temperatures. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size of the powders was approximately 20-30 nm, and rare earth/alkaline earth oxides were completely dissolved into ceria-based solid solution with fluorite structure. The electrical conductivities of the Sm2O3-CeO2 system were measured by the ac impedance technique in air at temperatures ranging from 513-900℃. The results indicated that the ionic conductivities of Sm0.20Ce0.8O1.875 solid electrolyte increase with increasing sintering temperature, and the relationship between the conductivities and measuring temperature obeys the Arrhenius equation. Then the Sm2O3-CeO2 material was further doped with other rare earth/alkaline earth oxide, and the conductivities improve with the effective index.

  20. The EPOS implementation of thematic services for solid Earth sciences

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain

  1. The EPOS Architecture: Integrated Services for solid Earth Science

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) represents a scientific vision and an IT approach in which innovative multidisciplinary research is made possible for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS has a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from existing (but also new) distributed research infrastructures, for solid Earth science. One primary purpose of EPOS is to take full advantage of the new e-science opportunities coming available. The aim is to obtain an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth sciences in Europe. The EPOS preparatory phase (EPOS PP), funded by the European Commission within the Capacities program, started on November 1st 2010 and it has completed its first two years of activity. EPOS is presently mid-way through its preparatory phase and to date it has achieved all the objectives, milestones and deliverables planned in its roadmap towards construction. The EPOS mission is to integrate the existing research infrastructures (RIs) in solid Earth science warranting increased accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations. This is expected to enhance worldwide interoperability in the Earth Sciences and establish a leading, integrated European infrastructure offering services to researchers and other stakeholders. The Preparatory Phase aims at leveraging the project to the level of maturity required to implement the EPOS construction phase, with a defined legal structure, detailed technical planning and financial plan. We will present the EPOS architecture, which relies on the integration of the main outcomes from legal, governance and financial work following the strategic EPOS roadmap and according to the technical work done during the

  2. Uncertainty analysis of atmospheric friction torque on the solid Earth

    Haoming Yan; Yong Huang


    The wind stress acquired from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF),National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate models and QSCAT satellite observations are analyzed by using frequency-wavenumber spectrum method.The spectrum of two climate models,i.e.,ECMWF and NCEP,is similar for both 10 m wind data and model output wind stress data,which indicates that both the climate models capture the key feature of wind stress.While the QSCAT wind stress data shows the similar characteristics with the two climate models in both spectrum domain and the spatial distribution,but with a factor of approximately 1.25 times larger than that of climate models in energy.These differences show the uncertainty in the different wind stress products,which inevitably cause the atmospheric friction torque uncertainties on solid Earth with a 60% departure in annual amplitude,and furtherly affect the precise estimation of the Earth's rotation.

  3. A strategy for Earth science from space in the 1980s. Part 1: Solid earth and oceans


    The report develops a ten-year science strategy for investigating the solid earth and dynamics of world oceans from Earth orbit. The strategy begins from the premise that earth studies have proceeded to the point where further advances in understanding Earth processes must be based on a global perspective and that the U.S. is technically ready to begin a global study approach from Earth orbit. The major areas of study and their fundamental problems are identified. The strategy defines the primary science objectives to be addressed and the essential measurements and precision to achieve them.

  4. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  5. Positioning and applications for planet earth

    Verhagen, S.; Retscher, G.; Santos, M.C.; Ding, X.L.; Gao, Y.; Jin, S.G.


    GNSS, InSAR and LIDAR are identified as important techniques when it comes to monitoring and remote sensing of our planet Earth and its atmosphere. In fact, these techniques can be considered as key elements of the Global Geodetic Observing System. Examples of applications are: environmental

  6. Positioning and applications for planet earth

    Verhagen, S.; Retscher, G.; Santos, M.C.; Ding, X.L.; Gao, Y.; Jin, S.G.


    GNSS, InSAR and LIDAR are identified as important techniques when it comes to monitoring and remote sensing of our planet Earth and its atmosphere. In fact, these techniques can be considered as key elements of the Global Geodetic Observing System. Examples of applications are: environmental monitor

  7. The effects of the solid inner core and nonhydrostatic structure on the earth's forced nutations and earth tides

    De Vries, Dan; Wahr, John M.


    This paper computes the effects of the solid inner core (IC) on the forced nutations and earth tides, and on certain of the earth's rotational normal modes. The theoretical results are extended to include the effects of a solid IC and of nonhydrostatic structure. The presence of the IC is responsible for a new, almost diurnal, prograde normal mode which involves a relative rotation between the IC and fluid outer core about an equatorial axis. It is shown that the small size of the IC's effects on both nutations and tides is a consequence of the fact that the IC's moments of inertia are less than 1/1000 of the entire earth's.

  8. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    West, Anthony R


    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  9. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    Hagenmuller, Paul


    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  10. Application of Ontologies for Big Earth Data

    Huang, T.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Boening, C.


    Connected data is smarter data! Earth Science research infrastructure must do more than just being able to support temporal, geospatial discovery of satellite data. As the Earth Science data archives continue to expand across NASA data centers, the research communities are demanding smarter data services. A successful research infrastructure must be able to present researchers the complete picture, that is, datasets with linked citations, related interdisciplinary data, imageries, current events, social media discussions, and scientific data tools that are relevant to the particular dataset. The popular Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies is a collection of ontologies and concepts designed to improve discovery and application of Earth Science data. The SWEET ontologies collection was initially developed to capture the relationships between keywords in the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). Over the years this popular ontologies collection has expanded to cover over 200 ontologies and 6000 concepts to enable scalable classification of Earth system science concepts and Space science. This presentation discusses the semantic web technologies as the enabling technology for data-intensive science. We will discuss the application of the SWEET ontologies as a critical component in knowledge-driven research infrastructure for some of the recent projects, which include the DARPA Ontological System for Context Artifact and Resources (OSCAR), 2013 NASA ACCESS Virtual Quality Screening Service (VQSS), and the 2013 NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) projects. The presentation will also discuss the benefits in using semantic web technologies in developing research infrastructure for Big Earth Science Data in an attempt to "accommodate all domains and provide the necessary glue for information to be cross-linked, correlated, and discovered in a semantically rich manner." [1] [1] Savas Parastatidis: A platform for all that we know

  11. Building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences: the EPOS integrated approach

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos


    EPOS has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, not limited to scientists, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. A long-term integration plan is necessary to accomplish the EPOS mission. EPOS is presently in its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS Preparatory Phase project and consists of two key activities: the legal establishment of the EPOS-ERIC and the EPOS IP project. The EPOS implementation phase will last from 2015 to 2019. Key objectives of the project are: implementing Thematic Core Services (TCS), the domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS; building the Integrated Core

  12. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  13. Scaling and multifractal fields in the solid earth and topography

    S. Lovejoy


    Full Text Available Starting about thirty years ago, new ideas in nonlinear dynamics, particularly fractals and scaling, provoked an explosive growth of research both in modeling and in experimentally characterizing geosystems over wide ranges of scale. In this review we focus on scaling advances in solid earth geophysics including the topography. To reduce the review to manageable proportions, we restrict our attention to scaling fields, i.e. to the discussion of intensive quantities such as ore concentrations, rock densities, susceptibilities, and magnetic and gravitational fields.

    We discuss the growing body of evidence showing that geofields are scaling (have power law dependencies on spatial scale, resolution, over wide ranges of both horizontal and vertical scale. Focusing on the cases where both horizontal and vertical statistics have both been estimated from proximate data, we argue that the exponents are systematically different, reflecting lithospheric stratification which – while very strong at small scales – becomes less and less pronounced at larger and larger scales, but in a scaling manner. We then discuss the necessity for treating the fields as multifractals rather than monofractals, the latter being too restrictive a framework. We discuss the consequences of multifractality for geostatistics, we then discuss cascade processes in which the same dynamical mechanism repeats scale after scale over a range. Using the binomial model first proposed by de Wijs (1951 as an example, we discuss the issues of microcanonical versus canonical conservation, algebraic ("Pareto" versus long tailed (e.g. lognormal distributions, multifractal universality, conservative and nonconservative multifractal processes, codimension versus dimension formalisms. We compare and contrast different scaling models (fractional Brownian motion, fractional Levy motion, continuous (in scale cascades, showing that they are all based on fractional integrations of noises

  14. Low Temperature Preparation of Ceria Solid Solutions Doubly Doped with Rare-Earth and Alkali-Earth and Their Properties as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    任引哲; 蒋凯; 王海霞; 孟健; 苏锵


    A series of solid electrolytes, (Ce0.8Ln0.2)1-xMxO2-δ (Ln= La, Nd, Sm, Gd, M:Alkali-earth), were prepared by amorphous citrate gel method. XRD patterns indicate that a pure fluorite phase is formed at 800 ℃. The electrical conductivity and the AC impedance spectra were measured. XPS spectra show that the oxygen vacancies increase owing to the MO doping, which results in the increase of the oxygen ionic transport number and conductivity. The performance of ceria-based solid electrolyte is improved. The effects of rare-earth and alkali-earth ions on the electricity were discussed. The open-circuit voltages and maximum power density of planar solid oxide fuel cell using (Ce0.8Sm0.2)1-0.05Ca0.05O2-δ as electrolyte are 0.86 V and 33 mW*cm-2, respectively.

  15. Solid-state devices and applications

    Lewis, Rhys


    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  16. Applications to particle transport in the Earth`s aurora

    Jasperse, J.R.


    The visual display of light called the aurora borealis occurs when energetic (1 to 100-keV) electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms from the Earth`s magnetosphere enter the Earth`s upper atmosphere and collide with the ambient neutral particles. Two kinds of auroras occur in nature: those excited by incident electrons and those excited by incident protons and hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we consider only the latter. The proton-hydrogen aurora may be divided into two altitude regions: high altitudes ({approximately}250 to {approximately}600 km) where charge-changing collisions dominate and energy-loss collisions may be neglected and low altitudes ({approximately}100 to {approximately}250 km) where energy-loss collisions also become important and cause rapid energy degradation. The focus of this review is on the high-altitude region where the one-group approximation is valid.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Solid Earth Sciences-a HPC challenge

    Vlad Constantin Manea; Marina Manea; Mihai Pomeran; Lucian Besutiu; Luminita Zlagnean


    Presently, the Solid Earth Sciences started to move towards implementing High Performance Computational (HPC) research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, which strongly depends on the interaction between software and hardware. In this paper, they are presented benchmark results from two HPC systems. Testing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code specific for Solid Earth Sciences, the HPC system Horus, based on Gigabit Ethernet, performed reasonably well compared with...

  18. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Shi, Jianwei; Xiaoxu TENG; Wang, Linling; Long, Rong


    Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA) as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes...

  19. Application and future of solid foams

    Bienvenu, Yves


    To conclude this series of chapters on solid foam materials, a review of industrial current applications and of mid-term market perspectives centred on manmade foams is given, making reference to natural cellular materials. Although the polymeric foam industrial development overwhelms the rest and finds applications on many market segments, more attention will be paid to the emerging market of inorganic-especially metallic-foams (and cellular materials) and their applications, present or upcoming. It is shown that the final applications of solid foams are primarily linked to transport and the present-day development of the different classes of solid foams is contrasted between functional applications and structural applications. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    Habib, Shahid


    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  1. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅰ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  2. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅱ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance, the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  3. Artificial Quantum Solids: Physics, Fabrication and Applications


    example, J. M. Hvam in Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Solids; Ad- vances and Applications, edited by B. Di Bartolo and B. Bowlby (Plenum, New York, 1994), pp...vances and Applications, edited by B. Di Bartolo and B. Bowlby (Plenum, New York, 1994), pp. 91-149. ’This lack of symmetry is due to the transfer of a

  4. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... ocean circulation. Finally, we will discuss how the results of 3-D predictions can be utilized in geomagnetic field modeling and in a recovery of deep conductivity structures.......Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years...

  5. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years......, utilizing realistic 3-D conductivity models of the oceans, crust and mantle. In addition to these improvements in the prediction of 3-D induction effects, much attention has been paid to identifying magnetic signals of oceanic origin in observatory and satellite data. During the talk we will present...

  6. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.


    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules

  7. Study on preparation and application performance of blue sky rare earth light storage and emission material

    ZHOU; Shao-hui; NI; Hai-yong; HUANG; Zhao-hui; LI; Xu-bo; DING; Jian-hong; ZHANG; Zhen


    Under reduction atmosphere, a blue sky rare earth silicate light storage and emission material was prepared by high temperature solid phase synthesis. The best constituent ratio of this material was determined through orthogonal experiment, and its excitation and emission spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured. And a comparative study was conducted on its application properties.

  8. Nanographite Films for Solid State Electronic Applications

    Sergey G. Lebedev


    Full Text Available The structure and properties of nanographite films useful for applications in solid state devices are described. The possibility to use low conducting state of nanographite film for detecting radiation in the segmented solid state detectors is considered. Other interesting phenomena include the field effect conductivity switching which can be used in contactless current limiters and circuit breakers, the rf-to-dc conversion which can be utilized in microwave and photo detectors, and light emitting subsequent to the conductivity switching with possible application as light sources. The possible underlying gears of the mentioned effects are discussed.

  9. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    King, Chris


    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  10. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    King, Chris


    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  11. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.


    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  12. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.


    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  13. Plans for living on a restless planet sets NASA's solid Earth agenda

    Solomon, S. C.; Baker, V. R.; Bloxham, J.; Booth, J.; Donnellan, A.; Elachi, C.; Evans, D.; Rignot, E.; Burbank, D.; Chao, B. F.; Chave, A.; Gillespie, A.; Herring, T.; Jeanloz, R.; LaBrecque, J.; Minster, B.; Pitman, W. C., III; Simons, M.; Turcotte, D. L.; Zoback, M. L.


    What are the most important challenges facing solid Earth science today and over the next two decades? And what is the best approach for NASA, in partnership with other agencies, to address these challenges? A new report, living on a restless planet, provides a blueprint for answering these questions. The top priority for a new spacecraft mission in the area of solid earth science over the next 5 years, according to this report, is a satellite dedicated to interferometric synthetic aperture radar(inSAR).

  14. Fluorescence-Detected Ultrafast Free-Induction Decay in Powdered Rare Earth Solids

    LUO Qi; DAI De-Chang; YU Xiang-Yang; QIU Zhi-Ren; ZHOU Jian-Ying; YAN Chun-Hua; CHEN Zhi-Da


    Fluorescence interferometry is developed and applied to study ultrafast amplitude and phase dynamics for fleeinduction decay in powdered rare earth solids. The time-resolved phase dynamics of free-induction decay throughout the decaying process is accurately determined by using a novel dual-channel correlation technique and subpicosecond dephasing time is measured for Nd3+ solids at room temperature. The phase dynamics is well simulated with linear coherent polarization theory.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Solid Complexes with Sodium 5-Aminosalicylate

    Zhang Xiuying; Li Shujing; Lei Xuefeng; Ma Junxian


    Ten new rare earth solid complexes were synthesized by the reaction of sodium 5-aminosalicyliate with rare earth chloride. The structure character, physical and chemical properties of these complexes were studied by IR, UV, 1H NMR spectra, TG-DTA, fluorescence, elemental analyses, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The ten rare earth complexes exist in dimeric form probably and the coordination number is seven. The antibacterial activity of the ligand and six complexes was also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the effect of Yb complex at 20 mg·ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus is most significant.

  16. Solid Earth ARISTOTELES mission data preprocessing simulation of gravity gradiometer

    Avanzi, G.; Stolfa, R.; Versini, B.

    Data preprocessing of the ARISTOTELES mission, which measures the Earth gravity gradient in a near polar orbit, was studied. The mission measures the gravity field at sea level through indirect measurements performed on the orbit, so that the evaluation steps consist in processing data from GRADIO accelerometer measurements. Due to the physical phenomena involved in the data collection experiment, it is possible to isolate at an initial stage a preprocessing of the gradiometer data based only on GRADIO measurements and not needing a detailed knowledge of the attitude and attitude rate sensors output. This preprocessing produces intermediate quantities used in future stages of the reduction. Software was designed and run to evaluate for this level of data reduction the achievable accuracy as a function of knowledge on instrument and satellite status parameters. The architecture of this element of preprocessing is described.

  17. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos


    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  18. Saturation of electrical resistivity of solid iron at Earth's core conditions.

    Pozzo, Monica; Alfè, Dario


    We report on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of solid iron at high pressure, up to and including conditions likely to be found at the centre of the Earth. We have extended some of the calculations of the resistivities of pure solid iron we recently performed at Earth's core conditions (Pozzo et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014) to lower temperature. We show that at low temperature the resistivity increases linearly with temperature, and saturates at high temperature. This saturation effect is well known as the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit in metals, but has been largely ignored to estimate the resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions. Recent experiments (Gomi et al. in Phys Earth Planet Int 224:88-103, 2013) coupled new high pressure data and saturation to predict the resitivity of iron and iron alloys at Earth's core conditions, and reported values up to three times lower than previous estimates, confirming recent first principles calculations (de Koker et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:4070-4073, 2012; Pozzo et al. in Nature 485:355-358, 2012, Phys Rev B 87:014110-10, 2013, Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:159-164, 2014; Davies et al. in Nat Geosci 8:678-685, 2015). The present results support the saturation effect idea.

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Solid Earth Sciences–a HPC challenge

    Luminita Zlagnean


    Full Text Available Presently, the Solid Earth Sciences started to move towards implementing High Performance Computational (HPC research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, which strongly depends on the interaction between software and hardware. In this paper, they are presented benchmark results from two HPC systems. Testing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code specific for Solid Earth Sciences, the HPC system Horus, based on Gigabit Ethernet, performed reasonably well compared with its counterpart CyberDyn, based on Infiniband QDR fabric. However, the HPCC CyberDyn based on low-latency high-speed QDR network dedicated to MPI traffic outperformed the HPCC Horus. Due to the high-resolution simulations involved in geodynamic research studies, HPC facilities used in Earth Sciences should benefit from larger up-front investment in future systems that are based on high-speed interconnects.

  20. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC


    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  1. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Jianwei SHI


    Full Text Available Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes are characterized by means of elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR methods, and the phase stability of the complex is determined by using TG-DTA technique. It is proved that preparation of waterless binary rare earth complexes by the solid phase reaction method results in a higher product yield. The fluorescence spectra show that between Eu (Ⅲ and γ-NTA, there exists efficient energy transfer, and the rare earth complexes synthesis is an excellent red bright light-emitting material with excellent UV excited luminescence properties.

  2. Solid-State Lasers for Bathymetry and Communications. Studies of Four Rare-Earth Materials.


    The envelope was cerium -doped quartz, to reduce UV emission. The lamp was operated in simmer mode. The pulse forming network contained a 50-PF...class of solid state lasing materials called rare-earth fluorides . In these materials, the host lattice is LiYF4 (often called YLF), and the active...1971-1973 in which terbium-doped rare-earth fluorides were grown, and spectroscopy and lasing measurements conducted. A sample of Tb:LiGdF4 was lased

  3. Development and application of earth system models

    Prinn, Ronald G.


    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels address...

  4. Fluorescence line-narrowing studies of rare earths in disordered solids

    Hall, D.W.


    This dissertation is made up of two experimental studies dealing with apparently diverse topics within the subject of rare earths (RE) in solids. The first study, described in Part II, concerns the vibrations of a disordered host material about an optically active rare-earth ion as manifested by vibrationally-assisted-electronic, or vibronic transitions. Part III of the dissertation describes an investigation of the influence of site anisotropy on the purely electronic, laser transition of Nd/sup 3 +/ in glass. These two studies are bound together by the common experimental technique of laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN). By exciting fluorescence with monochromatic light of well-characterized polarization, one may select and observe the response of a single subset of the optically active ions and obtain information that is usually masked by the inhomogeneous nature of disordered solids.

  5. Subsurface Tiltmeter Observations of Solid Earth Tides and Rock Excavation in Northeastern Illinois

    Lancelle, C.; Volk, J.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.


    Tiltmeter arrays in the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) Near Detector Hall at Fermilab and the Lafarge - Conco Mine record solid earth tides and mechanical unloading due to excavation. The arrays are located approximately 100 meters underground in the Galena-Platteville dolomite in Northeastern Illinois. Just off of the MINOS Near Detector Hall a new cavern was excavated to house the Off-axis Neutrino Appearance Experiment (NOvA) program near detector. The recorded excavation response in the MINOS Near Detector Hall due to the NOvA cavern excavation is approximately thirteen times a point-load estimated response calculated using laboratory-determined properties. This discrepancy is likely due to variations in Young's Modulus in the rock in a field versus laboratory scale, although seasonal effects causing long term trends in the data could be part of this response. Amplitudes of measured solid earth tides differ from the amplitudes of theoretical solid earth tides by up to 40 percent for both arrays. This is likely due to a local heterogeneity or discontinuity.

  6. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  7. Tunable Solid-State Quantum Memory Using Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Crystal, Nd3(+):GaN


    Research Initiative was to work on developing solid-state quantum memory using cryogenically cooled rare- earth -ion-doped crystal, Nd3+:GaN. The samples...Initiative (DRI) was to work on developing solid-state quantum memory using cryogenically cooled rare- earth -ion- doped crystal, Nd3+:GaN. The samples were...Caltech group has been working in the area of quantum information of rare- earth doped solids for a number of years and is well equipped to perform

  8. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  9. Application progress of rare earth nano-materials

    Xiao Zhe


    @@ Total rare earth consumption exceeded 72,600 tREO domestically in China in 2007, among which over 38,500 tREO were consumed in functional materials like permanent magnetic materials, fluorescent materials, hydrogen storage materials, catalytic materials and polishing powders,representing 53% of total RE consumption. Production and application of RE performance materials have been the main force promoting the development of China rare earth industry.

  10. Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science

    Samimi Namin, M.


    The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=ρ1gH+ρ2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ρ1 is the density of the overburden and ρ2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=ρ3gh. Also ρ3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=ρ1gH+(ρ2-ρ3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180

  11. Composite Constitutive Theory for a Solid Earth of Strong Lateral Viscosity Contrast.

    Ivins, Erik Roman


    Lateral heterogeneity in plastic dislocational creep strength is studied from the standpoint of composite media theory and applied to problems in solid Earth geophysics. The main goal is to investigate a constitutive approximation that would explain geophysical and geodetic observations of time-dependent Earth deformation. Of prime concern is a theory for the Earth that is capable of describing the details of how both microscopic and macroscopic deformation occurs in the simplest flow configurations over relatively short time scales. A composite model is proposed in which a hard matrix contains weak cylindrical inclusions. Both the matrix and inclusions are assumed to be stress-relaxing viscoelastic materials. Therefore, when the macrophysical constitutive equation is used with multiple physical boundaries a broad set of new 'relaxation spectra' characterize the boundary-initial-value problems familiar to mantle geophysics (isostasy, interplate stress diffusion, etc.). For cases of mantle deformation having periodic character (tides, nutations and polar wobble motions) the spectrum is complex. The goal is to obtain a physical basis for applying constitutive approximations for time-dependent flow with infinitesimal strain in the presence of spatial variations in mantle and crustal viscosity and then to evaluate the importance of lateral heterogeneity to: (1) tidal and rotational deformations; (2) surface displacement associated with post-seismic relaxation, and; (3) glacio-isostatic rebound. It is concluded that the weakest portions of the solid Earth that occur at a 1 to 10 percent level are very important to modeling several aspects of problems (1) (solid tides and rotation) and (2) (post-seismic rebound). Furthermore, it is concluded that the nature of the response modes and amplitudes limit the usefulness of a composite media approach to problem (3) (glacio-isostatic rebound).

  12. Development and application of earth system models.

    Prinn, Ronald G


    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  13. Google Earth and Geo Applications: A Toolset for Viewing Earth's Geospatial Information

    Tuxen-Bettman, K.


    Earth scientists measure and derive fundamental data that can be of broad general interest to the public and policy makers. Yet, one of the challenges that has always faced the Earth science community is how to present their data and findings in an easy-to-use and compelling manner. Google's Geo Tools offer an efficient and dynamic way for scientists, educators, journalists and others to both access data and view or tell stories in a dynamic three-dimensional geospatial context. Google Earth in particular provides a dense canvas of satellite imagery on which can be viewed rich vector and raster datasets using the medium of Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Through KML, Google Earth can combine the analytical capabilities of Earth Engine, collaborative mapping of My Maps, and storytelling of Tour Builder and more to make Google's Geo Applications a coherent suite of tools for exploring our planet.

  14. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  15. Study on Co-Permeation of Solid Rare Earth, Boron and Vanadium

    陶小克; 董桂霞; 彭日升; 孙永昌


    The effect of rare earth compound of CeCl3 on the kinetic process, composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of co-permeating of solid powder boron-vanadium (B-V) was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of CeCl3 to permeating agent not only has obviously catalytic effect on permeating rate, which increases by more than 40%, but also greatly improves the hardness and abrasion resistant of the permeating layer owing to the formation of new phase of CeFe2 after Ce permeates into the layer of the part as an alloying ingredient. It is believed that rare earth elements accelerate the permeating rate of B and V by increasing the potentials of B and V of the agent, activating the surface of the workpiece, and decreasing the activation energy of diffusion of the B and V atoms.

  16. Making interdisciplinary solid Earth modeling and analysis tools accessible in a diverse undergraduate and graduate classroom

    Becker, T. W.


    I present results from ongoing, NSF-CAREER funded educational and research efforts that center around making numerical tools in seismology and geodynamics more accessible to a broader audience. The goal is not only to train students in quantitative, interdisciplinary research, but also to make methods more easily accessible to practitioners across disciplines. I describe the two main efforts that were funded, the Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment (SEATREE,, and a new Numerical Methods class. SEATREE is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate using solid Earth research tools in the undergraduate and graduate classroom and for interdisciplinary, scientific collaboration. We use only open-source software, and most programming is done in the Python computer language. We strive to make use of modern software design and development concepts while remaining compatible with traditional scientific coding and existing, legacy software. Our goals are to provide a fully contained, yet transparent package that lets users operate in an easy, graphically supported "black box" mode, while also allowing to look under the hood, for example to conduct numerous forward models to explore parameter space. SEATREE currently has several implemented modules, including on global mantle flow, 2D phase velocity tomography, and 2D mantle convection and was used at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and at a 2010 CIDER summer school tutorial. SEATREE was developed in collaboration with engineering and computer science undergraduate students, some of which have gone on to work in Earth Science projects. In the long run, we envision SEATREE to contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, and making (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. The other project is a set of lecture notes and Matlab exercises on Numerical Methods in solid Earth, focusing on finite difference and element methods. The

  17. Seismic wave velocities of rare gas solids through elastic properties in Earth's lower mantle

    Seema GUPTA; Suresh C. GOYAL


    The expressions for second (SOE) and third order elastic (TOE) constants for rare gas solids are de-rived for comparative study of elastic behavior within the framework of many body potentials including the effect of pressure. The derived expressions are used to obtain the relations for pressure derivatives of bulk and shear moduli of RGS solids. The values of SOE, TOE constants and pressure derivative of bulk and shear modulus for Ne up to 100 GPa, Ar up to 75 GPa, for Kr up to 136 GPa and Xe up to 53.4 GPa pressure are computed. The results are in agreement with available experimental results. The computed results are then used to analyze the pressure up to high compression and the elastic and seismic wave velocities (P & S) in Earth's deep interior.

  18. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    Hattori, Hideshi


    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  19. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.


    .... (vi) Conditional authorization. (A) An applicant for a new CSAT radio station or modification of an... any international border or within a radio “Quiet Zone” identified in § 1.924 of this chapter; and (6... set forth in §§ 25.223(b)(1) through (4) of this part will be met. (h) Any earth station...

  20. Advances in Rare Earth Application to Semiconductor Materials and Devices



    The development of rare earths (RE) applications to semiconductor materials and devices is reviewed. The recent advances in RE doped silicon light emitting diodes (LED) and display materials are described. The various technologies of incorporating RE into semiconductor materials and devices are presented. The RE high dielectric materials, RE silicides and the phase transition of RE materials are also discussed. Finally, the paper describes the prospects of the RE application to semiconductor industry.

  1. Formation of a solid inner core during the accretion of Earth

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar


    The formation of an inner core during the accretion of Earth is investigated by using self-gravitating and compressible Earth models formed by accreting a total of 25 or 50 Moon to Mars-sized planetary embryos. The impact of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's interior differentially, more below the impact site than elsewhere. The rotating core dynamically overturns and stratifies shortly after each impact, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution relative to an adiabatic profile. Merging of an embryo to the proto-Earth increases the lithostatic pressure that results in compressional temperature increase while further enhances the melting temperature of the core causing solidification. A total of 36 thermal evolution models of the growing proto-Earth's core are calculated to investigate effects of major physical parameters. No solidification is considered in the first 21 models where modified two-body escape velocities are used as the impact velocities of the embryos. At the end of accretion, temperatures in the upper part of the core are significantly different among these models, whereas temperatures in the deeper parts are similar. The core solidification considered in the remaining 15 models, where impact velocities higher than the modified two-body escape velocities are adopted, drastically changes the temperature distribution in the deeper parts of the core. All of the models produce partially solidified stiff inner cores, 1000-2100 km in radius, at the end of accretion, where the solid fraction is larger than 50%. The innermost of the stiff inner cores is completely solidified to radii 250-1500 km.

  2. Aerospace and maritime applications for solid oxide regenerative fuel cells

    Sridhar, K.R.; McElroy, J. [Ion America Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    Solid Oxide Regenerative Fuel Cells (SORFC's) have been demonstrated for over 1000 hours of operation at degradation rates as low as 0.5% per 1000 hours for current densities as high as 300mA/cm2. Efficiency levels (fuel cell power out vs. electrolysis power in) have been demonstrated as high as 70% at 300mA/cm2. These attributes now make the SORFC a leading candidate for many applications not previously considered viable for the regenerative fuel cell approach. The SORFC has several distinct advantages in comparison with the familiar PEM regenerative fuel cell. Among the advantages are; oxidant electrode reversibility, water independence with open oxidant chambers, ability to operate at very low oxidant pressures, near unity current efficiency, and ability to electrolyze carbon dioxide as well as water. Additionally, a single SORFC stack can accomplish all of the above. With the aforementioned demonstrations and technical advantages various aerospace and maritime applications have become very attractive for the SORFC. At high altitude in the earth's atmosphere the SORFC can breathe the rare air with only a small performance penalty. In the space arena the SORFC can produce CO and oxygen from the Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide and alternately produce electricity from those reactant stores. In nuclear submarines the SORFC can produce pure oxygen by electrolysis of expired carbon dioxide and alternately produce electricity. In Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) the SORFC can enable the desired range because of the very high energy density. (orig.)

  3. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D


    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  4. Application of Rare Earths in Thermal Barrier Coating Materials

    Xueqiang CAO


    Rare earths are a series of minerals with special properties that make them essential for applications including miniaturized electronics, computer hard disks, display panels, missile guidance, pollution controlling catalysts,H2-storage and other advanced materials. The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has the potential to extend the working temperature and the life of a gas turbine by providing a layer of thermal insulation between the metallic substrate and the hot gas. Yttria (Y2O3), as one of the most important rare earth oxides, has already been used in the typical TBC material YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia). In the development of the TBC materials, especially in the latest ten years, rare earths have been found to be more and more important. All the new candidates of TBC materials contain a large quantity of rare earths, such as R2Zr2O7 (R=La, Ce, Nd,Gd), CeO2-YSZ, RMeAI11O19 (R=La, Nd; Me=Mg, Ca, Sr) and LaPO4. The concept of double-ceramiclayer coatings based on the rare earth materials and YSZ is effective for the improvement of the thermal shock life of TBCs at high temperature.

  5. [Broad excitation band alkaline-earth silicate luminescent materials activated by rare earth and its applications].

    Xia, Wei; Lei, Ming-Kai; Luo, Xi-Xian; Xiao, Zhi-Guo


    Series of novel broad excitation band phosphors M2 MgSis O7 : Eu, Dy(M = Ca, Sr) were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure of compound was characterized. And the effects of part substitution of alkaline-earth on crystal structure, photoluminescence spectra and luminescence properties were also investigated. It is found that the excitation band of silicate luminescent materials extend to visible region and they exhibit yellow, green and blue long after-glow luminescence after excited by ultraviolet or visible light. Ca MgSi O7 : Eu, Dy luminescent materials can be excited effectively under the 450-480 nm range and exhibit a strong emission at 536 nm, nicely combining with blue light emitted by InGaN chips to produce white light. This promises the silicate luminescent materials a potential yellow phosphor for white LED.

  6. Study of strong interaction between atmosphere and solid Earth by using hurricane data

    Tanimoto, Toshiro


    The original energy of seismic noise is in the atmosphere although the most well-known seismic noise (microseism) gets excited through the ocean, i.e. the atmosphere (winds) excites ocean waves that in turn generate seismic noise in the solid earth. The oceans work as an intermediary in this case. But there is some seismic noise that is directly caused by the atmosphere-solid earth interactions. An extreme example for such a direct interaction can be found in the case of hurricanes (tropical cyclones) when they landfall and move on land. If we had such data, we could study the process of atmosphere-solid earth interactions directly. The Earthscope TA (Transportable Array) provided a few examples of such landfallen hurricanes which moved through the TA that had both seismometers and barometers. This data set allows us to study how ground motions changed as surface pressure (i.e., the source strength) varied over time. Because effects of surface pressure show up at short distances more clearly, we first examine the correlation between pressure and ground motion for the same stations. Plots of vertical ground velocity PSD (Power Spectral Density) vs. surface pressure PSD show that there are no significant ground motions unless pressure PSD becomes larger than 10 (Pa^2/s). Above this threshold, ground motion increases as P**1.69 (P is pressure and 1.69 is close to 5/3). Horizontal ground motions are larger than vertical ground motions (in seismic data), approximately by a factor of 10-30. But we note that the variations of horizontal motions with pressure show a linear relationship. Considering the instrumental design of TA stations, this is more likely due to the tilt of the whole recording system as (lateral) strong winds apply horizontal force on it. This linear trend exists for the whole range of the observed pressure PSD data, extending to small pressure values. We interpret that tilt signals overwhelmed other seismic signals in horizontal seismograms for

  7. SESAR: Addressing the need for unique sample identification in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Lenhardt, C.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.


    The study of solid earth samples is key to our knowledge of Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. The data generated provide the basis for models and hypotheses in all disciplines of the Geosciences from tectonics to magmatic processes to mantle dynamics to paleoclimate research. Sample-based data are diverse ranging from major and trace element abundances, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios of rocks, minerals, fluid or melt inclusions, to age determinations and descriptions of lithology, texture, mineral or fossil content, stratigraphic context, physical properties. The usefulness of these data is critically dependent on their integration as a coherent data set for each sample. If different data sets for the same sample cannot be combined because the sample cannot be unambiguously recognized, valuable information is lost. The ambiguous naming of samples has been a major problem in the geosciences. Different samples are often given identical names, and there is a tendency for different people analyzing the same sample to rename it in their publications according to local conventions. This situation has generated significant confusion, with samples often losing their "history", making it difficult or impossible to link available data. This has become most evident through the compilation of geochemical data in relational databases such as PetDB, NAVDAT, and GEOROC. While the relational data structure allows linking of disparate data for samples published in different references, linkages cannot be established due to ambiguous sample names. SESAR is a response to this problem of ambiguous naming of samples. SESAR will create a common clearinghouse that provides a centralized registry of sample identifiers, to avoid ambiguity, to systematize sample designation, and ensure that all information associated with a sample would in fact be unique. The project will build a web-based digital registry for solid earth samples that will provide for the first time a way to

  8. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul


    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  9. Rare-earth-doped materials for applications in quantum information storage and signal processing

    Thiel, C.W., E-mail: thiel@physics.montana.ed [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Boettger, Thomas, E-mail: tbottger@usfca.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St., San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Cone, R.L., E-mail: cone@montana.ed [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)


    Realization of practical quantum memory and optical signal processing systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state materials such as rare-earth ions doped into dielectric crystals are one of the most promising candidates for several quantum information storage protocols, including quantum storage of single photons. This article provides an overview of rare-earth-doped material properties and summarizes some of the most promising materials studied in our laboratory and by other groups for applications in quantum information storage and for ultra-wide bandwidth signal processing. Understanding and controlling spectral diffusion in these materials, which ultimately limits the achievable performance of any quantum memory system, is also briefly reviewed. Applications in quantum information impose stringent requirements on laser phase and frequency stability, and employing a narrow spectral hole in the inhomogeneous absorption profile in these materials as a frequency reference can dramatically improve laser stability. We review our work on laser frequency and phase stabilization and report our recent results on using a narrow spectral hole as a passive dynamic spectral filter for laser phase noise suppression, which can dramatically narrow the laser linewidth with or without the requirement of active feedback. - Research highlights: Rare-earth materials offer key properties for quantum memory and signal processing. Physics and properties of rare-earth optical transitions in solids are reviewed. Details of 47 promising optical transitions are tabulated and compared. A new narrow-band dynamic filtering method using spectral hole burning is discussed. Results of successful passive laser phase noise suppression are presented.

  10. Potential of the solid-Earth response for limiting long-term West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat

    Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Pollard, David; Klemann, Volker


    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is assumed to be inherently unstable because it is grounded below sea level in a large part, where the bedrock deepens from today's grounding line towards the interior of the ice sheet. Idealized simulations have shown that bedrock uplift due to isostatic adjustment of the solid Earth and the associated sea-level fall may stop the retreat of such a marine-based ice sheet (Gomez et al., 2012). Here, we employ a coupled model for ice-sheet dynamics and solid-Earth dynamics, including a gravitationally consistent description of sea level, to investigate the influence of the viscoelastic Earth structure on the WAIS' future stability (Konrad et al. 2015). For this, we start from a steady-state condition for the Antarctic Ice Sheet close to present-day observations and apply atmospheric and oceanic forcing of different strength to initiate the retreat of the WAIS and investigate the effect of the viscoelastic deformation on the ice evolution for a range of solid-Earth rheologies. We find that the climate forcing is the primary control on the occurrence of the WAIS collapse. However, for moderate climate forcing and a weak solid-Earth rheology associated with the West Antarctic rift system (asthenosphere viscosities of 3x10^19 Pa s or less), we find that the combined effect of bedrock uplift and gravitational sea-level fall limits the retreat to the Amundsen Sea embayment on millennial time scales. In contrast, a stiffer Earth rheology yields a collapse under these conditions. Under a stronger climate forcing, weak Earth structures do not prevent the WAIS collapse; however, they produce a delay of up to 5000 years in comparison to a stiffer solid-Earth rheology. In an additional experiment, we test the impact of sea-level rise from an assumed fast deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. In cases when the climatic forcing is too weak to force WAIS collapse by itself, the additional rise in sea-level leads to disintegration of the WAIS

  11. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications*

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Pennline, Henry


    By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of allowing identification of thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. For a given solid, the first step is to attempt to extract thermodynamic properties from thermodynamic databases and the available literatures. If the thermodynamic properties of the compound of interest are unknown, an ab initio thermodynamic approach is used to calculate them. These properties expressed conveniently as chemical potentials and heat of reactions, which obtained either from databases or from calculations, are further used for computing the thermodynamic reaction equilibrium properties of the CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are predicted at the desired process conditions are selected as CO2 sorbent candidates and are further considered for experimental validations. Solid sorbents containing alkali and alkaline earth metals have been reported in several previous studies to be good candidates for CO2 sorbent applications due to their high CO2 absorption capacity at moderate working temperatures. In addition to introducing our computational screening procedure, in this presentation we will summarize our results for solid systems composed by alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides, and carbon- ates/bicarbonates to validate our methodology. Additionally, applications of our computational method to mixed solid systems of Li2O with SiO2/ZrO2 with different mixing ratios, our preliminary results showed that increasing the Li2O/SiO2 ratio in

  12. Interatomic bonding in solids fundamentals, simulation, applications

    Levitin , Valim


    The connection between the quantum behavior of the structure elements of a substance and the parameters that determine the macroscopic behavior of materials has a major influence on the properties exhibited by different solids. Although quantum engineering and theory should complement each other, this is not always the case. This book aims to demonstrate how the properties of materials can be derived and predicted from the features of their structural elements, generally electrons. In a sense, electronic structure forms the glue holding solids together and it is central to determining struct

  13. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    Suchet, J P


    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  14. Supporting Data Stewardship Throughout the Data Life Cycle in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Ferrini, V.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Hsu, L.


    Stewardship of scientific data is fundamental to enabling new data-driven research, and ensures preservation, accessibility, and quality of the data, yet researchers, especially in disciplines that typically generate and use small, but complex, heterogeneous, and unstructured datasets are challenged to fulfill increasing demands of properly managing their data. The IEDA Data Facility ( provides tools and services that support data stewardship throughout the full life cycle of observational data in the solid earth sciences, with a focus on the data management needs of individual researchers. IEDA builds upon and brings together over a decade of development and experiences of its component data systems, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS, and EarthChem ( IEDA services include domain-focused data curation and synthesis, tools for data discovery, access, visualization and analysis, as well as investigator support services that include tools for data contribution, data publication services, and data compliance support. IEDA data synthesis efforts (e.g. PetDB and Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis) focus on data integration and analysis while emphasizing provenance and attribution. IEDA's domain-focused data catalogs (e.g. MGDS and EarthChem Library) provide access to metadata-rich long-tail data complemented by extensive metadata including attribution information and links to related publications. IEDA's visualization and analysis tools (e.g. GeoMapApp) broaden access to earth science data for domain specialist and non-specialists alike, facilitating both interdisciplinary research and education and outreach efforts. As a disciplinary data repository, a key role IEDA plays is to coordinate with its user community and to bridge the requirements and standards for data curation with both the evolving needs of its science community and emerging technologies. Development of IEDA tools and services

  15. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.


    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  16. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    Quinn, John J


    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  17. The EPOS e-Infrastructure: metadata driven integration of data products and services in solid Earth Science

    Bailo, Daniele; Jeffery, Keith


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is an ambitious long term integration plan addressing the major solid-earth research infrastructures in Europe. For its large scale and extent it is an unique initiative which will foster new scientific discoveries and enable scientists to investigate the solid earth system with unprecedented ways. A key aspect of EPOS is to provide end-users with homogeneous access to services and multidisciplinary data collected by monitoring infrastructures and experimental facilities as well as access to software, processing and visualization tools. Such a complex system requires a solid, scalable and reliable architecture in order to accommodate innovative features and to meet the evolving expectations of the heterogeneous communities involved.

  18. Interdisciplinary Earth Science Applications Using Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Kuo, C.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Dai, C.; Yi, Y.


    Satellite altimetry was conceived as a space geodetic concept for ocean surface topography mapping in the NASA-sponsored 1969 Williamstown, MA Conference, and was tested as part of the passive and active radar payload (S192), along with a radiometer and a scatterometer, on Skylab-1 in May 14, 1973. Since then, numerous radar and laser satellite altimetry missions orbiting/flying-by the Earth, Mars, Mercury, Titan and the Moon have been launched, evolving from the original scientific objective of marine gravity field mapping to a geodetic tool to address interdisciplinary Earth and planetary sciences. The accuracy of the radar altimeter has improved from 0.9 m RMS for the S-192 Skylab Ku-band compressed-pulse altimeter, to 2 cm RMS (2 second average) for the dual-frequency pulse-limited radar altimetry and associated sensors onboard TOPEX/POSEIDON. Satellite altimetry has evolved into a unique cross-disciplinary geodetic tool in addressing contemporary Earth science problems including sea-level rise, large-scale general ocean circulation, ice-sheet mass balance, terrestrial hydrology, and bathymetry. Here we provide a concise review and describe specific results on the additional recent innovative and unconventional applications of interdisciplinary science research using satellite radar altimetry, including geodynamics, land subsidence, snow depth, wetland and cold region hydrology.

  19. The Pilgram's Progress: Reflections on the journey building Australia's solid earth information infrastructure (Invited)

    Woodcock, R.


    Australia's AuScope provides world class research infrastructure as a framework for understanding the structure and evolution of the Australian continent. Since it conception in 2005, Data Scientists have led the Grid and Interoperability component of AuScope. The AuScope Grid is responsible for the effective management, curation, preservation and analysis of earth science data across the many organisations collaborating in AuScope. During this journey much was learned about technology and architectures but even more about organisations and people, and the role of Data Scientists in the science ecosystem. With the AuScope Grid now in operation and resulting techniques and technologies now underpinning Australian Government initiatives in solid earth and environmental information, it is beneficial to reflect upon the journey and observe what has been learned in order to make data science routine. The role of the Data Scientist is a hybrid one, of not quite belonging and yet highly valued. With the skills to support domain scientists with data and computational needs and communicate across domains, yet not quite able to do the domain science itself. A bridge between two worlds, there is tremendous satisfaction from a job well done, but paradoxically it is also best when it is unnoticeable. In the years since AuScope started much has changed for the Data Scientist. Initially misunderstood, Data Scientists are now a recognisable part of the science landscape in Australia. Whilst the rewards and incentives are still catching up, there is wealth of knowledge on the technical and soft skills required and recognition of the need for Data Scientists. These will be shared from the AuScope journey so other pilgrims may progress well.

  20. A study on variation in position of an Indian station due to solid earth tides

    Jayanta Kumar Ghosh; Shray Pathak


    In many geodetic analyses, it is important to consider the effect of earth tide on the instantaneous position of a station and its subsequent influence on the computation and interpretation of time series of coordinates as well as related data products. The tidal effect and temporal variations in the position of the IGS (International Global Navigational Satellite Systems [GNSS] Service) stations at Hyderabad (India), Ankara (Turkey) and Beijing Fangshan (China), due to solid earth tides has been studied. Surface tidal displacement of the station has been computed on daily basis for a month, based on the concept of gravity. Further, mean daily coordinates of the station been computed using static precise point positioning (PPP) method for a month. Results show that the station undergoes temporal displacements and its coordinates vary continuously within a day and all the days in the month. The maximum range in vertical displacement of the station has been found to be about 48 cm in a day over a period of a month and that along the north and east directions is respectively 8 cm and 14 cm. This is the maximum range but the mean value in the vertical displacement is 6 cm and along north and east is 1.7 cm and 0.09 cm, respectively. The ranges in variation in the mean value of geodetic latitude, longitude, and height of the station have been found to be 1.23, 2.73, and 3.52 cm, respectively. Further, it has been found that the tidal oscillations follow some periodicity, and thus need to be studied independently for all stations.

  1. Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Solids for Photovoltaic Applications.

    Chistyakov, A A; Zvaigzne, M A; Nikitenko, V R; Tameev, A R; Martynov, I L; Prezhdo, O V


    Quantum dot (QD) solids represent a new type of condensed matter drawing high fundamental and applied interest. Quantum confinement in individual QDs, combined with macroscopic scale whole materials, leads to novel exciton and charge transfer features that are particularly relevant to optoelectronic applications. This Perspective discusses the structure of semiconductor QD solids, optical and spectral properties, charge carrier transport, and photovoltaic applications. The distance between adjacent nanoparticles and surface ligands influences greatly electrostatic interactions between QDs and, hence, charge and energy transfer. It is almost inevitable that QD solids exhibit energetic disorder that bears many similarities to disordered organic semiconductors, with charge and exciton transport described by the multiple trapping model. QD solids are synthesized at low cost from colloidal solutions by casting, spraying, and printing. A judicious selection of a layer sequence involving QDs with different size, composition, and ligands can be used to harvest sunlight over a wide spectral range, leading to inexpensive and efficient photovoltaic devices.

  2. Earth rotation prevents exact solid body rotation of fluids in the laboratory

    Boisson, J; Moisy, F; Cortet, P -P


    We report direct evidence of a secondary flow excited by the Earth rotation in a water-filled spherical container spinning at constant rotation rate. This so-called {\\it tilt-over flow} essentially consists in a rotation around an axis which is slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis of the sphere. In the astrophysical context, it corresponds to the flow in the liquid cores of planets forced by precession of the planet rotation axis, and it has been proposed to contribute to the generation of planetary magnetic fields. We detect this weak secondary flow using a particle image velocimetry system mounted in the rotating frame. This secondary flow consists in a weak rotation, thousand times smaller than the sphere rotation, around a horizontal axis which is stationary in the laboratory frame. Its amplitude and orientation are in quantitative agreement with the theory of the tilt-over flow excited by precession. These results show that setting a fluid in a perfect solid body rotation in a laboratory exp...

  3. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.


    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several μm, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences

  4. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications


    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  5. Transcendental Representations with Applications to Solids and Fluids

    Campos, Luis Manuel Braga de Costa


    Building on the author's previous book in the series, Complex Analysis with Applications to Flows and Fields (CRC Press, 2010), Transcendental Representations with Applications to Solids and Fluids focuses on four infinite representations: series expansions, series of fractions for meromorphic functions, infinite products for functions with infinitely many zeros, and continued fractions as alternative representations. This book also continues the application of complex functions to more classes of fields, including incompressible rotational flows, compressible irrotational flows, unsteady flow

  6. Earth

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  7. Waiting ages for atmospheric oxygen: A titration hourglass and the oxidation of the solid Earth. (Invited)

    Catling, D. C.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K. J.


    more stable than competing reducing gases, such as CH4 and H2. In this scheme, the delay in the rise of oxygen by several hundred million years is the time it takes to oxidize the outer portions of the solid Earth to the point when the atmosphere flipped redox state. We also speculate that hydrogen escape may be associated with continental growth. As the Archean continents grew, they would have accumulated excess oxygen in their minerals at the tempo of hydrogen escape. The ferric oxide concentration in average continents is an order of magnitude greater than in the mantle. Continental growth supplied reducing power to the surface environment that became intertwined with the carbon cycle and photosynthesis. Thus, 'granitoid' material may be a consequence of increased oxygen fugacity in weathered subducted materials (cf. ref. 2). If so, continents are, in part, a response to surface oxidation rather than vice versa. Moreover, continental growth would necessarily slow once hydrogen escape rates were throttled by the GOE. [1] Catling et al. (2001) Science 293, 839 [2] Jagoutz (2013) Terra Nova 25, 95

  8. Ce1-xLaxOy solid solution prepared from mixed rare earth chloride for soot oxidation

    韩雪; 王亚飞; 郝红蕊; 郭荣贵; 胡运生; 蒋文全


    Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution was simply prepared using mixed rare earth chloride (RECl3·xH2O, RE=Ce, La>99%, containing unseparated Ce and La from rare earth metallurgical industry) as precursor by ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation method with differ-ent ultrasonic frequencies (CLf,f=200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 Hz). A compared Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution (CL*) was also prepared by the same mothod with 10% less precipitant. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution, and the crystal structures of these catalysts were not very sensitive to ultrasonic frequency and precipitant amount. However, both of the fac-tors had obvious effect on morphology and surface area of CL, and precipitant amount seem to play a more crucial role than ultra-sonic frequency for Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution preparation. When soot and catalyst were tight contacted, the peak temperature (Tpeak) of soot oxidation and oxygen reducing temperature for CLf catalysts decreased linearly with increasing surface area. Under loose contact condition, theTpeak had obvious negative correlation with H2 consumption. It was inferred that good reducibility of the Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution favored the soot oxidation reaction. The Ce1–xLaxOy solid solution prepared from unseparated rare earth chloride showed a good soot oxidaiton activity. Controlling the preparation conditions to prepare a CL catalyst would high surface area will enhance its reducibility and activity.

  9. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    Chandra, Angesh


    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  10. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    Sanchez, Braulio


    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55\\%, 42\\%, and 80\\t for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231\\% (x), 191\\% (y), and 77\\% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3\\% (x), 4\\% (y), and 5\\% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric'torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68\\% and 69 %, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1\\ ) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42\\% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6\\% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the

  11. Cloud-Based Computational Tools for Earth Science Applications

    Arendt, A. A.; Fatland, R.; Howe, B.


    Earth scientists are increasingly required to think across disciplines and utilize a wide range of datasets in order to solve complex environmental challenges. Although significant progress has been made in distributing data, researchers must still invest heavily in developing computational tools to accommodate their specific domain. Here we document our development of lightweight computational data systems aimed at enabling rapid data distribution, analytics and problem solving tools for Earth science applications. Our goal is for these systems to be easily deployable, scalable and flexible to accommodate new research directions. As an example we describe "Ice2Ocean", a software system aimed at predicting runoff from snow and ice in the Gulf of Alaska region. Our backend components include relational database software to handle tabular and vector datasets, Python tools (NumPy, pandas and xray) for rapid querying of gridded climate data, and an energy and mass balance hydrological simulation model (SnowModel). These components are hosted in a cloud environment for direct access across research teams, and can also be accessed via API web services using a REST interface. This API is a vital component of our system architecture, as it enables quick integration of our analytical tools across disciplines, and can be accessed by any existing data distribution centers. We will showcase several data integration and visualization examples to illustrate how our system has expanded our ability to conduct cross-disciplinary research.

  12. Solid Phase Luminescence of Several Rare Earth Ions on Ion-Exchange Films

    Tanner, Stephen P.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.


    The development and characterization of a novel ion-exchange film for solid-phase fluorometry and phosphorimetry is reported. This new cation-exchange material is suitable for spectroscopic applications in the ultraviolet and visible regions. It is advantageous because it, as a single entity, is easily recovered from solution and mounted in the spectrofluorometers. After preconcentration on the film, the luminescence intensity of lanthanide ions is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the corresponding solution, depending on the volume of solution and the amount of film. This procedure allows emission spectral measurements and determination of lanthanide ions at solution concentrations of < 5 (micro)g/L. The film may be stored for subsequent reuse or as a permanent record of the analysis. The major drawback to the use of the film is slow uptake of analyte due to diffusion limitations.

  13. Rare earth doped III-nitride semiconductors for spintronic and optoelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    Palai, Ratnakar


    Since last four decades the information and communication technologies are relying on the semiconductor materials. Currently a great deal of attention is being focused on adding spin degree-of-freedom into semiconductor to create a new area of solid-state electronics, called spintronics. In spintronics not only the current but also its spin state is controlled. Such materials need to be good semiconductors for easy integration in typical integrated circuits with high sensitivity to the spin orientation, especially room temperature ferromagnetism being an important desirable property. GaN is considered to be the most important semiconductor after silicon. It is widely used for the production of green, blue, UV, and white LEDs in full color displays, traffic lights, automotive lightings, and general room lighting using white LEDs. GaN-based systems also show promise for microwave and high power electronics intended for radar, satellite, wireless base stations and spintronic applications. Rare earth (Yb, Eu, Er, and Tm) doped GaN shows many interesting optoelectronic and magnetoptic properties e. g. sharp emission from UV through visible to IR, radiation hardness, and ferromagnetism. The talk will be focused on fabrication, optoelectronic (photoluminescence, cathodeluminescence, magnetic, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) properties of some rare earth doped GaN and InGaN semiconductor nanostructures grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and future applications.

  14. Applications of liquid state physics to the earth's core

    Stevenson, D. J.


    New results derived for application to the earth's outer core using the modern theory of liquids and the hard-sphere model of liquid structure are presented. An expression derived in terms of the incompressibility and pressure is valid for a high-pressure liquid near its melting point, provided that the pressure is derived from a strongly repulsive pair potential; a relation derived between the melting point and density leads to a melting curve law of essentially the same form as Lindemann's law. Finally, it is shown that the 'core paradox' of Higgins and Kennedy (1971) can occur only if the Gruneisen parameter is smaller than 2/3, and this constant is larger than this value in any liquid for which the pair potential is strongly repulsive.

  15. Multidisciplinary projects and investigations on the solid earth geophysics; Metodi e prospettive per una maggiore conoscenza della crosta terrestre

    Slejko, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Trieste (Italy)


    Physical phenomena that occur in the solid part of the Earth are investigated by Solid Earth Geophysics together with problems related to the shape, location, and characteristics of the different parts that constitute the Earth. Repeated measurements lead the scientists to model the past evolution of the various processes as well as to forecast the future ones. Various disciplines refer to Solid Earth Geophysics, they are: Seismology, Gravimetry, Magnetometry, Geothermics, Geodesy, Geo electromagnetism, and Seismic Exploration. A special citation is due to Applied Geophysics, which are devoted to the identification of minerals, energetic and natural resources. The National Group of Solid Earth Geophysics was constituted in 1978 by CNR for promoting, developing, and coordinating researches related to Solid Earth Geophysics. The limited annual financial budget has conditioned the realisation of relevant multi-disciplinary projects. Nevertheless, important results were obtained in all different fields of Geophysics and were disseminated during the annual conference of the Group. A summary review of the main topics treated during the last conference is given here and some ideas for future research projects are presented. [Italian] La Geofisica della Terra Solida e' quella branca delle scienze e delle tecnologie che prende in considerazione dei fenomeni connessi con le caratteristiche fisiche della parte solida della Terra. La complessita' della costituzione della Terra e della sua evoluzione nel tempo implica che vengano prese in considerazione tutte le fenomenologie che si riescono a misurare e che costituiscono branche diverse della Geofisica: la Sismologia, la Gravimetria, la Magnetometria, la Geotermia, la Geodesia, il Geoelettromagnetismo, la Geofisica applicata. Ognuna di queste branche della Geofisica ha avuto in passato uno sviluppo quasi del tutto indipendente con collaborazioni o integrazioni dirtte ad obiettivi specifici, limitati anche nel tempo

  16. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.


    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  17. Earth Science applications on Grid -advantages and limitations

    Petitdidier, M.; Schwichtenberg, H.


    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies…. Our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly… The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites, (2) new algorithms and methodologies have been developed using new technologies and compute resources. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity were deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted to decrease uncertainties by increasing the probability of occurrence via a larger number of runs. Some limitations are related to the combination of databases-outside the grid infrastructure- and grid compute resources; and to real-time applications that need resource reservation in order to insure results at given time. As a matter of fact ES scientists use different compute resources according to the phase of their application are used to work in large projects and share their results. They need a service-oriented architecture and a platform of

  18. Applications of the Judd-Ofelt theory to the praseodymium ion in laser solids

    Bowlby, B.E.; Di Bartolo, B


    The praseodymium ion in its trivalent state is a very good representative of the entire class of rare earth ions and of the complex spectroscopic properties that they exhibit when placed in solid host lattices. The plethora of its radiative transitions, on one hand, demands the intervention of a theory that could explain their absolute and relative intensities, and, on the other hand, provides a good opportunity for the verification of the validity and of the limits of such a theory. We present our data on the spectral characteristics of trivalent praseodymium in a crystal of barium yttrium fluoride and apply the Judd-Ofelt theory to this system. We then examine the problems presented by the application of the Judd-Ofelt theory to the praseodymium ion and the remedies that have been proposed to ameliorate its performance in the somewhat extreme case provided by the spectra of this ion in solids.

  19. The architecture for data, security and application in Digital Earth platform

    Miao, Fang; Yang, Wenhui; Ye, Ansheng; Chen, Huayue


    Digital Earth platform is an application, service and decision support system, which integrates geo-spatial data acquisition, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, statistics and visualization. It realizes comprehensive management and widely application of different kinds of huge earth data under the geo-spatial framework and in a open environment. It should consider the continues growing of data and applications, as well as data security. According to the issues of how to safely use spatial data in Digital Earth platform, an architecture for data,security and application in Digital Earth platform was proposed in this paper. We call this architecture DOA(DOSA). In the digital earth platform on its goal is the Trusted Data. DOA(DOSA) and Trusted Data can provide data management, security grantee, application supporting for Digital Earth platform.

  20. Effect of isothermal heat treatment on semi-solid microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd

    Yong Hu


    Full Text Available The AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd was prepared in this study, and the effect of semi-solid isothermal heat treatment on the microstructure of the alloy was investigated to obtain an optimum semi-solid structure. Results show that Gd can refine the microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and the optimum semi-solid AZ91D microstructure can be achieved by adding 1.5wt.% Gd. After treated at 585 °C for 30 min, the well distributed rose-shaped and near-spherical semi-solid microstructures of AZ91D+1.5wt.%Gd alloy can be obtained. The liquid phase of the semi-solid alloy consists of three components, namely, the molten pool, the “entrapped liquid” pool and the liner liquid film which separates two neighbor particles. The solid phase is composed of two phases, the primary α-Mg particles and the α-Mg phase formed in the second stage of solidification. With the increase of holding time, melting which causes the decrease of the primary α-Mg particle size is the dominant mechanism in the initial stage while coalescence and Ostwald ripening tend to be the principles later.

  1. EPOS-WP16: A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    Calignano, Elisa; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, Chris; Willingshofer, Ernst; Drury, Martyn; van Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, Francesca; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Winkler, Aldo


    research activities into Geo-resources and Geo-storage, Geo-hazards and Earth System Evolution. Regarding the provision of physical access to laboratories the current situation is such that access to WP16's laboratories is often based on professional relations, available budgets, shared interests and other constraints. In WP16 we aim at reducing the present diversity and non-transparency of access rules and replace ad-hoc procedures for access by a streamlined mechanisms, objective rules and a transparent policy. We work on procedures and mechanisms regulating application, negotiation, evaluation, feedback, selection, admission, approval, feasibility check, setting-up, use, monitoring and dismantling. In the end laboratories should each have a single point providing clear and transparent information on the facility itself, its services, access policy, data management policy and the legal terms and conditions for use of equipment. Through its role as an intermediary and information broker, EPOS will acquire a wealth of information from Research Infrastructures and users on the establishment of efficient collaboration agreements.

  2. Controllable ON-OFF adhesion for Earth orbit grappling applications

    Parness, Aaron; Hilgendorf, Tyler; Daniel, Phillip; Frost, Matt; White, Victor; Kennedy, Brett

    ON-OFF adhesives can benefit multiple Earth orbit applications by providing the capability to selectively anchor two surfaces together repeatedly and releasably without significant preload. Key to this new capability, targets will not need special preparation; ON-OFF adhesives can be used with cooperative and non-cooperative objects, like defunct satellites or space debris. Using an ON-OFF adhesive gripper allows large surfaces on a target to serve as potential grapple points, reducing the precision needed in the sensing and control throughout the grapple operation. A space-rated adhesive structure is presented that can be turned ON-OFF using a slight sliding motion. This adhesive mimics the geometry and performance characteristics of the adhesive structures found on the feet of gecko lizards. Results from adhesive testing on common orbital surfaces like solar panels, thermal blankets, composites, and painted surfaces are presented. Early environmental testing results from cold temperature and vacuum tests are also presented. Finally, the paper presents the design, fabrication, and preliminary testing of a gripping mechanism enabled by these ON-OFF adhesives in preparation for satellite-servicing applications. Adhesive levels range from near zero on rough surfaces to more than 75 kPa on smooth surfaces like glass.

  3. Applications of solid-state NMR to membrane proteins.

    Ladizhansky, Vladimir


    Membrane proteins mediate flow of molecules, signals, and energy between cells and intracellular compartments. Understanding membrane protein function requires a detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic properties involved. Lipid bilayers provide a native-like environment for structure-function investigations of membrane proteins. In this review we give a general discourse on the recent progress in the field of solid-state NMR of membrane proteins. Solid-state NMR is a variation of NMR spectroscopy that is applicable to molecular systems with restricted mobility, such as high molecular weight proteins and protein complexes, supramolecular assemblies, or membrane proteins in a phospholipid environment. We highlight recent advances in applications of solid-state NMR to membrane proteins, specifically focusing on the recent developments in the field of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, proton detection, and solid-state NMR applications in situ (in cell membranes). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    Tilton, James C.


    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  5. Applications for Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator Technology

    van der List, M.; van Vliet, L. D.; Sanders, H. M.; Put, P. A. G.; Elst, J. W. E. C.


    In 2002 and 2003, Bradford Engineering B.V. conducted, in corporation with the Dutch research institute TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory (PML) a SME study for ESA-ESTEC for the identification of spaceflight applications and on-ground demonstration of Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology. This innovative technology has been developed by TNO-PML while Bradford Engineering also brought in its experience in spaceflight hardware development and manufacturing. The Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology allows for pure gas generation at ambient temperatures, as opposed to conventional solid propellant gas generators. This makes the SPCGG technology interesting for a wide range of terrestrial spaceflight applications. During the first part of the study, a variety of potential applications have been identified and three applications were selected for a more detailed quantitative study. In the third phase a ground demonstration was performed successfully for a cold gas propulsion system application. During the actual demonstration test, 10 cool gas generators were mounted and all operated successfully in sequence, demonstrating good repeatability of the produced amount of gas and pressure.

  6. Study of Suspended Solid in Constructed Wetland Using Rare Earth Elements

    Xiao, Z. X. Z.


    Constructed wetland (CW) is one of the commonly used technologies in wastewater treatment. By means of the biochemical interactions among water, microscopic organism, aquatic plant and sediments in natural environment CW can remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammoniacal nitrogen, suspended solid (SS) and heavy metals. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were used as a natural tracer for the study of SS in the CW. The studied CW, Hebao Island free water surface CW, is located in Chiayi County, south Taiwan. The CW is designed for removing SS and BOD due to the pollution from livestock farms in the upstream area. However, the removal of SS was not effective. In some cases, the SS concentration of inflow is even higher than that of outflow. That the sediments on the slope were flushed into the CW was considered as the main problem. After all the refinement, the issue has not improved yet. In the study, the water samples were filtered with 1.0μm filter paper. Then, part of water samples were digested by ultrapure nitric acid to obtain the water representing the total of dissolved and suspended matters. The others were filtered by 0.1μm filter, which represent the matters in dissolved form. REEs and most of metals were subsequently measured with ICP-MS. REEs generally have a unique source and would fractionate in certain regular patterns during biochemical reactions due to lanthanide contraction. They can be an excellent natural tracer in the environmental researches. After normalized by North American Shale Composite, the REEs pattern for the samples with the total of dissolved and suspended matters is characterized by a middle REE (MREE) enrichment and light REE (LREE) depletion. According to the previous theoretical studies, the MREE enrichment could be achieved by a selected adsorption of MREEs by organic matters, which is generally humic substance in natural surface water. It is suggested that the refinement of removal efficiency of SS should focus on

  7. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)


    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  8. Early Stage of Origin of Earth (interval after Emergence of Sun, Formation of Liquid Core, Formation of Solid Core)

    Pechernikova, G. V.; Sergeev, V. N.


    Gravitational collapse of interstellar molecular cloud fragment has led to the formation of the Sun and its surrounding protoplanetary disk, consisting of 5 × 10^5 dust and gas. The collapse continued (1 years. Age of solar system (about 4.57×10^9 years) determine by age calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI) which are present at samples of some meteorites (chondrites). Subsidence of dust to the central plane of a protoplanetary disk has led to formation of a dust subdisk which as a result of gravitational instability has broken up to condensations. In the process of collisional evolution they turned into dense planetesimals from which the planets formed. The accounting of a role of large bodies in evolution of a protoplanetary swarm in the field of terrestrial planets has allowed to define times of formation of the massive bodies permitting their early differentiation at the expense of short-lived isotopes heating and impacts to the melting temperature of the depths. The total time of Earth's growth is estimated about 10^8 years. Hf geochronometer showed that the core of the Earth has existed for Using W about 3×10^7 Hf geohronometer years since the formation of the CAI. Thus data W point to the formation of the Earth's core during its accretion. The paleomagnetic data indicate the existence of Earth's magnetic field past 3.5×10^9 years. But the age of the solid core, estimated by heat flow at the core-mantle boundary is 1.7×10^9 (0.5 years). Measurements of the thermal conductivity of liquid iron under the conditions that exist in the Earth's core, indicate the absence of the need for a solid core of existence to support the work geodynamo, although electrical resistivity measurements yield the opposite result.

  9. Development of Auto Exhaust Catalysts and Associated Application of Rare Earths in China

    吴晓东; 翁端


    There are at least three obvious trends in the developments of automotive market in China: the evolution of emission standards from Euro Ⅱ to Euro Ⅲ, the demand of lean-burn gasoline engine and the time of diesel vehicles. The latest application and advances of exhaust catalysts by Chinese researchers, using some high effcient, economical and durable methods to meet these changes in emission regulations laws and engine technologies, were described. Rare earth oxides, such as lanthana, ceria-based solid solutions and perovskite-type oxides, are widely used as excellent promoters for thermal stability, oxygen storage capacity and oxidation/reduction activity in these catalysts. Four phases in the development of the auto exhaust catalyst industry in China since the mid 1970s were reviewed. It is argued that China will become the center of global auto exhaust catalysts industry in the next decades with its economic, technical and environmental incentives, which greatly depends on the research and development of rare earth.

  10. Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences

    Rieke-Zapp, Dirk


    Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences Photogrammetry is often considered one of the most precise and versatile surveying techniques. The same camera and analysis software can be used for measurements from sub-millimetre to kilometre scale. Such a measurement device is well suited for application by earth scientists working in the field. In this case a small toolset and a straight forward setup best fit the needs of the operator. While a digital camera is typically already part of the field equipment of an earth scientist the main focus of the field work is often not surveying. Lack in photogrammetric training at the same time requires an easy to learn, straight forward surveying technique. A photogrammetric method was developed aimed primarily at earth scientists for taking accurate measurements in the field minimizing extra bulk and weight of the required equipment. The work included several challenges. A) Definition of an upright coordinate system without heavy and bulky tools like a total station or GNS-Sensor. B) Optimization of image acquisition and geometric stability of the image block. C) Identification of a small camera suitable for precise measurements in the field. D) Optimization of the workflow from image acquisition to preparation of images for stereo measurements. E) Introduction of students and non-photogrammetrists to the workflow. Wooden spheres were used as target points in the field. They were more rugged and available in different sizes than ping pong balls used in a previous setup. Distances between three spheres were introduced as scale information in a photogrammetric adjustment. The distances were measured with a laser distance meter accurate to 1 mm (1 sigma). The vertical angle between the spheres was measured with the same laser distance meter. The precision of the measurement was 0.3° (1 sigma) which is sufficient, i.e. better than inclination measurements with a geological compass. The upright

  11. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.


    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  12. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.


    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  13. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    Vasiliev, LL


    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  14. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach for solid earth geophysics in Seafloor Observatories data analysis

    Embriaco, Davide; De Caro, Mariagrazia; De Santis, Angelo; Etiope, Giuseppe; Frugoni, Francesco; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta; Monna, Stephen; Montuori, Caterina; Sgroi, Tiziana; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo


    Continuous time-series in deep ocean waters are the basis for an original approach in ocean exploration. The observation of phenomena variability over time is key to understanding many Earth processes, among which: hydrothermal systems, active tectonics, and ecosystem life cycles. Geo-hazards at sea have often been studied with a single-parameter approach on a short time-scale, but it is now becoming clear that to understand these phenomena and, specifically, to identify precursors to very energetic events, such as mega-earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions, continuous long-term multiparameter monitoring is strongly needed. In fact, given a signal of interest, by using several sensors recording simultaneously it is possible to identify the contribution of different sources to this signal, and to be less prone to false associations. In Europe, large cabled systems with marine sensors are being developed for near real-time and real-time long-term monitoring of ocean processes within the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory Research Infrastructure. Obtaining good quality long-term multiparameter data from sensors on-board seafloor observatories, which are the base of a multidisciplinary approach, is a challenging task. We describe the main steps we have taken to retrieve good quality multiparametric data acquired by GEOSTAR class seafloor observatories, both standalone and cabled, deployed at various sites offshore European coast during the last decade. Starting from this data we show the application of a multidisciplinary approach with some examples coming from experiments in EMSO sites.

  15. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.


    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  16. Mass-independent isotopic compositions in terrestrial and extraterrestrial solids and their applications.

    Thiemens, M H; Savarino, J; Farquhar, J; Bao, H


    In 1983, Thiemens and Heidenreich reported the first chemically produced mass-independent isotope effect. This work has been shown to have a wide range of applications, including atmospheric chemistry, solar system evolution, and chemical physics. This work has recently been reviewed (Weston, R. E. Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2115-2136; Thiemens, M. H. Science 1999, 283, 341-345). In this Account, observations of mass-independent isotopic compositions in terrestrial and Martian solids are reviewed. A wide range of applications, including formation and transport of aerosols in the present atmosphere, chemistry of ancient atmospheres and oceans, history and coupling of the atmosphere-surface in the Antarctic dry valleys, origin and evolution of oxygen in the Earth's earliest environment, and the chemistry of the atmosphere and surface of Mars, are discussed.

  17. Transient Fault Locating Method Based on Line Voltage and Zero-mode Current in Non-solidly Earthed Network

    ZHANG Linli; XU Bingyin; XUE Yongduan; GAO Houlei


    Non-solidly earthed systems are widely used for middle voltage distribution network at home and abroad. Fault point location especially the single phase-to-earth fault is very difficult because the fault current is very weak and the fault arc is intermittent. Although several methods have been developed, the problem of fault location has not yet been resolved very well. A new fault location method based on transient component of line voltage and 0-mode current is presented in this paper, which can realize fault section location by the feeder automation (FA) system. Line voltage signal can be obtained conveniently without requiring any additional equipment. This method is based on transient information, not affected by arc suppression coil.

  18. Optical Refrigeration Science and Applications of Laser Cooling of Solids

    Epstein, Richard


    Edited by the two top experts in the field with a panel of International contributors, this is a comprehensive up-to-date review of research and applications. Starting with the basic physical principles of laser cooling of solids, the monograph goes on to discuss the current theoretical issues being resolved and the increasing demands of growth and evaluation of high purity materials suitable for optical refrigeration, while also examining the design and applications of practical cryocoolers. An advanced text for scientists, researchers, engineers, and students (masters, PHDs and Postdoc) in l

  19. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa


    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  20. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications



    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  1. Improving Application Launch Performance on Solid State Drives

    Yongsoo Joo; Junhee Ryu; Sangsoo Park; Kang G.Shin


    Application launch performance is of great importance to system platform developers and vendors as it greatly affects the degree of users' satisfaction.The single most effective way to improve application launch performance is to replace a hard disk drive (HDD) with a solid state drive (SSD),which has recently become affordable and popular.A natural question is then whether or not to replace the traditional HDD-aware application launchers with a new SSD-aware optimizer.We address this question by analyzing the inefficiency of the HDD-aware application launchers on SSDs and then proposing a new SSD-aware application prefetching scheme,called the Fast Application STarter (FAST).The key idea of FAST is to overlap the computation (CPU) time with the SSD access (I/O) time during an application launch.FAST is composed of a set of user-level components and system debugging tools provided by Linux OS (operating system).Hence,FAST can be easily deployed in any recent Linux versions without kernel recompilation.We implement FAST on a desktop PC with an SSD running Linux 2.6.32 OS and evaluate it by launching a set of widely-used applications,demonstrating an average of 28% reduction of application launch time as compared to PC without a prefetcher.

  2. Diode pumped solid-state laser oscillators for spectroscopic applications

    Byer, R. L.; Basu, S.; Fan, T. Y.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Nabors, C. D.; Nilsson, A.; Huber, G.


    The rapid improvement in diode laser pump sources has led to the recent progress in diode laser pumped solid state lasers. To date, electrical efficiencies of greater than 10 percent were demonstrated. As diode laser costs decrease with increased production volume, diode laser and diode laser array pumped solid state lasers will replace the traditional flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser sources. The use of laser diode array pumping of slab geometry lasers will allow efficient, high peak and average power solid state laser sources to be developed. Perhaps the greatest impact of diode laser pumped solid state lasers will be in spectroscopic applications of miniature, monolithic devices. Single-stripe diode-pumped operation of a continuous-wave 946 nm Nd:YAG laser with less than 10 m/w threshold was demonstrated. A slope efficiency of 16 percent near threshold was shown with a projected slope efficiency well above a threshold of 34 percent based on results under Rhodamine 6G dye-laser pumping. Nonlinear crystals for second-harmonic generation of this source were evaluated. The KNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 appear to be the most promising.

  3. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Ramli Mat


    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  4. Advances on Rare Earth Application in Pollution Ecology

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing; Zhang Guangsheng


    The use of rare earth for inducing plant resistance was reviewed. The important developments in recent years were described, and rare earth can alleviate the pollution of acid rain, ozone, pesticide, heavy metals etc. in environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism of rare earth to inducing plant resistance and reducing plant injury is to control biochemical metabolism web in plant cell, to adjust its protection system of free radical, to maintain its photosynthesis, to protect cell membrane system and to carry through its function on mineral metabolism. Meanwhile some problems in the field were discussed as well.

  5. Spatiotemporal stochastic models for earth science and engineering applications

    Luo, Xiaochun


    Spatiotemporal processes occur in many areas of earth sciences and engineering. However, most of the available theoretical tools and techniques of space-time daft processing have been designed to operate exclusively in time or in space, and the importance of spatiotemporal variability was not fully appreciated until recently. To address this problem, a systematic framework of spatiotemporal random field (S/TRF) models for geoscience/engineering applications is presented and developed in this thesis. The space-tune continuity characterization is one of the most important aspects in S/TRF modelling, where the space-time continuity is displayed with experimental spatiotemporal variograms, summarized in terms of space-time continuity hypotheses, and modelled using spatiotemporal variogram functions. Permissible spatiotemporal covariance/variogram models are addressed through permissibility criteria appropriate to spatiotemporal processes. The estimation of spatiotemporal processes is developed in terms of spatiotemporal kriging techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the singularity analysis of spatiotemporal kriging systems. The impacts of covariance, functions, trend forms, and data configurations on the singularity of spatiotemporal kriging systems are discussed. In addition, the tensorial invariance of universal spatiotemporal kriging systems is investigated in terms of the space-time trend. The conditional simulation of spatiotemporal processes is proposed with the development of the sequential group Gaussian simulation techniques (SGGS), which is actually a series of sequential simulation algorithms associated with different group sizes. The simulation error is analyzed with different covariance models and simulation grids. The simulated annealing technique honoring experimental variograms, is also proposed, providing a way of conditional simulation without the covariance model fitting which is prerequisite for most simulation algorithms. The proposed

  6. Luminescence properties of solid solutions of borates doped with rare-earth ions

    Levushkina, V. S.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Spassky, D. A.; Zadneprovski, B. I.; Tret'yakova, M. S.


    The structural and luminescence properties of LuxY1 - xBO3 solid solutions doped with Ce3+ or Eu+3 have been investigated. It has been found that the solid solutions crystallize in the vaterite phase with a lutetium concentration x spectra are characterized by intensive impurity emission under excitation with the synchrotron radiation in the X-ray and ultraviolet spectral ranges. It has been shown that, as the lutetium concentration x in the LuxY1 - xBO3: Ce3+ solid solutions increases, the emission intensity smoothly decreases, which is associated with a gradual shift of the Ce3+ 5 d(1) level toward the bottom of the conduction band, as well as with a decrease in the band gap. It has been established that, in the LuxY1 - xBO3: Eu3+ solid solutions with intermediate concentrations x, the efficiency of energy transfer to luminescence centers increases. This effect is explained by the limited spatial separation of electrons and holes in the solid solutions. It has been demonstrated that the calcite phase adversely affects the luminescence properties of the solid solutions.

  7. Application of data fusion on multi-function earth drill

    胡长胜; 赵伟民; 李瑰贤; 杨春蕾; 牛红; 胡长军


    taking the bucket of multi-function earth drill as an example, combining with the conception of multi-sensor integration and data fusion, adopting the terrene column chart and digging torque formula as control dependence, the detecting method of the earth drill's working state is introduced. Multi-sensor data fusion is done with the aid of BP neural network in Matlab. The data to be interfused are pre-processed and the program of simulation and "point checking" is given.

  8. Tunable solid state laser system for dermatology applications

    Azar, Zion; Bank, Alexander; Donskoy, Dmitri M.; Nechitailo, Vladimir S.


    The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is the most recent in a series of pulsed laser systems for plastic surgery. The 532 nm wavelength has been shown to be absorbed by a variety of chromophores. These include tattoo pigments, oxygenated hemoglobin and melanin-containing epidermal cells. A simple multi-line solid state laser module pumped by double-frequency Q- switched YAG laser is presented. This solid state multi-line module enables tuning of the wavelength in the yellow spectral range to 560 nm or to 580 nm for dermatology applications. Conversion efficiency in excess of 70% was achieved at 10 Hz pulse repetition frequency and output energy per pulse of approximately 200 mJ.

  9. Geoantineutrino Spectrum and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core

    Rusov, V D; Khotyaintseva, E N; Kosenko, S I; Litvinov, D A; Pavlovich, V N; Tarasov, V A; Vaschenko, V N; Zelentsova, T N


    The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 GPa) and temperature (1600- 22000 C) have induced us to consider the possible consequences of made by V. Anisichkin and A. Ershov supposition that there is an actinoid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) such physical consequent can be. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. On the basis of O'Nions-Ivensen-Hamilton model of the geochemical evolution...

  10. New Data Services for Polar Investigators from Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ferrini, V.; Morton, J. J.; Arko, R. A.; McLain, K.; O'hara, S. H.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K. A.; IEDA Team, I.


    Accessibility and preservation of data is needed to support multi-disciplinary research in the key environmentally sensitive Polar Regions. IEDA (Integrated Earth Data Applications) is a community-based data facility funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational solid earth data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. IEDA tools and services relevant to the Polar Research Community include the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Data System (ASODS), the U.S. Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC), GeoMapApp, as well as a number of services for sample-based data (SESAR and EarthChem). In addition to existing tools, which assist Polar investigators in archiving their data, and creating DIF records for global searches in AMD, IEDA recently added several new tools and services that will provide further support for investigators with the data life cycle process. These include a data management plan ( and data compliance reporting tool ( that will help investigators comply with the requirements of funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF). Data, especially from challenging Polar Regions, are likely to be used by other scientists for future studies. Therefore, data acknowledgment is an important concern of many investigators. To encourage data acknowledgments by data users, we link references of publications (when known) to datasets and cruises registered within the ASODS system as part of our data curation services ( In addition, IEDA offers a data publication service to register scientific data with DOI's, making data sets citable as publications with attribution to investigators as authors. IEDA is a publication agent of the DataCite consortium. Offering such services provides additional incentives

  11. Remote Sensing of Tolkien's Middle Earth: A Unique Interactive Application of Earth System Observational Tools

    Almberg, L. D.; Dean, K.; Foster, R.; Kalbfleisch, D.; Peirce, M.; Simmons, T.


    The power of remote sensing tools were combined with the creativity of bright young minds and the magic of J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth to provide a unique educational opportunity. Four students, age 12 to 15, were introduced to the basics of space-based Earth observation tools and aerial photography interpretation during the 10-day Alaska Summer Research Academy at the University of Alaska Fairbanks June 9-18, 2004. The students created an interactive map of Tolkein's Middle Earth by selecting aerial photographs, Landsat and FLIR images to represent areas of the Hobbits' journey as described in the popular Lord of the Rings books and films. Ground truthing excursions were made in the Alaskan interior to determine if the regions selected from the images and photographs indeed fit with Tolkein's descriptions. The students presented their final results to their peers in a morning news format, following the flight of the Hobbits across the landscape in their quest to destroy the One Ring.

  12. Using GPS and GRACE data to assess Solid Earth elastic parameters at regional scale

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.


    of the GPS stations. Remarkably, we find that the calculated uplift shows periodic behaviours with amplitudes that match those of the GPS stations, depending on the Earth model used and especially on the elastic parameters of the mantle. We tested this method over the region of the European Alps and we show...

  13. Impact of the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions on solid-state laser systems

    Pollnau, M.


    The electronic energy level schemes within the 4f subshells of rare-earth ions give rise to a number of fluorescence transitions ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR spectral region. A large variety of laser lines have been demonstrated based on these fluorescence transitions. Depending on the ene

  14. Detection of the translational oscillations of the Earth's solid inner core based on the international superconducting gravimeter observations

    SUN Heping; XU Jianqiao; B.Ducarme


    Based on the 21 series of the high precision tidal gravity observations recorded using superconducting gravimeters (SG) at 14 stations distributed globally (in totally about 86 years), the translational oscillations of the Earth's solid inner core (ESIC) is detected in this paper. All observations are divided into two groups with G-Ⅰ group (8 relatively longer observational series) and G-Ⅱ group (13 relatively shorter observational series). The detailed corrections to minute original observations for each station are carried out, the error data due to the earthquakes, power supply impulses and some perturbations as change in atmospheric pressure and so on are carefully deleted for the first step, the gravity residuals are obtained after removing further synthetic tidal gravity signals. The Fast Fourier Transform analysis is carried out for each residual series, the estimations of the product spectral densities in the sub-tidal band are obtained by using a multi-station staking technique. The 8 common peaks are found after further removing the remaining frequency dependent pressure signals. The eigenperiods, quality factors and resonant strengths for these peaks are simulated. The numerical results show that the discrepancies of the eigenperiods for 3 of 8 peaks, compared to those of theoretical computation given by Smith, are only 0.4%, -0.4% and 1.0%. This coincidence signifies that the dynamical phenomenon of the Earth's solid inner core can be detected by using high precision ground gravity observations. The reliability of the numerical computation is also checked, the spectral peak splitting phenomenon induced by Earth's rotation and ellipticity is preliminary discussed in this paper.

  15. [Review on Application of Optical Scattering Spectroscopy for Elastic Wave Velocity Study on Materials in Earth's Interior].

    Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai


    In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in

  16. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut


    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  17. Competition Between Organic Matter and Solid Surface for Cation Sorption: Ce and Rare Earth Element as Proxy

    Davranche, M.; Pourret, O.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.


    Aquatic or soil organic matter are well-known to be strong adsorbent of many cations due to their adsorption capacity. Among these cations, the trivalent rare earth element (REE) and particularly Ce seem to be promising tools to investigate the impact of competition in between organic or inorganic ligands. Ce (III) is oxidized into Ce (IV) by oxidative surface such as Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. Since Ce (IV) is preferentially adsorbed (as compared to other REE), a positive and negative Ce anomaly is developed respectively onto the solid and within the solution. Previous studies (Davranche et al., 2004, 2005) highlighted the suppression of this feature when Ce occurs to be complexed with organic matter (as humate species). Recent experiments were designed to evaluate the competition between humate and Mn oxide for REE complexation (each reactant being added simultaneously). Two parameters control the competition: time and pH. While organic matter does adsorb immediately the free REE, a desorption of REE occurs through time. Desorption is marked by the development of a Ce anomaly in the REE pattern that reflects the complexation with Mn oxide surface. Along the time, solid surface becomes thus more competitive than the organic matter. PH still influences the competition since at basic pH, REE and organic matter - probably as REE-organic complexes - are adsorbed onto the solid surface. Ultrafiltration analyses at 5 KD were also performed to separate organic matter and organic complexes from the solution. Results provide evidence that in presence of a solid surface, HREE (high rare earth element) desorption from the organic matter occurs through time. This leads to HREE enrichment in solution. All these results suggest that complexation of organic matter is kinetically favoured as compared to the complexation with solid surfaces. However, the organic complex formed during the first stage of the complexation process involves weak bindings. These bindings are easily broken

  18. Comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar Earth Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To finalize a comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar / Earth-Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application begun using FY13 IRAD funding approved in May 2013. This GSFC...

  19. Vaporization of the Earth: Application to Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce; Jr,


    Currently, there are about 3 dozen known super-Earth (M < 10 MEarth), of which 8 are transiting planets suitable for atmospheric follow-up observations. Some of the planets are exposed to extreme temperatures as they orbit close to their host stars, e.g., CoRot-7b, and all of these planets have equilibrium temperatures significantly hotter than the Earth. Such planets can develop atmospheres through (partial) vaporization of their crustal and/or mantle silicates. We investigated the chemical equilibrium composition of such heated systems from 500 - 4000 K and total pressures from 10-6 to 10+2 bars. The major gases are H2O and CO2 over broad temperature and pressure ranges, and Na, K, O2, SiO, and O at high temperatures and low pressures. We discuss the differences in atmospheric composition arising from vaporization of SiO2-rich (i.e., felsic) silicates (like Earth's continental crust) and MgO-, FeO-rich (i.e., mafic) silicates like the bulk silicate Earth. The computational results will be useful in plann...

  20. New methods and applications in solid-state NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei.

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Sneddon, Scott


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long been established as offering unique atomic-scale and element-specific insight into the structure, disorder, and dynamics of materials. NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei (I > (1)/2) are often perceived as being challenging to acquire and to interpret because of the presence of anisotropic broadening arising from the interaction of the electric field gradient and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment, which broadens the spectral lines, often over several megahertz. Despite the vast amount of information contained in the spectral line shapes, the problems with sensitivity and resolution have, until very recently, limited the application of NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state. In this Perspective, we provide a brief overview of the quadrupolar interaction, describe some of the basic experimental approaches used for acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra, and discuss the information that these spectra can provide. We then describe some interesting recent examples to showcase some of the more exciting and challenging new applications of NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei in the fields of energy materials, microporous materials, Earth sciences, and biomaterials. Finally, we consider the possible directions that this highly informative technique may take in the future.

  1. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D


    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  2. The application of NLC for detecting solid crystals surface homogeneity

    Tomilin, M G, E-mail: mgtomilin@mail.r [St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky pr. 49, St.-Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation)


    The goal of the paper is to demonstrate wide fields of new polarizing microscope application based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs) for detecting different solid crystals surface inhomogeneities. Optical polarizing microscope (OPM) based on LCs makes possible to observe the invisible physical fields' distribution on the objects' surfaces. The OPM novelty consists in LC spatial light modulator (SLM) introduction in optical scheme to detect local deformations in real time. LC SLM applied as recording media has to be in direct contact with the surface under investigation. It gives the possibility to detect the invisible physical fields on the surface: intermolecular interactions, electrical, magnetic fields, etc. The theory of LC layer deformations was developed to find the relation between real size of structural defect D and the size of its image D' visualized with NLC layer. OPM method was used for detecting different aspects of surface inhomogeneities for different types of solid crystals. The new results were obtained for twinning boundaries in piezo quartz resonator having industrial application. LC SLM demonstrates non destructive method and better accuracy in comparison with etching, and the simplicity in comparison with x-radiation detecting. LC SLM may be combined with interference, phase-contrast and even near-field microscopes.

  3. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Cloetingh, Sierd


    -level. Those cycles were detected as a result of the pioneering work on the stratigraphic record of sedimentary basins and continental margins from all over the world by Peter Vail, Bilal Haq and others from Exxon. It was at this time, that sedimentary basins became a frontier in the integration of quantitative geology and geophysics. Sedimentary basins do not only provide a powerful source of information on the evolution of the underlying lithosphere and climate fluctuations, but also contain mankind's main reservoirs of geo-energy and geo-resources. It was Peter Ziegler, head of global geology at Shell International, who was the prime mentor in my somewhat unexpected scientific journey in sedimentary basins. These became the main research target of the Tectonics research group I established in 1988 in Amsterdam. In these years it became increasingly evident that the rheology of the lithosphere exerts a crucial control on the evolution of basins, but also on continental topography. It is on this topic that the cooperation over more than two decades with Evgenii Burov, addressing issues like the rheological structure of Europe's lithosphere, rift shoulder uplift and the interplay of lithospheric folding and mantle-lithosphere interactions, has, been very fruitful. Another unexpected milestone has been the opportunity to build up, parallel to the research efforts in field studies and numerical modeling, an analogue tectonic laboratory in our group. This brings me to another issue, also completely unforeseen: the integration of earth science in Europe, particularly taking off after the disappearance of the Iron Curtain. For my group, the latter marked the beginning of a very fruitful cooperation in particular with the groups of Frank Horvath in Budapest and Cornel Dinu in Bucharest, addressing the fascinating solid Earth dynamics of the Carpathians and Pannonian basin. Over the last few years, it has been become evident that integration in the solid earth science is the way to

  4. Impurities especially titanium in the rare earth metal gadolinium-before and after solid state electrotransport

    苗睿瑛; 张小伟; 朱琼; 张志琦; 王志强; 颜世宏; 陈德宏; 周林; 李宗安


    Gadolinium was prepared by conventional procedures of fluorination, reduction, distillation and solid state electrotransport (SSE). The electronegativities of the metals were found to have an important influence on the electrotransport process and result of the impurity element. Meanwhile, titanium particles in the distilled gadolinium as major metallic impurities were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before and after solid state electrotransport. The results showed that impurities especially titanium transported from anode to cathode during SSE. In the metal before SSE, there were impurities of titanium in strip shape or embedded round shape. After SSE processing, titanium particles in the metal smaller than 50 nm in the cathode, but existed 6 to 10 times bigger in the anode.

  5. Applicability of three-parameter equation of state of solids: compatibility with first principles approaches and application to solids

    Roy, P B


    In a recent paper we have proposed a three-parameter equation of state (EOS) of solids, and applied it to a few isotherms and shown that the fits are uniformly excellent. In this paper a comprehensive comparison of the applicability of our model is made with seven existing three-parameter EOSs. We have applied our model along with seven existing three-parameter EOSs, with no constraint on the parameters, to accurate and model-independent isotherms of nine solids and studied the fitting accuracy and agreement of the fit parameters with experiment. Further, each of these nine isotherms is divided into three subsets, and the resulting subsets fitted with all the eight EOSs. The stability of the fitted stress-free bulk modulus B sub 0 and its pressure derivatives B' sub 0 and B'' sub 0 with variation in the compression range is compared. Furthermore, our EOS is applied to a large number of inorganic as well as organic solids, including alloy, glasses, rubbers and plastics; of widely divergent bonding and structur...

  6. Low temperature preparation and fuel cell properties of rare earth doped barium cerate solid electrolytes

    蒋凯; 何志奇; 孟建; 任玉芳; 苏锵


    The solid electrolytes, BaCe0.8 Ln0.2O2.9 (Ln: Gd, Sm, Eu), were prepared by the sol-gel method. XRD indicated that a pure orthorhombic phase was formed at 900℃. The synthesis temperature by the sol-gel method was about 600℃ lower than the high temperature solid phase reaction method, The electrical conductivity and impedance spectra were measured and the conduction mechanism was studied. The grain-boundary resistance of the solid electrolyte could be reduced or eliminated by the sol-gel method. The conductivity of BaCe0.8Gd0.2O2.9 is 7.87×10-2 S·cm-1 at 800℃. The open-circuit voltage of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using BaCe0.8 Gd0.2O2.9 as electrolyte was near to 1 V and its maximum power density was 30 mW·cm-2.

  7. Broken-Plane Maneuver Applications for Earth to Mars Trajectories

    Abilleira, Fernando


    Optimization techniques are critical when investigating Earth to Mars trajectories since they have the potential of reducing the total (delta)V of a mission. A deep space maneuver (DSM) executed during the cruise may improve a trajectory by reducing the total mission V. Nonetheless, DSMs not only may improve trajectory performance (from an energetic point of view) but also open up new families of trajectories that would satisfy very specific mission requirements not achievable with ballistic trajectories. In the following pages, various specific examples showing the potential advantages of the usage of broken plane maneuvers will be introduced. These examples correspond to possible scenarios for Earth to Mars trajectories during the next decade (2010-2020).

  8. Grids for Dummies: Featuring Earth Science Data Mining Application

    Hinke, Thomas H.


    This viewgraph presentation discusses the concept and advantages of linking computers together into data grids, an emerging technology for managing information across institutions, and potential users of data grids. The logistics of access to a grid, including the use of the World Wide Web to access grids, and security concerns are also discussed. The potential usefulness of data grids to the earth science community is also discussed, as well as the Global Grid Forum, and other efforts to establish standards for data grids.

  9. Large deployable reflectors for telecom and earth observation applications

    Scialino, L.; Ihle, A.; Migliorelli, M.; Gatti, N.; Datashvili, L.; van `t Klooster, K.; Santiago Prowald, J.


    Large deployable antennas are one of the key components for advanced missions in the fields of telecom and earth observation. In the recent past, missions have taken on board large deployable reflector (LDR) up to 22 m of diameter and several missions have already planned embarking large reflectors, such as the 12 m of INMARSAT XL or BIOMASS. At the moment, no European LDR providers are available and the market is dominated by Northrop-Grumman and Harris. Consequently, the development of European large reflector technology is considered a key step to maintain commercial and strategic competitiveness (ESA Large Reflector Antenna Working Group Final Report, TEC-EEA/2010.595/CM, 2010). In this scenario, the ESA General Study Project RESTEO (REflector Synergy between Telecom and Earth Observation), starting from the identification of future missions needs, has identified the most promising reflector concepts based on European heritage/technology, able to cover the largest range of potential future missions for both telecom and earth observation. This paper summarizes the activities and findings of the RESTEO Study.

  10. The permeability variations on the Wenchuan Fault measured on the water level response to solid Earth tides

    Xue, L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, J.


    The mechanics of slip during an earthquake depends critically on the hydrologic properties. The in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never directly been constrained on the fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we analyze 1.5 years of continuous data from the Wenchuan Fault Zone which was the site of the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. By using the solid Earth tides response we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (~200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We find that the hydraulic diffusivity D of Wenchuan Fault Zone is 0.03 m2/s, which is three orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. This measurement at Wenchuan was made by continuously monitoring the response of the well to the solid Earth tides. The solid earth tides impose a dilatational strain on the formation that pumps water cyclically in and out of the well. By measuring the phase and amplitude response, we can infer the transmissivity and storage near the fault assuming an isotropic, homogeneous and laterally extensive aquifer. We evaluated the phase and amplitude responses for solid Earth tide in both frequency domain and time domain. In the frequency domain analysis, we divide Fourier transform of the water levels by that of a synthetic tide to get the amplitude response and phase shift of the water level relative to the dilatational strain at the frequency of the largest semidiurnal tide M2. In the time domain, we use a least-square fit of prediction tidal harmonics to the water levels. Then we solve for phase and amplitude response at the frequency for M2. These two separate methods yield almost identical results. The average phase lag is ~ 25 degree, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. According to the Heish model, we solve for storage coefficient S 2.2×10-4 and transmissivity

  11. Make Super-Earths, Not Jupiters: Accreting Nebular Gas onto Solid Cores at 0.1 AU and Beyond

    Lee, Eve J; Ormel, Chris W


    Close-in super-Earths discovered by Kepler may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10-$M_\\oplus$ cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at $\\sim$0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H$_2$ dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H$_2$ dissociation are universal, timescales for ...

  12. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André


    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth doped novel optical materials and their potential applications

    Pokhrel, Madhab

    There are many application of photonic materials but selection of photonic materials are always constrained by number of factors such as cost, availability of materials, thermal and chemical stability, toxicity, size and more importantly ease of synthesis and processing along with the efficient emission. For example, quantum dots are efficient emitter but they are significantly toxic, whereas dyes are also efficient emitters but they are chemically unstable. On the other hand, display and LED requires the micron size particles but bio application requires the nano-sized particles. On the other hand, laser gain media requires the ceramics glass or single crystal not the nanoparticles. So, realization of practical optical systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state powders such as rare-earth ions doped nano and micron size phosphors are one of the most promising candidates for several photonic applications discussed above. In this dissertation, we investigate the upconversion (UC) fluorescence characteristics of rare earth (RE) doped M2O2S (M = Y, Gd, La) oxysulphide phosphors, for near-infrared to visible UC. Both nano and micron size phosphors were investigated depending on their applications of interest. This oxysulphide phosphor possesses several excellent properties such as chemical stability, low toxicity and can be easily mass produced at low cost. Mainly, Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ were doped in the host lattice, resulting in bright red, green, blue and NIR emissions under 980 nm and 1550 nm excitation at various excitation power densities. Maximum UC quantum yields (QY) up to 6.2 %, 5.8%, and 4.6% were respectively achieved in Yb3+/Er3+ :La2O2S, Y2O2S, and Gd2O 2S. Comparisons have been made with respect to reported most efficient upconverting phosphors beta-NaYF4:20 % Yb/ 2% Er. We believe that present phosphors are the most efficient and lower excitation threshold upconverting phosphors at 980 and

  14. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel


    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  15. Image Stacking Method Application for Low Earth Orbit Faint Objects

    Tagawa, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Kitazawa, Y.; Hanada, T.


    Space situational awareness is one of the most important actions for safe and sustainable space development and its utilization. Tracking and maintaining debris catalog are the basis of the actions. Current minimum size of objects in the catalog that routinely tracked and updated is approximately 10 cm in the Low Earth Orbit region. This paper proposes collaborative observation of space-based sensors and ground facilities to improve tracking capability in low Earth orbit. This observation geometry based on role-sharing idea. A space-based sensor has advantage in sensitivity and observation opportunity however, it has disadvantages in periodic observation which is essential for catalog maintenance. On the other hand, a ground facility is inferior to space-based sensors in sensitivity however; observation network composed of facilities has an advantage in periodic observation. Whole observation geometry is defined as follows; 1) space-based sensors conduct initial orbit estimation for a target 2) ground facility network tracks the target based on estimated orbit 3) the network observes the target periodically and updates its orbit information. The second phase of whole geometry is based on image stacking method developed by the Japan aerospace exploration agency and this method is verified for objects in geostationary orbit. This method enables to detect object smaller than a nominal size limitation by stacking faint light spot along archived time-series frames. The principle of this method is prediction and searching target's motion on the images. It is almost impossible to apply the method to objects in Low Earth Orbit without proper orbit information because Low Earth Orbit objects have varied orbital characteristics. This paper discusses whether or not initial orbit estimation results given by space-based sensors have enough accuracy to apply image stacking method to Low Earth Orbit objects. Ground-based observation procedure is assumed as being composed of

  16. Make Super-Earths, Not Jupiters: Accreting Nebular Gas onto Solid Cores at 0.1 AU and Beyond

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Ormel, Chris W.


    Close-in super-Earths having radii 1-4 R ⊕ may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10 M ⊕ cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at ~0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H2 dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H2 dissociation are universal, timescales for core instability tend not to vary with orbital distance—and to be alarmingly short for 10 M ⊕ cores. Nevertheless, in the thicket of parameter space, we identify two scenarios, not mutually exclusive, that can reproduce the preponderance of percent-by-mass atmospheres for super-Earths at ~0.1 AU, while still ensuring the formation of Jupiters at >~ 1 AU. Scenario (a): planets form in disks with dust-to-gas ratios that range from ~20× solar at 0.1 AU to ~2× solar at 5 AU. Scenario (b): the final assembly of super-Earth cores from mergers of proto-cores—a process that completes quickly at ~0.1 AU once begun—is delayed by gas dynamical friction until just before disk gas dissipates completely. Both scenarios predict that the occurrence rate for super-Earths versus orbital distance, and the corresponding rate for Jupiters, should trend in opposite directions, as the former population is transformed into the latter: as gas giants become more frequent from ~1 to 10 AU

  17. Studies on Intermolecular Energy Transfer and Relaxation Processes in Solid Rare Earth Complexes by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    伍荣护; 赵化章; 于锡娟; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德


    The photoacoustic spectra of Eu(benz)3*(phen)2 (benz: benzoate, phen: phenanthroline) and Eu0.8Ln0.2(benz)3*(phen)2 (Ln3+: La3+ or Nd3+) were reported. The intermolecular energy transfer processes were studied from the point of the nonradiative transitions. Combined with the fluorescence spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy reflects the variation of the luminescence efficiencies of solid samples. The luminescence efficiency increases when La3+ is introduced, but it decreases greatly when Nd3+ is added, which is due to the difference of intermolecular energy transfer processes. The models of intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfer and relaxation processes were established.


    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki


    Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  19. Thermodynamics analysis of the rare earth metals and their alloys with indium in solid state

    Vassiliev, V.P., E-mail: [Chemical Department, Lomonossov University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Benaissa, Ablazeze [Département des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, Université M’hamed Bougara, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Taldrik, A.F. [Institute of Superconductivity and Solid State Physics, Academician Kurchatov 1, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)


    Graphical abstract: Gibbs energies of formation vs. RE atomic numbers in REIn{sub 3}. Highlights: •Set of experimental values was collected for REIn{sub 3} phases. •Thermodynamic functions of formation were calculated at 298 K and 775 K. •Experimental and calculated values were compared. -- Abstract: Nonlinear correlative analyses between thermodynamic and some physico-chemical properties of rare-earth metals (RE) and their alloys with indium are performed for the isostructural phases RE and REIn{sub 3}. The thermodynamics values (Gibbs energies of formation, enthalpies of formation, and entropies of formation at 298 K and 775 K and standard entropies) of LnIn{sub 3} phases are calculated on the basis of calorimetry and potentiometry results. The proposed correlation between physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties agrees for all the isostructural phases REX (X are others elements of the periodic table). The resulting thermodynamic data are recommended for metallurgical handbook.

  20. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of fluorescent solid rare earth complexes with hydroxamic acids


    The complexes RE2(DHYA)3 .nH2O in the title bar were synthesized through some reactions oftrivalent rareearth ions. In the process of synthesis, dihydroxamic acids were taken as ligands while the alcohol was taken as a solvent.The ligands included adipylhydroxamic acid (ADHA), p-phthalichydroxamic acid (PPHA), oxalohydroxamic acid (OXHA), butadihydroxamic acid (BDHA), o-phthalichydroxamic acid (OPHA), benzoylhydroxamic acid (BHA), etc.Measured at 25 ℃, the molar conductances in various modes are 13.00-21.05 S. cm2. mol-1, which shows that rare-earth complexes are nonelectrolytes and the hydroxamino groups of the complexes have taken part in bonding. Infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectra, and fluorescence spectra were used to investigate the complexes. Experiments have proved that the complexes of Eu3+ and Tb3+ with aromatic hydroxamic acids have good fluorescent characteristics.

  1. Using Interactive Visualization to Analyze Solid Earth Data and Geodynamics Models

    Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.


    The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality

  2. Geocoded data structures and their applications to Earth science investigations

    Goldberg, M.


    A geocoded data structure is a means for digitally representing a geographically referenced map or image. The characteristics of representative cellular, linked, and hybrid geocoded data structures are reviewed. The data processing requirements of Earth science projects at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the basic tools of geographic data processing are described. Specific ways that new geocoded data structures can be used to adapt these tools to scientists' needs are presented. These include: expanding analysis and modeling capabilities; simplifying the merging of data sets from diverse sources; and saving computer storage space.

  3. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    Um, Dugan


    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  4. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    Turnbull, David


    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  5. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop


    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  6. Women in EPOS: the role of women in a large pan-European Research Infrastructure for Solid Earth sciences

    Calignano, Elisa; Freda, Carmela; Baracchi, Laura


    Women are outnumbered by men in geosciences senior research positions, but what is the situation if we consider large pan-European Research Infrastructures? With this contribution we want to show an analysis of the role of women in the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): a planned research infrastructure for European Solid Earth sciences, integrating national and transnational research infrastructures to enable innovative multidisciplinary research. EPOS involves 256 national research infrastructures, 47 partners (universities and research institutes) from 25 European countries and 4 international organizations. The EPOS integrated platform demands significant coordination between diverse solid Earth disciplinary communities, national research infrastructures and the policies and initiatives they drive, geoscientists and information technologists. The EPOS architecture takes into account governance, legal, financial and technical issues and is designed so that the enterprise works as a single, but distributed, sustainable research infrastructure. A solid management structure is vital for the successful implementation and sustainability of EPOS. The internal organization relies on community-specific Working Packages (WPs), Transversal WPs in charge of the overall EPOS integration and implementation, several governing, executive and advisory bodies, a Project Management Office (PMO) and the Project Coordinator. Driven by the timely debate on gender balance and commitment of the European Commission to promote gender equality in research and innovation, we decided to conduct a mapping exercise on a project that crosses European national borders and that brings together diverse geoscience disciplines under one management structure. We present an analysis of women representation in decision-making positions in each EPOS Working Package (WP Leader, proxy, legal, financial and IT contact persons), in the Boards and Councils and in the PMO

  7. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.


    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  8. Power smoothing system for lunar base LSS and Earth applications

    Bartsev, Sergey; Okhonin, Victor


    Biological Life Support System based on higher plants is shown to be the most appropriate component of a long-term lunar base. The main technical problem of this system usage is the long period of the moonlit night. Possible solution based on energy storage in thermal battery, which is heated to high temperature during the lunar daytime is proposed. The problems of thermal insulation and providing constant power while cooling the battery are discussed. The achievable performance of the thermal battery (power, size, the mass of components delivered from the Earth) in comparison with alternative solutions is estimated. Additional characteristics (operational safety, the complexity of repair, the possibility of using parts from other devices) qualitatively examined. The possibility of increasing the effective coefficient of conversion of electricity into photo synthetically active radiation is analyzed. Using similar energy storage systems to economically viable storage of large amounts of energy from sources with a high duty cycle (wind and wave energy) on Earth is discussed.

  9. Rare earth based nanostructured materials: synthesis, functionalization, properties and bioimaging and biosensing applications

    Escudero, Alberto; Becerro, Ana I.; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Núñez, Nuria O.; Zyuzin, Mikhail V.; Laguna, Mariano; González-Mancebo, Daniel; Ocaña, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J.


    Rare earth based nanostructures constitute a type of functional materials widely used and studied in the recent literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a general and comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, with special focus on the commonly employed synthesis methods and functionalization strategies of rare earth based nanoparticles and on their different bioimaging and biosensing applications. The luminescent (including downconversion, upconversion and permanent luminescence) and magnetic properties of rare earth based nanoparticles, as well as their ability to absorb X-rays, will also be explained and connected with their luminescent, magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging applications, respectively. This review is not only restricted to nanoparticles, and recent advances reported for in other nanostructures containing rare earths, such as metal organic frameworks and lanthanide complexes conjugated with biological structures, will also be commented on.

  10. GPS Imaging of Solid Earth's Flex and Flow: A New Paradigm

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.


    Geodetic GPS data analysis has gone through several paradigm shifts since the 1980s. Initially GPS was used in relative positioning mode to leverage and densify the existing global VLBI network. In the 1990s the new paradigm was to analyze GPS as a self-contained system, in which the global network of GPS stations and satellite orbits could be estimated simultaneously. Computational resources limit this approach to a few hundred stations (n ~ 100), with O(n4) computational complexity. Since the last decade, the new paradigm is to estimate GPS orbits first, followed by precise point positioning of single stations with O(n) complexity. This allows for parallel processing of an unlimited number of stations. The Nevada Geodetic Laboratory currently updates GPS time series for over 13,500 stations every week, a number that has been doubling every ~3 years. In some parts of the world, the inter-station distance between GPS stations that we process is now approaching ~10 km. This now brings us to a new paradigm, "GPS Imaging," for which we use thousands of GPS stations in different continents to generate smooth, yet detailed maps of vertical land motion. Our prototype images show that the striking, first-order signal in North America and Europe is large scale uplift and subsidence from mantle flow driven by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. Thus we are imaging deep Earth processes with unprecedented scope, resolution and accuracy. At regional scales, the images reveal that anthropogenic lithospheric processes can dominate vertical land motion in extended regions. We have developed prototype techniques that form a foundation to make "GPS Imaging" operational: (1) an automatic, robust estimator of station velocity that is insensitive to prevalent step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity; (2) a realistic estimate of the velocity errors based on subsampling; (3) a filter of common-mode noise that is globally seamless; (4) a median spatial filter to

  11. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan


    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  12. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.


    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation...

  13. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.


    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous...

  14. A Detailed Model Grid for Solid Planets from 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses

    Zeng, Li


    This paper describes a new grid for the mass-radius relation of 3-layer exoplanets within the mass range of 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses. The 3 layers are: Fe (epsilon iron), MgSiO3 (including both the perovskite phase, post-perovskite phase, and its dissociation at ultra-high pressures), and H2O (including Ices Ih, III, V, VI, VII, X, and the superionic phase along the melting curve). We discuss the current state of knowledge about the equations of state (EOS) that influence these calculations and the improvements used in the new grid. For the 2-layer model, we demonstrate the utility of contours on the mass-radius diagrams. Given the mass and radius input, these contours can be used to quickly determine the important physical properties of a planet including its p0 (central pressure), p1/p0 (core-mantle boundary pressure over central pressure), CMF (core mass fraction) or CRF (core radius fraction). For the 3-layer model, a curve segment on the ternary diagram represents all possible relative mass proportio...

  15. Application of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Earth Sciences

    Vandenberghe, Robert E.; De Grave, Eddy

    Iron being the fourth most abundant element in the earth crust, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has become a suitable additional technique for the characterization of all kind of soil materials and minerals. However, for that purpose a good knowledge of the spectral behavior of the various minerals is indispensable. In this chapter a review of the most important soil materials and rock-forming minerals is presented. It starts with a description of the Mössbauer spectroscopic features of the iron oxides and hydroxides, which are essentially present in soils and sediments. Further, the Mössbauer spectra from sulfides, sulfates and carbonates are briefly considered. Finally, the Mössbauer features of the typical and most common silicate and phosphate minerals are reported. The chapter ends with some typical examples, illustrating the use and power of Mössbauer spectroscopy in the characterization of minerals.

  16. Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells

    Knauth, Philippe


    Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells. Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include: Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids Diffusion in Soli

  17. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)


    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  18. Submillimeter-Wave Radiometer Technology for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    Siegel, P.


    Recent innovations in ultra-high frequency, semiconductor device/component technology have enabled both traditional and new applications for space-borne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer instruments.

  19. Neutron applications in earth, energy and environmental sciences

    Liang, Liyuan; Schober, Helmut


    This text is a comprehensive overview of neutron scattering techniques that enhance the study of materials at the micro and nanoscale. The well structured volume provides introductions to various neutron applications from leading experts in the field.

  20. Nanotubes of rare earth cobalt oxides for cathodes of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Sacanell, Joaquin [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A. Gabriela [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM. Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bellino, Martin G.; Lamas, Diego G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we studied the electrochemical properties of cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) prepared with nanotubes of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO). Their nanostructures consist of agglomerated nanoparticles in tubular structures of sub-micrometric diameter. The resulting cathodes are highly porous both at the micro- and the nanoscale. This fact increases significantly the access to active sites for the oxygen reduction. We investigated the influence of the diameter of the precursor nanotubes on the polarization resistance of the LSCO cathodes on CeO{sub 2}-10 mol.% Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SDC) electrolytes under air atmosphere, evaluated in symmetrical [LSCO/SDC/LSCO] cells. Our results indicate an optimized performance when the diameter of precursor nanotubes is sufficiently small to become dense nanorods after cathode sintering. We present a phenomenological model that successfully explains the behavior observed and considers that a small starting diameter acts as a barrier that prevents grains growth. This is directly related with the lack of contact points between nanotubes in the precursor, which are the only path for the growth of ceramic grains. We also observed that a conventional sintering process (of 1 h at 1000 C with heating and cooling rates of 10 C min{sup -1}) has to be preferred against a fast firing one (1 or 2 min at 1100 C with heating and cooling rates of 100 C min{sup -1}) in order to reach a higher performance. However, a good adhesion of the cathode can be achieved with both methods. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy diffusion is enhanced while decreasing LSCO particle size. This indicates that the high performance of our nanostructured cathodes is not only related with the increase of the number of active sites for oxygen reduction but also to the fact that the nanotubes are formed by nanoparticles. (author)

  1. Short-term response of the solid Earth to cryosphere fluctuations and the earthquake cycle in south-central Alaska

    Sauber, J. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Han, S. C.; Davis, J. L.; Ruppert, N. A.


    In southern Alaska surface deformation and gravimetric change are associated with the seismic cycle as well as a strong seasonal cycle of snow accumulation and melt and a variable rate of glacier mass wastage. Numerical modeling of the solid Earth response to cryosphere change on a variety of temporal and spatial scales plays a critical role in supporting the interpretation of time-variable gravity and other geodetic data. In this study we calculate the surface displacements and stresses associated with variable spatial and temporal cryospheric loading and unloading in south-central coastal Alaska. A challenging aspect of estimating the response of the solid Earth to short-term (months to 102 years) regional cryospheric fluctuations is choosing the rock mechanics constitutive laws appropriate to this region. Here we report calculated differences in the predicted surface displacements and stresses during the GRACE time period (2002 to present). Broad-scale, GRACE-derived estimates of cryospheric mass change, along with independent snow melt onset/refreeze timing, snow depth and annual glacier wastage estimates from a variety of methods, were used to approximate the magnitude and timing of cryospheric load changes. We used the CIG finite element code PyLith to enable input of spatially complex surface loads. An as example of our evaluation of the influence of variable short-term surface loads, we calculated and contrasted the predicted surface displacements and stresses for a cooler than average and higher precipitation water year (WY12) versus a warmer than average year (WY05). Our calculation of these comparative stresses is motivated by our earlier empirical evaluation of the influence of short-term cryospheric fluctuations on the background seismic rate between 1988-2006 (Sauber and Ruppert, 2008). During the warmer than average years between 2002-2006 we found a stronger seasonal dependency in the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region relative

  2. Application of Photocured Polymer Ion Selective Membranes for Solid-State Chemical Sensors

    Natalia Abramova


    Full Text Available Application of conducting polymers with additional functional groups for a solid contact formation and photocurable membranes as sensitive elements of solid-state chemical sensors is discussed. Problems associated with application of UV-curable polymers for sensors are analyzed. A method of sensor fabrication using copolymerized conductive layer and sensitive membrane is presented and the proof of concept is confirmed by two examples of solid-contact electrodes for Ca ions and pH.

  3. Progress of Study on Application of Rare Earth Metals in Steels

    Wang Longmei; Lin Qin; Ji Jingwen; Lan Denian


    With the improvement of the clean steel by degrees, the functions of rare earth metals in steel are more focused on modification of inclusions and micro alloying.The new study concerning the application of RE metals in clean steels were investigated by ICP, metallographic examination, SEM, EDS, EPMA, TEM and IMMA.The mechanism of corrosion resistance in the weather resistance steel was clarified.The mechanism of abrasion resistance and the life of fatigue enhanced in the RE - heavy rails steel were discussed.Progress in study of application of rare earth metals in steels (including weather resistance steel, low alloy steel, and heavy rails steel) was covered in this paper.

  4. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  5. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  6. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Weinberger, C.


    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  7. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Weinberger, C.


    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  8. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Pawloski, A. W.; McLaughlin, B. D.; Plofchan, P.; Lynnes, C.


    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. Scientific organizations with large, existing software efforts often face the dilemma of investing in major re-architecting efforts or instead utilizing the cloud suboptimally (sometimes detrimentally). NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has both sophisticated existing software infrastructure, as well as new initiatives, designed from their inception as cloud applications. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for fast-tracking applications to the cloud - whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  9. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R


    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (electrolytes. These organic based electrolyte systems are viable at ambient temperatures, but require a cooling system to ensure that temperatures do not exceed 80 °C. These cooling systems tend to increase battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  10. The effect of rare earth elements on the kinetics of the isothermal coarsening of the globular solid phase in semisolid AZ91 alloy produced via SIMA process

    Nami, B. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabestari, S.G., E-mail: [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miresmaeili, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Radjaei University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, H.; Mirdamadi, Sh. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present study, the effects of rare earth (RE) elements on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the solid globular particle in the semisolid slurry of AZ91 magnesium alloy have been studied at 570 {sup o}C and 580 {sup o}C. The results showed that the coarsening kinetics of the solid globular particles in semisolid slurry of AZ91 alloy satisfies the Ostwald ripening theory. It was shown that the coarsening rate of the solid particles decreases by adding RE elements into AZ91 alloy, specially at 580 {sup o}C, which results in the smaller particles size. It was attributed to the solid-liquid interfacial energy reduction due to the addition of RE elements.

  11. Applications and Technologies of All-Solid State Blue Laser

    JING Zhuo; XUE Jun-wen; JIA Fu-qiang; ZHENG Quan; YE Zi-qing


    @@ 1 Introduction Along with the matureness of laser diode (LD) manufacturing technology, the performance of LD has been improved greatly since 1980s, so various kinds of laser devices based on LD have been developed rapidly, especially the all-solid state lasers. After early experiments and researches, the all-solid state lasers have been commercialized successfully.

  12. High-purity rare-earth metals: preparation, properties, and application

    Kol'chugina; N.; B.; Burkhanov; G.; S.; Chistyakov; O.; D.; Burkhanov; Yu.; S.


    In recent years, the ever-growing interest of investigators to the study of rare-earth metals REM) is observed owing to unique properties of the metals and potential uses in electronics, laser technology, space technology, medicine, and many other high-technology applications.……

  13. High-purity rare-earth metals: preparation, properties, and application


    @@ In recent years, the ever-growing interest of investigators to the study of rare-earth metals REM) is observed owing to unique properties of the metals and potential uses in electronics, laser technology, space technology, medicine, and many other high-technology applications.

  14. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Potate, J. S.


    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  15. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT...

  16. Singular measures versus nondifferentiability: from the solid earth to the atmosphere and their interface (Invited)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.


    with respect to Lebesgue measures (the scaling exponent K(q) - which is a cumulant generating function - diverges in the small scale limit i.e. as λ -> infinity). We give examples of such singular geomeasures ranging from ore concentrations, geopotential fields, topography, to surface and atmospheric radiances and to the state variables showing the ubiquity of singular measures throughout the geosciences. Classical geostatistics is based on point process random functions; it can easily handle nondifferentiability. However, it implicitly assumes that the relevant geomeasures are on the contrary regular with respect to Lebesgue measures. It would thus seem that real world geodata are outside the domain of application of classical geostatistics. We discuss the consequences.

  17. EUDAT strategies for handling dynamic data in the solid Earth Sciences

    Michelini, Alberto; Evans, Peter; Kemps-Snijder, Mark; Heikkinen, Jani; Buck, Justin; Misutka, Jozef; Drude, Sebastian; Fares, Massimo; Cacciari, Claudio; Fiameni, Giuseppe


    Some dynamic data is generated by sensors which produce data streams that may be temporarily incomplete (owing to latencies or temporary interruptions of the transmission lines between the field sensors and the data acquisition centres) and that may consequently fill up over time (automatically or after manual intervention). Dynamic data can also be generated by massive crowd sourcing where, for example, experimental collections of data can be filled up at random moments. The nature of dynamic data makes it difficult to handle for various reasons: a) establishing valid policies that guide early replication for data preservation and access optimization is not trivial, b) identifying versions of such data - thus making it possible to check their integrity - and referencing the versions is also a challenging task, and c) performance issues are extremely important since all these activities must be performed fast enough to keep up with the incoming data stream. There is no doubt that both applications areas (namely data from sensors and crowdsourcing) are growing in their relevance for science, and that appropriate infrastructure support (by initiatives such as EUDAT) is vital to handle these challenges. In addition, data must be citeable to encourage transparent, reproducible science, and to provide clear metrics for assessing the impact of research, which also drives funding choices. Data stream in real time often undergo changes/revisions while they are still growing, as new data arrives, and they are revised as missing data is recovered, or as new calibration values are applied. We call these "dynamic" data sets, DDS. A common form of DDS is time series data in which measurements are obtained on a regular schedule, with a well-defined sample rate. Examples include the hourly temperature in Barcelona, and the displacement (a 3-D vector quantity) of a seismograph from its rest position, which may record at a rate of 100 or more samples per second. These form streams

  18. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher


    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  19. Pegasus Workflow Management System: Helping Applications From Earth and Space

    Mehta, G.; Deelman, E.; Vahi, K.; Silva, F.


    Pegasus WMS is a Workflow Management System that can manage large-scale scientific workflows across Grid, local and Cloud resources simultaneously. Pegasus WMS provides a means for representing the workflow of an application in an abstract XML form, agnostic of the resources available to run it and the location of data and executables. It then compiles these workflows into concrete plans by querying catalogs and farming computations across local and distributed computing resources, as well as emerging commercial and community cloud environments in an easy and reliable manner. Pegasus WMS optimizes the execution as well as data movement by leveraging existing Grid and cloud technologies via a flexible pluggable interface and provides advanced features like reusing existing data, automatic cleanup of generated data, and recursive workflows with deferred planning. It also captures all the provenance of the workflow from the planning stage to the execution of the generated data, helping scientists to accurately measure performance metrics of their workflow as well as data reproducibility issues. Pegasus WMS was initially developed as part of the GriPhyN project to support large-scale high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments. Direct funding from the NSF enabled support for a wide variety of applications from diverse domains including earthquake simulation, bacterial RNA studies, helioseismology and ocean modeling. Earthquake Simulation: Pegasus WMS was recently used in a large scale production run in 2009 by the Southern California Earthquake Centre to run 192 million loosely coupled tasks and about 2000 tightly coupled MPI style tasks on National Cyber infrastructure for generating a probabilistic seismic hazard map of the Southern California region. SCEC ran 223 workflows over a period of eight weeks, using on average 4,420 cores, with a peak of 14,540 cores. A total of 192 million files were produced totaling about 165TB out of which 11TB of data was saved

  20. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.


    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  1. Solid electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry: present applications and prospects for high throughput screening of drug compounds.

    Uslu, Bengi; Ozkan, Sibel A


    This review summarizes recent progress in the development and application of solid electrodes to the screening of pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids. Recent trends and advances in the electroanalytical chemistry of solid electrodes, microelectrodes and electrochemical sensors are reviewed. The varieties of solid electrodes and their basic physico-chemical properties and some specific characteristics including some supramolecular phenomena at their surface are surveyed. This review also includes some selected designs and their applications. Despite many reviews about individual solid electrodes in the literature, this review offers the first comprehensive report on all forms of solid electrodes. Special attention is paid to the possibilities of solid electrodes in high throughput electroanalytical investigation of drug dosage forms and biological samples using modern electroanalytical techniques. Various selected studies on these subjects since 1996 are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Técnica de bombeio e prova para medidas de absorção de estado excitado e de emissão estimulada, em materiais sólidos dopados com íons terras raras Pump-probe technique for excited state absorption and stimulated emission measurements in rare earth ion doped solid materials

    Andrea Simone Stucchi de Camargo


    Full Text Available Rare earth ion doped solid state materials are the most important active media of near-infrared and visible lasers and other photonic devices. In these ions, the occurrence of Excited State Absorptions (ESA, from long lived electronic levels, is commonplace. Since ESA can deeply affect the efficiencies of the rare earth emissions, evaluation of these transitions cross sections is of greatest importance in predicting the potential applications of a given material. In this paper a detailed description of the pump-probe technique for ESA measurements is presented, with a review of several examples of applications in Nd3+, Tm3+ and Er3+ doped materials.

  3. Research and Applications of Semi-solid Processing


    It has been more than ten years since the semi-solid processing (SSP) technique was put into commercial ap plications in the world. A lot of work on semi-solid metals (SSM) including their preparation, reheating and semi-solid forming has been done in China. In order to produce the high quality die-casting, a novel innovation that modifies the present machines based on the SSP technique was proposed. Semi-solid die-casting on modified casting machines can manufacture parts with more excellent quality than those produced by squeeze casting. It was found that the defects such as "elephant foot" and "periphery liquid metal loss" during reheating could be avoided through controlling the non-de ndritic structure of billets and optimizing the reheating process. The processing parameters and mold designs of semi-so lid die-casting are fairly different from those of liquid die-casting.

  4. Solid Acid Fuel Cell Stack for APU Applications

    Duong, Hau H. [SAFCell, Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Solid acid fuel cell technology affords the opportunity to operate at the 200-300 degree centigrade regime that would allow for more fuel flexibility, compared to polymer electrode membrane fuel cell, while avoiding the relatively more expensive and complex system components required by solid oxide fuel cell. This project addresses many factors such as MEA size scalability, fuel robustness, stability, etc., that are essential for successful commercialization of the technology.

  5. Analysis of earth pigments in Palomino's frescoes in the Santos Juanes Church in Valencia (Spain) by solid state voltammetry and FTIR spectroscopy

    DOMENECH CARBO, ANTONIO; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Ciarrocchi, Julia; Cialei, Vania; Monteagudo, Antonio


    A combination of solid-state voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode was applied to identify earth pigments in samples from the frescoes of Antonio Palomino (dated 1707) taken from the vault of the Santos Juanes church in Valencia (Spain). Such frescoes suffered considerable damage by fire during the Spanish Civil War in 1936, resulting in severe chemical and chromatic alterations. Se ha utilizado una combinación de voltamperometría ...

  6. 基于SolidWorks的机械加工应用%SolidWorks based on the machining applications

    何志静; 徐静


      科学技术的不断发展带动了计算机技术的广泛应用,SolidWorks作为计算机辅助设计的一种三维建模软件在工程设计人员中的应用越来越普及。本文主要讨论了该软件的使用优点,及通过三维实体建模装配实例来表明SolidWorks在当今的机械产业加工中有无穷的应用潜力。%The continuous development of science and technology has led to the extensive use of computer technology, SolidWorks as computer-aided design of a three-dimensional modeling software is becoming increasingly popular in the engineering staff. This paper discusses the advantages of the use of the software, and to indicate that the SolidWorks 3D solid modeling assembly instances endless application potential in today’s machinery industry processing.

  7. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Macauley, M.


    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  8. Application of the concepts of neural network and tree structure in rare earth separa-tions


    The concepts of neural network and tree structure are introduced to rare earth separations. The recursive relations and analytical expression for calculating the possible flow sheets and processes are derived in multi- component systems based on dichotomy. As an example, the application of the concepts is elucidated in detail in a separation of light rare earths containing La, Ce, Pr and Nd in the HEH(EHP)-HCl system. The results show that this method is beneficial to summarizing and classifying the flow sheets and processes in rare earth separations, and is essential to the optimization of separation flow sheets. It can also be applied to the separation into group situations and other similar cases, too.

  9. Policy for Robust Space-based Earth Science, Technology and Applications

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Escobar, Vanessa Marie; Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro-Pérez, Maria Pilar; Doorn, Bradley; Macauley, Molly K.; Friedl, Lawrence


    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in earth science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of earth science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. Policy guidance can influence the degree to which user needs influence mission design and when, and ensure that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies. This paper describes the mission development process in NASA and ESA and compares and contrasts the successes and challenges faced by these agencies as they try to balance science and applications within their missions.

  10. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.


    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up

  11. Standing on the shoulders of giants: Trojan Earths and vortex trapping in low mass self-gravitating protoplanetary disks of gas and solids

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N


    Centimeter and meter sized solid particles in protoplanetary disks are trapped within long lived high pressure regions, creating opportunities for collapse into planetesimals and planetary embryos. We study the accumulations in the stable Lagrangian points of a giant planet, as well as in the Rossby vortices launched at the edges of the gap it carves. We employ the Pencil Code, tracing the solids with a large number of interacting Lagrangian particles, usually 100,000. For particles of 1 cm to 10 cm radii, gravitational collapse occurs in the Lagrangian points in less than 200 orbits. For 5 cm particles, a 2 Earth mass planet is formed. For 10 cm, the final maximum collapsed mass is around 3 Earth masses. The collapse of the 1 cm particles is indirect, following the timescale of depletion of gas from the tadpole orbits. In the edges of the gap vortices are excited, trapping preferentially particles of 30 cm radii. The rocky planet that is formed is as massive as 17 Earth masses, constituting a Super-Earth. By...

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system: applications and implications.

    Kleidon, Axel


    The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

  13. Terras raras: aplicações industriais e biológicas Rare earths: industrial and biological applications

    Tereza S. Martins


    Full Text Available The history of the rare earths is rich in innovation and these elements have been the object of study of a number of scientists. Rare earths are used practically in almost all aspects of life and these applications are due to their outstanding properties, mainly spectroscopic and magnetic. In industry, the applications of rare earths are many, such as in catalysis, phosphors, magnetism, glass and lasers. In biological systems, rare earths are used, for example, as luminescent probes in the investigation of binding sites in proteins, labels in immunoassays and in noninvasive tests.

  14. Application of material strength reserve method to the stability analysis of earth dam of feilaixia multipurpose project

    YAO Hui-qin; DUAN Ya-hui


    The material strength reserve method is practical in the study of the stability and failure mechanism of earth dam by analysing the development of failure zone of different shear strength parameters of the earth mass of the dam. The stability in the concrete dam and ensemble architecture has got general application while analysing. In combination with Feilaixia Multipurpose Project, application of this method to earth dam stability analysis was studied by plane Finite Element Method(FEM) for the first time. Through plane FEM, we can get the failure mechanism of earth dam and appraise to the security, for operating and managing put forward some reference suggestions.

  15. Rare Earth Doped Silica Optical Fibre Sensors for Dosimetry in Medical and Technical Applications

    N. Chiodini


    Full Text Available Radioluminescence optical fibre sensors are gaining importance since these devices are promising in several applications like high energy physics, particle tracking, real-time monitoring of radiation beams, and radioactive waste. Silica optical fibres play an important role thanks to their high radiation hardness. Moreover, rare earths may be incorporated to optimise the scintillation properties (emission spectrum, decay time according to the particular application. This makes doped silica optical fibres a very versatile tool for the detection of ionizing radiation in many contexts. Among the fields of application of optical fibre sensors, radiation therapy represents a driving force for the research and development of new devices. In this review the recent progresses in the development of rare earth doped silica fibres for dosimetry in the medical field are described. After a general description of advantages and challenges for the use of optical fibre based dosimeter during radiation therapy treatment and diagnostic irradiations, the features of the incorporation of rare earths in the silica matrix in order to prepare radioluminescent optical fibre sensors are presented and discussed. In the last part of this paper, recent results obtained by using cerium, europium, and ytterbium doped silica optical fibres in radiation therapy applications are reviewed.

  16. a Workflow for the Application of Sensitivity Analysis to Earth System Models

    Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.; Rougier, J.; Freer, J. E.; Hall, J.


    Predictions of any earth system model are affected by unavoidable and potentially large uncertainty. When models are used to support risk management of natural hazard, such uncertainties can undermine the transparency and defensibility of the risk assessment. When models are applied to understand dominant controls or other aspects of the system under study, uncertainties will reduce our ability to chose between competing hypotheses. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides quantitative information about the contribution of the different input factors (e.g. parameters, boundary conditions or forcing data) to such uncertainty. SA application thus provides insights into the model behavior and potential for model simplification, indicates where further data collection and research is needed or would be beneficial, and enhances the credibility of our modelling results. The value of such analysis has motivated an increasing research effort in the development, application and comparison of SA techniques. Still, comprehensive understanding to guide choices between available SA methods and practical guidelines for their application in the context of earth system models is still insufficient. In this contribution, we aim at filling this gap by (i) providing a map of the existing SA techniques and their appropriateness in different contexts of earth system modeling; (ii) developing a workflow for the choice and application of SA techniques to environmental models; (iii) presenting a suite of visualization tools that can support the assessment and communication of SA results; (iv) defining challenges and opportunities for future research.

  17. Development and Application of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet (REPM) Material in Electric Machines


    With the development of permanent materials, the development and application of permanent material electric machine (REPM) have been more mature. At first the state of development and application of REPM electric machine is presented in this paper, many RMEM have been produced in volume such as the pilot exciter used for power set of large-scale thermal power station, the special RMEM synchronous motor for textile, the starter motor for automobile, the brushless permanent magnet DC motor for electric facilities, permanent magnet servomotor for numerical controlled machine tool, rare-earth torque motor, special micro-motor for automobile and so on. Secondly the field of application of REPM electric machine and remaining problems is analyzed, because of the price of the rare-earth permanent magnet materials, the cost of RMEM is currently higher than that of induction machine, on the other side the dispersibility of performance of rare-earth permanent magnet materials and the limitation of technique of integral excitation are also remaining problems, above-mentioned problems handicapped the popularization of REPMEM. At last the developing prospect and trend of REPM electric machines is described, there are four promising types of PMEM: economical type, high performance type, high efficiency and energy-saving type, micromation, intelligibility type. With the appearance of new REPM material and the improvement of its performance and the continuous perfection of performance of electric-power electronic components, the development and the application of REPM electric machines will be further progressed.

  18. Development of a semi-solid metal processing technique for aluminium casting applications

    Sangop Thanabumrungkul; Jessada Wannasin


    A semi-solid metal processing technique has been invented and is being developed for aluminium casting applications in Thailand. The technique uses fine gas bubbles to create convection necessary for modifying grain structure. Semi-solid metal processing of three aluminium alloys, A356, Al-4.4%Cu, and ADC12, was investigated. Results show that the novel technique successfully modified A356 and Al-4.4%Cu to become semi-solid slurry with solid fractions up to about 50%. Current developments sho...

  19. Applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy in food science.

    Bertocchi, Fabio; Paci, Maurizio


    The principal applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, in the field of food science, are reviewed, after a short general introduction, mainly focusing on the potential of these investigations, which are, today, routine tools for resolving technological problems. Selected examples of the applications in the field of food science of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy both in (13)C and in (1)H NMR particularly illustrative of the results obtainable are reported in some detail.

  20. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Dedicated payload, standard test rack payload, sensor modifications


    The preliminary analysis of strawman earth-viewing shuttle sortie payloads begun with the partial spacelab payload was analyzed. The payloads analyzed represent the two extremes of shuttle sortie application payloads: a full shuttle sortie payload dedicated to earth-viewing applications, and a small structure payload which can fly on a space available basis with another primary shuttle payload such as a free flying satellite. The intent of the dedicated mission analysis was to configure an ambitious, but feasible, payload; which, while rich in scientific return, would also stress the system and reveal any deficiences or problem areas in mission planning, support equipment, and operations. Conversely, the intent of the small structure payload was to demonstrate the ease with which a small, simple, flexible payload can be accommodated on shuttle flights.

  1. High End Computing Technologies for Earth Science Applications: Trends, Challenges, and Innovations

    Parks, John (Technical Monitor); Biswas, Rupak; Yan, Jerry C.; Brooks, Walter F.; Sterling, Thomas L.


    Earth science applications of the future will stress the capabilities of even the highest performance supercomputers in the areas of raw compute power, mass storage management, and software environments. These NASA mission critical problems demand usable multi-petaflops and exabyte-scale systems to fully realize their science goals. With an exciting vision of the technologies needed, NASA has established a comprehensive program of advanced research in computer architecture, software tools, and device technology to ensure that, in partnership with US industry, it can meet these demanding requirements with reliable, cost effective, and usable ultra-scale systems. NASA will exploit, explore, and influence emerging high end computing architectures and technologies to accelerate the next generation of engineering, operations, and discovery processes for NASA Enterprises. This article captures this vision and describes the concepts, accomplishments, and the potential payoff of the key thrusts that will help meet the computational challenges in Earth science applications.

  2. Modification of TiO{sub 2} electrode with a series of alkaline-earth carbonates. Performance improvement of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Zhan, Chun; Wang, Liduo; Wu, Xueming; Qiu, Yong [Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry


    In this paper, alkaline-earth carbonates (CaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}) modified TiO{sub 2} electrodes are synthesized by dipping TiO{sub 2} electrode into alkaline-earth hydroxide or alkaline-earth acetate aqueous solutions. When applied to quasi-solid-state DSSC, hydroxide-treated TiO{sub 2} electrodes have increased open-circuit photovoltages (Voc). Among the three alkaline-earth hydroxides, Ba(OH){sub 2} treatment improved the DSSC performance best. The Voc improves from 0.66 V to 0.71 V and the overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) improves by 15% under100 mW/cm{sup 2}. As to acetates, not only the Voc is increased (from 0.68V to 0.74V), but also short-circuit photocurrent(Isc) is improved by Sr(OAc){sub 2} Ba(OAc){sub 2} The overall conversion efficiency improves by 22%. Dark current measurement indicate that in the presence of alkaline-earth carbonates, the TiO2 conduction band shifts to the negative direction, leading to the increase in Voc.

  3. Solid-liquid extraction of Gd(Ⅲ) and separation possibilities of rare earths from phosphoric acid solutions using Tulsion CH-93 and Tulsion CH-90 resins

    S.Radhika; V.Nagaraju; B.Nagaphani Kumar; M.Lakshmi Kantam; B.Ramachandra Reddy


    Solid-liquid extraction of gadolinium was investigated from phosphoric acid medium using commercial amino phosphonic acid resin,Tulsion CH-93.The experimental conditions studied included equilibration time,acid concentration,mass of the resin,metal concentration,loading and elution.The percent extraction of Gd(Ⅲ) was studied as a function of phosphoric acid (0.05-3 mol/L) using Tulsion CH-93 resin.The corresponding lgD vs.equilibrium pH plot gave straight line with a slope of 1.8.The percent extraction decreased with acid concentration increasing,conforming ion exchange mechanism.Under observed experimental conditions the loading capacity of Tulsion CH-93 for gadolinium was 10.6 mg/g.Among several eluants screened,the quantitative elution of Gd(Ⅲ) from loaded Tulsion CH-93 was obtained with ammonium oxalate (0.15 mol/L).The extraction behavior of commonly associated metals with gadolinium was studied as a function of phosphoric acid concentration.Tulsion CH-93 resin showed selective extraction towards heavy rare earths (Lu and Yb) which could be separated from other rare earths at 3 mol/L H3PO4,similar to wet phosphoric acid (3-5 mol/L).On the other hand Gd(Ⅲ) and other rare earths were studied with chelating resin Tulsion CH-90.Light rare earths were highly extracted and these could be separated from heavy rare earths and Gd.

  4. An Overview of Pickering Emulsions: Solid-Particle Materials, Classification, Morphology, and Applications

    Yunqi Yang


    Full Text Available Pickering emulsion, a kind of emulsion stabilized only by solid particles locating at oil–water interface, has been discovered a century ago, while being extensively studied in recent decades. Substituting solid particles for traditional surfactants, Pickering emulsions are more stable against coalescence and can obtain many useful properties. Besides, they are more biocompatible when solid particles employed are relatively safe in vivo. Pickering emulsions can be applied in a wide range of fields, such as biomedicine, food, fine chemical synthesis, cosmetics, and so on, by properly tuning types and properties of solid emulsifiers. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from Pickering emulsions, morphology of solid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.

  5. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology i

  6. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    Ehrenreich, Henry


    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  7. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  8. Weathering Pathways and Limitations in Biogeochemical Models: Application to Earth System Evolution

    Mills, Benjamin


    Current biogeochemical box models for Phanerozoic climate are reviewed and reduced to a robust, modular system, allowing application to the Precambrian. It is shown that stabilisation of climate following a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth should take more than 10(7) years, due to long-term geological limitation of global weathering rates. The timescale matches the observed gaps between extreme glaciations at this time, suggesting that the late Neoproterozoic system was oscillating around a s...

  9. NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities

    Macauley, Molly K.


    The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

  10. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multi-physics problems in the solid Earth sciences

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.


    We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves

  11. Solid state fermentation (SSF): diversity of applications to valorize waste and biomass.

    Lizardi-Jiménez, M A; Hernández-Martínez, R


    Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes. The success of applying solid state fermentation to a specific process is affected by the nature of specific microorganisms and substrates. An exhaustive number of microorganisms able to grow in a solid matrix are presented, including fungus such as Aspergillus or Penicillum for antibiotics, Rhizopus for bioactive compounds, Mortierella for biodiesel to bacteria, Bacillus for biosurfactant production, or yeast for bioethanol.


    Hongzhong Li


    A theory of nonfluidized gas-solids flow, which combines the theory of multiphase flow with the mechanics of particulate media, was proposed on the basis of understanding that the particles contact each other, solids and gas are in movement, and the drag force on the particles caused by interstitial gas flow is similar to gravity force having the property of mass force. Then this theory was verified by experiments on vertical and inclined moving beds, and was applied to calculation and design of equipment and devices with moving beds, such as pneumatic moving bed transport,dipleg, V-value, L-valve, orifice flow, and arching prevention. It can be used to guide the design and operation of moving beds and fixed beds.

  13. Impact crater formation: a simple application of solid state physics

    Celebonovic, V.; Souchay, J.


    This contribution is a first step aiming to address a general question: what can be concluded on impact craters which exist on various planetary system objects, by combining astronomical data and known theoretical results from solid state physics. Assuming that the material of the target body is of crystaline structure,it is shown that a simple calculation gives the possibility of estimating the speed of the impactor responsible for the creation of a crater.A test value,calculated using obser...

  14. Semi-solid forming of Al and Mg alloys for transportation applications

    Shehata, M. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Materials Technology Lab


    This Power Point presentation outlined the process of semi-solid forming of aluminium and magnesium alloys for transportation applications with particular reference to its advantages and applications. The presentation also referred to the Canadian Lightweight Materials Research Initiative (CLiMRI) Project which is aimed at optimizing semi-solid processing of aluminium and magnesium alloys in the following four areas: (1) production of thixotropic feed stock suitable for semi-solid forming, (2) optimizing heating of feed stock using an energy efficient high frequency induction heating, (3) optimizing semi-solid die casting, forging and extrusion, and (4) modeling. Materials characterisation was also part of the project. Semi-solid forming methods include thixocasting, thixoforging, thixomolding and rheocasting or slurry on demand. The general advantages of semi-solid forming methods over conventional forming methods for the die casting and forging processes were described. In the die-casting process, semi-solid forming methods require a low cast temperature of 580 degrees C. They require less heat removal, less cycle time, and produce only a small amount of shrinkage. They also result in enhanced mechanical properties. Typical automotive applications are for engine mounts, hydraulic cylinders, air-conditioner scrolls, wheels and other structural parts such as bearings and knuckles. 14 figs.

  15. Abstracts for the symposium on the Application of neural networks to the earth sciences

    Singer, Donald A.


    Artificial neural networks are a group of mathematical methods that attempt to mimic some of the processes in the human mind. Although the foundations for these ideas were laid as early as 1943 (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943), it wasn't until 1986 (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986; Masters, 1995) that applications to practical problems became possible. It is the acknowledged superiority of the human mind at recognizing patterns that the artificial neural networks are trying to imitate with their interconnected neurons. Interconnections used in the methods that have been developed allow robust learning. Capabilities of neural networks fall into three kinds of applications: (1) function fitting or prediction, (2) noise reduction or pattern recognition, and (3) classification or placing into types. Because of these capabilities and the powerful abilities of artificial neural networks, there have been increasing applications of these methods in the earth sciences. The abstracts in this document represent excellent samples of the range of applications. Talks associated with the abstracts were presented at the Symposium on the Application of Neural Networks to the Earth Sciences: Seventh International Symposium on Mineral Exploration (ISME–02), held August 20–21, 2002, at NASA Moffett Field, Mountain View, California. This symposium was sponsored by the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan (MMIJ), the U.S. Geological Survey, the Circum-Pacific Council, and NASA. The ISME symposia have been held every two years in order to bring together scientists actively working on diverse quantitative methods applied to the earth sciences. Although the title, International Symposium on Mineral Exploration, suggests exclusive focus on mineral exploration, interests and presentations have always been wide-ranging—abstracts presented here are no exception.

  16. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    Omar, Ali H.


    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  17. The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines

    Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.


    The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given

  18. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Experiment on MSG-1 and its Potential Applications

    Harries, J.; Crommelynck, D.


    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (GERB) is in development for launch on the first Meteosat Second Generation Satellite (MSG1) and is described here with its main characteristics. GERB is designed to determine top of the atmosphere reflected Solar and Earth emitted fluxes, sampled every five minutes with a nadir foot print of about 50×50 km2. The measured radiances will be translated into fluxes with improved spatial resolution based on the information extracted from the SEVIRIrefid="fn1">1 instrument also flying on MSG. The applications of GERB data will be multiple. They will provide the behaviour of the real diurnal cycle radiation fields, and thus enable quantification of the cloud diurnal cycle. Together with the SEVIRI information, GERB will allow unique new insight for atmospheric energy budget research.1Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, the prime instrument on MSG

  19. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  20. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.


    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium.

  1. Adsorption by powders and porous solids principles, methodology and applications

    Rouquerol, Jean; Llewellyn, Philip; Maurin, Guillaume; Sing, Kenneth SW


    The declared objective of this book is to provide an introductory review of the various theoretical and practical aspects of adsorption by powders and porous solids with particular reference to materials of technological importance. The primary aim is to meet the needs of students and non-specialists who are new to surface science or who wish to use the advanced techniques now available for the determination of surface area, pore size and surface characterization. In addition, a critical account is given of recent work on the adsorptive properties of activated carbons, oxides, clays and zeolit

  2. Impact crater formation: a simple application of solid state physics

    Celebonovic, V


    This contribution is a first step aiming to address a general question: what can be concluded on impact craters which exist on various planetary system objects, by combining astronomical data and known theoretical results from solid state physics. Assuming that the material of the target body is of crystaline structure,it is shown that a simple calculation gives the possibility of estimating the speed of the impactor responsible for the creation of a crater.A test value,calculated using observed data on the composition of some asteroids,gives a value of the speed in good agreement with results of celestial mechanics.

  3. Application of Near Real-Time and Multiscale Three Dimensional Earth Observation Platforms in Disaster Prevention

    Whey-Fone Tsai


    Full Text Available Taiwan frequently experiences natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Therefore, the instant acquisition of high-definition images and topographic or spatial data of affected areas as disasters occur is crucial for disaster response teams and making emergency aid decisions. The National Applied Research Laboratories has implemented the project “development of near real-time, high-resolution, global earth observation 3D platform for applications to environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation.” This developmental project integrates earth observation techniques, data warehousing, high-performance visualization displays, grids, and disaster prevention technology to establish a near real-time high-resolution three-dimensional (3D disaster prevention earth observation application platform for Taiwan. The main functions of this platform include (1 integration of observation information, such as Formosat-2 satellite remote sensing, aerial photography, and 3D photography of disaster sites, to provide multidimensional information of the conditions at the affected sites; (2 disaster prevention application technologies, such as large-sized high-resolution 3D projection system, medium-sized active stereo projection systems, and small-sized personal computers with multiscale 3D display systems; (3 a 3D geographical information network platform that integrates data warehousing and cloud services, complies with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC international standard for image data exchange and release processes, and includes image overlaying and added-value analysis of disasters; and (4 near real-time and automated simulation of image processing procedures, which accelerates orthophoto processing once raw data are received from satellites and provides appropriate images for disaster prevention decision-making within 3 to 6 h. This study uses the 88 Flood event of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, Typhoon Fanapi

  4. Modeling of polymer networks for application to solid propellant formulating

    Marsh, H. E.


    Methods for predicting the network structural characteristics formed by the curing of pourable elastomers were presented; as well as the logic which was applied in the development of mathematical models. A universal approach for modeling was developed and verified by comparison with other methods in application to a complex system. Several applications of network models to practical problems are described.

  5. Resonant Absorption Mechanical Spectrometer and Its Applications in Solids

    张进修; 龚康; 熊小敏; 丁喜冬


    An improved apparatus is developed from Ke-pendulum. This new apparatus, resonant absorption mechanical spectrometer (RAMS), can measure the internal friction of solids under a forced vibration mode and the measuring frequency can change quasi-continually from a frequency that is much lower than the resonant frequency of the pendulum system, fr, tothe one that is much higher than fr. The internal friction measurement is able to cover the frequency range from 10-3 Hz to kHz. The measurement method and the calculation formula of the internal friction measured by a RAMS in the full frequency range are derived. A series of resonant absorption peaks are observed in copper, aluminium, zinc, iron samples by the RAMS. The resonant absorption characteristics of the copper sample are studied in details. The experimental results indicate that the position (frequency) of the resonant absorption peaks are independent of the resonant frequency of the pendulum system. The reality of resonant absorption mechanical spectra is discussed and an inference based on the experimental results is presented such that the RAMS is able to characterize some feature of solid materials.

  6. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photolysis, Sonolysis and Sonophotolysis with Solid Solutions of Rare Earth, Gallium and Indium Oxides as Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Marta Penconi


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the hydrogen production by photolysis, sonolysis and sonophotolysis of water in the presence of newly synthesized solid solutions of rare earth, gallium and indium oxides playing as catalysts. From the experiments of photolysis, we found that the best photocatalyst is the solid solution Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 doped by sulphur atoms. In experiments of sonolysis, we optimized the rate of hydrogen production by changing the amount of water, adding ethanol and tuning the power of our piezoelectric transducer. Finally, we performed sonolysis and sonophotolysis experiments in the presence of S:Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 finding a promising synergistic effect of UV-visible electromagnetic waves and 38 kHz ultrasound waves in producing H2.

  7. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  8. Novel functionalized polymeric fabric and fiber material as solid support for solid-phase synthesis and biomedical applications

    Xiang, Bei

    The aim of the research is to develop novel polymer solid support by modifying or fabricating polymeric fibrous materials for peptide synthesis and biomedical applications. Originally chemical inert isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fabric was utilized and modified to serve as a functional flexible planar solid support for solid phase peptide synthesis. The modification was achieved through thermal initiated radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate as monomers, and benzoyl peroxide as radical initiator. The iPP fabric was successfully functionalized and possessing as high as 0.7mmol/g carboxylic acid groups. Peptide ligand LHPQF was successfully synthesized on the new functional planar support. Specific enzyme immobilization was fulfilled on the functional iPP fabric support. A commercially available ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer was made into ultrafine copolymer fiber bundles which are composed of nanofibers with diameters ranging from 200nm to 800nm. Various mixing ratios of copolymer/matrix materials were utilized to explore the effect on the final nanofiber physical properties including morphology and stability in solvents. The surface carboxylic acid groups were further converted to amino groups before the functional nanofibers can be applied in solid phase peptide synthesis. Two peptide ligands, LHPQF and HWRGWV, were also successfully synthesized on the nanofiber bundles. Streptavidin and human immunoglobulin G specific binding with the corresponding ligand which was anchored on the nanofibers was conducted successfully to illustrate the potential applications of the nanofiber materials in biomedical field. Further study on the dispersion of the ethylene-acrylic acid nanofiber bundles was pursued to take advantage of the super high active surface area of functional nanofibers. To manipulate the polymer nanofibers during synthesis and bio-assays, a technique was developed to controllably assemble and disperse the

  9. Multifunctional rare earth or bismuth oxide materials for catalytic or electrical applications

    Gavarri J.R.


    Full Text Available We present a review on catalytic or electrical properties of materials based on rare earth (RE oxides (CeO2, La2O3, Lu2O3 or bismuth based composite systems CeO2-Bi2O3, susceptible to be integrated into catalytic microsystems or gas sensors. The polycrystalline solids can be used as catalysts allowing conversion of CO or CH4 traces in air-gas flows. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy is used to determine the conversion rate of CO or CH4 into CO2 through the variations versus time and temperature of vibrational band intensities. The time dependent reactivities are interpreted in terms of an adapted Avrami model. In these catalytic analyses the nature of surfaces of polycrystalline solids seems to play a prominent role in catalytic efficiency. Electrical impedance spectroscopy allows analyzing the variation of conductivity of the system CeO2-Bi2O3. In this system, the specific high ionic conduction of a Bi2O3 tetragonal phase might be linked to the high catalytic activity.

  10. Application of the PM6 method to modeling the solid state

    Stewart, James J. P.


    The applicability of the recently developed PM6 method for modeling various properties of a wide range of organic and inorganic crystalline solids has been investigated. Although the geometries of most systems examined were reproduced with good accuracy, severe errors were found in the predicted structures of a small number of solids. The origin of these errors was investigated, and a strategy for improving the method proposed. Figure Detail of Structure of Dihydrogen Phosphate in KH2PO4 (upp...

  11. Methods for computing internal flattening, with applications to the Earth's structure and geodynamics

    Denis, C.; Amalvict, M.; Rogister, Y.; Tomecka-Suchoń, S.


    consistent application of hydrostatic theory leads to an inertia factor of about 0.332 instead of the value 0.3308 used until now. This change automatically brings `hydrostatic' values of the flattening, the dynamic shape factor and the precessional constant into much better agreement with their observed counterparts than has been assumed hitherto. Of course, we do not imply that non-hydrostatic effects are unimportant in modelling geodynamic processes. Finally, we discuss (Sections 7-8) some implications of our way of looking at things for Earth structure and some current problems of geodynamics. We suggest very significant changes for the structure of the core, in particular a strong reduction of the density jump at the inner core boundary. The theoretical value of the free core nutation period, which may be computed by means of our hydrostatic Earth models CGGM or PREMM, is in somewhat better agreement with the observed value than that based on PREM or 1066-A, although a significant residue remains. We attribute the latter to inadequate modelling of the deformation, and hence of the change in the inertia tensor, because the static deformation equations were used. We argue that non-hydrostatic effects, though present, cannot explain the large observed discrepancy of about 30 days.

  12. Development of solid state moisture sensors for semiconductor fabrication applications

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Kelly, M.J.; Guilinger, T.R.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Tuck, M.R.


    We describe the design and fabrication of two types of solid state moisture sensors, and discuss the results of an evaluation of the sensors for the detection of trace levels of moisture in semiconductor process gases. The first sensor is based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology. A moisture sensitive layer is deposited onto a SAW device, and the amount of moisture adsorbed on the layer produces a proportional shift in the operating frequency of the device. Sensors based on this concept have excellent detection limits for moisture in inert gas (100 ppb) and corrosive gas (150 ppb in HCl). The second sensor is a simple capacitor structure that uses porous silicon as a moisture-sensitive dielectric material. The detection limits of these sensors for moisture in inert gas are about 700 ppb prior to HCl exposure, and about 7 ppm following HCl exposure.

  13. Folding and unfolding of large-size shell construction for application in Earth orbit

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenina, Irena; Pestrenin, Valery; Rusakov, Sergey


    A future exploration of space requires a technology of large module for biological, technological, logistic and other applications in Earth orbits [1-3]. This report describes the possibility of using large-sized shell structures deployable in space. Structure is delivered to the orbit in the spaceship container. The shell is folded for the transportation. The shell material is either rigid plastic or multilayer prepreg comprising rigid reinforcements (such as reinforcing fibers). The unfolding process (bringing a construction to the unfolded state by loading the internal pressure) needs be considered at the presence of both stretching and bending deformations. An analysis of the deployment conditions (the minimum internal pressure bringing a construction from the folded state to the unfolded state) of large laminated CFRP shell structures is formulated in this report. Solution of this mechanics of deformable solids (MDS) problem of the shell structure is based on the following assumptions: the shell is made of components whose median surface has a reamer; in the separate structural element relaxed state (not stressed and not deformed) its median surface coincides with its reamer (this assumption allows choose the relaxed state of the structure correctly); structural elements are joined (sewn together) by a seam that does not resist rotation around the tangent to the seam line. The ways of large shell structures folding, whose median surface has a reamer, are suggested. Unfolding of cylindrical, conical (full and truncated cones), and large-size composite shells (cylinder-cones, cones-cones) is considered. These results show that the unfolding pressure of such large-size structures (0.01-0.2 atm.) is comparable to the deploying pressure of pneumatic parts (0.001-0.1 atm.) [3]. It would be possible to extend this approach to investigate the unfolding process of large-sized shells with ruled median surface or for non-developable surfaces. This research was

  14. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Guinot, S.


    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  15. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    Weber, M.J.


    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF/sub 2/ glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    Menzies, R. T.


    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  17. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.


    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  18. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.


    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  19. Study on preparation and application of novel saponification agent for organic phase of rare earths extraction

    FENG Zongyu; HUANG Xiaowei; LIU Hongji; WANG Meng; LONG Zhiqi; YU Ying; WANG Chunmei


    In view of the problem of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater pollution in rare earths extraction and separation,the novel saponification agent of organic phase,which is magnesium bicarbonate solution,was prepared with the natural rich and cheap dolomite as mw material through carbonation process.The behavior and purification of main impurities ions in the carbonation process as well as the application effect of the novel saponification agent in the extraction and separation was researched.The results showed that the concentration of Fe,Al,Si impurities ions was.less than 5 ppm in the saponification agent through the development of effective removal technology,respectively.When the novel saponification agent was used in the extraction and separation,magnesium utilization rote was more than 95%,and rare earths extraction rate above 99.5% has achieved.Therefore,the technology could replace ammonia-water to saponify the organic phase in rare earth extraction and separation process.

  20. Application of earth observation products for hydrological modeling of the Oum Er Rbia river basin

    López López, Patricia; Strohmeier, Stefan; Haddad, Mira; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Karrou, Mohammed; Sterk, Geert; Schellekens, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc


    The increasing water demand over recent decades together with the climate change impacts on water resources lead to a growing shortage of water availability. Investigating and developing novel strategies to assess and manage water resources have turned into a key issue, leading to increasing efforts to enhance and improve hydrological models and datasets. Despite campaigns to increase the quality and the temporal and spatial availability of ground-based hydro-meteorological data, many river basins around the world still have a limited number of in-situ observations. This in turn limits the application of hydrological models. Recently developed global earth observation products may unlock a greater capability of basin scale hydrological modeling for advanced water management. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of earth observation products for hydrological model simulation in comparison with in-situ data for water resources management and water allocation of the Moroccan Oum Er Rbia river basin. Two different hydrological models (SWAT and PCR-GLOBWB) were applied to inter-compare various combinations of in-situ and global earth observation data. Global earth observation products were obtained from various sources including meteorological data from the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data, remotely sensed ESA CCI surface soil moisture Soil Water Index combined product and evapotranspiration data from the FLUXNET global monitoring network. The daily data were provided for the time period from 1979 to 2012. Due to the insufficient in-situ discharge observations available in the basin, local calibration of both hydrological models was based on global evapotranspiration and soil moisture data, covering additional aspects of the hydrological cycle to further reduce modeling uncertainty. Preliminary results indicate that even though significant differences in model estimates were found between SWAT and PCR-GLOBWB, the remotely

  1. Rare earth doped CaCu_3Ti_4O_(12) electronic ceramics for high frequency applications

    慕春红; 张怀武; 刘颖力; 宋远强; 刘鹏


    Ca1-xRxCu3Ti4O12(R=La,Y,Gd;x=0,0.1,0.2,0.3) electronic ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid-state reaction method.The microstructure and dielectric properties as well as impedance behavior were carefully investigated.XRD results showed that the secondary phases with the general formula R2Ti2O7 existed at grain boundaries of rare earth doped ceramics,which inhibited abnormal grain growth.The dielectric constant decreased from 4×105 in pure CaCu3Ti4O12(CCTO) ceramics to 2×103 with rare earth doping....

  2. Geoantineutrino Spectrum, 3He/4He - ratio radial distribution and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core

    Rusov, V D; Vaschenko, V N; Tarasov, V A; Zelentsova, T N; Bolshakov, V N; Litvinov, D A; Kosenko, S I; Byegunova, O A


    The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 Gpa) and temperature (1600-22000 C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution ...

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell application in district cooling

    Al-Qattan, Ayman; ElSherbini, Abdelrahman; Al-Ajmi, Kholoud


    This paper presents analysis of the performance of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for district cooling. The cogeneration system is designed to provide cooling for a low-rise residential district of 27,300 RT (96 MWc). A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generates electric power to operate chillers, and the exhaust fuel and heat from the SOFC run gas turbines and absorption chillers. Thermal energy storage is utilized to reduce system capacity. Part-load operation strategies target maximizing energy efficiency. The operation of the system is compared through an hourly simulation to that of packaged air-conditioning units typically used to cool homes. The CCP system with the district cooling arrangement improves the cooling-to-fuel efficiency by 346%. The peak power requirement is reduced by 57% (24 MW) and the total fuel energy is reduced by 54% (750 TJ y-1). The system cuts annual carbon dioxide emissions to less than half and reduces other harmful emissions. A cost analysis of the system components and operation resulted in a 53% reduction in the cost per ton-hour of cooling over traditional systems.

  4. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.


    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  5. Mechanosynthesis and mechanolysis of solid solutions of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with some rare earth oxides

    Todorowsky, D. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet; Terziev, A. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet; Minkova, N. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Khimicheski Fakultet


    The effect of the mechanoactivation on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2}, on mixtures of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with each of these oxides as well as on the solid solutions La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} is studied. The activation causes a decrease of the individual oxides` unit cell parameters. The formation of solid solutions of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the oxides studied is found. Under the conditions of activation in air no decomposition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} solid solution is detected. The solution is, however, destroyed when the activation is carried out in the presence of acids. (orig.)

  6. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    Burks, J. E.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Angle, K.


    In 2014, collaborations between the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Weather Service (NWS), and the USGS led to the incorporation of Earth remote sensing imagery within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). The DAT is a smartphone, tablet, and web-based application that allows NWS meteorologists to acquire, quality control, and manage various storm damage indicators following a severe weather event, such as a tornado, occurrence of widespread damaging winds, or significant hail. Earth remote sensing supports the damage assessment process by providing a broad overview of how various acquired damage indicators relate to scarring visible from space, ranging from high spatial resolution commercial imagery (~1-4m) acquired via USGS and in collaboration with other federal and private sector partners, to moderate resolution imaging from NASA sensors (~15-30m) such as those aboard Landsat 7 and 8 and Terra's ASTER, to lower resolution but routine imaging from NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, or the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument. In several cases, the acquisition and delivery of imagery in the days after a severe weather event has proven helpful in confirming or in some cases adjusting the preliminary damage track acquired during a ground survey. For example, limited road networks and access to private property may make it difficult to observe the entire length of a tornado track, while satellite imagery can fill in observation gaps to complete a more detailed damage track assessment. This presentation will highlight successful applications of Earth remote sensing for the improvement of damage surveys, discuss remaining challenges, and provide direction on future efforts that will improve the delivery of remote sensing data and use through new automation processes and training opportunities.

  7. Application of recursive approaches to differential orbit correction of near Earth asteroids

    Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovka, Valery; Gritsevich, Maria


    Comparison of three approaches to the differential orbit correction of celestial bodies was performed: batch least squares fitting, Kalman filter, and recursive least squares filter. The first two techniques are well known and widely used (Montenbruck, O. & Gill, E., 2000). The most attention is paid to the algorithm and details of program realization of recursive least squares filter. The filter's algorithm was derived based on recursive least squares technique that are widely used in data processing applications (Simon, D, 2006). Usage recursive least squares filter, makes possible to process a new set of observational data, without reprocessing data, which has been processed before. Specific feature of such approach is that number of observation in data set may be variable. This feature makes recursive least squares filter more flexible approach compare to batch least squares (process complete set of observations in each iteration) and Kalman filtering (suppose updating state vector on each epoch with measurements).Advantages of proposed approach are demonstrated by processing of real astrometric observations of near Earth asteroids. The case of 2008 TC3 was studied. 2008 TC3 was discovered just before its impact with Earth. There are a many closely spaced observations of 2008 TC3 on the interval between discovering and impact, which creates favorable conditions for usage of recursive approaches. Each of approaches has very similar precision in case of 2008 TC3. At the same time, recursive least squares approaches have much higher performance. Thus, this approach more favorable for orbit fitting of a celestial body, which was detected shortly before the collision or close approach to the Earth.This work was carried out at MIIGAiK and supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project no. 14-22-00197.References:O. Montenbruck and E. Gill, "Satellite Orbits, Models, Methods and Applications," Springer-Verlag, 2000, pp. 1-369.D. Simon, "Optimal State Estimation

  8. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James


    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  9. Development of a semi-solid metal processing technique for aluminium casting applications

    Sangop Thanabumrungkul


    Full Text Available A semi-solid metal processing technique has been invented and is being developed for aluminium casting applications in Thailand. The technique uses fine gas bubbles to create convection necessary for modifying grain structure. Semi-solid metal processing of three aluminium alloys, A356, Al-4.4%Cu, and ADC12, was investigated. Results show that the novel technique successfully modified A356 and Al-4.4%Cu to become semi-solid slurry with solid fractions up to about 50%. Current developments show a feasibility of applying this technique with gravity casting and the capability to prepare semisolid slurry up to 2 kg of aluminium alloys for industrial production.

  10. Composite solid armature consolidation by pulse power processing - A novel homopolar generator application in EML technology

    Persad, C.; Peterson, D. R.; Zowarka, R. C.


    Graded electrical resistance and assured sliding contact are among the desirable characteristics for the solid armatures used in railguns attainable through the use of composite materials. Metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and metal-polymer composites are generic types of potential solid armature materials. The authors describe the production of these composites by a novel experimental approach that uses a homopolar generator in a pulse-powered materials consolidation system. The processing of Copper-tungsten and aluminum-alumina composites is used to demonstrate versatility of the homopolar generator as a materials processing tool. Powder metallurgy and laminate bonding approaches have been utilized. Composite solid armature materials have been consolidated with subsecond high-temperature exposure. Densification in the solid state proceeds by a warm/hot forging mechanism, and fully dense composites are obtained by a combined application of pressure and a controlled energy input.

  11. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N


    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  12. Solid recovered fuel: An experiment on classification and potential applications.

    Bessi, C; Lombardi, L; Meoni, R; Canovai, A; Corti, A


    The residual urban waste of Prato district (Italy) is characterized by a high calorific value that would make it suitable for direct combustion in waste-to-energy plants. Since the area of central Italy lacks this kind of plant, residual municipal waste is quite often allocated to mechanical treatment plants in order to recover recyclable materials (such as metals) and energy content, sending the dry fractions to waste-to-energy plants outside the region. With the previous Italian legislation concerning Refuse Derived Fuels, only the dry stream produced as output by the study case plant, considered in this study, could be allocated to energy recovery, while the other output flows were landfilled. The most recent Italian regulation, introduced a new classification for the fuel streams recovered from waste following the criteria of the European standard (EN 15359:2011), defining the Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF). In this framework, the aim of this study was to check whether the different streams produced as output by the study case plant could be classified as SRF. For this reason, a sampling and analysis campaign was carried out with the purpose of characterizing every single output stream that can be obtained from the study case mechanical treatment plant, when operating it in different ways. The results showed that all the output flows from the study case mechanical treatment plant were classified as SRF, although with a wide quality range. In particular, few streams, of rather poor quality, could be fed to waste-to-energy plants, compatibly with the plant feeding systems. Other streams, with very high quality, were suitable for non-dedicated facilities, such as cement plants or power plants, as a substitute for coal. The implementation of the new legislation has hence the potential for a significant reduction of landfilling, contributing to lowering the overall environmental impact by avoiding the direct impacts of landfilling and by exploiting the beneficial

  13. Application of solid phase microextraction on dental composite resin analysis.

    Wang, Ven-Shing; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Long-Chen; Chao, Keh-Ping


    A direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method was developed for the analysis of dentin monomers in saliva. Dentine monomers, such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA), have a high molecular weight and a low vapor pressure. The polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber with a medium polarity was employed for DI-SPME, and 215 nm of detection wavelength was found to be optimum in the chromatogram of HPLC measurement. The calibration range for DI-SPME was 0.30-300 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.998 for each analyte. The DI-SPME method achieved good accuracy (recovery 96.1-101.2%) and precision (2.30-8.15% CV) for both intra- and inter-day assays of quality control samples for three target compounds. Method validation was performed on standards dissolved in blank saliva, and there was no significant difference (p>0.2) between the DI-SPME method and the liquid injection method. However, the detection limit of DI-SPME was as low as 0.03, 0.27 and 0.06 μg/mL for TEGDMA, UDMA and Bis-GMA, respectively. Real sample analyses were performed on commercial dentin products after curing for the leaching measurement. In summary, DI-SPME is a more sensitive method that requires less sample pretreatment procedures to measure the resin materials leached in saliva.

  14. Applications of Natural Polymeric Materials in Solid Oral Modified-Release Dosage Forms.

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Xin; Gu, Xiangqin; Mao, Shirui


    Solid oral modified-release dosage forms provide numerous advantages for drug delivery compared to dosage forms where the drugs are released and absorbed rapidly following ingestion. Natural polymers are of particular interest as drug carriers due to their good safety profile, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and rich sources. This review described the current applications of important natural polymers, such as chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, and xanthan gum, in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. It was shown that natural polymers have been widely used to fabricate solid oral modified-release dosage forms such as matrix tablets, pellets and beads, and especially oral drug delivery systems such as gastroretentive and colon drug delivery systems. Moreover, chemical modifications could overcome the shortcomings associated with the use of natural polymers, and the combination of two or more polymers presented further advantages compared with that of single polymer. In conclusion, natural polymers and modified natural polymers have promising applications in solid oral modified-release dosage forms. However, commercial products based on them are still limited. To accelerate the application of natural polymers in commercial products, in vivo behavior of natural polymers-based solid oral modified-release dosage forms should be deeply investigated, and meanwhile quality of the natural polymers should be controlled strictly, and the influence of formulation and process parameters need to be understood intensively.

  15. New application notion of pipeline transport--integrated in industry solid waste innocuous and efficient disposition

    CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WANG Xing; PAN Yue; ZHANG Na; WU Yu-jing; WU Miao


    In order to solve transport problems of industry solid, firstly, a new application notion of pipeline transport was presented, that is to say, combining pretreatment and transport with disposal techniques of industry solid waste. Secondly, the integrated disposal and transport system for industry solid waste was introduced, in particular, the operating principles, equipment set-up, key technology and technical parameters. Next, this paper illustrated the application of this integrated system. Such as it can transport coal sludge with sufficiently high solids content ( about 72%~77%) and high apparent viscosity Generally, the transport distance is about 1 000 m. This system has been successfully used in innocuous disposition and efficient utilization of other industrial byproducts or solid wastes, such as city sludge and paper making waste. The integrated system causes no pollution to the environment for its complete seal and realizes protecting the environment,conserving the energy, promoting the development of cycling economic. Finally, the paper discussed the research works that were needed for studying such pipeline transport system and narrates the relevant condition and application status.

  16. SolidWorks与FDM组合模式的教学应用%SolidWorks and FDM Composite Applications in Teaching

    梁焱; 梁丽


    使用SolidWorks三维建模及STL格式转换输出模型,通过熔积成型(FDM)方式用3D打印机打印零件,使软件的建模和硬件(3D打印机)的操作与加工相衔接,以提高学生对软件建模与快速成型加工的认知、掌握高效的建模方式以及熔积成型的方法,使理论与实践在学习中有机结合,让这一新技术在产品设计、零件制造中发挥作用。%To transfer, output models by SolidWorks 3D modeling and STL format, then use FDM technology to print out accessories with 3D printer. This connection of software application and hardware (3D printer) operation and manufacture, can help students to enhance their cognitive competence of Software Modeling and Rapid Prototyping process, to master an effective method of modeling and FDM, to match theories and practicing perfectly during their study, to let this new technology make more impact in products design and accessories manufacture.

  17. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)


    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  18. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    Duan, Yuhua


    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method

  19. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu [Open Joint-Stock Company ' M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research and Development Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He - Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Framework for Processing Citizens Science Data for Applications to NASA Earth Science Missions

    Teng, William; Albayrak, Arif


    Citizen science (or crowdsourcing) has drawn much high-level recent and ongoing interest and support. It is poised to be applied, beyond the by-now fairly familiar use of, e.g., Twitter for natural hazards monitoring, to science research, such as augmenting the validation of NASA earth science mission data. This interest and support is seen in the 2014 National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, the 2015 White House forum on citizen science and crowdsourcing, the ongoing Senate Bill 2013 (Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Act of 2015), the recent (August 2016) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) call for public participation in its newly-established Citizen Science Domain Working Group, and NASA's initiation of a new Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program (along with its first citizen science-focused solicitation for proposals). Over the past several years, we have been exploring the feasibility of extracting from the Twitter data stream useful information for application to NASA precipitation research, with both "passive" and "active" participation by the twitterers. The Twitter database, which recently passed its tenth anniversary, is potentially a rich source of real-time and historical global information for science applications. The time-varying set of "precipitation" tweets can be thought of as an organic network of rain gauges, potentially providing a widespread view of precipitation occurrence. The validation of satellite precipitation estimates is challenging, because many regions lack data or access to data, especially outside of the U.S. and in remote and developing areas. Mining the Twitter stream could augment these validation programs and, potentially, help tune existing algorithms. Our ongoing work, though exploratory, has resulted in key components for processing and managing tweets, including the capabilities to filter the Twitter stream in real time, to extract location information, to filter for exact phrases, and to plot tweet distributions. The

  1. Structural characterization of bismuth rare earth tungstates obtained by fast microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis

    Rocha, G.N.; Melo, L.F.L. [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil); Castro, M.C.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil); Menezes, A.S. de [Departamento de Física – CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Fechine, P.B.A., E-mail: [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil)


    A new synthetic route was used to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates: BiREWO{sub 6}, where RE = Y, Gd and Nd. These materials were obtained by microwave radiation in air at 900–1100 °C for 10 min, depend on the rare earth composition in the ceramic. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that all samples are isostructural materials with monoclinic phase with space group A12/m1 and member of the Aurivillius family, as Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} ferroelectric phase. It was observed moderated values for dielectric measurements (14<ε{sub r}{sup ′}>19 and 0.018 < tg δ > 0.079) at microwaves frequencies, which can be used as Dielectric Resonator Antenna or for size reduction of the electric device. - Highlights: ► New synthetic route to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates by microwave radiation. ► Vibration spectroscopy was based in Group Theory and observed in FTIR and Raman. ► BiGdWO{sub 6} presented simultaneously higher ε{sub r}{sup ′} and smaller tg δ values at microwaves frequencies. ► The samples can be used as a DRA or for size reduction of the electric device.

  2. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 1: Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) and microwave remote sensing program

    Parker, R. N.


    The earth resources activity is comprised of two basic programs as follows: advanced applications flight experiments, and microwave remote sensing. The two programs are in various stages of implementation, extending from experimental investigations within both the AAFE program and the microwave remote sensing program, to multidisciplinary studies and planning. The purpose of this paper is simply to identify the main thrust of the Langley Research Center activity in earth resources.

  3. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus


    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...

  4. Solid Phase Extraction: Applications to the Chromatographic Analysis of Vegetable Oils and Fats

    Panagiotopoulout, P. M.; Tsimidou, M.


    Applications of solid-phase extraction for the isolation of certain lipid classes prior to chromatographic analysis are given. More information was found for sterols and related compounds, polar phenols and contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Detailed analytical protocols are presented and discussed in many cases. (Author) 120 refs.

  5. Concept of Quantum Geometry in Optoelectronic Processes in Solids: Application to Solar Cells.

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Morimoto, Takahiro


    The concept of topology is becoming more and more relevant to the properties and functions of electronic materials including various transport phenomena and optical responses. A pedagogical introduction is given here to the basic ideas and their applications to optoelectronic processes in solids.

  6. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  7. Application of rare earth to producing synthesis gas from the partial oxidation of methane%稀土在甲烷部分氧化制取合成气中的应用研究

    方稳; 李家德; 余长林


    Rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, etc.) are the important component in many catalysts and can be used as the catalyst support, promoter or react with other element to produce solid solution. The related applications of rare earth elements to producing synthesis gas from the partial oxidation of methane are introduced. The application of rare earth elements which are used as support, promoter, solid solution, etc. to catalyzing partial oxidation of methane to produce synthesis gas is analyzed emphatically. Finally, the research direction of rare earth elements in CPOM is put forward.%稀土(La,Ce,Pr,Nd等)通常可以作为催化剂载体、助剂或与其它元素形成固溶体,成为催化剂的重要组成部分。文中系统地介绍了稀土在甲烷部分氧化(CPOM)制取合成气中的相关应用,重点分析了稀土作为催化剂载体、助剂、固溶体等在催化部分氧化制取合成气中的应用,并对其在CPOM中未来前景做出展望。

  8. Pulsed laser ablation of solids basics, theory and applications

    Stafe, Mihai; Puscas, Niculae N


    The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental  non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and...

  9. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  10. Computational multiscale modeling of fluids and solids theory and applications

    Steinhauser, Martin Oliver


    The idea of the book is to provide a comprehensive overview of computational physics methods and techniques, that are used for materials modeling on different length and time scales. Each chapter first provides an overview of the basic physical principles which are the basis for the numerical and mathematical modeling on the respective length-scale. The book includes the micro-scale, the meso-scale and the macro-scale, and the chapters follow this classification. The book explains in detail many tricks of the trade of some of the most important methods and techniques that are used to simulate materials on the perspective levels of spatial and temporal resolution. Case studies are included to further illustrate some methods or theoretical considerations. Example applications for all techniques are provided, some of which are from the author’s own contributions to some of the research areas. The second edition has been expanded by new sections in computational models on meso/macroscopic scales for ocean and a...

  11. Earth survey applications division: Research leading to the effective use of space technology in applications relating to the Earth's surface and interior

    Carpenter, L. (Editor)


    Accomplishments and future plans are described for the following areas: (1) geology - geobotanical indicators and geopotential data; (2) modeling magnetic fields; (3) modeling the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust; (4) global and regional motions of the Earth's crust and earthquake occurrence; (5) modeling geopotential from satellite tracking data; (6) modeling the Earth's gravity field; (7) global Earth dynamics; (8) sea surface topography, ocean dynamics; and geophysical interpretation; (9) land cover and land use; (10) physical and remote sensing attributes important in detecting, measuring, and monitoring agricultural crops; (11) prelaunch studies using LANDSAT D; (12) the multispectral linear array; (13) the aircraft linear array pushbroom radiometer; and (14) the spaceborne laser ranging system.

  12. SolidWorks技术及其在机械设计应用中的特征%SolidWorks Technology and Its Features in Mechanical Design Application



    SolidWorks是一款优秀的三维设计软件。先详细阐述了SolidWorks产生的背景-计算机技术迅速发展、CAD产业兴旺繁荣,进一步说明SolidWorks的开发与应用符合CAD产业发展趋势。作为CAD产业后起之秀,SolidWorks优势显著,生命力旺盛。然后,详细描述了SolidWorks操作界面简单、参数化造型思想、特征建立能力强、零件装配功能、仿真模拟分析和二次开发等特征与功能。 SolidWorks易学易用、功能强大,能够较大程度缩短设计时间,提高设计效率,从而被广泛地应用于机械产品设计。%SolidWorks is one of the best 3D CAD software. In this paper, the background of SolidWorks is described, that is, the rapid development of computer and the CAD technology, and it is further confirmed that the initiation and application of the SolidWorks could meet the trends of CAD industry. As a rising star, the SolidWorks has great advantages and vitality. Then, the key functions and features of the SolidWorks are illustrated respectively, such as easier operation, simple face, parametric design, and powerful assembly performance. The SolidWorks which is easy to learn and to use, powerful, high efficient, is widely used in mechanical design.

  13. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter


    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  14. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter


    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  15. Capacity Building for the Access and Application of NASA Earth Science Data

    Blevins, B.; Prados, A. I.; Hook, E.


    Since 2008, NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program has built capacity in applied remote sensing by building awareness, and enabling access and use of NASA Earth science data. To reach decision and policy makers from all sectors, ARSET hosts hands-on workshops and online webinars. With over 70 trainings, reaching more than 6,000 people from 130 countries and 1,600 organizations, ARSET has ample experience with assessing and meeting end-user needs. To meet the spectrum of needs and levels of attendee expertise, ARSET holds trainings for both the novice and experienced end-user. Trainings employ exercises, assignments, and live demonstrations of data access tools to reinforce remote sensing concepts and to facilitate data use and analysis techniques. This program is in a unique position to collect important feedback from thousands of participants each year through formal surveys and informal methods on NASA tools, portals, data formats, and the applications of Earth science data for end-user decision making activities. This information is shared with NASA data centers and program managers to help inform data portal development and to help prioritize the production of new satellite derived data products. This presentation will discuss the challenges that arise in capacity building trainings, the integration of community feedback into the training development cycle, and lessons learned throughout the process.

  16. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology

    Duan, Yuhua


    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  17. Web-based Services for Earth Observing and Model Data in National Applications and Hazards

    Kafatos, M.; Boybeyi, Z.; Cervone, G.; di, L.; Sun, D.; Yang, C.; Yang, R.


    The ever-growing large volumes of Earth system science data, collected by Earth observing platforms, in situ stations and as model output data, are increasingly being used by discipline scientists and by wider classes of users. In particular, applications of Earth system science data to environmental and hazards as well as other national applications, require tailored or specialized data, as well as web-based tools and infrastructure. The latter are driven by applications and usage drivers which include ease of access, visualization of complex data, ease of producing value-added data, GIS and open source analysis usage, metadata, etc. Here we present different aspects of such web-based services and access, and discuss several applications in the hazards and environmental areas, including earthquake signatures and observations and model runs of hurricanes. Examples and lessons learned from the consortium Mid-Atlantic Geospatial Information Consortium will be presented. We discuss a NASA-funded, open source on-line data analysis system that is being applied to climate studies for the ESIP Federation. Since enhanced, this project and the next-generation Metadata Integrated Data Analysis System allow users not only to identify data but also to generate new data products on-the-fly. The functionalities extend from limited predefined functions, to sophisticated functions described by general-purposed GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System) commands. The Federation system also allows third party data products to be combined with local data. Software component are available for converting the output from MIDAS (OPenDAP) into OGC compatible software. The on-going Grid efforts at CEOSR and LAITS in the School of Computational Sciences (SCS) include enhancing the functions of Globus to provide support for a geospatial system so the system can share the computing power to handle problems with different peak access times and improve the stability and flexibility of a rapid

  18. Enabling Extreme Scale Earth Science Applications at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Anantharaj, V. G.; Mozdzynski, G.; Hamrud, M.; Deconinck, W.; Smith, L.; Hack, J.


    The Oak Ridge Leadership Facility (OLCF), established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), welcomes investigators from universities, government agencies, national laboratories and industry who are prepared to perform breakthrough research across a broad domain of scientific disciplines, including earth and space sciences. Titan, the OLCF flagship system, is currently listed as #2 in the Top500 list of supercomputers in the world, and the largest available for open science. The computational resources are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program, sponsored by the U.S. DOE Office of Science. In 2014, over 2.25 billion core hours on Titan were awarded via INCITE projects., including 14% of the allocation toward earth sciences. The INCITE competition is also open to research scientists based outside the USA. In fact, international research projects account for 12% of the INCITE awards in 2014. The INCITE scientific review panel also includes 20% participation from international experts. Recent accomplishments in earth sciences at OLCF include the world's first continuous simulation of 21,000 years of earth's climate history (2009); and an unprecedented simulation of a magnitude 8 earthquake over 125 sq. miles. One of the ongoing international projects involves scaling the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model to over 200K cores of Titan. ECMWF is a partner in the EU funded Collaborative Research into Exascale Systemware, Tools and Applications (CRESTA) project. The significance of the research carried out within this project is the demonstration of techniques required to scale current generation Petascale capable simulation codes towards the performance levels required for running on future Exascale systems. One of the techniques pursued by ECMWF is to use Fortran2008 coarrays to overlap computations and communications and

  19. A compact 500 MHz 4 kW Solid-State Power Amplifier for accelerator applications

    Gaspar, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Ferreira, L. F. R.; Garvey, T.


    We present the development of a compact narrow-band Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA). We foresee a promising application of solid-state amplifiers specifically in accelerators for new generation synchrotron light sources. Such a new technology has reached a competitive price/performance ratio and expected lifetime in comparison with klystron and IOT amplifiers. The increasing number of synchrotron light sources using 500 MHz as base frequency justifies the effort in the development of the proposed amplifier. Two different techniques are also proposed to improve the control and performance of these new distributed amplification systems which we call, respectively, complete distributed system and forced compression.

  20. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco


    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  1. Solid dispersion in pharmaceutical technology. Part II. The methods of analysis of solid dispersions and examples of their application.

    Karolewicz, Bozena; Górniak, Agata; Owczarek, Artur; Nartowski, Karol; Zurawska-Płaksej, Ewa; Pluta, Janusz


    In the first part of the article solid dispersions were classified the properties and methods of their preparation were described. This section presents methods of analysis of solid dispersions i.e.: thermoanalytical methods, XRPD, FTIR, microscopic methods, dissolution studies and examples of drug forms where solid dispersions were used.

  2. Mid - infrared solid state lasers for spectroscopic applications

    Terekhov, Yuri

    This work is devoted to study of novel high power middle-infrared (Mid-IR) laser sources enabling development of portable platform for sensing of organic molecules with the use of recently discovered Quartz Enhanced Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS). The ability to detect small concentrations is beneficial to monitor atmosphere pollution as well for biomedical applications such as analysis of human breath to detect earlier stages of cancer or virus activities. A QEPAS technique using a quartz tuning fork (QTF) as a detector enables a strong enhancement of measured signal when pump laser is modulated with a frequency coinciding with a natural frequency of a QTF. It is known that the detectability of acousto-optics based sensors is proportional to the square root of the laser intensity used for detection of analyte. That is the reason why commercially available semiconductor Mid-IR lasers having small output power limit sensitivity of modern QEPAS based sensors. The lack of high power broadly tunable lasers operating with a modulation frequency of quartz forks (~ 32.768 kHz) is the major motivation of this study. Commercially available Mid-IR (2-3.3 microm), single frequency, continuous wave (CW) fiber pumped lasers based on transition metal doped chalcogenides (e.g. Cr:ZnSe) prove to be efficient laser sources for organic molecules detection. However, their direct modulation is limited to several kHz, and cannot be directly used in combination with QEPAS. Hence, one objective of this work is to study and develop fiber laser pumped Ho:YAG (Er:YAG)/Cr:ZnSe tandem laser system/s. Ho (Holmium) and/or Er (Erbium) ions having long radiation lifetime (~ 10 ms) can effectively accumulate population inversion under CW fiber laser excitation. Utilization of acousto-optic (AO) modulators in the cavity of Ho:YAG (Er:YAG) laser will enable effective Q-Switching with repetition rate easily reaching the resonance frequency of a QTF. It is expected that utilization of Ho:YAG (Er

  3. Earth Observation Tools for Risk Exposure Monitoring: Welcoming Sentinel-2 Data in Risk Assessment Applications

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio


    In the framework of different FP7 projects, a set of open-source tools has been developed and refined with the aim to monitor the exposure component in risk assessment. The recent launch of Sentinels 1 and 2 with their open data license attracted a lot of attention in the remote sensing community stimulating new research and applications. To our tools, this meant Open Data feed into Open Source code. The similarity in both spectral and geometric resolutions between Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellites raises good hopes for reusability of the developed tools. In this paper, modifications to the original algorithms will be suggested according to the experiments outcome, in view of a new generation of Open Tools in line with the new Copernicus-aware Earth Observation scenario.

  4. Rare earth upconversion nanophosphors: synthesis, functionalization and application as biolabels and energy transfer donors



    This review focused on rare earth upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs), a particular class of emitters whose photoluminescence mechanism is of fundamental difference from that of conventional dyes and semiconductor quantum dots. We in the first section gave a brief summary on a variety of synthetic methodologies developed during the past decades. Instead of presenting an exhaustive reference list, we selected only a few representative examples, illustrating the merits and limits of each involved synthetic route. Then we surveyed the recent progress in the functienalization techniques for these nanomaterials, depicting the modification in microstruetures and improvement in prop-erties with respect to the parent nanopartides. And finally, we emphasized their application in the research fields of biolabeling and energy transfer, narrating their superior performance benefiting from the unique excitation and emission properties.

  5. A smooth and robust Harris-Priester atmospheric density model for low Earth orbit applications

    Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.


    The modified Harris-Priester model is a computationally inexpensive method for approximating atmospheric density in the thermosphere and lower exosphere - a vital step in low Earth orbit trajectory propagation. This work introduces a revision, dubbed cubic Harris-Priester, which ensures continuous first derivatives, eliminates singularities, and adds a mechanism for introducing smooth functional dependencies on environmental conditions. These changes increase the accuracy, robustness, and utility of the model, particularly for preliminary orbit propagation, estimation, and optimization applications in which fast, reasonably accurate force models and sensitivities are desirable. Density results and computational efficiency are compared to other density models. The Fortran code used to implement the model is provided as an electronic supplement.

  6. Hyperspectral REE (Rare Earth Element Mapping of Outcrops—Applications for Neodymium Detection

    Nina Kristine Boesche


    Full Text Available In this study, an in situ application for identifying neodymium (Nd enriched surface materials that uses multitemporal hyperspectral images is presented (HySpex sensor. Because of the narrow shape and shallow absorption depth of the neodymium absorption feature, a method was developed for enhancing and extracting the necessary information for neodymium from image spectra, even under illumination conditions that are not optimal. For this purpose, the two following approaches were developed: (1 reducing noise and analyzing changing illumination conditions by averaging multitemporal image scenes and (2 enhancing the depth of the desired absorption band by deconvolving every image spectrum with a Gaussian curve while the rest of the spectrum remains unchanged (Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. To evaluate these findings, nine field samples from the Fen complex in Norway were analyzed using handheld X-ray fluorescence devices and by conducting detailed laboratory-based geochemical rare earth element determinations. The result is a qualitative outcrop map that highlights zones that are enriched in neodymium. To reduce the influences of non-optimal illumination, particularly at the studied site, a minimum of seven single acquisitions is required. Sharpening the neodymium absorption band allows for robust mapping, even at the outer zones of enrichment. From the geochemical investigations, we found that iron oxides decrease the applicability of the method. However, iron-related absorption bands can be used as secondary indicators for sulfidic ore zones that are mainly enriched with rare earth elements. In summary, we found that hyperspectral spectroscopy is a noninvasive, fast and cost-saving method for determining neodymium at outcrop surfaces.

  7. Near Real-Time Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Response to Meteorological Disasters

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Bell, Jordan R.


    Numerous on-orbit satellites provide a wide range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions supporting the use of their resulting imagery in assessments of disasters that are meteorological in nature. This presentation will provide an overview of recent use of Earth remote sensing by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in response to disaster activities in 2012 and 2013, along with case studies supporting ongoing research and development. The SPoRT Center, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program, has explored a variety of new applications of Earth-observing sensors to support disaster response. In May 2013, the SPoRT Center developed unique power outage composites representing the first clear sky view of damage inflicted upon Moore and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma following the devastating EF-5 tornado that occurred on May 20. Subsequent ASTER, MODIS, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imagery help to identify the damaged area. Higher resolution imagery of Moore, Oklahoma were provided by commercial satellites and the recently available International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. New techniques are being explored by the SPoRT team in order to better identify damage visible in high resolution imagery, and to monitor ongoing recovery for Moore, Oklahoma. Other applications are being developed to refine light source detections with the VIIRS day-night band and to map hail during the growing season through combination of available satellite and radar imagery. The aforementioned products and support are not useful unless they are distributed in a timely manner and within an appropriate decision support system. This presentation will provide an update on ongoing activities to support inclusion of these data sets within the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which allows meteorologists in the field to consult available satellite imagery while performing

  8. In vitro biocompatibility and endothelialization of novel magnesium-rare Earth alloys for improved stent applications.

    Nan Zhao

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3-10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future.

  9. Design and realization of RS application system for earthquake emergency based on digital earth

    Yuan, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Jianxing; Dou, Aixia; Ding, Xiang


    The current RS-based earthquake emergency system is mainly based on stand-alone software which cannot meet the requirements of massive remote sensing data and parallel seismic damage information extraction after a devastating earthquake. Taking Shaanxi Province as an example, this paper explored firstly the network-based working mode of seismic damage information extraction and data management strategy for multi-user cooperative operation based on analysing work flow of the RS application to earthquake emergency. Then, using WorldWind java SDK, the RS application system for earthquake emergency based on digital earth platform was brought out in CS architecture. Finally, spatial data tables of classification and grade of seismic damage were designed and the system was developed. This system realized functions including 3D display, management of seismic RS image and GIS data obtained before and after earthquake for different user levels and cooperative extraction and publish of such seismic information as building damage, traffic damage and seismo-geological disasters caused by earthquake in real time. Some application to earthquake cases such as 2014 M s6.5 Ludian earthquake show that this system can improve the efficiency of seismic damage information interpretation and data sharing, and provide import disaster information for decision making of earthquake emergency rescue and disaster relief.

  10. Characterizing Decision-Making for Earth Observation Applications in Water Management

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Fonseca, C.; Valdes, J. B.; Durcik, M.; Mithieu, F.


    From various experiences interacting with water managers in Africa, and our efforts to bring remote sensing applications to support the real world of operational hydrology, a systematic approach is presented to characterize and understand decision-making contexts and needs. Our collaborative engagement with stakeholders, especially in the transboundary Mara Basin (Kenya & Tanzania) will be presented, based on the efforts of our SERVIR Applied Sciences Team Project and collaboration with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, Nairobi) and a range of Kenyan Water Resources Agencies at several levels. The evolving process of our dialogue with users and stakeholders will be highlighted: from the early stages of the project to characterize monitoring and forecasting needs, through the co-development of applications, communication of model results, feedbacks, synergies, current uses, next steps and lessons learned. From these and other collective experiences, we outline a policy approach - or best practices - to understand decision context and maximize the relevance and adoption of Earth Observation applications for water and environmental management in Africa, and thus building capacity in local organizations.

  11. Processing of Transparent Rare Earth Doped Zirconia for High Temperature Light Emission Applications

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    The high fracture toughness of stabilized zirconia makes it one of the most widely applicable high temperature structural materials. However, it is not typicality considered for optical applications since the microstructure achieved by traditional processing makes it opaque. The aim of this dissertation is to develop processing methods for the introducing new functionalities of light transparency and light emission (photoluminescence) and to understand the nanostructure-property relationships that make these functionalities possible. A processing study of rare-earth (RE) doped Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2, zirconia) via Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) is presented. The role of processing temperature and dopant concentration on the crystal structure, microstructure and properties of the RE: ZrO2 is studied. Microstructural shows sub-100 nm grain size and homogeneous dopant distribution. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis show that with increased dopant concentration the material changes from monoclinic to tetragonal. Structural analysis shows the material shows high hardness and toughness values 30% greater than similarly processed yttria-stabilized zirconia. Despite birefringence in the tetragonal phase, optical characterization is presented showing the samples are both highly transparent and photo-luminescent. Special attention is paid to analyzing structural and photoluminescence development during densification, as well as the role of oxygen vacancies on the optical properties of the densified material. This material is shown to be a promising candidate for a number of applications including luminescence thermometry and high temperature light emission.

  12. Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes: Formation, Stability and Applications

    Goh, Haw Zan

    This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation of supported lipid membranes with vesicle hemifusion, their stability under detergents and organic solvents and their applications in molecular biology. In Chapter 3, we describe how isolated patches of DOPC bilayers supported on glass surfaces are dissolved by various detergents (decyl maltoside, dodecyl maltoside, CHAPS, CTAB, SDS, TritonX-100 and Tween20) at their CMC, as investigated by fluorescence video microscopy. In general, detergents partition into distal leaflets of bilayers and lead to the expansion of the bilayers through a rolling motion of the distal over the proximal leaflets, in agreement with the first stage of the established 3-stage model of lipid vesicle solubilization by detergents. Subsequently, we study the partitioning of organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, acetone and chloroform) into isolated bilayer patches on glass in Chapter 4 with fluorescence microscopy. The area expansion of bilayers due to the partitioning of organic solvents is measured. From the titration of organic solvents, we measured the rate of area expansion as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvents, which is proposed to be a measure of strength of interactions between solvents and membranes. From the same experiments, we also measure the maximum expansion of bilayers (or the maximum binding stoichiometry between organic solvents and lipids) before structural breakdown, which depends on the depth of penetration of solvents to the membranes. In Chapter 5, we investigate the formation of sparsely-tethered bilayer lipid membranes (stBLMs) with vesicle hemifusion. In vesicle hemifusion, lipid vesicles in contact with a hydrophobic alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposit a lipid monolayer to the SAM surface, thus completing the bilayer. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectivity are used to probe the integrity of stBLMs in terms of their

  13. If ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances observed before strong earthquakes may result from simultaneous impact of space weather on all geospheres including solid earth

    Khachikyan, Galina


    It is revealed in previous decades that ionospheric disturbances precede strong earthquakes, thus, the ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes are now under developing [Pulinets and Boyarchuk, 2004]. Simultaneously, it is revealed that strong earthquakes may be preceded by geomagnetic disturbances as well, as a result, the geomagnetic variations, for example, in the ULF band, are considered now as precursory signals [Fraser-Smith, 1990, doi/10.1029/GL017i009p01465]. At the same time, there is currently no reliable theory nor for ionospheric or to magnetic precursors of earthquakes. Moreover, several researches have reexamined some of above results and concluded that observed magnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes could be generated by other sources, such as global magnetic activity [e.g. Campbell, 2009, doi/10.1029/2008JA013932], and that ionospheric anomalies can also be an effect of the increase of the global magnetic activity [e. g. Masci and Thomas, 2015, doi:10.1002/2015RS005734]. Taking into account such conclusions, one may suggest that the observed ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes might be due to simultaneous influence of a space weather on the complicated surrounding system including the solid earth. This report presents some statistical results to prove such suggestion. In particular, it is shown [Khachikyan et al., 2012, doi:10.4236/ijg.2012.35109] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude (seismic potential) can be determined, in first approximation, on the base of geomagnetic Z-component measured in the Geocentric Solar Magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system, in which the space weather impact on the earth's environment, due to reconnection of the solar wind magnetic field with the earth's magnetic field, is more ordered.

  14. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Del Angel S, A.


    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  15. Noise generation in the solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, from non-linear interacting surface gravity waves in finite depth

    Ardhuin, Fabrice


    Oceanic observations, even in very deep water, and atmospheric pressure or seismic records, from anywhere on Earth, contain noise with dominant periods between 3 and 10 seconds, that can be related to surface gravity waves in the oceans. This noise is consistent with a dominant source explained by a nonlinear wave-wave interaction mechanism, and takes the form of surface gravity waves, acoustic or seismic waves. Previous theoretical works on seismic noise focused on surface (Rayleigh) waves, and did not consider finite depth effects on the generating wave kinematics. These finite depth effects are introduced here, which requires the consideration of the direct wave-induced pressure at the ocean bottom, a contribution previously overlooked in the context of seismic noise. That contribution can lead to a considerable reduction of the seismic noise source, which is particularly relevant for noise periods larger than 10 s. The theory is applied to acoustic waves in the atmosphere, extending previous theories that...

  16. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    Helena Prosen


    Full Text Available Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc. published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  17. Solution-Processed Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films for Alternative Gate Dielectric Application.

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Peng, Haiyan; Venkatesh, Shishir; Wu, Wei; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, V A L


    Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical characterizations, respectively. Ultrasmooth, amorphous, and hydrophilic REO films with thickness around 10 nm have been obtained through a combined spin-coating and postannealing method. The compositional analysis results reveal the formation of RE hydrocarbonates on the surface and silicates at the interface of REOs films annealed on Si substrate. The dielectric properties of REO films are investigated by characterizing capacitors with a Si/Ln2O3/Au (Ln = La, Gd, and Er) structure. The observed low leakage current densities and large areal capacitances indicate these REO films can be employed as alternative gate dielectrics in transistors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a series of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on such sol-gel derived REO films to demonstrate their application in electronics. The optimization of REOs dielectrics in transistors through further surface modification has also been studied. The current study provides a simple solution process approach to fabricate varieties of REOs insulating films, and the results reveal their promising applications as alternative gate dielectrics in thin-film transistors.

  18. Toxicity evaluation of high-fluorescent rare-earth metal nanoparticles for bioimaging applications.

    Hernandez-Adame, Luis; Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Portales-Pérez, Diana P; Castillo, Claudia; Zhao, Wayne; Juarez, Zaida N; Hernandez, Luis R; Bach, Horacio; Palestino, Gabriela


    Research on nanometer-sized luminescent semiconductors and their biological applications in detectors and contrasting agents is an emergent field in nanotechnology. When new nanosize technologies are developed for human health applications, their interaction with biological systems should be studied in depth. Rare-earth elements are used in medical and industrial applications, but their toxic effects are not known. In this work, the biological interaction between terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles (GOSNPs) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), human-derived macrophages (THP-1), and human cervical carcinoma cell (HeLa) were evaluated. The GOSNPs were synthetized using a hydrothermal method to obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with an average size of 91 ± 9 nm. Characterization techniques showed the hexagonal phase of the Gd2 O2 S:Tb(3+) free of impurities, and a strong green emission at λemi  = 544 nm produced by Tb(3+) was observed. Toxic effects of GOSNPs were evaluated using cell viability, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and immunological response techniques. In addition, an Artemia model was used to assess the toxicity in vivo. Results indicated cell apoptosis in both types of cells with less sensitivity for PBMC cells compared to HeLa cells. In addition, no toxic effects were observed in the in vivo model of Artemia. Moreover, GOSNPs significantly reduced the activation and cell-cycle progression of PBMC and HeLa cells, respectively. Interestingly, an increase in proinflammatory cytokines was not observed. Our data suggest that fluorescence applications of GOSNPs for biolabeling are not toxic in primary immune cells and they may have an immunomodulatory effect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 605-615, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Astronaut Photography of the Earth: A Long-Term Dataset for Earth Systems Research, Applications, and Education

    Stefanov, William L.


    The NASA Earth observations dataset obtained by humans in orbit using handheld film and digital cameras is freely accessible to the global community through the online searchable database at, and offers a useful compliment to traditional ground-commanded sensor data. The dataset includes imagery from the NASA Mercury (1961) through present-day International Space Station (ISS) programs, and currently totals over 2.6 million individual frames. Geographic coverage of the dataset includes land and oceans areas between approximately 52 degrees North and South latitudes, but is spatially and temporally discontinuous. The photographic dataset includes some significant impediments for immediate research, applied, and educational use: commercial RGB films and camera systems with overlapping bandpasses; use of different focal length lenses, unconstrained look angles, and variable spacecraft altitudes; and no native geolocation information. Such factors led to this dataset being underutilized by the community but recent advances in automated and semi-automated image geolocation, image feature classification, and web-based services are adding new value to the astronaut-acquired imagery. A coupled ground software and on-orbit hardware system for the ISS is in development for planned deployment in mid-2017; this system will capture camera pose information for each astronaut photograph to allow automated, full georegistration of the data. The ground system component of the system is currently in use to fully georeference imagery collected in response to International Disaster Charter activations, and the auto-registration procedures are being applied to the extensive historical database of imagery to add value for research and educational purposes. In parallel, machine learning techniques are being applied to automate feature identification and classification throughout the dataset, in order to build descriptive metadata that will improve search

  20. Bis(imidazolin-2-iminato) rare earth metal complexes: synthesis, structural characterization, and catalytic application.

    Trambitas, Alexandra G; Melcher, Daniel; Hartenstein, Larissa; Roesky, Peter W; Daniliuc, Constantin; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    Reaction of anhydrous rare earth metal halides MCl(3) with 2 equiv of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (Im(Dipp)NH) and 2 equiv of trimethylsilylmethyl lithium (Me(3)SiCH(2)Li) in THF furnished the complexes [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] (M = Sc, Y, Lu). The molecular structures of all three compounds were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The coordination spheres around the pentacoordinate metal atoms are best described as trigonal bipyramids. Reaction of YbI(2) with 2 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) and 2 equiv of the imino ligand Im(Dipp)NH in tetrahydrofuran did not result in a divalent complex, but instead the Yb(III) complex [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)YbI(THF)(2)] was obtained and structurally characterized. Treatment of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)MCl(THF)(n)] with 1 equiv of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) resulted in the formation of [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)M(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(n)]. The coordination arrangement of these compounds in the solid state at the metal atoms is similar to that found for the starting materials, although the introduction of the neosilyl ligand induces a significantly greater distortion from the ideal trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. [(Im(Dipp)N)(2)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF)(2)] was used as precatalyst in the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization reaction of various terminal aminoalkenes and of one aminoalkyne. The complex showed high catalytic activity and selectivity. A comparison with the previously reported dialkyl yttrium complex [(Im(Dipp)N)Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2)(THF)(3)] showed no clear tendency in terms of activity.

  1. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Julio eNavarro


    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  2. Lithium-Ion Batteries Being Evaluated for Low-Earth-Orbit Applications

    McKissock, Barbara I.


    The performance characteristics and long-term cycle life of aerospace lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in low-Earth-orbit applications are being investigated. A statistically designed test using Li-ion cells from various manufacturers began in September 2004 to study the effects of temperature, end-of-charge voltage, and depth-of-discharge operating conditions on the cycle life and performance of these cells. Performance degradation with cycling is being evaluated, and performance characteristics and failure modes are being modeled statistically. As technology improvements are incorporated into aerospace Li-ion cells, these new designs can be added to the test to evaluate the effect of the design changes on performance and life. Cells from Lithion and Saft have achieved over 2000 cycles under 10 different test condition combinations and are being evaluated. Cells from Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) and modules made up of commercial-off-the-shelf 18650 Li-ion cells connected in series/parallel combinations are scheduled to be added in the summer of 2005. The test conditions include temperatures of 10, 20, and 30 C, end-of-charge voltages of 3.85, 3.95, and 4.05 V, and depth-of-discharges from 20 to 40 percent. The low-Earth-orbit regime consists of a 55 min charge, at a constant-current rate that is 110 percent of the current required to fully recharge the cells in 55 min until the charge voltage limit is reached, and then at a constant voltage for the remaining charge time. Cells are discharged for 35 min at the current required for their particular depth-of-discharge condition. Cells are being evaluated in four-cell series strings with charge voltage limits being applied to individual cells by the use of charge-control units designed and produced at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These charge-control units clamp the individual cell voltages as each cell reaches its end-of-charge voltage limit, and they bypass the excess current from that cell, while allowing the full

  3. Riding the Hype Wave: Evaluating new AI Techniques for their Applicability in Earth Science

    Ramachandran, R.; Zhang, J.; Maskey, M.; Lee, T. J.


    Every few years a new technology rides the hype wave generated by the computer science community. Converts to this new technology who surface from both the science community and the informatics community promulgate that it can radically improve or even change the existing scientific process. Recent examples of new technology following in the footsteps of "big data" now include deep learning algorithms and knowledge graphs. Deep learning algorithms mimic the human brain and process information through multiple stages of transformation and representation. These algorithms are able to learn complex functions that map pixels directly to outputs without relying on human-crafted features and solve some of the complex classification problems that exist in science. Similarly, knowledge graphs aggregate information around defined topics that enable users to resolve their query without having to navigate and assemble information manually. Knowledge graphs could potentially be used in scientific research to assist in hypothesis formulation, testing, and review. The challenge for the Earth science research community is to evaluate these new technologies by asking the right questions and considering what-if scenarios. What is this new technology enabling/providing that is innovative and different? Can one justify the adoption costs with respect to the research returns? Since nothing comes for free, utilizing a new technology entails adoption costs that may outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, these technologies may require significant computing infrastructure in order to be utilized effectively. Results from two different projects will be presented along with lessons learned from testing these technologies. The first project primarily evaluates deep learning techniques for different applications of image retrieval within Earth science while the second project builds a prototype knowledge graph constructed for Hurricane science.

  4. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick


    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  5. A Basis for Solid Modeling of Gear Teeth with Application in Design and Manufacture

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng


    This paper discusses a new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication processes. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing arc discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element hearings are proposed.

  6. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.


    ... operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for Declaratory Ruling” requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the...

  7. Using modular 3D digital earth applications based on point clouds for the study of complex sites

    Martinez-Rubi, O.; Kleijn, M. de; Verhoeven, S.; Drost, N.; Attema, J.; Meersbergen, M. van; Nieuwpoort, R. van; Hond, R. de; Dias, E.; Svetachov, P.


    This article discusses the use of 3D technologies in digital earth applications (DEAs) to study complex sites. These are large areas containing objects with heterogeneous shapes and semantic information. The study proposes that DEAs should be modular, have multi-tier architectures, and be developed

  8. Solid state field-cycling NMR relaxometry: instrumental improvements and new applications.

    Fujara, Franz; Kruk, Danuta; Privalov, Alexei F


    The paper reviews recent progress in field cycling (FC) NMR instrumentation and its application to solid state physics. Special emphasis is put on our own work during the last 15years on instrumentation, theory and applications. As far as instrumentation is concerned we report on our development of two types of electronical FC relaxometers, a mechanical FC relaxometer and a combination of FC and one-dimensional microimaging. Progress has been achieved with respect to several parameters such as the accessible field and temperature range as well as the incorporation of sample spinning. Since an appropriate analysis of FC data requires a careful consideration of relaxation theory, we include a theory section discussing the most relevant aspects of relaxation in solids which are related to residual dipolar and quadrupolar interactions. The most important limitations of relaxation theory are also discussed. With improved instrumentation and with the help of relaxation theory we get access to interesting new applications such as ionic motion in solid electrolytes, structure determination in molecular crystals, ultraslow polymer dynamics and rotational resonance phenomena.

  9. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics and applications

    S Venugopal Rao


    The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with molecules and solids is an extremely complex area of science research encompassing the fields of physics, chemistry, and materials science. The physics of interaction has been fairly understood over the last couple of decades and, consequently, several applications have been envisaged from these interactions in the fields of photonics, lithography, biomedicine, sensing, telecommunications etc. In the present article we describe three different components of interaction of ultrashort pulses with matter: (1) with liquid molecules/thin films wherein we present the results from our studies of optical nonlinearities predominantly using picosecond and femtosecond pulses, (2) with molecules/solids wherein plasma generated from the surface was studied for applications in understanding the molecular dynamics and towards identifying high-energy molecules and (3) within the bulk and on the surface of solids (e.g. glasses, bulk polymers and metals) resulting in micro- and nanostructures. Different applications resulting from such interactions in photonics and microfluidics are presented and discussed.

  10. Application of various methods for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from synthetic solid matrices.

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yücel


    In the present study, removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from synthetic solid matrices with various methods was investigated. PAH removal experiments were conducted in a specifically designed UV apparatus for this study. Polyurethane foams (PUF) cartridges were used to remove PAHs from the incoming air and to capture PAHs from the evaporated gases. Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was used as a synthetic solid matrices. The effects of temperature, UV radiation, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethylamine (DEA) dose on the PAH removal were determined. TiO2and DEA were added to the Na2SO4 sample at the rate of 5% and 20% of dry weight of samples. PAHs' removal from the Na2SO4 enhanced with increasing temperature. Sigma12 PAH content in the Na2SO4 reduced up to 95% during UV light application. Moreover, the Sigma12 PAH removal ratio was calculated as 95% with using 5% of TiO2, and increasing of TiO2 dose negatively affected PAH removal. PAH concentration in the samples decreased by 93% and 99% with addition of 5% and 20% DEA, respectively. Especially, 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds evaporated during the PAH removal applications. As expected, evaporation mechanism became more effective at high temperature for light PAH compounds. It was concluded that PAHs can successfully be removed from synthetic solid matrices such as Na2 SO4 with the applications of UV light and UV-photocatalysts.

  11. Application and Demonstration of a Series of Rare Earth Drought Resistant Materials in Western Area of China

    Wang Guoqiang; Wang Jiachen


    The application and effects for a series of rare earth (RE) drought resistant materials used in arid, salina,hungriness, wind defending and sand fixing matter, withdraw farming and return to grass and forest in western of China were reported.The important discussion was technological innovation within two years: such as seed clothing agent,RE liquid field film, RE grass and woods transplant living agent, and RE complex pesticide development and application.

  12. A web service and android application for the distribution of rainfall estimates and Earth observation data

    Mantas, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Pereira, A. J. S. C.


    The full potential of Satellite Rainfall Estimates (SRE) can only be realized if timely access to the datasets is possible. Existing data distribution web portals are often focused on global products and offer limited customization options, especially for the purpose of routine regional monitoring. Furthermore, most online systems are designed to meet the needs of desktop users, limiting the compatibility with mobile devices. In response to the growing demand for SRE and to address the current limitations of available web portals a project was devised to create a set of freely available applications and services, available at a common portal that can: (1) simplify cross-platform access to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) data (including from Android mobile devices), (2) provide customized and continuous monitoring of SRE in response to user demands and (3) combine data from different online data distribution services, including rainfall estimates, river gauge measurements or imagery from Earth Observation missions at a single portal, known as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Explorer. The TRMM Explorer project suite includes a Python-based web service and Android applications capable of providing SRE and ancillary data in different intuitive formats with the focus on regional and continuous analysis. The outputs include dynamic plots, tables and data files that can also be used to feed downstream applications and services. A case study in Southern Angola is used to describe the potential of the TRMM Explorer for SRE distribution and analysis in the context of ungauged watersheds. The development of a collection of data distribution instances helped to validate the concept and identify the limitations of the program, in a real context and based on user feedback. The TRMM Explorer can successfully supplement existing web portals distributing SRE and provide a cost-efficient resource to small and medium

  13. Single molecule sensing with solid-state nanopores: novel materials, methods, and applications.

    Miles, Benjamin N; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Wilson, Kerry A; Doğan, Fatma; Japrung, Deanpen; Edel, Joshua B


    This tutorial review will introduce and explore the fundamental aspects of nanopore (bio)sensing, fabrication, modification, and the emerging technologies and applications that both intrigue and inspire those working in and around the field. Although nanopores can be classified into two categories, solid-state and biological, they are essentially two sides of the same coin. For instance, both garner popularity due to their ability to confine analytes of interest to a nanoscale volume. Due to the vast diversity of nanopore platforms and applications, no single review can cover the entire landscape of published work in the field. Therefore, in this article focus will be placed on recent advancements and developments taking place in the field of solid-state nanopores. It should be stated that the intention of this tutorial review is not to cite all articles relating to solid-state nanopores, but rather to highlight recent, select developments that will hopefully benefit the new and seasoned scientist alike. Initially we begin with the fundamentals of solid-state nanopore sensing. Then the spotlight is shone on the sophisticated fabrication methods that have their origins in the semiconductor industry. One inherent advantage of solid-state nanopores is in the ease of functionalizing the surface with a range of molecules carrying functional groups. Therefore, an entire section is devoted to highlighting various chemical and bio-molecular modifications and explores how these permit the development of novel sensors with specific targets and functions. The review is completed with a discussion on novel detection strategies using nanopores. Although the most popular mode of nanopore sensing is based upon what has come to be known as ionic-current blockade sensing, there is a vast, growing literature based around exploring alternative detection techniques to further expand on the versatility of the sensors. Such techniques include optical, electronic, and force based methods

  14. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    Castro, David


    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  15. The development of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes for low temperature applications

    Periale, L.; Iacobaeus, C.; Francke, T.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pavlopoulos, N.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.


    There are several applications and fundamental research areas which require the detection of VUV light at cryogenic temperatures. For these applications we have developed and successfully tested special designs of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes able to operate at low temperatures: sealed gaseous detectors with MgF2 windows and windowless detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated, that both primary and secondary (due to the avalanche multiplication inside liquids) scintillation lights could be recorded by photosensitive gaseous detectors. The results of this work may allow one to significantly improve the operation of some noble liquid gas TPCs.

  16. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications



    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  17. The Application of High Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Analysis of Trace Rare Earth

    WANG; Xiu-feng; DING; You-qian


    <正>Rare earth elements are very important in the field of radioanalytical chemistry, for it must be separated and determined in the measurements of burn-up and fission yield. High performance liquid chromatography has become a main method in the separation of rare earth elements due to its obvious advantages, this is, high speed of analysis, high efficiency and easy automation. The ion exchange chromatography is the main means to separate rare earth elements, especially the cation exchange

  18. Methods for preparation of nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates for lighting applications

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manoharan, Mohan; Martins Loureiro, Sergio Paulo; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani


    Disclosed here are methods for the preparation of optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates. The optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates may be used as one or more of quantum-splitting phosphor, visible-light emitting phosphor, vacuum-UV absorbing phosphor, and UV-emitting phosphor. Also disclosed herein are discharge lamps comprising the optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates provided by these methods.

  19. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  20. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J


    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation.

  1. A note on the thermal component of the equation of state in solids

    Celebonovic, V


    A simple method for determining the thermal component of the EOS of solids under high pressure is proposed.Application to the interior of the Earth gives results in agreement with recent geophysical data.

  2. High temperature radiator materials for applications in the low Earth orbital environment

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Lebed, Richard; Brady, Joyce; Hotes, Deborah; Kussmaul, Michael


    Radiators must be constructed of materials which have high emittance in order to efficiently radiate heat from high temperature space power systems. In addition, if these radiators are to be used for applications in the low Earth orbital environment, they must not be detrimentally affected by exposure to atomic oxygen. Four materials selected as candidate radiator materials (304 stainless steel, copper, titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium (Ti-6%Al-4%V), and niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1%Zr)) were surface modified by acid etching, heat treating, abrading, sputter texturing, electrochemical etching, and combinations of the above in order to improve their emittance. Combination treatment techniques with heat treating as the second treatment provided about a factor of two improvement in emittance for 304 stainless steel, Ti-6%Al-4%V, and Nb-1%Zr. A factor of three improvement in emittance occurred for discharge chamber sputter textured copper. Exposure to atomic oxygen in an RF plasma asher did not significantly change the emittance of those samples that had been heat treated as part of their texturing process. An evaluation of oxygen penetration is needed to understand how oxidation affects the mechanical properties of these materials when heat treated.

  3. Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client

    Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.


    Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

  4. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui


    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  5. Rare Earth Doped III-Nitrides for Optoelectronic and Spintronic Applications

    O’Donnell, Kevin


    This book provides a snapshot of recent progress in the field of rare-earth-doped group III-nitride semiconductors, especially GaN, but extending to AlN and the alloys AlGaN, AlInN and InGaN. This material class is currently enjoying an upsurge in interest due to its ideal suitability for both optoelectronic and spintronic applications. The text first introduces the reader to the historical background and the major theoretical challenges presented when 4f electron systems are embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It details the preparation of samples for experimental study, either by in-situ growth or ion implantation/annealing, and describes their microscopic structural characterisation. Optical spectroscopy is a dominant theme, complicated by site multiplicity, whether in homogeneous hosts or in heterostructures such as quantum dots, and enlivened by the abiding fascination of the energy transfer mechanism between the host material and the lumophore. Finally, the rapid progress towards prospective optoelectro...




    Full Text Available In the current study, we aim to investigate the use of Google Earth and Google Maps Applications on tablet and laptop computers. The research was carried out during the Geography Club seminars organized at “Radu Petrescu” High School in the 2013-2014 school year. The research involved 13 students in various gymnasium and high school grades. The activities included: navigation with Google Earth/Maps, image capturing techniques, virtual tours, measuring distances or river lengths, identifying relief forms, and locating geographical components of the environment. In order to retrieve students’ opinions regarding the use of tablets and laptop computers with these two applications, they were asked to respond to a questionnaire after the activities took place. Conclusions revealed that students enjoyed using these applications with laptops and tablets and that the learning process during Geography classes became more interesting.

  7. Google Earth elevation data extraction and accuracy assessment for transportation applications.

    Wang, Yinsong; Zou, Yajie; Henrickson, Kristian; Wang, Yinhai; Tang, Jinjun; Park, Byung-Jung


    Roadway elevation data is critical for a variety of transportation analyses. However, it has been challenging to obtain such data and most roadway GIS databases do not have them. This paper intends to address this need by proposing a method to extract roadway elevation data from Google Earth (GE) for transportation applications. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the GE-extracted elevation data is conducted for the area of conterminous USA. The GE elevation data was compared with the ground truth data from nationwide GPS benchmarks and roadway monuments from six states in the conterminous USA. This study also compares the GE elevation data with the elevation raster data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (USGS NED), which is a widely used data source for extracting roadway elevation. Mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used to assess the accuracy and the test results show MAE, RMSE and standard deviation of GE roadway elevation error are 1.32 meters, 2.27 meters and 2.27 meters, respectively. Finally, the proposed extraction method was implemented and validated for the following three scenarios: (1) extracting roadway elevation differentiating by directions, (2) multi-layered roadway recognition in freeway segment and (3) slope segmentation and grade calculation in freeway segment. The methodology validation results indicate that the proposed extraction method can locate the extracting route accurately, recognize multi-layered roadway section, and segment the extracted route by grade automatically. Overall, it is found that the high accuracy elevation data available from GE provide a reliable data source for various transportation applications.

  8. Models of the earth's core

    Stevenson, D. J.


    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.



    Guo Bosheng, senior engineer/professor, is now a member of the Expert Group of the State Council Rare Earth Leading Group, PRC., director of Rare Earth Development Center for Agricultural Technique. He graduated from Moscow Fine Chemical Industry University in the Sovi-

  10. Meteoric cosmogenic Beryllium-10 adsorbed to river sediment and soil: Applications for Earth-surface dynamics

    Willenbring, Jane K.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm


    Rainfall scavenges meteoric cosmogenic 10Be from the atmosphere. 10Be falls to the Earth's surface, where it binds tightly to sediment particles in non-acidic soils over the life-span of those soils. As such, meteoric 10Be has the potential to be an excellent geochemical tracer of erosion and stability of surfaces in a diverse range of natural settings. Meteoric 10Be has great potential as a recorder of first-order erosion rates and soil residence times. Even though this tracer was first developed in the late 1980s and showed great promise as a geomorphic tool, it was sidelined in the past two decades with the rise of the "sister nuclide", in situ10Be, which is produced at a known rate inside quartz minerals. Since these early days, substantial progress has been made in several areas that now shed new light on the applicability of the meteoric variety of this cosmogenic nuclide. Here, we revisit the potential of this tracer and we summarize the progress: (1) the atmospheric production and fallout is now described by numeric models, and agrees with present-day measurements and paleo-archives such as from rain and ice cores; (2) short-term fluctuations in solar modulation of cosmic rays or in the delivery of 10Be are averaged out over the time scale soils accumulate; (3) in many cases, the delivery of 10Be is not dependent on the amount of precipitation; (4) we explore where 10Be is retained in soils and sediment; (5) we suggest a law to account for the strong grain-size dependence that controls adsorption and the measured nuclide concentrations; and (6) we present a set of algebraic expressions that allows calculation of both soil or sediment ages and erosion rates from the inventory of meteoric 10Be distributed through a vertical soil column. The mathematical description is greatly simplified if the accumulation of 10Be is at a steady state with its export through erosion. In this case, a surface sample allows for the calculation of an erosion rate. Explored

  11. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    A. G. Pavelyev


    Full Text Available A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric layers can be evaluated, (iii the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1–4 db of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation

  12. Application of locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.


    A new formulation of previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the amplitude and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry center is known, the derivatives on time of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the center of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency, (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated, (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the amplitude and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen and water vapor can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. According with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation indicates the

  13. Application of the locality principle to radio occultation studies of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere

    Pavelyev, A. G.; Liou, Y. A.; Matyugov, S. S.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Gubenko, V. N.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.


    A new formulation of the previously introduced principle of locality is presented. The principle can be applied for modernization of the radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the atmospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and other planets. The principle states that significant contributions to variations of the intensity and phase of the radio waves passing through a layered medium are connected with influence of the vicinities of tangential points where the refractivity gradient is perpendicular to the radio ray trajectory. The RO method assumes spherical symmetry of the investigated medium. In this case, if location of a tangent point relative to the spherical symmetry centre is known, the time derivatives of the RO signal phase and Doppler frequency variations can be recalculated into the refractive attenuation. Several important findings are consequences of the locality principle: (i) if position of the centre of symmetry is known, the total absorption along the ray path can be determined at a single frequency; (ii) in the case of low absorption the height, displacement from the radio ray perigee, and tilt of the inclined ionospheric (atmospheric) layers can be evaluated; (iii) the contributions of the layered and irregular structures in the RO signal can be separated and parameters of layers and turbulence can be measured at a single frequency using joint analysis of the intensity and phase variations. Specially for the Earth's troposphere, the altitude distributions of the weak total absorption (about of 1-4 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies corresponding to possible influence of the oxygen, water vapour, and hydrometeors can be measured with accuracy of about 0.1 db at a single frequency. In accordance with the locality principle, a new index of ionospheric activity is introduced. This index is measured from the phase variations of radio waves passing through the ionosphere. Its high correlation with the S4 scintillation index is established. This

  14. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Posmyk A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  15. Solid Lubrication by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Air and in Vacuum for Space and Aeronautics Applications

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Andraws, Rodney; Jacques, David; VanderWal, Randy L.; Sayir, Ali


    To evaluate recently developed aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and dispersed MWNTs for solid lubrication applications, unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with 440 C stainless steel balls and hemispherical alumina-yttria stabilized zirconia pins in sliding contact with the MWNTs deposited on quartz disks in air and in vacuum. The results indicate that MWNTs have superior solid lubrication friction properties and endurance lives in air and vacuum under dry conditions. The coefficient of friction of the dispersed MWNTs is close to 0.05 and 0.009 in air and in vacuum, respectively, showing good dry lubricating ability. The wear life of MWNTs exceeds 1 million passes in both air and vacuum showing good durability. In general, the low coefficient of friction can be attributed to the combination of the transferred, agglomerated patches of MWNTs on the counterpart ball or pin surfaces and the presence of tubular MWNTs at interfaces.

  16. Solid organ transplant recipients: clinical considerations in the application of exercise.

    McKenzie, K-J L; McKenzie, D C; Yoshida, E M


    Over 100 000 solid organ transplants are performed worldwide each year and this has a significant impact on physical function and quality of life. However, the capacity for exercise in solid-organ recipients is reduced. Regular physical activity improves most of the indices of fitness in these patients but, with few exceptions, they do not reach the values seen in healthy controls. The reason for the 40-60% reduction in maximal exercise capacity is not clear; the disease process, need for life long immunosuppression and sedentary lifestyle all contribute. The interaction between exercise and immunosuppressing medication merits research as does the specifics of the exercise prescription for these patients. This paper reviews important features of this rapidly expanding group of patients and suggests clinical considerations in the application of exercise in this population.

  17. Stakeholder Engagement in the Development and Application of a Regional Earth Systems Model: Analysis of Researchers' Perceptions

    Allen, E. R.; Stephens, J. C.; Kruger, C.; Leung, F. T.


    Engaging stakeholders in the development of regional earth systems models has potential to improve model accuracy and enhance model relevance for decision makers. BioEarth is one earth systems modeling project currently under development aimed at investigating how climate and human-induced changes impact environmental nitrogen and carbon cycling. One proposed application of this model is to predict impacts on natural resource management in the Pacific Northwest to inform decision-making by stakeholders in the forestry and agriculture sectors. Integrating input from natural resource managers and other stakeholders into the model development process, therefore, is critical. However, many model developers have limited experience in engaging stakeholders throughout model development processes. Understanding researchers' perceptions of the potential value and challenges of stakeholder engagement in model development at the early phase of the project provides general insights related to science communication as well as project-specific insights. For BioEarth, findings about project scientists' perspectives may inform the design of information exchange mechanisms between researchers and stakeholders. To assess researchers' perceptions of the relevance of the model to decision-making and understand researchers' previous experiences, expectations and concerns regarding stakeholder input and interaction we conducted a semi-formal interview and a quantitative questionnaire with each of the project's 18 principal investigators. Interview transcripts were coded and interpreted following a thematic content analysis approach. We expect to find a range of perceptions among BioEarth researchers regarding the kind of involvement and degree of influence that stakeholders may have in the model development process. We also expect a range of attitudes and approaches toward participatory research processes. In addition to improving the effectiveness of stakeholder engagement in the

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure, and properties of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides: Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.


    The capability of mechanochemical synthesis for the formation of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) was tested by fluorination of metal acetates and metal hydroxides with ammonium fluoride directly at milling. Evidence was found for a mutual substitution of cations on their lattice positions in Ca1-xSrxF2 and Ba1-xSrxF2 samples. For the Ba/Ca-system this synthesis route is only partially successful. X-ray diffraction and 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize all samples concerning their crystal structure and local fluorine coordination. Calculations of 19F chemical shifts with the superposition model along with probability calculations for the intensity of the individual 19F lines, performed in dependence on the molar composition of the samples, perfectly agree with the experimental findings. The fluoride ion conductivity of as-prepared samples, determined by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements, is significantly higher than those of crystalline binary fluorides. Moreover, a higher F- ion conductivity is observed for samples with higher mixing grade in the Ca/Sr-and the Ba/Sr-systems.

  19. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.


    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  20. From Earth to Space: Application of Biological Treatment for the Removal of Ammonia from Water

    Pickering, Karen; Adam, Niklas; White, Dawn; Ghosh, Amlan; Seidel, Chad


    Managing ammonia is often a challenge in both drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. Ammonia is unregulated in drinking water, but its presence may result in numerous water quality issues in the distribution system such as loss of residual disinfectant, nitrification, and corrosion. Ammonia concentrations need to be managed in wastewater effluent to sustain the health of receiving water bodies. Biological treatment involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate through a two-step process. While nitrification is common in the environment, and nitrifying bacteria can grow rapidly on filtration media, appropriate conditions, such as the presence of dissolved oxygen and required nutrients, need to be established. This presentation will highlight results from two ongoing research programs - one at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the other at a drinking water facility in California. Both programs are designed to demonstrate nitrification through biological treatment. The objective of NASA's research is to be able to recycle wastewater to potable water for spaceflight missions. To this end, a biological water processor (BWP) has been integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). Bacteria mineralize organic carbon to carbon dioxide as well as ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system testing planned for this year is expected to produce water that requires only a polishing step to meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. The pilot study in California is being conducted on Golden State Water Company's Yukon wells that have hydrogen sulfide odor

  1. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.


    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  2. Applications of Solid State NMR to the Study of Molecular Structure

    Curtis, Ronald Dean

    This thesis illustrates several applications of dilute spin I = 1over2 solid state nmr spectroscopy to the study of molecular structure in systems of chemical interest. Specifically, the compounds studied include benzylideneaniline and several related imines, the first stable iminophosphenium cation containing a N,P triple bond and several tetracyclines. The first two applications describe the use of dipolar-chemical shift nmr of "isolated" spin-pairs to fully characterize chemical shift tensors. For example, the carbon and nitrogen shift tensors of the C=N linkage of the Schiff base benzylideneaniline have been completely specified. The most shielded principal component of both carbon and nitrogen shift tensors is approximately perpendicular to the imine fragment. For the imine carbon, the intermediate component of the shift tensor is directed approximately along the C=N bond whereas the corresponding component of the nitrogen shift tensor is oriented along the direction of the nitrogen lone pair. Examination of the nitrogen chemical shift parameters for several related imines suggests that variations in the least shielded principal component are mainly responsible for changes in the nitrogen shieldings in the imine system. For the N,P moiety of the iminophosphenium cation, the most shielded principal component of both nitrogen and phosphorus tensors is oriented along the N,P bond axis. Comparison of both shift tensors with those of related compounds suggests that the electronic environment surrounding the N,P moiety is similar to other systems containing a formal triple bond. The final application section demonstrates the utility of high-resolution ^{13} C and ^{15}N cp/mas nmr for studying the molecular structure of solid tetracycline antibiotics. Comparison of ^{15} C chemical shifts in the solid state to those determined in (CD_3)_2SO solutions indicates for the first time that the structural integrity of the A ring of the tetracyclines is maintained in

  3. Rare Earth Application in Sealing Anodized Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites


    A new method for corrosion protection of Al-based metal matrixcomposites (MMC) was developed using two-step process, which involves anodizing in H2SO4 solution and sealing in rare earth solution. Corrosion resistance of the treated surface was evaluated with polarization curves.The results showed that the effect of the protection using rare earth sealing is equivalent to that using chromate sealing for Al6061/SiCp. The rare earth metal salt can be an alternative to the toxic chromate for sealing anodized Al MMC.

  4. A service for the application of data quality information to NASA earth science satellite records

    Armstrong, E. M.; Xing, Z.; Fry, C.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Huang, T.; Chen, G.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.


    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables that can be applied as thresholds to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables could be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 161 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process for the user until they understand the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a NASA ACCESS project, is addressing these issues and concerns. The project has developed an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, data discovery, and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well-defined URLs and web service specifications has also been implemented. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be demonstrated.

  5. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.


    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  6. Rare earths based nir luminomagnetic nanoparticles and their multimodal applications in biomedical imaging

    Mimun, L. Christopher

    Medical imaging is one of the most important techniques in the medical field for diagnostics and analysis of biological tissues. The most common imaging modalities are X-ray, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and optical imaging. In each of these imaging techniques, several contrast agents are used to improve the image resolution. There are several contrast agents available that are specific for a particular application and only include one functionality. In addition, most of the contrast agents available today have several limitations such as low image resolution, low thermal stability, toxicity, cost of production etc. The development of an ideal contrast agent with multiple functionalities that overcome most of these limitations is a challenging topic in the medical industry. Furthermore, by adding multiple functionalities into a single contrast agent the benefits would provide a decrease in cost and time by imaging multiple modalities simultaneously. Though there are various attempts in this area by several researchers around the world, the idea of developing a core-shell free multifunctional contrast agent with near infrared (NIR) imaging features and magnetic properties is novel. This doctoral dissertation is focused on the investigation of rare earth doped, NIR active, luminomagnetic nanocrystals (NCs) that have the potential to be effective contrast with multiple modalities. The main content of the thesis is about the development, characterization, and implementation of Nd 3+ doped YF3, GdF3, and Na(Lu0.5Gd 0.5)F4. The "as prepared" and surface functionalized NCs are characterized for their phase, morphology, and detailed optical characteristics such as absorption, emission and quantum yield. Magnetic properties are studied by magnetization experiments. In order to show the proof of concept as a multifunctional imaging agent various imaging experiments such as confocal intracellular imaging, NIR optical imaging, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging

  7. The TPAC Digital Library: A Web Application for Publishing Large Catalogs of Earth Science Data

    Blain, P.; Pugh, T.


    The Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing (TPAC) has developed a rich web-based application that publishes large catalogs of scientific datasets. The TPAC Digital Library provides a user interface for viewing, searching, and accessing the catalog data collections, as well as enabling data services for user access. The product also provides management functions for librarians of digital data collections. The search features allow files to be selected graphically based on geospatial extent, or by file name, variable name, attribute value, and by tag. Alternatively, there is a file manager style interface that provides a direct route to the data. The interface is specifically geared towards discovery and access of earth science data files, which makes it intuitive and easy to navigate. Files can be downloaded, or accessed through OPeNDAP, GridFTP, WCS, Matlab and other interfaces. The digital library can harvest metadata from THREDDS, Hyrax, IPCC catalogs and other instances of the digital library. The product is freely available under an open-source license, and is currently deployed by a small but active user base. It has existed since 2005, and remains under constant development by TPAC and other contributors (including the Australian Bureau of Meteorology). Current development initiatives will allow interoperability with library service protocols, as well as other data archive organizations and scientific bodies for data reference transparency. There is a project in progress that will allow the data collection’s owner to attach attribute information, access rights, and meta-data to the data collection to conform to various user community and service standards. Future releases will allow publishers to attach media rich information about the data collection, as well as additional information about scientific results, and papers and web pages that reference the data collection. The presentation will discuss the current implementation, and future directions.

  8. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi


    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  9. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)


    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  10. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    Yao, Jianquan


    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  11. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Murray, R. W.


    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  12. Development of Oxide Ceramics for Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    P.Holtappels; A.Braun; U.Vogt


    1 Results Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are ceramic fuel cells that convert chemical into electrical energy in a temperature region between 650 ℃ and 1 000 ℃.Systems are currently under development for a variety of applications e.g. for both small and large scale stationary combined heat and power systems but also for the supply of electrical energy in the automotive area. The current objectives in the development of SOFCs is to lower the operating temperature from 850 ℃ down to below 750 ℃ in order to ...

  13. Research achievements and application in anaerobic treatment of organic solid wastes--A review

    ZHOU Fuchun; XIONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu; XU Longjun


    Anaerobic digestion is a good method, which possesses the optimal combination of volume reduction, probability of success and potential for resource and energy recovery. However, relatively little research has been done on the anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes ( OSW ), especially in China.However, different substrates, start-up conditions, micro-organisms, processing technologies, pre-treatment methods could influence the result of anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic treatment of municipal OSW is less than that of wastewaters because some problems and obstructions need to be solved. Meanwhile, the application of anaerobic digestion of OSW is also discussed in the present paper.

  14. Development of Doped Lanthanum Gallate Solid Electrolytes

    蒋凯; 王海霞; 郑立庆; 杨林; 孟健; 苏锵


    Development of the doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolytes in the recent years was reviewed. The structure and oxygen ion transference mechanism were discussed. Effects of alkali earths, transition metals, and impurities on electrical conductivity of the doped lanthanum gallates were also discussed. The applications of doped lanthanum gallate were described. The current problems and corresponding strategies were explored.

  15. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  16. A perfectly matched layer for fluid-solid problems: Application to ocean-acoustics simulations with solid ocean bottoms

    Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul;


    A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent a......A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range....... The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation...

  17. The Maximum Entropy Production Principle: Its Theoretical Foundations and Applications to the Earth System

    J. G. Dyke; Kleidon, A.


    The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle has been remarkably successful in producing accurate predictions for non-equilibrium states. We argue that this is because the MEP principle is an effective inference procedure that produces the best predictions from the available information. Since all Earth system processes are subject to the conservation of energy, mass and momentum, we argue that in practical terms the MEP principle should be applied to Earth system processes in terms of the ...

  18. Spacecraft orbit/earth scan derivations, associated APL program, and application to IMP-6

    Smith, G. A.


    The derivation of a time shared, remote site, demand processed computer program is discussed. The computer program analyzes the effects of selected orbit, attitude, and spacecraft parameters on earth sensor detections of earth. For prelaunch analysis, the program may be used to simulate effects in nominal parameters which are used in preparing attitude data processing programs. After launch, comparison of results from a simulation and from satellite data will produce deviations helpful in isolating problems.

  19. New high energetic composite propellants for space applications: refrigerated solid propellant

    Franson, C.; Orlandi, O.; Perut, C.; Fouin, G.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.; Calabro, M.


    Cryogenic solid propellants (CSP) are a new kind of chemical propellants that use frozen products to ensure the mechanical resistance of the grain. The objective is to combine the high performances of liquid propulsion and the simplicity of solid propulsion. The CSP concept has few disadvantages. Storability is limited by the need of permanent cooling between motor loading and firing. It needs insulations that increase the dry mass. It is possible to limit significantly these drawbacks by using a cooling temperature near the ambient one. It will permit not to change the motor materials and to minimize the supplementary dry mass due to insulator. The designation "Refrigerated Solid Propellant" (RPS) is in that case more appropriate as "Cryogenic Solid Propellant." SNPE Matériaux Energétiques is developing new concept of composition e e with cooling temperature as near the ambient temperature as possible. They are homogeneous and the main ingredients are hydrogen peroxide, polymer and metal or metal hydride, they are called "HydroxalaneTM." This concept allows reaching a high energy level. The expected specific impulse is between 355 and 375 s against 315 s for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) / ammonium perchlorate (AP) / Al composition. However, the density is lower than for current propellants, between 1377 and 1462 kg/m3 compared to around 1800 kg/m3 . This is an handicap only for volume-limited application. Works have been carried out at laboratory scale to define the quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process to realize sample and small grain in a safer manner. To assess the process, a small grain with an internal bore had been realized with a composition based on aluminum and water. This grain had shown very good quality, without any defect, and good bonding properties on the insulator.

  20. Solid lubricants

    Sliney, Harold E.


    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  1. Heterogeneous solid/gas chemistry of organic compounds related to comets, meteorites, Titan, and Mars: Laboratory and in lower Earth orbit experiments

    Cottin, H.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Fray, N.; Guan, Y. Y.; Macari, F.; Raulin, F.; Rivron, C.; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Chaput, D.; Viso, M.; Bertrand, M.; Chabin, A.; Thirkell, L.; Westall, F.; Brack, A.


    To understand the evolution of organic molecules involved in extraterrestrial environments and with exobiological implications, many experimental programs in the laboratory are devoted to photochemical studies in the gaseous phase as well as in the solid state. The validity of such studies and their applications to extraterrestrial environments can be questioned as long as experiments conducted in space conditions, with the full solar spectrum, especially in the short wavelength domain, have not been implemented. The experiments that are described here will be carried out on a FOTON capsule, using the BIOPAN facility, and on the International Space Station, using the EXPOSE facility. Vented and sealed exposition cells will be used, which will allow us to study the chemical evolution in the gaseous phase as well as heterogeneous processes, such as the degradation of solid compounds and the release of gaseous fragments. Four kinds of experiments will be carried out. The first deal with comets and are related to the Rosetta mission, the second with Titan and are related to the Cassini Huygens mission, the third with the search for life-related organic compounds on Mars and, finally, the fourth are a continuation of previous studies concerning the behavior of amino acids in space.

  2. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  3. A perfectly matched layer for fluid-solid problems: Application to ocean-acoustics simulations with solid ocean bottoms.

    Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland


    A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves.

  4. Applications of a General Finite-Difference Method for Calculating Bending Deformations of Solid Plates

    Walton, William C., Jr.


    This paper reports the findings of an investigation of a finite - difference method directly applicable to calculating static or simple harmonic flexures of solid plates and potentially useful in other problems of structural analysis. The method, which was proposed in doctoral thesis by John C. Houbolt, is based on linear theory and incorporates the principle of minimum potential energy. Full realization of its advantages requires use of high-speed computing equipment. After a review of Houbolt's method, results of some applications are presented and discussed. The applications consisted of calculations of the natural modes and frequencies of several uniform-thickness cantilever plates and, as a special case of interest, calculations of the modes and frequencies of the uniform free-free beam. Computed frequencies and nodal patterns for the first five or six modes of each plate are compared with existing experiments, and those for one plate are compared with another approximate theory. Beam computations are compared with exact theory. On the basis of the comparisons it is concluded that the method is accurate and general in predicting plate flexures, and additional applications are suggested. An appendix is devoted t o computing procedures which evolved in the progress of the applications and which facilitate use of the method in conjunction with high-speed computing equipment.

  5. Chromate and selenate hydrocalumite solid solutions and their applications in waste treatment

    ZHANG Min; Eric J. Reardon


    Hydrocalumite, a calcium aluminate hydrate phase, consists of positively-charged structure units, and is therefore an ideal candidate for accommodating anionic contaminants. In this study, a series of batch experiments was carried out to examine the uptake of chromate and selenate by hydrocalumite. To determine the uptake capacity and long-term stability, hydrocalumite solid solutions between chromate/selenate and hydroxyl were synthesized over a reaction time of more than one year. At a ratio of water to initial solids added (CaAl2O4+CaO) of 75: 1, the maximum uptake capacities were over 77 and 114 g/kg for Cr and Se, respectively.These values are very close to the theoretical uptake capacities of chromate and selenate hydrocalumite end-members (81 and 118 g/kg, respectively). The oxyanion removal efficiency from solution was above 95%. Due to the high uptake capacity and anion removal efficiency of hydrocalumites, their application in wastewater treatment is promising. Hydrocalumites are also important hydration products of cementitious materials and the long-term stability of these phases is of significance for application in solidification/stabilization technology.

  6. Design and application of solid, dense backfill advanced mining technology with two pre-driving entries

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Jixiong; Guo Shuai; Gao Rui; Li Weikang


    New solid backfill mining technology provides unique technical advantages for‘three-under’ coal min-ing which refers to coal resources trapped under buildings, railways, and water bodies. This technology has a much higher recovery rate and can effectively control the surface subsidence. However, successful application of this technology depends heavily on geological conditions. To avoid the disadvantages asso-ciated with downward mining and overhead backfilling with this new technology, a new advanced solid backfill mining design with two pre-driving entries is proposed here to ensure the backfill effect. Taking Huayuan coal mine as an example, this paper tests the double gob-side entries retaining with no pillar left scheme and optimizes an integrated technology setup for backfill mining and gob-side entry retain-ing. Field applications show that the recovery rate increased from 40%for strip mining to 85%for backfill mining. Moreover, the new backfill technology allowed for better control over the surrounding rock deformation caused by the gob-side entry retaining effect and better control of ground subsidence as compared to strip mining.

  7. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE: Principles and Applications in Food Samples

    Semih Ötles


    Full Text Available Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE is a sample preparation method that is practised on numerous application fields due to its many advantages compared to other traditional methods. SPE was invented as an alternative to liquid/liquid extraction and eliminated multiple disadvantages, such as usage of large amount of solvent, extended operation time/procedure steps, potential sources of error, and high cost. Moreover, SPE can be ap- plied to the samples combined with other analytical methods and sample preparation techniques optionally. SPE technique is a useful tool for many purposes through its versatility. Isolation, concentration, purification and clean-up are the main approaches in the practices of this method. Food structures represent a complicated matrix and can be formed into different physical stages, such as solid, viscous or liquid. Therefore, sample preparation step particularly has an important role for the determination of specific compounds in foods. SPE offers many opportunities not only for analysis of a large diversity of food samples but also for optimization and advances. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on basic principles of SPE and its applications for many analytes in food matrix.

  8. Modeling Earth's Disk-Integrated, Time-Dependent Spectrum: Applications to Directly Imaged Habitable Planets

    Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Fujii, Yuka; NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, ISSI 'The Exo-Cartography Inverse Problem'


    Earth is our only example of a habitable world and is a critical reference point for potentially habitable exoplanets. While disk-averaged views of Earth that mimic exoplanet data can be obtained by interplanetary spacecraft, these datasets are often restricted in wavelength range, and are limited to the Earth phases and viewing geometries that the spacecraft can feasibly access. We can overcome these observational limitations using a sophisticated UV-MIR spectral model of Earth that has been validated against spacecraft observations in wavelength-dependent brightness and phase (Robinson et al., 2011; 2014). This model can be used to understand the information content – and the optimal means for extraction of that information – for multi-wavelength, time-dependent, disk-averaged observations of the Earth. In this work, we explore key telescope parameters and observing strategies that offer the greatest insight into the wavelength-, phase-, and rotationally-dependent variability of Earth as if it were an exoplanet. Using a generalized coronagraph instrument simulator (Robinson et al., 2016), we synthesize multi-band, time-series observations of the Earth that are consistent with large space-based telescope mission concepts, such as the Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor. We present fits to this dataset that leverage the rotationally-induced variability to infer the number of large-scale planetary surface types, as well as their respective longitudinal distributions and broadband albedo spectra. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of using such methods to identify and map terrestrial exoplanets surfaces with the next generation of space-based telescopes.

  9. Silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction and magnetic in-tube solid-phase microextraction: application to organophosphorous compounds.

    Moliner-Martinez, Y; Vitta, Yosmery; Prima-Garcia, Helena; González-Fuenzalida, R A; Ribera, Antonio; Campíns-Falcó, P; Coronado, Eugenio


    This work demonstrates the application of silica supported Fe3O4 nanoparticles as sorbent phase for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) and magnetic on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (Magnetic-IT-SPME) combined with capillary liquid chromatography-diode array detection (CapLC-DAD) to determine organophosphorous compounds (OPs) at trace level. In MSPE, magnetism is used as separation tool while in Magnetic-IT-SPME, the application of an external magnetic field gave rise to a significant improvement of the adsorption of OPs on the sorbent phase. Extraction efficiency, analysis time, reproducibility and sensitivity have been compared. This work showed that Magnetic-IT-SPME can be extended to OPs with successful results in terms of simplicity, speed, extraction efficiency and limit of detection. Finally, wastewater samples were analysed to determine OPs at nanograms per litre.

  10. The Earth's Core.

    Jeanloz, Raymond


    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  11. Potential application of X-ray communication through a plasma sheath encountered during spacecraft reentry into earth's atmosphere

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Hang, Shuang; Liu, Yunpeng; Chen, Da


    Rapid progress in exploiting X-ray science has fueled its potential application in communication networks as a carrier wave for transmitting information through a plasma sheath during spacecraft reentry into earth's atmosphere. In this study, we addressed the physical transmission process of X-rays in the reentry plasma sheath and near-earth space theoretically. The interactions between the X-rays and reentry plasma sheath were investigated through the theoretical Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, and the Monte Carlo simulation was employed to explore the transmission properties of X-rays in the near-earth space. The simulation results indicated that X-ray transmission was not influenced by the reentry plasma sheath compared with regular RF signals, and adopting various X-ray energies according to different spacecraft reentry altitudes is imperative when using X-ray uplink communication especially in the near-earth space. Additionally, the performance of the X-ray communication system was evaluated by applying the additive white Gaussian noise, Rayleigh fading channel, and plasma sheath channel. The Doppler shift, as a result of spacecraft velocity changes, was also calculated through the Matlab Simulink simulation, and various plasma sheath environments have no significant influence on X-ray communication owing to its exceedingly high carrier frequency.

  12. Measurement of Peltier Heat at the Solid/Liquid Interface and Its Application to Crystal Growth I : Theoretical Approach

    Kim, I.H. [Chungju National University, Chungju (Korea); Jang, K.W. [Hanseo University,Seosan (Korea); Lee, D.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)


    The Peltier heat absorbed or evolved at the solid/liquid interface in the unidirectional solidification process could contribute to the increase of temperature gradient in liquid and growth velocity, and the enhancement of crystal orientation. In this study, in order to measure the Peltier heat generated at the solid/liquid interface as a way of application to crystal growth, the thermoelectric effects were investigated on the temperature changes at the solid-and liquid-phase of the same material and its interface. Through the theoretical consideration, it was possible to separate sole Peltier, Thomson or Joule heat from the temperature changes due to current density, polarity, and temperature gradient. Thomson coefficient of solid- and liquid-phase as well as Peltier coefficient at the solid/liquid interface could be obtained. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Availability of P and K after application of ashes and biochars from thermally-treated solid manures to soil

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    - , bicarbonate- and resin-extractable P and exchangeable K were measured after incubation. The ashes/biochars studied derived from gasification (ca 730°C) of poultry manure, gasification of solid manure, co-combustion of solid manure with straw (ca 700 and 900°C) and pyrolysis of solid manure (250, 400 or 500°C......, biochar). Resin-extractable P in soil decreased from superphosphate > solid manure=pyrolysis ash 250-500°C >poultry gasification ash>solid manure gasification ash>manure co-combustion ash. Only 20-60% of ash K was water-soluble, but soon after application to soil 58-88% of the applied K was exchangeable...... compared to a KCl reference. The heavy metal content of the tested ashes was below the Danish threshold value for wastes like ash, except for Ni in the poultry ash....

  14. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Mosorov, Volodymyr; Hanus, Paweł


    The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.

  15. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    Hanus Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.


    D. A. Arkhipov


    within 1 °С. Optical schematic diagram of the laser resonator keeps the laser beam divergence not exceeding a diffraction limit more than twice under a light pump power of 100 W. We have also shown that to increase the lasing efficiency, slab multilayer dielectric coatings made of SiO2 и ZrO2 should be used. Practical Relevance. We have proposed original design of the diode pumped solid-state laser module optimizing the generation and pump modes of solid-state lasers by the temperature stabilization technique for laser diode array and by compensation of the slab aberrations. The techniques are also applicable under space conditions; that is an important factor at developing the space-based lasers.

  17. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Christophe Coutanceau; Marc Reinholdt; Jean Durand; Valérie Flaud; Serguei Martemianov; Alina Ilie; Eric Beche; Stéphanie Roualdès; Mauricio Schieda; Jérémy Frugier


    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, com...

  18. Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay: a tubeless method for pretransfusion testing and other applications in transfusion science.

    Ching, Eric


    Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay (SPRCA) is one of the two tubeless methods developed to improve sensitivity and specificity in blood group serology. The SPRCA (solid phase) and the column agglutination (gel) technology have gained wide acceptance following successful adaptation to fully automated platforms, The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, principle, procedures as well as laboratory and clinical applications of the SPRCA in transfusion medicine.

  19. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    Sokolowski, Peter Kelly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE2Fe14B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 105-106K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH)max for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the

  20. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide


    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  1. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore


    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  2. Personal Inquiry in the Earth Sciences.

    Kaufman, W. Paul

    Designed as a basic workbook using the inquiry process or as a supplementary text in the classroom, this 129 page booklet is divided into five units: Moving in on the Earth From Space, The Earth's Great Bodies of Water, Composition of the Solid Earth, The Earth's Crust is Constantly Changing, and Studying the Earth's History. The exercises are…

  3. Movement of earth rotation and activities of atmosphere and ocean


    The rotation of the earth, including the variation of the rotational rate and polar motion, represents the statement of the earth's overall movement and interactions among the solid earth, atmosphere and ocean on a variety of space-time scales. They make the earth's complex dynamical system under the conservation of angular momentum. The application and development of recent space geodetic tech-niques greatly promote the researches on the interactions between the earth rotation and the activities of atmosphere and ocean. This review will mainly report the progress in researches on the earth rotation and the activities of atmos-phere and ocean as well as the air-sea interaction in the tropics, and prospect the direction for future theoretical investigations.

  4. SolidWorks在截交线教学中的应用%Application of SolidWorks in teaching of intersection

    杜娟; 姚洁


      SolidWorks 是近年来得到迅速推广应用的三维软件,是CAD行业的一颗耀眼的明星。本文主要介绍了把SolidWorks三维软件运用在制图中的截交线教学中,帮助学生空间想象,让图形变得生动,课堂变得活泼,从而提高了学生的学习兴趣,改善了教学质量。%SolidWorks is a three-dimensional software has been widely used in recent years, is a shining star in the CAD industry. This paper mainly introduces the application of 3D software SolidWorks in the drawing of the intersection line teaching, help students space imagination, let the figure become vivid, classroom become lively, so as to improve the students' interest in learning, improve teaching quality.

  5. Thermodynamic Model Formulations for Inhomogeneous Solids with Application to Non-isothermal Phase Field Modelling

    Gladkov, Svyatoslav; Kochmann, Julian; Reese, Stefanie; Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob


    The purpose of the current work is the comparison of thermodynamic model formulations for chemically and structurally inhomogeneous solids at finite deformation based on "standard" non-equilibrium thermodynamics [SNET: e. g. S. de Groot and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North Holland, 1962] and the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) [H. C. Öttinger, Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Wiley Interscience, 2005]. In the process, non-isothermal generalizations of standard isothermal conservative [e. g. J. W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, Free energy of a non-uniform system. I. Interfacial energy. J. Chem. Phys. 28 (1958), 258-267] and non-conservative [e. g. S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, A macroscopic theory for antiphase boundary motion and its application to antiphase domain coarsening. Acta Metall. 27 (1979), 1085-1095; A. G. Khachaturyan, Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids, Wiley, New York, 1983] diffuse interface or "phase-field" models [e. g. P. C. Hohenberg and B. I. Halperin, Theory of dynamic critical phenomena, Rev. Modern Phys. 49 (1977), 435-479; N. Provatas and K. Elder, Phase Field Methods in Material Science and Engineering, Wiley-VCH, 2010.] for solids are obtained. The current treatment is consistent with, and includes, previous works [e. g. O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, Thermodynamically consistent models of phase-field type for the kinetics of phase transitions, Phys. D 43 (1990), 44-62; O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, On the relation between the standard phase-field model and a "thermodynamically consistent" phase-field model. Phys. D 69 (1993), 107-113] on non-isothermal systems as a special case. In the context of no-flux boundary conditions, the SNET- and GENERIC-based approaches are shown to be completely consistent with each other and result in equivalent temperature evolution relations.

  6. Review on Application of Rare Earth Polishing Powders in Glass Polishing

    Li Xueshun; Yang Guosheng


    The paper reviewed different explanations to the mechanism of glass polishing, the practices of glass polishing and the preparation of polishing powders, addressed the growth mechanism of CeO2 crystals, summarized the roles of rare earth elements in glass polishing and the factors that may influence the polishing effects, and specified the existing problems in glass polishing.

  7. ESPC Common Model Architecture Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) Software and Application Development


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Common Model Architecture Earth System Modeling...LONG-TERM GOALS To expedite the development of numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems, the National Unified Operational Prediction...Capability (NUOPC) was established between NOAA and Navy to develop a common software architecture for easy and efficient interoperability. The

  8. Thermal infrared spectrometer for earth science remote sensing applications : instrument modifications and measurement procedures

    Hecker, C.; Hook, S.; Meijde, M. van der; Bakker, W.H.; Werff, H.M.A. van der; Wilbrink, H.J.; Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van; Smeth, J.B. de; Meer, F.D. van der


    In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 μm range. A Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer was chosen

  9. A continuous Bayesian network for earth dams' risk assessment: an application

    Morales-Napoles, O.; Delgado-Hernandez, D.J.; De-Leon-Escobedo, D.; Artega-Arcos, J.C.


    Dams are civil engineering structures to hinder water flows. Criteria such as purpose, size and construction material are useful to categorise them. The latter is used to classify ‘earth dams’, which tend to have higher risk levels than other types. The failure of a dam leads to significant economic

  10. The Effects of Refraction on Transit Transmission Spectroscopy: Application to Earth-like Exoplanets

    Misra, Amit; Crisp, Dave


    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Palle et al. (2009). We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSPEC). Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog plan...

  11. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Crisp, Dave, E-mail: [NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States)


    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  12. Harnessing Systems Engineering Methodology in Using Earth Science Research Data for Real Applications

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, Fritz S.; Zanoni, Vicki M.


    For the last three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing an enormous amount of useful data and information serving to broaden our understanding of the home planet as a system. NASA's Earth science program has deployed about 18 complex satellites and is in the process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in this decade. At the same time, the European Community and many other countries such as Russia, France, India, Japan, and China have also significantly contributed to Earth science research. To date, the majority of such efforts have concentrated on expanding our scientific understanding of the multiple nonlinear and chaotic processes of Earth's behavior. In recent years, legislators and stakeholders have put serious pressure on the science community to devote more attention to making use of scientific results for societal benefit. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural efficiency, disaster management, air quality and public health that can directly take advantage of Earth science results to analyze and predict large scale problems and conditions. This is becoming even more important now that we live in a global economy interconnected via the internet and transportation systems; regional environmental conditions can have far reaching impact across continental boundaries. These factors dictate requirements for global data that can help us assess and control the devastating problems of famine, water resources, wildfires, human health and more. To do this requires a serious, organized, and systematic approach that transfers fundamental research products to the applied sciences domain. This paper presents a systems engineering and management process that can effectively make such transfer of data to the user community. Examples are presented on how the above decision making framework can help in solving critical problems such as the spread of vector borne

  13. A solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence spectrophotometer: Development and application

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamoto, Makoto


    A new solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) instrument (CPL-200CD) was successfully developed for measuring true CPL spectra for optically anisotropic samples on the basis of the Stokes-Mueller matrix approach. Electric components newly installed in the CPL-200CD include a pulse motor-driven sample rotation holder and a 100 kHz lock-in amplifier to achieve the linearly polarized luminescence measurement, which is essential for obtaining the true CPL signal for optically anisotropic samples. An acquisition approach devised for solid-state CPL analysis reduces the measurement times for a data set by ca. 98% compared with the time required in our previous method. As a result, the developed approach is very effective for samples susceptible to light-induced degradation. The theory and implementation of the method are described, and examples of its application to a CPL sample with macroscopic anisotropies are provided. An important advantage of the developed instrument is its ability to obtain molecular information for both excited and ground states because circular dichroism measurements can be performed by switching the monochromatic light to white light without rearrangement of the sample.

  14. Advanced 2-micron solid-state laser for wind and CO II lidar applications

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Diffrencial Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO II concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  15. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  16. Improvement of multilayer graphene crystallinity by solid-phase precipitation with current stress application during annealing

    Sahab Uddin, Md.; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Sano, Shota; Ueno, Kazuyoshi


    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) films by solid-phase precipitation, a new method by which current stress is introduced during annealing of a carbon-doped cobalt (Co-C) layer using cobalt (Co) as the catalyst has been investigated. The effects of current stress on the formation and crystallinity of MLG films were investigated by comparing the characteristics of the films annealed at the same temperature with and without current by taking into account the temperature rise due to Joule heating. The characteristics obtained by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the MLG films produced were crystalline in nature and their crystallinity increased with applied current stress at the same temperature. From SEM observations, beside Joule heating, enhancement of Co grain size by agglomeration induced by current stress may be the potential reason for the improvement of the crystallinity of MLG films. We have also improved the uniformity of MLG films by depositing an additional copper (Cu) capping layer over the Co-C layer. Current stress application can lead to low-temperature fabrication of MLG with higher crystallinity by solid-phase precipitation.

  17. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea


    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  18. All-Solid-State UV Transmitter Development for Ozone Sensing Applications

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Armstrong, Darrell Jr.


    In this paper, recent progress made in the development of an all-solid-state UV transmitter suitable for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms is discussed. A nonlinear optics based UV setup based on Rotated Image Singly Resonant Twisted Rectangle (RISTRA) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) module was effectively coupled to a diode pumped, single longitudinal mode, conductively cooled, short-pulsed, high-energy Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with 50 Hz PRF. An estimated 10 mJ/pulse with 10% conversion efficiency at 320 nm has been demonstrated limited only by the pump pulse spatial profile. The current arrangement has the potential for obtaining greater than 200 mJ/pulse. Previously, using a flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser with round, top-hat profile, up to 24% IR-UV conversion efficiency was achieved with the same UV module. Efforts are underway to increase the IR-UV conversion efficiency of the all solid-state setup by modifying the pump laser spatial profile along with incorporating improved OPO crystals.

  19. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    de Oliveira, José Martins; Germano Martins, Antonio César


    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  20. Applications of USP apparatus 3 in assessing the in vitro release of solid oral dosage forms

    Bianca Ramos Pezzini


    Full Text Available USP Apparatus 3 (reciprocating cylinder is a very versatile device for the in vitro assessment of release characteristics of solid oral dosage forms, because it enables the product to be subjected to different dissolution media and agitation speeds in a single run. In this paper, a brief history and a description of this system are presented, along with its applications in the development of immediate and modified release products and in the simulation of fasted and fed states using biorelevant media. Furthermore, a comparison is made with the basket and paddle apparatus, especially highlighting the superior hydrodynamics of USP apparatus 3, since the results are not sensitive to factors such as the presence of sample collection probes or air bubbles in the dissolution medium.

  1. Photocured PEO-based solid polymer electrolyte and its application to lithium-polymer batteries

    Kang, Yongku; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Eunkyoung; Oh, Bookeun; Cho, Jae Hyun

    A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) is prepared by photocuring of polyethylene glycol acrylates. The conductivity is greatly enhanced by adding low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) dimethylether (PEGDME). The maximum conducticity is 5.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 30°C. These electrolytes display oxidation stability up to 4.5 V against a lithium reference electrode. Reversible electrochemical plating/stripping of lithium is observed on a stainless steel electrode. Li/SPE/LiMn 2O 4 as well as C(Li)/SPE/LiCoO 2 cells have been fabricated and tested to demonstrate the applicability of the resulting polymer electrolytes in lithium-polymer batteries.

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications


    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  3. Electrolytes at Solid-Water Interfaces: Theoretical Studies for Practical Applications

    Striolo, Alberto


    The goal of this research program was to determine how a solid substrate affects structure and dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. From fundamental observations, we seek to improve practical applications. Of particular interest at the project inset were carbon nanotube separation, electric double layer capacitors, and water desalination. As time progresses, we became interested in sub-surface water transport and fate, and in hydraulic fracturing. We employed an arsenal of techniques based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We validated our methods using experimental data, to propose practical improvements. Some experiments were conducted in house. We established valuable collaborations with experienced scientists at National Laboratories to provide information not attainable with our in-house resources.

  4. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  5. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean


    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  6. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Christophe Coutanceau


    Full Text Available In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  7. Application and Reliability of Solid-State NMR in Environmental Sciences

    Knicker, Heike


    technique increases the sensitivity of 13C by magnetization transfer from the 1H to the 13C spin system during a contact time tc. However, one has to bear in mind that some molecular properties may obscure quantification. Thus, for carbons with large C-H internuclear distances (bigger than four bonds, i.e in graphite structures) and for C in groups with high molecular mobility (i.e. gas) the proton-dipolar interactions are weakened and the polarization transfer may be incomplete. The observed intensity can also be affected by interactions of the protons with paramagnetic compounds. To circumvent this problem, the samples are often demineralized with hydrofluoric acid. Alternatively, the Bloch decay, a technique in which the 13C is directly excited is used. Here, on the other hand, one has to consider long relaxation times which may lead to saturation effects. Nevertheless, as it will be discussed within the presentation those quantification problems can be solved for most soil samples and then solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Special techniques, such as dipolar dephasing or the proton spin relaxation editing can be used to extract additional information about chemical properties or mobility. A more detailed examination of the cross polarization behavior can be used to analyze the interaction of organic matter and paramagnetics but also for obtaining revealing properties on a molecular level. Applications involving isotopic labeling combined with both 13C and/or 15N NMR allows to follow the fate of a specific compound i.e. in a natural matrix and- if the enrichment is high enough - the use of 2D solid-state NMR techniques. In particular with respect to environmental chemistry, this combination of isotopic labeling with the use of corresponding NMR spectroscopy shows great potential for a better understanding of the kind of interaction between pollutants and natural organic matter.


    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik


    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the

  9. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia


    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  10. Application of rare- earth and nano elements on diamond cup wheels


    Diamond cup wheel is used widely as an important tool for machining ceramic tile. In this paper,nano rare - earth oxide and nano carbide were added in the segments of seven kinds of diamond cup wheels.The performance of diamond cup wheels were tested on a special designed test machine by grinding two kinds of ceramic tiles. The surface morphology of the segments was examined by Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM) and the micro-hardness of segments was measured. The results showed that nano rare-earth oxide and nano carbide can fine segment micro structure, make grain boundary clear and increase grasping of diamond grits. They can increase also the wear resistance of diamond cup wheels as well as the grinding ratio.

  11. Application of the Earth's Natural Electromagnetic Noise to Geophysical Prospecting and Seraching for Oil

    Malyshkov, Sergey Yu; Gordeev, Vasily F; Shtalin, Sergey G; Polivach, Vitaly I; Bazhanov, Yury Yu; Hauan, Terje


    When applying the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields to geophysical prospecting one should take into account characteristics of their spatial and temporal variations. ENPEMF is known to include both pulses attributed to atmospheric thunderstorms and pulses generated in the lithosphere by mechanic-to-electric energy conversion in rocks. It is evident that the most valuable information on the geophysical structure of a certain area is obviously contained in pulses originated from this area. This article covers a method of recording spatial variations of the Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic fields which is able to take due account of spatial and temporal variations of EM fields and suits to reveal crustal structural and lithologic heterogeneities including hydrocarbon pools. We use a system of several stations recording the ENPEMF concurrently to erase the temporal variations from ENPEMF records and to sort out the pulses of local and remote origin. Some stations are fixed (reference) and record o...

  12. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.


    ASDC data for other client applications such as MATLAB, GrADS, and IDV. OPeNDAP has become a very popular alternative for data access especially at the university research level with over 375 OPeNDAP-accessible data sets registered nationally. Teacher workshops will be held each summer for five years to help teachers learn about incorporating NASA microsets in their curriculum. The next MY NASA DATA teacher workshop will be held at Langley Research Center July 25-29, 2005. Workshop participants will create microsets and lesson plans that they believe will help their students understand Earth system concepts. These lesson plans will be reviewed and shared online as user-contributed content.

  13. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of parameters for microwave heating of rare earth carbonates

    Yin, Shaohua; Lin, Guo; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo


    Microwave heating has been applied in the field of drying rare earth carbonates to improve drying efficiency and reduce energy consumption. The effects of power density, material thickness and drying time on the weight reduction (WR) are studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that RSM is feasible to describe the relationship between the independent variables and weight reduction. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the model is in accordance with the experimental data. The optimum experiment conditions are power density 6 w/g, material thickness 15 mm and drying time 15 min, resulting in an experimental weight reduction of 73%. Comparative experiments show that microwave drying has the advantages of rapid dehydration and energy conservation. Particle analysis shows that the size distribution of rare earth carbonates after microwave drying is more even than those in an oven. Based on these findings, microwave heating technology has an important meaning to energy-saving and improvement of production efficiency for rare earth smelting enterprises and is a green heating process.

  14. Application of Microbial Biopolymers as an Alternative Construction Binder for Earth Buildings in Underdeveloped Countries

    Ilhan Chang


    Full Text Available Earth buildings are still a common type of residence for one-third of the world’s population. However, these buildings are not durable or resistant against earthquakes and floods, and this amplifies their potential harm to humans. Earthen construction without soil binders (e.g., cement is known to result in poor strength and durability performance of earth buildings. Failure to use construction binders is related to the imbalance in binder prices in different countries. In particular, the price of cement in Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia countries is extremely high relative to the global trend of consumer goods and accounts for the limited usage of cement in those regions. Moreover, environmental concerns regarding cement usage have recently risen due to high CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, biopolymers have been introduced as an alternative binder for soil strengthening. Previous studies and feasibility attempts in this area show that the mechanical properties (i.e., compressive strength of biopolymer mixed soil blocks (i.e, both 1% xanthan gum and 1% gellan gum satisfied the international criteria for binders used in earthen structures. Economic and market analyses have demonstrated that the biopolymer binder has high potential as a self-sufficient local construction binder for earth buildings where the usage of ordinary cement is restricted.

  15. Applications of Earth Observations for Fisheries Management: An analysis of socioeconomic benefits

    Friedl, L.; Kiefer, D. A.; Turner, W.


    This paper will discuss the socioeconomic impacts of a project applying Earth observations and models to support management and conservation of tuna and other marine resources in the eastern Pacific Ocean. A project team created a software package that produces statistical analyses and dynamic maps of habitat for pelagic ocean biota. The tool integrates sea surface temperature and chlorophyll imagery from MODIS, ocean circulation models, and other data products. The project worked with the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, which issues fishery management information, such as stock assessments, for the eastern Pacific region. The Commission uses the tool and broader habitat information to produce better estimates of stock and thus improve their ability to identify species that could be at risk of overfishing. The socioeconomic analysis quantified the relative value that Earth observations contributed to accurate stock size assessments through improvements in calculating population size. The analysis team calculated the first-order economic costs of a fishery collapse (or shutdown), and they calculated the benefits of improved estimates that reduce the uncertainty of stock size and thus reduce the risk of fishery collapse. The team estimated that the project reduced the probability of collapse of different fisheries, and the analysis generated net present values of risk mitigation. USC led the project with sponsorship from the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program, which conducted the socioeconomic impact analysis. The paper will discuss the project and focus primarily on the analytic methods, impact metrics, and the results of the socioeconomic benefits analysis.

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.


    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  17. Policy Document on Earth Observation for Urban Planning and Management: State of the Art and Recommendations for Application of Earth Observation in Urban Planning

    Nichol, Janet; King, Bruce; Xiaoli, Ding; Dowman, Ian; Quattrochi, Dale; Ehlers, Manfred


    A policy document on earth observation for urban planning and management resulting from a workshop held in Hong Kong in November 2006 is presented. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and scientists specializing in earth observation to interact with practitioners working in different aspects of city planning, in a complex and dynamic city, Hong Kong. A summary of the current state of the art, limitations, and recommendations for the use of earth observation in urban areas is presented here as a policy document.

  18. Application of solid-acid catalyst and marine macro-algae Gracilaria verrucosa to production of fermentable sugars.

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee


    In this study, the hydrolysis of marine macro-algae Gracilaria verrucosa with a solid-acid catalyst was investigated. To optimize the hydrolysis, four reaction factors, including liquid-to-solid ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, and reaction time, were investigated. In the results, the highest total reducing sugar (TRS) yield, 61 g/L (51.9%), was obtained under the following conditions: 1:7.5 solid-to-liquid ratio, 15% (w/v) catalyst loading, 140 °C reaction temperature, and 150 min reaction time. Under these conditions, 10.7 g/L of 5-HMF and 2.5 g/L of levulinic acid (LA) were generated. The application of solid-acid catalyst and marine macro-algae resources shows a very high potential for production of fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to the study of coals and polymers. [Ph. D. thesis; 125 references

    Pembleton, R.G.


    The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to study molecules in the solid state has grown rapidly over the past several years. This is due to the advent of techniques which allow for the removal of certain interactions in the solid state which previously have thwarted most attempts at obtaining chemical shift or their anisotropies. With these parameters and others now available, NMR has become an important tool to be used in the understanding of the chemistry of solids. The work reported in this dissertation applies the techniques of solid state NMR to a number of chemical systems. Specific applications are made to crystallinity in polymers, to combined sample spinning and multiple pulse techniques, and to aromatic and aliphatic content of vitrain portions of coals of varying carbon content.

  20. Application of matrix solid-phase dispersion and high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of sulfonamides in honey.

    Zou, Qiong-Hui; Wang, Jin; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Han, Jie; Hou, Feier; Xie, Meng-Xia


    A novel method for simultaneous determination of 8 sulfonamide residues (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamonome-thoxine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) in honey samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed on the basis of precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). Sulfonamide residues in honey samples were extracted and purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion with C18 as the solid support. The residues were derivatized by FMOC-CI, and the FMOC-sulfonamide derivatives were further purified by solid-phase extraction with silica gel as the solid support prior to HPLC analysis. The average recoveries for most sulfonamide compounds at different spiking levels (from 10 to 250 microg/kg) were > 70% with relative standard deviations < 16%, and their limits of detection were 4.0 microg/kg. The established analytical method has high sensitivity and repeatability and can be applicable for determining the sulfonamide residues in various honey matrixes.

  1. The application of Legacy Cycles in the development of Earth Science curriculum

    Ellins, K.; Abernathy, E.; Negrito, K.; McCall, L.


    The Institute for Geophysics in the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas at Austin actively contributes to K-12 education, including the development of rigorous Earth and Space Science curriculum designed for secondary school learning environments. Here we report on our efforts to apply an innovative new pedagogical approach, the Legacy Cycle, to scientific ocean drilling paleoclimate data from fossil corals collected offshore Barbados in 2006 and to the creation of a high school water resources education program for Texas high school students supported by a grant from the Texas Water Development Board. The Legacy Cycle makes use of the Internet and computer technology to engage students in extended inquiry learning. A series of inquiry activities are organized around a set of three driving questions, or challenges. Students mimic the work of scientists by generating ideas to address a given challenge, listening to multiple perspectives from experts on the topic, researching a set of sub-questions and revising their original ideas, testing their mettle with labs and quizzes, and finally composing a project or paper that answers the original challenge. The technology makes it easy for students to move through the challenges and the organizational framework since there are hyperlinks to each of the sections (and to reach the other challenges) at the bottom of each webpage. Students' final work is posted to the Internet for others to see, and in this way they leave behind their legacy. Our Legacy Cycle activities use authentic hydrologic, water quality, geochemical, geophysical data, as well as remotely sensed data such as is collected by satellites. They are aligned with the U.S. National Science Education Standards, the new Ocean, Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles (in development), and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science. The work represents a collaboration involving teachers from The University of

  2. Protocol evaluation of the total suspended solids and suspended sediment concentration methods: solid recovery efficiency and application for stormwater analysis.

    Chan, Licheng; Li, Yingxia; Stenstrom, Michael K


    Total suspended solids (TSS) is routinely measured in water and wastewater treatment plants, and protocols are well-known. The TSS measurement in stormwater is more difficult, because the particle size and density can be much greater, biasing the sample if it is collected from a poorly mixed location or allowed to settle in a quiescent collection container. An alternative method, called suspended sediment concentration (SSC), uses a different protocol, which analyzes the entire contents of the sample collection container. The SSC method is not compatible with many monitoring programs, which require several constituents to be analyzed from a single sample container, such as from a flow-weighted composite sample. This paper addresses TSS protocol using glass beads and samples with known particle size distribution and shows that proper mixing, combined with appropriate pipettes, can largely avoid sampling error for typical sediments as large as 250 microm with specific gravity of 2.6.

  3. Operational Concept Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Space Vehicle Applications

    Poast, Kenneth I.


    With the end of the Space Shuttle Program, NASA is evaluating many different technologies to support future missions. Green propellants, like liquid methane and liquid oxygen, have potential advantages for some applications. A Lander propelled with LOX/methane engines is one such application. When the total vehicle design and infrastructure are considered, the advantages of the integration of propulsion, heat rejection, life support and power generation become attractive for further evaluation. Scavenged residual propellants from the propulsion tanks could be used to generate needed electric power, heat and water with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell(SOFC). In-Situ Resource Utilization(ISRU) technologies may also generate quantities of green propellants to refill these tanks and/or supply these fuel cells. Technology demonstration projects such as the Morpheus Lander are currently underway to evaluate the practicality of such designs and operational concepts. Tethered tests are currently in progress on this vertical test bed to evaluate the propulsion and avionics systems. Evaluation of the SOFC seeks to determine the feasibility of using these green propellants to supply power and identify the limits to the integration of this technology into a space vehicle prototype.

  4. Diffusion and elastoplastic analyses of polycrystalline magnesium for solid state hydrogen storage application

    Mathakari, Amey

    Solid state hydrogen storage can be an effective way of storing hydrogen as an energy source for mobile applications. The advantage includes high energy density, low setup cost, safe operation, abundance of metal hydrides, low maintenance, etc. Magnesium is one of the potential metals for the application. However, sluggish desorption kinetics of magnesium requiring relatively high operation temperature has hindered its practical realization. In the present study, an attempt is made to analyze effects of grain boundary on diffusion and diffusion induced stresses in polycrystalline magnesium. Grain boundaries in nanostructured magnesium can undergo severe plastic deformations during the hydrogen insertion and desertion processes. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced pathways for hydrogen transport. Finite element models have been developed for the analyses by realizing the different physical and chemical parameters of magnesium grains and grain boundaries. The study provides convincing evidence of the importance of the presence of grain boundaries. The results may help find ways to improve hydrogen charging/discharging efficiency by means of plastic deformations in grain boundaries while maintaining the overall structural integrity of host magnesium.

  5. Characterization of solid UV curable 3D printer resins for biological applications

    Sivashankar, Shilpa


    In this paper, we report a simple method to evaluate biocompatibility of solid UV cross-linked resin as a material for microfluidic devices that can be used for biological applications. We evaluated the biocompatibility of the material in two different ways (1) determining if the UV cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (2) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-CRP antibodies and C- reactive protein (CRP) proteins were allowed to agglutinate. Six different types of 3D printer resins were compared to test the biocompatibility. The study showed that only few among them could be used for fabrication of micro channels and that had least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions. Through these studies it is possible to estimate the curing time of various resin and their type of interaction with biomolecules. This study finds importance in on-chip tissue engineering and organ-on-chip applications.

  6. A compact CO selective oxidation reactor for solid polymer fuel cell powered vehicle application

    Dudfield, C. D.; Chen, R.; Adcock, P. L.

    Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) are attractive as electrical power plants for vehicle applications since they offer the advantages of high efficiency, zero emissions, and mechanical robustness. Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, but is currently disadvantaged for automotive applications by the lack of refuelling infrastructure, bulky on-board storage, and safety concerns. On-board methanol reforming offers an attractive alternative due to its increased energy storage density. Since CO is always present as a by-product during the reforming reaction, it must be reduced to a level less than 20 ppm in order to avoid rapid deactivation of the platinum electro-catalyst in the fuel cells. In this paper, a compact CO selective oxidation unit based upon two coated aluminium heat exchangers, developed at Loughborough University, is reported. The geometric size of the whole unit is 4 litre and experimental results show that the selective oxidation unit can reduce the CO from up to 2% to less than 15 ppm and is suitable for a vehicle fuel cell power plant of 20 kW e.

  7. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana


    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  8. Rotation and magnetism of Earth`s inner core

    Glatzmaier, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roberts, P.H. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super-rotation of Earth`s solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth`s magnetic field. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Kinects as sensors in earth science: glaciological, geomorphological, and hydrological applications

    Mankoff, K. D.; Russo, T. A.; Norris, B. K.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Beem, L.; Walter, J. I.; Tulaczyk, S. M.


    The $150 Kinect (a video game input device used with the Microsoft Xbox system) can be used by earth scientists as a sensor. The device contains a visual wavelength camera, a depth-sensing camera, and three accelerometers. Because of the efforts of the hacking community it is now easy to communicate with a Kinect from a standard personal computer. We present initial results from two test sites: 1) On the surface of a glacier in Alaska where we tracked ice, water, and debris, and 2) From a lake and stream in New Jersey, where we evaluated device capabilities to image below the water surface in lentic and lotic environments.

  10. Development and Application of Ontologies in Support of Earth and Space Science Education

    Fox, S. P.; Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E.


    Through its work in supporting improved science education the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) has developed and applied a set of Earth and Space Science vocabularies. These controlled vocabularies play a central role in supporting user exploration of our educational materials. The set of over 50 vocabularies run the gamut from small vocabularies with a narrowly targeted use, to broader vocabularies that span multiple disciplines and are applied across multiple projects and collections. Typical specialized vocabularies cover disciplinary themes such as tectonic setting (with terms such as mid-ocean ridge, passive margin, and craton) as well as interdisciplinary work such as geology and human health (with terms such as radionuclides and airborne transport processes). To support project-specific customization of vocabularies while retaining the benefits of cross-project reuse our systems allow for dynamic mapping of terms among multiple vocabularies based on semantic equivalencies. The end result is a weaving of related vocabularies into an ontological network that is exposed as specific vocabularies that employ the natural language of the collections and communities that use them. Our process for vocabulary development is community driven and reflects our experiences in aligning terminology with disciplinary-specific expectations. These experiences include rectifying language differences across disciplines in building a Geoscience Quantitative Skills vocabulary through work with both the Mathematics and Geoscience communities, as well as the iterative development of a vocabulary spanning Earth and Space science through the aggregation of smaller vocabularies, each developed by scientists for use within their own discipline. The vocabularies are exposed as key navigational features in over 100 faceted search interfaces within the web sites of a dozen Earth and Space Science Education projects. Within these faceted search interfaces the terms in the

  11. Characterization of cellular solids in Ti6Al4V for orthopaedic implant applications: Trabecular titanium.

    Marin, E; Fusi, S; Pressacco, M; Paussa, L; Fedrizzi, L


    EBM (Electron Beam Melting) technology can be used successfully to obtain cellular solids in metallic biomaterials that can greatly increase osseointegration in arthroprothesis and at the same time maintain good mechanical properties. The investigated structures, called Trabecular Titanium, usually cannot be obtained by traditional machining. Two samples: (A) with a smaller single cell area and, (B) with a bigger single cell area, were produced and studied in this project. They have been completely characterized and compared with the results in similar literature pertinent to Ti6Al4V EBM structures. Relative density was evaluated using different methods, the mean diameter of the open porosities was calculated by Scanning Electron Microscope images; the composition was evaluated using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy; the microstructure (alpha-beta) was investigated using chemical etching and, the mechanical proprieties were investigated using UMTS. The mean porosity values resulted comparable with spongy bone (63% for A and 72% for B). The mean diameter of the single porosity (650 mum for A and 1400 mum for B) resulted compatible with the osseointegration data from the literature, in particular for sample A. The Vickers micro-hardness tests and the chemical etching demonstrated that the structure is fine, uniform and well distributed. The mechanical test proved that sample (A) was more resistant than sample (B), but sample (B) showed an elastic modulus almost equal to the value of spongy bone. The results of this study suggest that the two Ti6Al4V cellular solids can be used in biomedical applications to promote osseointegration demonstrating that they maybe successfully used in prosthetic implants. Additional implant results will be published in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P


    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko


    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×10(3) tonnes in 2007 to 437×10(3) tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×10(3) and 7×10(3) tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×10(3) to 253×10(6) tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×10(3) to 158×10(3) tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  14. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; Van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.


    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  15. Leaching of nitrate and phosphorus after autumn and spring application of separated solid manures to winter wheat

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    on a loamy sand and a sandy loam soil. The leaching experiment lasted for 2 yr, and the whole experiment was replicated twice. Nitrate leaching was generally low (19–34 kg N/ha) after spring applications of mineral fertilizer and manures. Nitrate leaching increased significantly after autumn application......, solid manure fractions should not be applied to winter wheat on sandy and sandy loam soils under humid North European conditions....

  16. Crystal Structure Prediction and its Application in Earth and Materials Sciences

    Zhu, Qiang

    First of all, we describe how to predict crystal structure by evolutionary approach, and extend this method to study the packing of organic molecules, by our specially designed constrained evolutionary algorithm. The main feature of this new approach is that each unit or molecule is treated as a whole body, which drastically reduces the search space and improves the efficiency. The improved method is possibly to be applied in the fields of (1) high pressure phase of simple molecules (H2O, NH3, CH4, etc); (2) pharmaceutical molecules (glycine, aspirin, etc); (3) complex inorganic crystals containing cluster or molecular unit, (Mg(BH4)2, Ca(BH4)2, etc). One application of the constrained evolutionary algorithm is given by the study of (Mg(BH4)2, which is a promising materials for hydrogen storage. Our prediction does not only reproduce the previous work on Mg(BH4)2 at ambient condition, but also yields two new tetragonal structures at high pressure, with space groups P4 and I41/acd are predicted to be lower in enthalpy, by 15.4 kJ/mol and 21.2 kJ/mol, respectively, than the earlier proposed P42nm phase. We have simulated X-ray diffraction spectra, lattice dynamics, and equations of state of these phases. The density, volume contraction, bulk modulus, and the simulated XRD patterns of P4 and I41/acd structures are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Two kinds of oxides (Xe-O and Mg-O) have been studied under megabar pressures. For XeO, we predict the existence of thermodynamically stable Xe-O compounds at high pressures (XeO, XeO2 and XeO3 become stable at pressures of 83, 102 and 114 GPa, respectively). For Mg-O, our calculations find that two extraordinary compounds MgO2 and Mg3O 2 become thermodynamically stable at 116 GPa and 500 GPa, respectively. Our calculations indicate large charge transfer in these oxides for both systems, suggesting that large electronegativity difference and pressure are the key factors favouring their formations. We also

  17. Applicability of UV laser-induced solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of solid dosage forms.

    Woltmann, Eva; Meyer, Hans; Weigel, Diana; Pritzke, Heinz; Posch, Tjorben N; Kler, Pablo A; Schürmann, Klaus; Roscher, Jörg; Huhn, Carolin


    High production output of solid pharmaceutical formulations requires fast methods to ensure their quality. Likewise, fast analytical procedures are required in forensic sciences, for example at customs, to substantiate an initial suspicion. We here present the design and the optimization of an instrumental setup for rapid and non-invasive characterization of tablets by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (with a UV-laser (λ ex = 266 nm) as excitation source) in reflection geometry. The setup was first validated with regard to repeatability, bleaching phenomena, and sensitivity. The effect on the spectra by the physical and chemical properties of the samples, e.g. their hardness, homogeneity, chemical composition, and granule grain size of the uncompressed material, using a series of tablets, manufactured in accordance with design of experiments, was investigated. Investigation of tablets with regard to homogeneity, especially, is extremely important in pharmaceutical production processes. We demonstrate that multiplicative scatter correction is an appropriate tool for data preprocessing of fluorescence spectra. Tablets with different physical and chemical characteristics can be discriminated well from their fluorescence spectra by subjecting the results to principal component analysis.

  18. CRYOCHEM, Thermodynamic Model for Cryogenic Chemical Systems: Solid-Vapor and Solid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibria Toward Applications on Titan and Pluto

    Tan, S. P.; Kargel, J. S.; Adidharma, H.; Marion, G. M.


    Until in-situ measurements can be made regularly on extraterrestrial bodies, thermodynamic models are the only tools to investigate the properties and behavior of chemical systems on those bodies. The resulting findings are often critical in describing physicochemical processes in the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface in planetary geochemistry and climate studies. The extremely cold conditions on Triton, Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects, and Titan introduce huge non-ideality that prevents conventional models from performing adequately. At such conditions, atmospheres as a whole—not components individually—are subject to phase equilibria with their equilibrium solid phases or liquid phases or both. A molecular-based thermodynamic model for cryogenic chemical systems, referred to as CRYOCHEM, the development of which is still in progress, was shown to reproduce the vertical composition profile of Titan's atmospheric methane measured by the Huygens probe (Tan et al., Icarus 2013, 222, 53). Recently, the model was also used to describe Titan's global circulation where the calculated composition of liquid in Ligeia Mare is consistent with the bathymetry and microwave absorption analysis of T91 Cassini fly-by data (Tan et al., 2014, submitted). Its capability to deal with equilibria involving solid phases has also been demonstrated (Tan et al., Fluid Phase Equilib. 2013, 360, 320). With all those previous works done, our attention is now shifting to the lower temperatures in Titan's tropopause and on Pluto's surface, where much technical development remains for CRYOCHEM to assure adequate performance at low temperatures. In these conditions, solid-vapor equilibrium (SVE) is the dominant phase behavior that determines the composition of the atmosphere and the existing ices. Another potential application is for the subsurface phase equilibrium, which also involves liquid, thus three-phase equilibrium: solid-liquid-vapor (SLV). This presentation will discuss the

  19. High-P,T Elasticity of Hcp Iron: Reinvestigation of the Applicability of Hcp Iron to the Earth's Inner Core

    Tsuchiya, T.; Kawai, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Ohsumi, M.; Ishii, M.


    Earth's inner core (329~364 GPa and 5000~6000 K) is thought to be composed of hexagonal closed pack (hcp) structured solid Fe-Ni alloy (e.g., Mao et al., 1998; Kuwayama et al., 2008; Sha & Cohen, 2010). Thermoelasticity of hcp (ɛ) iron is therefore a key to interpreting seismological information of the inner core: density, seismic wave velocities, and their anisotropy. However, several studies reported that hcp iron has a shear modulus distinctly larger than that of the inner core (e.g., Mao et al., 1998; Vocadlo et al., 2009). This large Poisson ratio of the inner core is one of the remaining inexplicable features of the deep Earth, and it suggests the presence of mechanisms to lower the S-wave velocity in the inner core, such as a low-velocity component (Prescher et al., 2015), pre-melting effect (Martorell et al., 2013), anelasticity, and so on. In this study, we perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations employing a supercell larger than in previous calculations (Vocadlo et al., 2009; Martorell et al., 2013). Also computations are conducted in a wide P,T range including, but not limited to, the inner core conditions to clarify the P,T effects on the elasticity of the hcp iron more comprehensively, and to provide an internally-consistent thermoelastic model. In addition to checking the validity of the Birch's law, the obtained Poisson ratio and aggregate anisotropy, with and without the pre-melting effect, are compared against seismological constraints to reinvestigate the viability of hcp iron in the inner core. Research supported by KAKENHI (JSPS) and the X-ray Free Electron Laser Priority Strategy Program (MEXT).

  20. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay


    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  1. Bioactivity of diatomaceous earth to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in different application conditions

    Adalberto H. Sousa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of diatomaceous earth (DE at different ambient temperatures on adult Sitophilus zeamais and progeny, using different doses and exposure periods. The experiments were performed in Petri dishes containing 40 g of the whole corn kernel, treated with DE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kg Mg-1. Each dish was infested with 25 S. zeamais adults and kept at climatic chambers under temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC. The insect mortality was recorded after six and 15 days from the beginning of the bioassays. The grains evaluated at 15 days were separated from insects and kept in the dishes for another 75 days under the same temperature conditions. After this period the effect of ambient temperature and of diatomaceous earth doses on the emergence of S. zeamais in the F1 generation was evaluated. It was found that the mortality of S. zeamais increased with the higher dose and temperature during the exposure period of six and 15 days. The number of insects emerged reduced with increasing temperature in these two exposure periods. The increase of temperature and exposure period favored the efficacy of DE in lower doses for control of S. zeamais.

  2. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Materials for Additive Construction: Applications on Earth, the Moon, and Mars

    Ordonez, Erick; Edmunson, Jennifer; Fiske, Michael; Christiansen, Eric; Miller, Josh; Davis, Bruce Alan; Read, Jon; Johnston, Mallory; Fikes, John


    Additive Construction is the process of building infrastructure such as habitats, garages, roads, berms, etcetera layer by layer (3D printing). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pursuing additive construction to build structures using resources available in-situ. Using materials available in-situ reduces the cost of planetary missions and operations in theater. The NASA team is investigating multiple binders that can be produced on planetary surfaces, including the magnesium oxide-based Sorel cement; the components required to make Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), the common cement used on Earth, have been found on Mars. The availability of OPC-based concrete on Earth drove the USACE to pursue additive construction for base housing and barriers for military operations. Planetary and military base structures must be capable of resisting micrometeoroid impacts with velocities ranging from 11 to 72km/s for particle sizes 200 micrometers or more (depending on protection requirements) as well as bullets and shrapnel with a velocity of 1.036km/s with projectiles 5.66mm diameter and 57.40mm in length, respectively.

  3. Application of Low Temperature Liquid Sulfurization Catalyzed with Rare Earth on Cr12 Impacting Die


    One kind of quenched Cr12 steel dies for impacting stainless steel wire rope (SSWR) was treated by low temperature liquid sulfurization catalyzed with rare earths, in order to extend their service life for assuring the continuity of production line, and simultaneously improve the surface quality of SSWR obtained. After immerged into the melting sulphur containing 4%(mass fraction) of LaF3 and 1% of CeCl3 at 463 K for 4 h, the sulfurized dies were very smooth and black, with little distortion and hardness loss. They exhibited a certain extent of corrosion-resistance in air due to the coexisting rare earths in the sulfurized layer. Optical observations showed that the sulfurized layer was uniform and had scale-like structure. The trail of machined SSWR indicated that the production capacity of sulfurized dies had been doubled and the replacing period on line was postponed. SEM morphology also proved that the wear extent of cavities on sulfurized dies decreased greatly and the surface quality of SSWR obtained was improved markedly.

  4. Time-variable Earth's albedo model characteristics and applications to satellite sampling errors

    Bartman, F. L.


    Characteristics of the time variable Earth albedo model are described. With the cloud cover multiplying factor adjusted to produce a global annual average albedo of 30.3, the global annual average cloud cover is 45.5 percent. Global annual average sunlit cloud cover is 48.5 percent; nighttime cloud cover is 42.7 percent. Month-to-month global average albedo is almost sinusoidal with maxima in June and December and minima in April and October. Month-to-month variation of sunlit cloud cover is similar, but not in all details. The diurnal variation of global albedo is greatest from November to March; the corresponding variation of sunlit cloud cover is greatest from May to October. Annual average zonal albedos and monthly average zonal albedos are in good agreement with satellite-measured values, with notable differences in the polar regions in some months and at 15 S. The albedo of some 10 deg by 10 deg. areas of the Earth versus zenith angle are described. Satellite albedo measurement sampling effects are described in local time and in Greenwich mean time.

  5. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    Yu, Wayne Hong


    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  6. On the inherent properties of Soluplus and its application in ibuprofen solid dispersions generated by microwave-quench cooling technology.

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Lai, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Bo; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Qi, Xian-Rong


    Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, or Soluplus(®), is a relatively new copolymer and a promising carrier of amorphous solid dispersions. Knowledge on the inherent properties of Soluplus(®) (e.g. cloud points, critical micelle concentrations, and viscosity) in different conditions is relatively inadequate, and the application characteristics of Soluplus(®)-based solid dispersions made by microwave methods still need to be clarified. In the present investigation, the inherent properties of a Soluplus(®) carrier, including cloud points, critical micelle concentrations, and viscosity, were explored in different media and in altered conditions. Ibuprofen, a BCS class II non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was selected to develop Soluplus(®)-based amorphous solid dispersions using the microwave-quench cooling (MQC) method. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were adopted to analyze amorphous properties and molecular interactions in ibuprofen/Soluplus(®) amorphous solid dispersions generated by MQC. Dissolution, dissolution extension, phase solubility, equilibrium solubility, and supersaturated crystallization inhibiting experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of Soluplus(®) on ibuprofen in solid dispersions. This research provides valuable information on the inherent properties of Soluplus(®) and presents a basic understanding of Soluplus(®) as a carrier of amorphous solid dispersions.

  7. Availability of P and K after application of ashes and biochars from thermally-treated solid manures to soil

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    In areas with high livestock density it can be advantageous to export a solid manure fraction after slurry separation to avoid overload of P. By combustion or gasification of solid manure energy is produced and nutrients are concentrated and therefore less expensive to transport. However, some st...... compared to a KCl reference. The heavy metal content of the tested ashes was below the Danish threshold value for wastes like ash, except for Ni in the poultry ash....... studies have indicated that the plant availability of P and K is decreased by combustion. The dynamics of extractable P and K in soil was compared during 16 weeks after application of equal amounts of P in ashes, solid slurry fractions and superphosphate to a sandy soil. Concentrations of water......- , bicarbonate- and resin-extractable P and exchangeable K were measured after incubation. The ashes/biochars studied derived from gasification (ca 730°C) of poultry manure, gasification of solid manure, co-combustion of solid manure with straw (ca 700 and 900°C) and pyrolysis of solid manure (250, 400 or 500°C...

  8. Time and frequency requirement for the earth and ocean physics applications program. [characteristics and orbital mechanics of artificial satellites for data acquisition

    Vonbun, F. O.


    The application of time and frequency standards to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program (EOPAP) is discussed. The goals and experiments of the EOPAP are described. Methods for obtaining frequency stability and time synchronization are analyzed. The orbits, trajectories, and characteristics of the satellites used in the program are reported.

  9. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    Durrani, Saeed A


    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  10. SolidWorks三维建模在矿山行业中的应用%Application of SolidWorks 3D Modeling in the Mining Industry



    The paper first analyzed the significance of the three-dimensional modeling of mining engineering in mine construction pracess, by means of mechanical software SolidWorks, through three-dimensional modeling steps, achieved the mine's three-dimensional modeling. The results show that mining design, the application af three-dimensional visualization techniques can improve the efficiency of mining engineering, it makes mining more intuitive , image, easy to understand , application prospects in the future will be more and more widely.%分析了采矿工程三维建模在矿山建设过程中的意义,借助于机械软件SolidWorks,通过三维建模步骤,实现了矿山的三维建模.结果表明,在矿山采矿设计中,应用可视化三维技术可以提高采矿工程的工作效率,使采矿工作更加直观、形象和容易理解,今后的应用前景必将越来越广泛.

  11. Laser cooling of solids

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  12. Information About the World Data Centers for Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Solid Earth Physics, Regional Multidisciplinary Initiatives of the Russian-Ukrainian World Data Centers Segment for Occurrence in the World Data System

    N Sergeyeva


    Full Text Available The Russian World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics and the World Data Center for Solid Earth Physics have been collecting, analyzing, archiving, and disseminating data and information on a wide range of geophysical disciplines since the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. The centers provide free and convenient access for users to their large and permanently increasing volumes of data. Russian WDCs participate in scientific national and international programs and projects, such as InterMAGNET, InterMARGINS, and the International Polar Year. Since 2008 there has been an association of five Russian WDCs and one Ukrainian WDC in a regional segment of the World Data Centers.


    大西, 泰史


    The purpose of this study is to perform to earth pressure coefficient calculation simulation using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). Earth pressure theory has been established since long ago and is still in use. Therefore, simulation based on Coulomb and Rankine's theory of earth pressure is carried out to confirm usability of DEM. As a result of the static earth pressure coefficient calculation simulation, good results were obtained. However, in the passive earth pressure coefficient calcul...

  14. Effect of rare earth application on the growth of Trichoderma spp.and several plant pathogenic fungi

    d'Aquino L; Carboni M; Woo S L; Morgana M; Nardi L; Lorito M


    @@ Rare earth elements (REEs) enriched fertilisers are currently used in China for soil and foliar applications to crops, but little is known about the effect of REEs applications on the growth of beneficial and detrimental soilborne microorganisms. The growth of biological control agents Trichoderma atroviride strain P1, Trichoderma harzianum strain A6 and strain T22, plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated in the presence of REEs. An in vitro assays was used to monitor the effect of different concentration levels of either a mix of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) nitrates or lanthanum alone in comparison to treatments conducted with potassium nitrate and water. Although all fungi were affected when the REEs mix or lanthanum were present at concentrations higher than 100 mM, the growth inhibition depended mainly upon the combination of compounds, the dose and the fungal species or strains tested. Trichoderma strains and B. cinerea were more sensitive than A.alternata, F. solani, R. solani or at higher concentrations. Differing growth responses of some fungi to treatments with REEs mix vs. lanthanum alone indicated that in given situations the effect of the REEs compounds may be caused by elements other than lanthanum or by element mixtures.Further investigations are in progress to determine the effect of REEs on important interactions in the soil community between beneficial fungi, pathogenic fungi and/or the plant. REEs are naturally present in the environment and in biological systems but accumulation in soil can take place following successive applications. Therefore, it would be useful to achieve a better understanding of the effect of REEs accumulation on the activity of rhizosphere microorganisms given the widespread use in some regions of rare earths as fertilizers and their presence as fertilizer contaminants.

  15. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.


    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  16. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China


    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan", and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%, for Chinese cabbage by 16.4%, for beet by 6.5%; decreases the diseased plant rate for common smut of maize by 1.0%, for maize stalk rot by 1.2%, for wheat take-all disease by 7.8%, for wheat root rot by 3.2%, for potato blackleg disease by 1.4%, for potato late blight by 6.6%; increases the sugar content of beet by 0.9°S.

  17. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria

    Walid Al-Fares


    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.

  18. The GEISA Spectroscopic Database as a Tool for Hyperspectral Earth' Tropospheric Remote Sensing Applications

    Jacquinet-Husson, Nicole; Crépeau, Laurent; Capelle, Virginie; Scott, Noëlle; Armante, Raymond; Chédin, Alain


    Remote sensing of the terrestrial atmosphere has advanced significantly in recent years, and this has placed greater demands on the compilations in terms of accuracy, additional species, and spectral coverage. The successful performances of the new generation of hyperspectral Earth' atmospheric sounders like AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder -, in the USA, and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - in Europe, which have a better vertical resolution and accuracy, compared to the previous satellite infrared vertical sounders, depend ultimately on the accuracy to which the spectroscopic parameters of the optically active gases are known, since they constitute an essential input to the forward radiative transfer models that are used to interpret their observations. In this context, the GEISA (1) (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) computer-accessible database, initiated in 1976, is continuously developed and maintained at LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France). The updated 2009 edition of GEISA (GEISA-09)is a system comprising three independent sub-databases devoted respectively to: line transition parameters, infrared and ultraviolet/visible absorption cross-sections, microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. In this edition, the contents of which will be summarized, 50 molecules are involved in the line transition parameters sub-database, including 111 isotopes, for a total of 3,807,997 entries, in the spectral range from 10-6 to 35,877.031 cm-1. Currently, GEISA is involved in activities related to the assessment of the capabilities of IASI through the GEISA/IASI database derived from GEISA (2). Since the Metop ( launch (October 19th 2006), GEISA/IASI is the reference spectroscopic database for the validation of the level-1 IASI data

  19. Rare earth ion modified TiO2 sols for photocatalysis application under visible light excitation

    XIE Yibing; YUAN Chunwei


    TiO2 sols modified by rare earth (RE) ions (Ce4+, Eu3+, or Nd3+) were prepared by coprecipitation-peptization method. The photocatalysis activity was studied by investigating the photodegradation effects of active brilliant red dye X-3B. It is found that TiO2 sols modified by Ce4+, Eu3+, or Nd3+ have the anatase crystalline structure, which are prepared at 70°C. All REn+-TiO2 sol samples have uniform nanoparticles with similar morphology, which are homogenously distributed in aqueous colloidal systems. The particle sizes are 10, 8, and 12 nm for Nd3+-TiO2, Eu3+-TiO2, and Ce4+-TiO2, respectively.The character of ultrafine and positive charge sol particles contributes to the good adsorption of X-3B dye molecule on the surface of titania (about 30% X-3B adsorption amount). Experimental results exhibit that REn+-TiO2 sol photocatalysts have the capability to photodegrade X-3B under visible light irradiation. Nd3+-TiO2 and Eu3+-TiO2 show higher photocatalytic activity than Cea+-TiO2, which is due to the difference of standard redox potential of REn+/RE(n-1)+. REn+-TiO2 sols demonstrate more excellent interfacial adsorption and photodegradation effects to X-3B than P25 TiO2 crystallites. Moreover, the degradation mechanism of X-3B is proposed as dye photosensitization and electron scavenging by rare earth ions.

  20. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)


    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.