Sample records for solid debris bed

  1. Fission-product releases from a PHWR terminal debris bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Bailey, D.G., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    During an unmitigated severe accident in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) with horizontal fuel channels, the core may disassemble and relocate to the bottom of the calandria vessel. The resulting heterogeneous in-vessel terminal debris bed (TDB) would likely be quenched by any remaining moderator, and some of the decay heat would be conducted through the calandria vessel shell to the surrounding reactor vault or shield tank water. As the moderator boiled off, the solid debris bed would transform into a more homogeneous molten corium pool located between top and bottom crusts. Until recently, the severe accident code MAAP-CANDU assumed that unreleased volatile and semi-volatile fission products remained in the TDB until after calandria vessel failure, due to low diffusivity through the top crust and the lack of gases or steam to flush released fission products from the debris. However, national and international experimental results indicate this assumption is unlikely; instead, high- and medium-volatility fission products would be released from a molten debris pool, and their volatility and transport should be taken into account in TDB modelling. The resulting change in the distribution of fission products within the reactor and containment, and the associated decay heat, can have significant effects upon the progression of the accident and fission-product releases to the environment. This article describes a postulated PHWR severe accident progression to generate a TDB and the effects of fission-product releases from the terminal debris, using the simple release model in the MAAP-CANDU severe accident code. It also provides insights from various experimental programs related to fission-product releases from core debris, and their applicability to the MAAP-CANDU TDB model. (author)

  2. Entrainment of Bed Sediments by Debris Flow


    Sherchan, Bigyan


    Debris flows have proved to be a major worldwide hazard for more than 100 years owing to the destruction of lives, property and infrastructures. This occurrence of debris flows is likely to increase in the future due to the impending climate change. The large runout distance of the debris flow due to its ability to entrain materials along its way is one of the main causes for destruction. The objective of this study was to research the mechanism of entrainment in debris flows and to inves...

  3. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  4. Numerical simulations on self-leveling behaviors with cylindrical debris bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liancheng, E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Morita, Koji, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 2-3-7, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tobita, Yoshiharu, E-mail: [Fast Reactor Safety Technology Development Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A 3D coupled method was developed by combining DEM with the multi-fluid model of SIMMER-IV code. • The method was validated by performing numerical simulations on a series of experiments with cylindrical particle bed. • Reasonable agreement can demonstrate the applicability of the method in reproducing the self-leveling behavior. • Sensitivity analysis on some model parameters was performed to assess their impacts. - Abstract: The postulated core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are regarded as particular difficulties in the safety analysis of liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In the CDAs, core debris may settle on the core-support structure and form conic bed mounds. Then debris bed can be levelled by the heat convection and vaporization of surrounding coolant sodium, which is named “self-leveling behavior”. The self-leveling behavior is a crucial issue in the safety analysis, due to its significant effect on the relocation of molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed. Considering its complicate multiphase mechanism, a comprehensive computational tool is needed to reasonably simulate transient particle behavior as well as thermal-hydraulic phenomenon of surrounding fluid phases. The SIMMER program is a successful computer code initially developed as an advanced tool for CDA analysis of LMFRs. It is a multi-velocity-field, multiphase, multicomponent, Eulerian, fluid dynamics code coupled with a fuel-pin model and a space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics model. Until now, the code has been successfully applied in numerical simulations for reproducing key thermal-hydraulic phenomena involved in CDAs as well as performing reactor safety assessment. However, strong interactions between massive solid particles as well as particle characteristics in multiphase flows were not taken into consideration in its fluid-dynamics models. To solve this problem, a new method is developed by combining the discrete element method (DEM

  5. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment (United States)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping


    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  6. Unsteady void measurements within debris beds using high speed X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E., E-mail:; Stürzel, T., E-mail:; Zhou, M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • A high speed X-ray tomography facility has been built for the investigation on two-phase flow. • The two-phase flow through beds of packed plastic spheres has been investigated in the facility. • 3D-reconstructions from the measurements show the fluxes in the two-phase flow. • The gas fraction has been calculated from the reconstruction and used for validation of the modeling. • A new bed with closest regular spheres arrangement has been manufactured by 3D-plotter and used in the measurement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow and boiling within debris beds representing a destroyed reactor core after a severe accident with core fragmentation can be simulated by using the porous media approach. In this approach, a local pressure drop and the heat transfer between the solid debris particles and the two-phase flow is modelled with the help flow-pattern maps, in which the boundaries between bubbly, slug, and annular flow are assumed. In order to support further understanding of these flows we have developed a very fast X-ray measurement device to visualize the 3D-void distribution within particle beds or porous media, which are otherwise un-accessible internally. The experimental setup uses a scanned electron beam directed in circles on a tungsten target to generate the X-rays. The particle bed, which has a diameter of 70 mm, is located between this target and a field of 256 X-ray detectors, which are arranged on a circle concentric to the target. The void distribution is reconstructed numerically from the attenuation of signals, which penetrates the particle bed and the two-phase flow inside. A 3D frame rate of up to 1000 Hz can be reached. The spatial resolution is such that bubbles with a diameter > 1.7 mm can be detected. We have investigated two-phase flows air/water through beds of packed plastic spheres (diameter between 3 and 15 mm) as well as through plastic beds, which were manufactured using a ‘3D-plotter’. Flow patterns can be

  7. Cooling of an internal-heated debris bed with fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.L.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In this paper, an analytical model on dryout heat flux of ex-vessel debris beds with fines particles under top flooding conditions has been developed. The parametric study is performed on the effect of the stratification of the debris beds on the dryout heat flux. The calculated results show that the stratification configuration of the debris beds with smaller particles and lower porosity layer resting on the top of another layer of the beds has profound effect on the dryout heat flux for the debris beds both with and without a downcomer. The enhancement of the dryout heat flux by the downcomer is significant. The efficiency of the single downcomer on the enhancement of the dryout heat flux is also analyzed. This, in general, agrees well with experimental data. The model is also employed to perform the assessment on the coolability of the ex-vessel debris bed under representative accidental conditions. One conservative case is chosen, and it is found that the downcomer could be efficient measure to cool the debris bed and hence terminate the severe accident. (authors)

  8. Retention of molten core debris pools in composite sacrificial beds. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, I K; Abdel-Khalik, S I


    Passive core catchers have been proposed as a means for retaining the core debris following a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. The core debris which may be in the form of a molten pool is passively retained in a sacrificial bed of high melting temperature material placed inside or outside the reactor vessel. Recently, it has been suggested that composite sacrificial beds with a low-melting-temperature zone inside the main high-melting-temperature bed may be more effective in retaining the pool than simple beds. It was argued that the inner zone would quickly melt and dilute the pool so that further growth into the main bed would be slowed. Hence, the main objective of this work has been to examine the composite bed concept to ascertain its efficacy vis-a-vis simple sacrificial beds.

  9. Internal structure of an ex-vessel corium debris bed during severe accidents of LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In the aspect of the coolability assessment the configuration of the debris bed, including internal and external characteristics, has significant importance as boundary conditions for simulations, however, relatively little investigation of the sedimentation process. For the development of a debris bed, recently there have been several studies that focused on thermal characteristics of corium particles. Yakush et al. performed simulation studies and showed that two phase natural convection affects the particle settling trajectory and changes the final arrival location of particles to result more flattened bed. Those simulation results have been supported by the experimental studies of Kim et al. using simulant particles and air bubble injection. For the internal structure of a debris bed, there have been several simulation and experimental studies, which investigated the effect of internal structure on debris bed coolability. Magallon has reported the particle size distribution at three elevations of the debris bed of FARO L-31 case, where the mean particle size was bigger for the lower elevation. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the characteristics of the debris bed, including the local structure and porosity. In this study, we investigated the internal structure of the debris bed using a mixture of stainless steel particles and air bubble injection. Local particle sedimentation quantity, particle size distribution change in radial direction and axial direction, and bed porosity was measured to investigate a relationship between the internal structure and the accident condition. An experimental investigation was carried out for the internal structure of ex-vessel corium debris bed in the flooded cavity during sever accident. Moderate corium discharge in high flooding level was assumed for full fragmentation of melt jet. The test particle mixture was prepared by following an empirical correlation, which reflects the particle size distribution of

  10. Positive feedback and momentum growth during debris-flow entrainment of wet bed sediment (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.; Reid, M.E.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Godt, J.W.; Griswold, J.P.


    Debris flows typically occur when intense rainfall or snowmelt triggers landslides or extensive erosion on steep, debris-mantled slopes. The flows can then grow dramatically in size and speed as they entrain material from their beds and banks, but the mechanism of this growth is unclear. Indeed, momentum conservation implies that entrainment of static material should retard the motion of the flows if friction remains unchanged. Here we use data from large-scale experiments to assess the entrainment of bed material by debris flows. We find that entrainment is accompanied by increased flow momentum and speed only if large positive pore pressures develop in wet bed sediments as the sediments are overridden by debris flows. The increased pore pressure facilitates progressive scour of the bed, reduces basal friction and instigates positive feedback that causes flow speed, mass and momentum to increase. If dryer bed sediment is entrained, however, the feedback becomes negative and flow momentum declines. We infer that analogous feedbacks could operate in other types of gravity-driven mass flow that interact with erodible beds. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid bed solids heater. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuit, L. C.


    A solids heater which operates at up to 2000 F was designed, fabricated, installed and operated through checkout at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center at Morgantown, West Virginia. The system, designated the 2000 F Fluid Bed Solids Heater (FBSH) uses a fluidized bed to heat limestone to 600 F and aluminium oxide or silicon carbide to 2000 F and discharges heated solids upon demand. The FBSH with added valve handling and pressurization equipment is known as the Valve Hot Solids Test Unit and is intended for use by the US Department of Energy for testing of valves for severe service applications in coal conversion and utilization processes. The FBSH as designed and supplied by Combustion Power Company includes process equipment, controls, the enclosing building and other associated equipment. In the 600 F range of operation it can circulate limestone through two valve test trains simultaneously on a continuous basis. Only one valve test train is used for 2000 F solids and operation in that range is also continuous. Limestone, crushed to minus 5/16 size, is heated, discharged, and recycled at a maximum average rate of 250 lb/min while aluminum oxide or silicon carbide, No. 8 grit, is circulated at rates up to 167 lb/min. The FBSH control system is designed for automatic operation, and capability is included for external computerized data acquisition and/or supervisory control. An operating and maintenance manual and as-built drawings have been submitted. This report describes the FBSH equipment, its design basis, and its operation. It has been prepared and submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number DIAC05-77ET10499.

  12. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)


    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  13. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail:; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho


    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  14. Review of the Technical Status on the Debris Bed Cooling Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Cho, Chung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum


    Preliminary safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 design have shown that the design has inherent safety characteristics and is capable of accommodating double-fault initiators such as ATWS events without coolant boiling or fuel melting. However, for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor, the evaluation of the safety performance and the determination of containment requirements may be worth due consideration of triple-fault accident sequences of extremely low probability of occurrence that leads to core melting. For any postulated accident sequence which leads to core melting, in-vessel retention of the core debris will be required as a design requirement for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor. Also, proof of the capacity of the debris bed cooling is an essential condition to solve the problem of in-vessel retention of the core debris. In this study, review of the technical status on the debris bed cooling model was carried out for in-vessel retention of the core debris0.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Particle Shape on Frictional Pressure drop in Particulate Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    To ensure the long-term cooling of corium in the reactor cavity, it is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated corium debris bed which is governed by pressure drop in porous media. For this reason, it is necessary to understand pressure drop mechanisms in porous bed to verify the feasibility of water penetration into particulate debris bed. According to the previous investigations on molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) experiments, it was found that quenched particulate debris bed was composed of irregular shape particles. Therefore, empirical or semiempirical models based on the Ergun equation (Ergun, 1952) for single-phase flow in porous media composed of single sized spherical particle were developed to consider the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop by means of adding a shape factor or modifying the Ergun constants etc. (Leva, 1959, Handley and Heggs, 1968, Macdonald, 1979, Foumeny et al., 1996). An experimental investigate on single-phase frictional pressure drop of water in packed bed was conducted in the transparent cylindrical test section with the inner diameter of 100 mm and the height of 700 mm to study the effect of particle shape on frictional pressure drop in porous media. This paper reports the experimental data for spherical particles with the diameter of 2 mm and 5 mm and cylindrical particles with ED of 2 mm and 5 mm. And also, the experimental data compared with the models to predict frictional pressure drop in particulate bed. The conclusions are summarized as follows. As a result of the experiment to measure frictional pressure drop in particulate bed composed of cylindrical particles the models predict the experimental data well within 22.11 % except the Handley and Heggs model when ED is applied to the models.

  16. COOLOCE debris bed experiments and simulations investigating the coolability of cylindrical beds with different materials and flow modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuo, E.; Kinnunen, T.; Holmstroem, S.; Lehtikuusi, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)


    The COOLOCE experiments aim at investigating the coolability of debris beds of different geometries, flow modes and materials. A debris bed may be formed of solidified corium as a result of a severe accident in a nuclear power reactor. The COOLOCE-8 test series consisted of experiments with a top-flooded test bed with irregular gravel as the simulant material. The objective was to produce comparison data useful in estimating the effects of different particle materials and the possible effect of the test arrangement on the results. It was found that the dryout heat flux (DHF) measured for the gravel was lower compared to previous experiments with spherical beads, and somewhat lower compared to the early STYX experiments. The difference between the beads and gravel is at least partially explained by the smaller average size of the gravel particles. The COOLOCE-9 test series included scoping experiments examining the effect of subcooling of the water pool in which the debris bed is immersed. The experiments with initially subcooled pool suggest that the subcooling may increase DHF and increase coolability. The aim of the COOLOCE-10 experiments was to investigate the effect of lateral flooding on the DHF a cylindrical test bed. The top of the test cylinder and its sidewall were open to water infiltration. It was found that the DHF is increased compared to a top-flooded cylinder by more than 50%. This suggests that coolability is notably improved. 2D simulations of the top-flooded test beds have been run with the MEWA code. Prior to the simulations, the effective particle diameter for the spherical beads and the irregular gravel was estimated by single-phase pressure loss measurements performed at KTH in Sweden. Parameter variations were done for particle size and porosity used as input in the models. It was found that with the measured effective particle diameter and porosity, the simulation models predict DHF with a relatively good accuracy in the case of spherical

  17. Elementary theory of bed-sediment entrainment by debris flows and avalanches (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Analyses of mass and momentum exchange between a debris flow or avalanche and an underlying sediment layer aid interpretations and predictions of bed-sediment entrainment rates. A preliminary analysis assesses the behavior of a Coulomb slide block that entrains bed material as it descends a uniform slope. The analysis demonstrates that the block's momentum can grow unstably, even in the presence of limited entrainment efficiency. A more-detailed, depth-integrated continuum analysis of interacting, deformable bodies identifies mechanical controls on entrainment efficiency, and shows that entrainment rates satisfy a jump condition that involves shear-traction and velocity discontinuities at the flow-bed boundary. Explicit predictions of the entrainment rateEresult from making reasonable assumptions about flow velocity profiles and boundary shear tractions. For Coulomb-friction tractions, predicted entrainment rates are sensitive to pore fluid pressures that develop in bed sediment as it is overridden. In the simplest scenario the bed sediment liquefies completely, and the entrainment-rate equation reduces toE = 2μ1gh1 cos θ(1 − λ1)/ , where θ is the slope angle, μ1 is the flow's Coulomb friction coefficient, h1 is its thickness, λ1 is its degree of liquefaction, and is its depth-averaged velocity. For values ofλ1ranging from 0.5 to 0.8, this equation predicts entrainment rates consistent with rates of 0.05 to 0.1 m/s measured in large-scale debris-flow experiments in which wet sediment beds liquefied almost completely. The propensity for bed liquefaction depends on several factors, including sediment porosity, permeability, and thickness, and rates of compression and shear deformation that occur when beds are overridden.


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    Full Text Available During a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (CDA in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR, degraded core materials can form roughly conically-shaped debris beds over the core-support structure and/or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel from rapid quenching and fragmentation of the core material pool. However, coolant boiling may ultimately lead to leveling of the debris bed, which is crucial to the relocation of the molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed. To clarify the mechanisms underlying this self-leveling behavior, a large number of experiments were performed within a variety of conditions in recent years, under the constructive collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA and Kyushu University (Japan. The present contribution synthesizes and gives detailed comparative analyses of those experiments. Effects of various experimental parameters that may have potential influence on the leveling process, such as boiling mode, particle size, particle density, particle shape, bubbling rate, water depth and column geometry, were investigated, thus giving a large palette of favorable data for the better understanding of CDAs, and improved verifications of computer models developed in advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes.

  19. Characteristics of Self-Leveling Behavior of Debris Beds in A Series of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Songbai; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Yuya, Nakamura; Bin, Zhang; Tatsuya, Matsumoto; Koji, Morita [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    During a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (CDA) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), degraded core materials can form roughly conically-shaped debris beds over the core-support structure and/or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel from rapid quenching and fragmentation of the core material pool. However, coolant boiling may ultimately lead to leveling of the debris bed, which is crucial to the relocation of the molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed. To clarify the mechanisms underlying this self-leveling behavior, a large number of experiments were performed within a variety of conditions in recent years, under the constructive collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Kyushu University (Japan). The present contribution synthesizes and gives detailed comparative analyses of those experiments. Effects of various experimental parameters that may have potential influence on the leveling process, such as boiling mode, particle size, particle density, particle shape, bubbling rate, water depth and column geometry, were investigated, thus giving a large palette of favorable data for the better understanding of CDAs, and improved verifications of computer models developed in advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes.

  20. Scoping Experiments for Pressure Drop Measurement for the Ex-Vessel Debris Bed Coolability in Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian [Nuclear Power Safety Division, Stockholm (Sweden)


    To ensure the long-term cooling of corium in the reactor cavity, it is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated corium debris bed governed by pressure drop in the porous media. According to the previous investigations on molten fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) experiments, the debris beds are expected to form channels in the bed due to intensive boiling and flow. And also, it was found that quenched particulate debris bed was composed of multi-sized (0∼10 mm), irregular shape particles and it has a micro/macro inhomogeneity such as axially and radially stratified debris bed, where a layer of smaller particles covers the main bed part. In this particulate debris bed with the internal heat generation by decay heat, not only co- but also counter-current two-phase flow may be occurred by the water inflow through sides of bed combined with steam outflow to top of bed. To investigate the effect of each characteristics of heterogeneous debris bed expected in real severe accident scenarios on pressure drop with various conditions, an experimental facility called as PICASSO (Pressure drop Investigation and Coolability ASSessment through Observation) facility was constructed. With the experimental facility, the scoping test was conducted as injecting upward air flow into the bottom of particle bed composed of 2 mm, 5 mm spherical SUJ-2 balls respectively, and the experimental data compared with Ergun equation. As a result of the single phase flow experiment using air, Ergun equation predicts the experimental data for the spherical particles with the diameter of 2 mm and 5 mm with a mean deviation of 14.62 %.

  1. Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt (United States)

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung


    The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.

  2. Comparison of Two Phase Pressure Drop Models in 1-D Top Flooded Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Eon; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    The dry out of coolant inside debris bed can be considered as the limitation of cooling in the conservative point of view and the heat flux through whole bed at the situation is named as Dryout Heat Flux (DHF). The modeling of DHF for debris bed started from early 1980s by several researchers. It is known that DHF mainly occurs by hydrodynamic limitation inside porous media. Therefore, there have been following attempts to capture flow resistance in porous media, precisely. Up to date, although there are about seven pressure drop models available in literatures, it is hard to find comparison of those models with a wide range of DHF experimental data. The one attempt[9] was conducted in 2013, but due to lack of consideration of the capillary pressure in his work, the DHF values that he calculated seem to be underestimated, especially in the range of the small particle diameter cases. In this research, the importance of capillary pressure in the comparison of pressure drop model with experimental data was checked and model selection among pressure drop models for the DHF calculation was also conducted. The model comparison with 108 experimental data from various conditions has been conducted and the Schmidt model shows the best agreement to the experimental data although Reed, Rahman model also show similar results.

  3. Experimental investigation on single-phase pressure losses in nuclear debris beds: Identification of flow regimes and effective diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavier, R., E-mail: [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) – PSN-RES/SEREX/LE2M, Cadarache bât. 327, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chikhi, N., E-mail: [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) – PSN-RES/SEREX/LE2M, Cadarache bât. 327, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fichot, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) – PSN-RES/SAG/LEPC, Cadarache bât. 700, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Quintard, M. [Université de Toulouse – INPT – UPS – Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS – IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)


    Highlights: • Single-phase pressure drops versus flow rates in particle beds are measured. • Conditions are representative of the reflooding of a nuclear fuel debris bed. • Darcy, weak inertial, strong inertial and weak turbulent regimes are observed. • A Darcy–Forchheimer law is found to be a good approximation in this domain. • A predictive correlation is derived from new experimental data. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the degradation of the reactor core can lead to the formation of debris beds. The main accident management procedure consists in injecting water inside the reactor vessel. Nevertheless, large uncertainties remain regarding the coolability of such debris beds. Motivated by the reduction of these uncertainties, experiments have been conducted on the CALIDE facility in order to investigate single-phase pressure losses in representative debris beds. In this paper, these results are presented and analyzed in order to identify a simple single-phase flow pressure loss correlation for debris-bed-like particle beds in reflooding conditions, which cover Darcean to Weakly Turbulent flow regimes. The first part of this work is dedicated to study macro-scale pressure losses generated by debris-bed-like particle beds, i.e., high sphericity (>80%) particle beds with relatively small size dispersion (from 1 mm to 10 mm). A Darcy–Forchheimer law, involving the sum of a linear term and a quadratic deviation, with respect to filtration velocity, has been found to be relevant to describe this behavior in Darcy, Strong Inertial and Weak Turbulent regimes. It has also been observed that, in a restricted domain (Re = 15 to Re = 30) between Darcy and Weak Inertial regimes, deviation is better described by a cubic term, which corresponds to the so-called Weak Inertial regime. The second part of this work aims at identifying expressions for coefficients of linear and quadratic terms in Darcy–Forchheimer law, in order to obtain a

  4. Investigation of flow regime in debris bed formation behavior with nonspherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Cheng


    Full Text Available It is important to clarify the characteristics of flow regimes underlying the debris bed formation behavior that might be encountered in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Although in our previous publications, by applying dimensional analysis technique, an empirical model, with its reasonability confirmed over a variety of parametric conditions, has been successfully developed to predict the regime transition and final bed geometry formed, so far this model is restricted to predictions of debris mixtures composed of spherical particles. Focusing on this aspect, in this study a new series of experiments using nonspherical particles have been conducted. Based on the knowledge and data obtained, an extension scheme is suggested with the purpose of extending the base model to cover the particle-shape influence. Through detailed analyses and given our current range of experimental conditions, it is found that, by coupling the base model with this scheme, respectable agreement between experiments and model predictions for the regime transition can be achieved for both spherical and nonspherical particles. Knowledge and evidence from our work might be utilized for the future improvement of design of an in-vessel core catcher as well as the development and verification of sodium-cooled fast reactor severe accident analysis codes in China.

  5. Developments in fluidized bed conversion of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckner Bo


    Full Text Available A summary is given on the development of fluidized bed conversion (combustion and gasification of solid fuels. First, gasification is mentioned, following the line of development from the Winkler gasifier to recent designs. The combustors were initially bubbling beds, which were found unsuitable for combustion of coal because of various drawbacks, but they proved more useful for biomass where these drawbacks were absent. Instead, circulating fluidized bed boilers became the most important coal converters, whose design now is quite mature, and presently the increments in size and efficiency are the most important development tasks. The new modifications of these conversion devices are related to CO2 capture. Proposed methods with this purpose, involving fluidized bed, are single-reactor systems like oxy-fuel combustion, and dual-reactor systems, including also indirect biomass gasifiers.

  6. Enviromental and Social Impact of the Pouring of Solid Waste and Debris About the Quality of the Medellin River and Some of its Affluents


    Carvajal Flórez, Elizabeth; Ingeniera Ambiental Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Magíster en Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia. Docente Institución Universitaria


    This research aims at evaluating the influence of the pouring of home solid waste and debris about the quality of the Medellin River and some of its main tributaries such as the La Hueso, La Iguaná and La García streams, under sanitary, environmental, and social criteria. A theoretical-practical method was used, which deals the issue of the inadequate disposal of home waste and debris on the hillsides and beds of streams being the object of the study, establishing in the social reality a trut...

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Spherical Particle Size Distribution on Frictional Pressure drop in Particulate Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eunho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated debris bed which is governed by pressure drop in debris bed to assure the long-term cooling of debris bed on the cavity floor. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the pressure drop mechanism in porous bed that can be characterized by physical parameters that include porosity, particle morphology, particle size distribution etc. According to previous investigations on molten fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiment, the settled particulate debris bed after fuel-coolant interaction were stratified and it was composed of multi-sized particles with irregular shape. (Karbojian et al., 2009; Magallon, 2006). Among these characteristics of debris bed, this study focused on the effect of particle size distribution on frictional pressure drop in bed. The experiment using single-phase water was conducted to investigate the effect of spherical particle size distribution on frictional pressure drop in mixed bed. This study reports the experimental data for measured frictional pressure drops in bed according to the particle Reynolds number. It is composed of multi-sized spherical particles whose sizes are varied from 1 mm to 10 mm. Besides, the experimental data is compared to the Ergun equation with the mean particle diameters (mass, area, length, and number mean diameters). The results of this study are also compared to those of KTH published in 2011. The conclusions are summarized as follows. The calculated mean particle diameters can be changed according to chosen particle sizes and those mass fractions even though the cumulative mass fractions are almost similar trend. As results of obtaining the effective diameter in mixed using measured frictional pressure drops and the Ergun equation, it is close to the length mean diameter when the particle Reynolds number is lower than 7, however, it has the value between the length mean diameter and the area mean diameter when the particle

  8. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta


    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  9. Application of the porous medium heat transfer model of ICARE/CATHARE code against debris bed and 'bundle' experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, G. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ederli, St. [Ente per le Nuove Technologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente (ENEA) (Italy)


    ICARE/CATHARE code is developed by the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' to simulate Nuclear Reactor behaviour during the course of a Loss of Cooling accident up to the core melting. The assessment of the heat transfer model in porous medium has been performed against experiments performed in ACRR (SNL-USA) and in Phebus reactors (at Cadarache - France). Calculation versus experiment results indicate a good agreement for the thermal behaviour. The heat transfers inside solid debris bed can be well predicted using the Imura-Yagi correlation to calculate the debris bed equivalent thermal conductivity in a wide range of particles size. In the case of 'Rod like geometry' calculations, the fuel rod assembly was modelled assuming several rings of fuel rods, with heat transfer including radiative phenomena using view factors between rods. An alternative modelling has been used considering the fuel rods as a porous medium with with pure UO{sub 2} spherical particles of 1 cm diameter and a total porosity representative of the fuel bundle inside a cylindrical shroud. With this approach (heat exchanges accounted for with the Imura-Yagi correlation), the radial gradient calculated in a small bundle was significantly increased, from a few degrees (with the previous modelling) to about 150/200 K at 2273 K. This modelling has been recently improved, to account for the heat transfer inside a fuel rod bundle, by a specific model based on an electrical analogy, considering the porous medium as a cluster of true cylinders. (authors)

  10. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi


    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  11. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.


    A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is ...

  12. Effect of partial wetting on liquid/solid mass transfer in trickle bed reactors


    Baussaron, Loïc; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Boyer, Christophe; Wilhelm, Anne-Marie; Delmas, Henri


    The wetting efficiency of liquid trickle flow over a fixed bed reactor has been measured for a wide range of parameters including operating conditions, bed structure and physico-chemistry of liquid/solid phases. This data bank has been used to develop a new correlation for averaged wetting efficiency based on five different non-dimensional numbers. Finally liquid/solid mass transfer has been determined in partial wetting conditions to analyse what are the respective effects of wetting and ...

  13. Hydrodynamic studies of the flow of fine particles through a fluidized dense bed of coarse solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, J.


    This study explains the hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, the Battelle Multi-Solids Fluidized Bed System (MSFB). It consists of a circulating fluidized bed of fine particles superimposed on a bubbling bed of coarse solids. One way to characterize such a system is to describe the mechanism of gas-solid flow through the bed. The gas flow in systems like these is through bubbles or slugs (regions of voids containing little or no solids). Bubbles are typically characterized by their size (length or diameter), their rise velocity, and their frequency. Another task of the initial phase of this study is to characterize an L-valve, a solids-recirculating device commonly used in an MSFB. Next, the mechanism of fine particle movement through a bubbling region of coarse fluidized solids is studied in considerable detail. Bubble characteristics are studied in a variety of systems of coarse particles with fines passing through at high velocity. Amongst numerous optical, electrical and other techniques available for the study of the passage of bubbles, the pressure fluctuation technique is the most robust. In this investigation, pressure probes are connected to pressure transducers which are in turn linked to an on-line data acquisition system supported on a microcomputer. A commercially available software package (Notebook) is used to sample pressure at specified points in the fluidized bed at extremely fast rates, of up to 200 Hz. This resulted in pressure-time traces which are analysed to give bubble length, bubble rise velocity, and bubble frequency. Another important objective of this study is to estimate the fine particle residence time in the dense bed section. A defluidization technique is utilized in experimentally measuring the solids holdup in the dense bed. A mathematical model is developed from first principles, based on a momentum balance on the fine particles.

  14. Experimental and CFD study on the hydrodynamic characters of dense liquid-solid fluidized bed (United States)

    Liu, Guodong; Lu, Huilin; Wang, Peng; Tang, Si; Wang, Shuai


    In a recent study the bed expansion height and liquid phase velocity was measured for liquid-solid fluidized bed with 0.10 m in diameter and 1.037m in height. Liquid flow velocity measurements were performed using the ultrasonic technique. Measurements of the bed expansion height were conducted by a graph paper marked along the length of the column. The Eulerian-Eulerian framework was employed in the CFD simulation of liquid hydrodynamics and solid motion in liquid fluidized bed. The typical flow pattern of the liquid-solid fluidized bed was obtained in the present calculation, i.e., the core annular flow pattern and back mixing near the wall region. Different fluid-particle drag models, virtual mass force and lift force effects were studied in the simulation. Also, comparisons of different restitution coefficients for particle-particle collisions as well as particle-wall interactions have been carried out to study the effect of particle collisions on solid concentration distributions, and a comprehensive CFD methodology is proposed to simulate the hydrodynamics of liquid-solid fluidized bed. A good agreement was demonstrated between CFD simulation results and experimental findings.

  15. What does control debris-flow channel-bed erosion? A LiDAR-based change detection compared to velocity, momentum and pressure derived from a calibrated model. (United States)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael


    Erosion capacity and bedrock incision of debris flows are poorly understood. Here we present a unique study of a recent debris-flow event (06/2015) in the Allgaeu Alps (Germany). More than 50 terrestrial laser scan positions (TLS) of a mountain torrent (1.2 km) have been used to detect geomorphic change by comparing the new elevation model to an airborne laser scan (ALS) performed in 2007. It shows that the debris flow incised up to 4 m into the channel-bed, resulting in an erosion volume of 9.700 ± 1.600 m3 and a deposition volume of 1.200 ± 300 m3 in the channel. Errors were considered by a spatial variable threshold based on the point density of the ALS and TLS as well as the slopes of the DEMs. A numerical single-phase model (RAMMS Debris Flow) was carefully calibrated with detailed field data. The derived velocity, pressure and momentum of the model were compared to the geomorphic change. It shows that all three parameters explain erosion by more than 50 %. The results contribute to better define the possibilities and limitations of a combined TLS and ALS analysis for geomorphic change detection in complex terrain. The explanation of the erosion capacity with simulated parameters of a debris flow might be revolutionary for upcoming predictions of potential future debris-flow volumes.

  16. Exchange between the stagnant and flowing zone in gas-flowing solids-fixed bed contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In countercurrent gas – flowing solids – fixed bed contactors, a fraction of the flowing solids is in motion (dynamic holdup, while the other fraction is resting on the fixed bed elements. In this study it was experimentally proved that the stagnant zone should not be considered as a dead part of the column, but that there is a dynamic exchange between these two portions of flowing solids particles. Combining a mathematical model with tracer experiments, the rate of exchange was determined and it was shown that only a small part (ca. 20 % of the stagnant region should be considered as a dead one.

  17. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen [URS Corporation; Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Benyahia, Sofiane [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of gas-solids flow. In this study, a model for specularity coefficient used in Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions by Li and Benyahia (AIChE Journal, 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable specularity coefficient model provides a physical way to calculate the specularity coefficient needed by the partial-slip boundary conditions for the solids phase. Through a series of 2-D numerical simulations of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed riser, the model predicts qualitatively consistent trends to the previous studies. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison is conducted between numerical results of variable and constant specularity coefficients to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal variations in specularity coefficient.

  18. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  19. A simplified approach to the drying of solids in a batch fluidised bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srinivasakannan


    Full Text Available A simplified model for drying solids in the constant rate period in a batch fluidised bed was developed.It assumes the bed to be divided into dense and bubble phases with heat and mass transfer between the phases.The model predicts the constant-rate drying period, provided the fluid bed shape and material characteristics are known.The model is compared with experimental data reported in the literature covering a wide range of materials, gas flow rates, column diameters, material hold-ups, air temperatures and humidities.Model predictions compare satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  20. DEM-CFD simulation of purge gas flow in a solid breeder pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Guo, Haibing [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)


    Solid tritium breeding blanket applying pebble bed concept is promising for fusion reactors. Tritium bred in the pebble bed is purged out by inert gas. The flow characteristics of the purge gas are important for the tritium transport from the solid breeder materials. In this study, a randomly packed pebble bed was generated by Discrete Element Method (DEM) and verified by radial porosity distribution. The flow parameters of the purge gas in channels were solved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The results show that the normalized velocity magnitudes have the same damped oscillating patterns with radial porosity distribution. Besides, the bypass flow near the wall cannot be ignored in this model, and it has a slight increase with inlet velocity. Furthermore, higher purging efficiency becomes with higher inlet velocity and especially higher in near wall region.

  1. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  2. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  3. Tracing the contribution of debris flow-dominated channels to gravel-bed torrential river channel: implementing pit-tags in the upper Guil River (French Alps) (United States)

    Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoit; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    In the upper, wider reaches of Alpine valleys, shaping of active channels is usually subject to rapid change. It mostly depends upon hydro-climatic variability, runoff concentration and sediment supply, and may result in alternating sequences of fluvial and debris-flow pulses, as recorded in alluvial fans and terraces. Our study, carried in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, focuses on the upper Guil River Valley (Queyras, Southern French Alps) cut into the slaty shale "schistes lustrés". Steep, lower order drains carry a contrasted solid discharge, including predominantly sandy-loam particles mixed with gravels and boulders (sandstone schists, ophiolites). Abundant sediment supply by frost shattering, snow avalanche and landslides is then reworked during snowmelt or summer storm runoff events, and may result in catastrophic, very destructive floods along the main channel, as shown by historical records. Following the RI-30 year 2000 flood, our investigations included sediment budgets, i.e. balance of erosion and deposition, and the mapping of the source, transport and storage of various sediments (talus, colluvium, torrential fans, terraces). To better assess sediment fluxes and sediment delivery into the main channel network, we implemented tracers (pit-tags) in selected sub-catchments, significantly contributing to the sediment yield of the valley bottoms during the floods and/or avalanches: Maloqueste, Combe Morel, Bouchouse and Peyronnelle catchments. The first three are direct tributaries of the Guil River whereas the Peyronnelle is a left bank tributary of the Peynin River, which joins the Guil River via an alluvial cone with high human and material stakes. The Maloqueste and the Combe Morel are two tributaries facing each other in the Guil valley, representing a double lateral constraint for the road during flood events of the Guil River. After pit-tag initialisation in laboratory, we set them up along the four tributaries: Maloqueste (20 pit-tags), Combe


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S


    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

  5. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal


    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  6. Simulation of fluid-solid coupling flow of coal-bed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Liu, J.; Yang, J.; Zeng, M. [Tiandi Science and Technology Co. Ltd., Beijing (China). Coal Mining Branch


    Combining the fluid mechanics in porous media with the theory of elastic-plastic theory, and considering the interaction between deformation of coal framework and coal-bed flow, the mathematical models of coal-bed methane fluid-solid coupling flow and its numerical solution are given. Using finite element method the equations of fluid flow and coal framework deformation are dispersed. The functional equations were also given. Based on the FEM principle, the method to solving the coupling is developed. Lastly, a case study is carried out, and its simulation results show that the theory set out in this paper is correct. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Fixed bed pyrolysis of biomass solid waste for bio-oil (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Ali, Mohamed Hairol Md; Haziq, Miftah


    Biomass solid waste in the form of rice husk particle is pyrolyzed in a fixed bed stainless steel pyrolysis reactor of 50 mm diameter and 50 cm length. The biomass solid feedstock is prepared prior to pyrolysis. The reactor bed is heated by means of a cylindrical heater of biomass source. A temperature of 500°C is maintained with an apperent vapor residence time of 3-5 sec. The products obtained are liquid bio-oil, solid char and gases. The liquid product yield is found to be 30% by weight of solid biomass feedstock while the solid product yield is found to be 35% by weight of solid biomass feedtock, the rest is gas. The bio-oil is a single-phase brownish color liquid of acrid smell. The heating value of the oil is determined to be 25 MJ/kg. The density and pH value are found to be 1.125 kg/m3 and 3.78 respectively.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Four- Phase Flow (Water–Gasoline-Air-Solid in a Fluidized Bed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh S. Al-Turaihi


    Full Text Available In this paper four phase fluidized bed is experimentally built and numerically modeled to study the bed characteristics such as ratio (the static bed height of solid particle / the bed diameter (H/D, air, gasoline , and water superficial velocity. The test pipe for the experimental rig is Perspex pipe with 1 m long and 0.0254 m diameter. The 2D numerical model has been established with Ansys fluent 15.0. Pressure drop equation is found to relate the pressure drop with the bed parameters with deviation of 22%. The Four-phases was represented by air, water, gasoline and solid particle. The results show that the pressure of the bed increases as the ratio H/D increases and air, gasoline , and water superficial velocity increases. As well as the expansion of the bed increases as air, gasoline, and water superficial velocity increases.

  9. Manufacturing Solid Dosage Forms from Bulk Liquids Using the Fluid-bed Drying Technology. (United States)

    Qi, Jianping; Lu, Y I; Wu, Wei


    Solid dosage forms are better than liquid dosage forms in many ways, such as improved physical and chemical stability, ease of storage and transportation, improved handling properties, and patient compliance. Therefore, it is required to transform dosage forms of liquid origins into solid dosage forms. The functional approaches are to absorb the liquids by solid excipients or through drying. The conventional drying technologies for this purpose include drying by heating, vacuum-, freeze- and spray-drying, etc. Among these drying technologies, fluidbed drying emerges as a new technology that possesses unique advantages. Fluid-bed drying or coating is highly efficient in solvent removal, can be performed at relatively low temperatures, and is a one-step process to manufacture formulations in pellet forms. In this article, the status of the art of manufacturing solid dosage forms from bulk liquids by fluid-bed drying technology was reviewed emphasizing on its application in solid dispersion, inclusion complexes, self-microemulsifying systems, and various nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  10. Numerical investigation of solid mixing in a fluidized bed coating process (United States)

    Kenche, Venkatakrishna; Feng, Yuqing; Ying, Danyang; Solnordal, Chris; Lim, Seng; Witt, Peter J.


    Fluidized beds are widely used in many process industries including the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Despite being an intensive research area, there are no design rules or correlations that can be used to quantitatively predict the solid mixing in a specific system for a given set of operating conditions. This paper presents a numerical study of the gas and solid dynamics in a laboratory scale fluidized bed coating process used for food and pharmaceutical industries. An Eulerian-Eulerian model (EEM) with kinetic theory of granular flow is selected as the modeling technique, with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS/Fluent being the numerical platform. The flow structure is investigated in terms of the spatial distribution of gas and solid flow. The solid mixing has been evaluated under different operating conditions. It was found that the solid mixing rate in the horizontal direction is similar to that in the vertical direction under the current design and operating conditions. It takes about 5 s to achieve good mixing.

  11. Hydrodynamic Modelling of Municipal Solid Waste Residues in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW gasification in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. A multiphase 2-D numerical model following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach within the FLUENT framework was implemented. User defined functions (UDFs were coupled to improve hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena, and to minimize deviations between the experimental and numerical results. A grid independence study was accomplished through comparison of the bed volume fraction profiles and by reasoning the grid accuracy and computational cost. The standard deviation concept was used to determine the mixing quality indexes. Simulated results showed that UDFs improvements increased the accuracy of the mathematical model. Smaller size ratio of the MSW-dolomite mixture revealed a more uniform mixing, and larger ratios enhanced segregation. Also, increased superficial gas velocity promoted the solid particles mixing. Heat transfer within the fluidized bed showed strong dependence on the MSW solid particles sizes, with smaller particles revealing a more effective process.

  12. Local CFD kinetic model of cadmium vaporization during fluid bed incineration of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, J. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Gauthier, D., E-mail: [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Falcoz, Q.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Mazza, G. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)


    Highlights: ► A 2-D local CFD model for simulating the Cd vaporization process is presented. ► It includes a kinetic expression of Cd vaporization into the incineration process. ► Pyrolysis, volatiles’ combustion and residual carbon combustion are also taken into account. ► It fits very well the experimental results obtained on a lab-scale fluidized bed reported in literature. ► It also compares favorably with a model developed previously by the group. -- Abstract: The emissions of heavy metals during incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are a major issue to health and the environment. It is then necessary to well quantify these emissions in order to accomplish an adequate control and prevent the heavy metals from leaving the stacks. In this study the kinetic behavior of Cadmium during Fluidized Bed Incineration (FBI) of artificial MSW pellets, for bed temperatures ranging from 923 to 1073 K, was modeled. FLUENT 12.1.4 was used as the modeling framework for the simulations and implemented together with a complete set of user-defined functions (UDFs). The CFD model combines the combustion of a single solid waste particle with heavy metal (HM) vaporization from the burning particle, and it takes also into account both pyrolysis and volatiles’ combustion. A kinetic rate law for the Cd release, derived from the CFD thermal analysis of the combusting particle, is proposed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator reported in literature, and with the predicted values from a particulate non-isothermal model, formerly developed by the authors. The comparison shows that the proposed CFD model represents very well the evolution of the HM release for the considered range of bed temperature.

  13. Validation of a model for process development and scale-up of packed-bed solid-state bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.; Oostra, J.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.


    We have validated our previously described model for scale-up of packed-bed solid-state fermenters (Weber et al., 1999) with experiments in an adiabatic 15-dm3 packed-bed reactor, using the fungi Coniothyrium minitans and Aspergillus oryzae. Effects of temperature on respiration, growth, and

  14. Particle resolved simulations of liquid/solid and gas/solid fluidized beds (United States)

    Esteghamatian, Amir; Hammouti, Abdelkader; Lance, Michel; Wachs, Anthony


    The present work studies particle resolved simulations of liquid/solid and gas/solid fluidization in a cuboid domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions. The focus is on investigating particles' dynamics, while a particular care is devoted to the spatial grid resolution and statistical time convergence of the results. A statistical analysis of particles' motion and fluid fluctuations asserts the intrinsic differences in the flow characteristics and mixing properties of these two configurations. Results reveal anisotropic mechanisms driving particles' motion and highlight the dominance of diffusive and convective mechanisms in liquid/solid and gas/solid regimes, respectively. Following a framework similar to that of Nicolai et al. ["Particle velocity fluctuations and hydrodynamic self-diffusion of sedimenting non-Brownian spheres," Phys. Fluids 7(1), 12-23 (1995)], we estimate the correlation time and the fluctuation length of particles' motion. A force budget analysis is discussed to gain more insight into the role of collision in isotropization of the system. Owing to the wide range of employed grid resolutions and accurate error analysis, the present dataset is also deemed to be useful in calibrating the grid resolution for a desired accuracy of the solution in a fluidization configuration.

  15. Controlling thermal properties of dense gas fluidized beds for concentrated solar power by internal and external solids circulation (United States)

    Ammendola, Paola; Bareschino, Piero; Chirone, Riccardo; Salatino, Piero; Solimene, Roberto


    Fluidization technology displays a long record of success stories, mostly related to applications to thermal and thermochemical processes, which are fostering extension to novel and relatively unexplored fields. Application of fluidized beds to collection and thermal storage of solar radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising, a field which poses challenging issues and great opportunities to fluidization scientists and technologists. The potential of this growing field calls for reconsideration of some of the typical design and operation guidelines and criteria, with the goal of exploiting the inherently good thermal performances of gas-fluidized beds at their best. "Creative" and non-conventional design and operation of fluidized beds, like those based on internal and external solids circulation, may be beneficial to the enhancement of thermal diffusivity and surface-to-bed heat transfer, improving the potential for application in the very demanding context of CSP with thermal energy storage. This paper investigated: i) a fluidized bed configuration with an uneven distribution of the fluidizing gas to promote vortices in the scale of bed height (internal solids circulation); ii) a dual fluidized bed configuration characterized by an external solids circulation achieved by the operation of a riser and a bubbling fluidized bed. CFD simulations showed the hydrodynamics conditions under which the internal solids circulation was established. The hydrodynamic characterization of the external solids circulation was achieved by an experimental study carried out with different cold models. The dual fluidized bed system was optimized in terms of operating conditions and geometrical features of the connections between two fluidized beds.

  16. Hydrodynamics of a dual fluidized-bed gasifier. Part 2: Simulation of solid circulation rate, pressure loop and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, S.; Loeffler, G.; Bosch, K.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Fuel Technology and Environmental Technology, Vienna (Austria)


    This paper focuses on the determination of the solids circulation of a CFB gasification system with a dual fluidized bed concept, and the distribution of the solid hold up under different fluidization conditions. A mathematical model of the riser was designed and implemented in a model of a dual fluidized bed system. This model contains routines for calculation of each section of the dual fluidized bed system. The behaviour of the system was analysed regarding changes in solid inventory and variations of geometry. A diagram is presented which allows an illustration of the influence of changes in the dual fluidized bed system configuration on the resulting stable operation points. Analysis concerning the effect of counter pressure on the combustion and gasification side confirms the role of the seal loop in stabilizing the operation of the gasification system. (Author)

  17. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia in a novel reactor called the floating gas-solid fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwant, G.J.; Kwant, G.J.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    The floating gas-solid fluidized bed (FGSFB) is a new type of gas-solid contacting device described earlier by Kwant et al. (Fluidization VII, Proc. 7th Engng Foud. Conf. on Fluidization, Brisbane, May, 1992). It is a tapered column provided with several coarse grids, in which catalyst particles are


    The two papers provide a general overview of the Ogden circulating bed combustion and summary data of both PCB laden soils for EPA-TSCA and a test on RCRA liquid organic wastes for the California Air Resources Board (CARB). This abstract will discuss the results of the PCB...

  20. Experimental study on flow behavior in a gas-solid fluidized bed for the methanol-to-olefins process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.; Li, T.; Fang, D.Y. [Engineering Research Center of Large Scale Reactor Engineering and Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Sun, Q.W. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Liquefaction and Coal Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China); Ying, W.Y.


    A cold model experimental system is established to investigate the flow behavior in a gas-solid fluidized bed for the methanol-to-olefins process catalyzed by SAPO-34. The system comprises a gas distributor in a F 300 x 5000 mm acrylic column, double fiber optic probe system and a series of cyclones. The experiments are carried out under conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature with different superficial velocities (0.3930-0.7860 m s{sup -1}) and different initial bed heights (600-1200 mm). The effects of radial distance, axial distance, superficial gas velocity, and initial bed height on the solid concentration and particle velocity in the bed are discussed. The time-averaged solid concentration and rising particle velocity profiles under different conditions are obtained. The results show that an increase in the value of r/R or initial bed height results in an increase in the solid concentration but a decrease in the rising particle velocity in the dense phase area, while improvement of the superficial gas velocity has a negative influence on the solid concentration but results in an increase in the rising particle velocity. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Numerical simulation of flow hydrodynamics of struvite pellets in a liquid-solid fluidized bed. (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Chu, Dongyuan; Lou, Yaoyin; Ye, Zhi-Long; Wang, Ming Kuang; Chen, Shaohua


    Phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite has been aroused in recent decades for its dual advantages in eutrophication control and resource protection. The usage of the struvite products is normally determined by the size which is largely depended on the hydrodynamics. In this study, flow behavior of struvite pellets was simulated by means of Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model combining with kinetic theory of granular flow in a liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor (FBR). A parametric study including the mesh size, time step, discretization strategy, turbulent model and drag model was first developed, followed by the evaluations of crucial operational conditions, particle characteristics and reactor shapes. The results showed that a cold model with the mesh resolution of 16×240, default time step of 0.001sec and first order discretization scheme was accurate enough to describe the fluidization. The struvite holdup profile using Syamlal-O'Brien drag model was best fitted to the experimental data as compared with other drag models and the empirical Richardson-Zaki equation. Regarding the model evaluation, it showed that liquid velocity and particle size played important roles on both solid holdups and velocities. The reactor diameter only influenced the solid velocity while the static bed height almost took no effect. These results are direct and can be applied to guide the operation and process control of the struvite fluidization. Moreover, the model parameters can also be used as the basic settings in further crystallization simulations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Coupling scales for modelling heavy metal vaporization from municipal solid waste incineration in a fluid bed by CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, José, E-mail: [Institute for Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energies (PROBIEN, CONICET – UNCo), 1400 Buenos Aires St., 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Gauthier, Daniel; Flamant, Gilles [Processes, Materials and Solar Energy Laboratory (PROMES-CNRS, UPR 8521), 7 Four Solaire Street, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Rodriguez, Rosa [Chemical Engineering Institute, National University of San Juan, 1109 Libertador (O) Avenue, 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Mazza, Germán [Institute for Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energies (PROBIEN, CONICET – UNCo), 1400 Buenos Aires St., 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)


    Highlights: • A CFD two-scale model is formulated to simulate heavy metal vaporization from waste incineration in fluidized beds. • MSW particle is modelled with the macroscopic particle model. • Influence of bed dynamics on HM vaporization is included. • CFD predicted results agree well with experimental data reported in literature. • This approach may be helpful for fluidized bed reactor modelling purposes. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) in fluidized bed is a very interesting technology mainly due to high combustion efficiency, great flexibility for treating several types of waste fuels and reduction in pollutants emitted with the flue gas. However, there is a great concern with respect to the fate of heavy metals (HM) contained in MSW and their environmental impact. In this study, a coupled two-scale CFD model was developed for MSWI in a bubbling fluidized bed. It presents an original scheme that combines a single particle model and a global fluidized bed model in order to represent the HM vaporization during MSW combustion. Two of the most representative HM (Cd and Pb) with bed temperatures ranging between 923 and 1073 K have been considered. This new approach uses ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 as the modelling platform for the simulations along with a complete set of self-developed user-defined functions (UDFs). The simulation results are compared to the experimental data obtained previously by the research group in a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator. The comparison indicates that the proposed CFD model predicts well the evolution of the HM release for the bed temperatures analyzed. It shows that both bed temperature and bed dynamics have influence on the HM vaporization rate. It can be concluded that CFD is a rigorous tool that provides valuable information about HM vaporization and that the original two-scale simulation scheme adopted allows to better represent the actual particle behavior in a fluid bed incinerator.

  3. Kinetic vaporization of heavy metals during fluidized bed thermal treatment of municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng


    Heavy metals volatilization during thermal treatment of model solid waste was theoretically and experimentally investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. Lead, cadmium, zinc and copper, the most four conventional heavy metals were investigated. Particle temperature model and metal diffusion model were established to simulate the volatilization of CdCl(2) evaporation and investigate the possible influencing factors. The diffusion coefficient, porosity and particle size had significant effects on metal volatilization. The higher diffusion coefficient and porosity resulted in the higher metal evaporation. The influence of redox conditions, HCl, water and mineral matrice were also investigated experimentally. The metal volatilization can be promoted by the injection of HCl, while oxygen played a negative role. The diffusion process of heavy metals within particles also had a significant influence on kinetics of their vaporization. The interaction between heavy metals and mineral matter can decrease metal evaporation amount by forming stable metallic species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Time series analysis of pressure fluctuation in gas-solid fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alberto S. Felipe


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to study the differentiation of states of typical fluidization (single bubble, multiple bubble and slugging in a gas-solid fluidized bed, using spectral analysis of pressure fluctuation time series. The effects of the method of measuring (differential and absolute pressure fluctuations and the axial position of the probes in the fluidization column on the identification of each of the regimes studied were evaluated. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT was the mathematic tool used to analysing the data of pressure fluctuations, which expresses the behavior of a time series in the frequency domain. Results indicated that the plenum chamber was a place for reliable measurement and that care should be taken in measurement in the dense phase. The method allowed fluid dynamic regimes to be differentiated by their dominant frequency characteristics.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  6. Artificial neural network based modelling approach for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Pandey, Daya Shankar; Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Leahy, James J; Kwapinski, Witold


    In this paper, multi-layer feed forward neural networks are used to predict the lower heating value of gas (LHV), lower heating value of gasification products including tars and entrained char (LHVp) and syngas yield during gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) during gasification in a fluidized bed reactor. These artificial neural networks (ANNs) with different architectures are trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) back-propagation algorithm and a cross validation is also performed to ensure that the results generalise to other unseen datasets. A rigorous study is carried out on optimally choosing the number of hidden layers, number of neurons in the hidden layer and activation function in a network using multiple Monte Carlo runs. Nine input and three output parameters are used to train and test various neural network architectures in both multiple output and single output prediction paradigms using the available experimental datasets. The model selection procedure is carried out to ascertain the best network architecture in terms of predictive accuracy. The simulation results show that the ANN based methodology is a viable alternative which can be used to predict the performance of a fluidized bed gasifier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum


    Full Text Available Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW (wood. The experimental measurement of syngas composition was done using a pilot scale gasifier. A numerical model was developed using Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen Plus software. Several Aspen Plus reactor blocks were used along with user defined FORTRAN and Excel code. The model was validated with experimental results. The study found very similar performance between simulation and experimental results, with a maximum variation of 3%. The validated model was used to study the effect of air-fuel and steam-fuel ratio on syngas composition. The model will be useful to predict the various operating parameters of a pilot scale SW gasification plant, such as temperature, pressure, air-fuel ratio and steam-fuel ratio. Therefore, the model can assist researchers, professionals and industries to identify optimized conditions for SW gasification.

  8. Occurrence of bromine in fluidised bed combustion of solid recovered fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainikka, P.


    Corrosive ash species are the single most important factor limiting the electric efficiency of steam boiler plants fired with waste or biomass. Chlorine has been found to have a central role in the chemistry involved as it reduces the melting temperature of ash, forms corrosive vapour and gas species in the furnace and halogenated deposits on boiler heat transfer surfaces. In this context chlorine has been extensively researched. At the time of writing this thesis there was hardly any published data available on the occurrence of bromine (Br) in the aforementioned context. The objective of this work was to review the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels and characterise the behaviour of bromine in full-scale fluidised bed combustion. The review on the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels revealed that in anthropogenic wastes bromine is mainly found in connection to flame retarded substances. Several weight percentages of bromine can be found in plastics treated with brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Bromine is typically found some 100-200 mg kg-1 in mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW). Bromine may be enriched in fuels with high share of plastics, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF) or refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 2000 mg kg-1 was found as a monthly average in SRF, typical levels being 20-200 mg kg-1. Wastewater sludge from paper mills may contain bromine 20-100 mg kg-1 due the use of bromine based biocides. In other fuels bromine may be found in significant amounts in marine influenced coal deposits and peat as well as in biomass treated with brominated pesticides. In the experimental part SRF, spruce bark and wastewater sludge from a paper mill were co-fired in a full- scale bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler, and the collected fuels, aerosols and waterwall deposits were analysed with the focus on the fate of bromine. Bromine was mainly found to form water soluble high vapour pressure alkali metal halides in the furnace - in the form of KBr(g) and NaBr(g) as

  9. Energy coupling in short pulse laser solid interactions and its impact for space debris removal. (United States)

    Neely, David; Allott, Ric; Bingham, Bob; Collier, John; Greenhalgh, Justin; Michaelis, Max; Phillips, Jonathan; Phipps, Claude R; McKenna, Paul


    Significant advances have been made over the last decade to improve the performance, efficiency, and contrast of high peak and average power laser systems, driven by their use in a wide variety of fields, from the industrial to the scientific. As the contrast of the lasers has improved, interactions with contrasts of 1012 are now routinely undertaken. At such high contrasts, there is negligible preplasma formation and the ionized surface layer created by subpicosecond-duration pulses typically forms a highly reflective "plasma mirror" capable of reflecting between 70% and 90% of the incident energy. Although such interactions are of significant interest for applications such as harmonic source production and to enable the underlying physics to be studied, their low absorption can limit their usefulness for applications such as space debris removal.

  10. Effects of basal debris on glacier flow. (United States)

    Iverson, Neal R; Cohen, Denis; Hooyer, Thomas S; Fischer, Urs H; Jackson, Miriam; Moore, Peter L; Lappegard, Gaute; Kohler, Jack


    Glacier movement is resisted partially by debris, either within glaciers or under glaciers in water-saturated layers. In experiments beneath a thick, sliding glacier, ice containing 2 to 11% debris exerted shear traction of 60 to 200 kilopascals on a smooth rock bed, comparable to the total shear traction beneath glaciers and contrary to the usual assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Imposed pore-water pressure that was 60 to 100% of the normal stress in a subglacial debris layer reduced shear traction on the debris sufficiently to halt its deformation and cause slip of ice over the debris. Slip resistance was thus less than debris shearing resistance.

  11. Experimental study on solids mixing and bubble behavior in a pseudo-2D, freely bubbling, gas-solid fluidized bed using PIV and DIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, J.A.; Roghair, Ivo; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    The hydrodynamics of a freely bubbling, gas-solid fluidized bed has been investigated experimentally with non-invasive measuring techniques in a pseudo-2D column filled with glass beads of 400-600 μm fluidized with air. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) combined with Digital Image Analysis (DIA) has

  12. Gas−Solid Turbulent Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser: Experimental and Numerical Study of Monodisperse Particle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Hydrodynamics of gas-particle two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser is studied experimentally by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically with the use of a 3D discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM). The influence of the superficial gas velocity and the solids flux

  13. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin


    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bastos


    Full Text Available AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is the development of an innovative process, with valuation of these by-products. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate SSC of Aspergillus niger using sugarcane bagasse and vinasse for citric acid production. The results indicate that citric acid production and glucose consumption are dependent on oxygen availability, which can be modulated by selection of bed height and air-flow in packed-bed bioreactors.

  15. Coupling scales for modelling heavy metal vaporization from municipal solid waste incineration in a fluid bed by CFD. (United States)

    Soria, José; Gauthier, Daniel; Flamant, Gilles; Rodriguez, Rosa; Mazza, Germán


    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) in fluidized bed is a very interesting technology mainly due to high combustion efficiency, great flexibility for treating several types of waste fuels and reduction in pollutants emitted with the flue gas. However, there is a great concern with respect to the fate of heavy metals (HM) contained in MSW and their environmental impact. In this study, a coupled two-scale CFD model was developed for MSWI in a bubbling fluidized bed. It presents an original scheme that combines a single particle model and a global fluidized bed model in order to represent the HM vaporization during MSW combustion. Two of the most representative HM (Cd and Pb) with bed temperatures ranging between 923 and 1073K have been considered. This new approach uses ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 as the modelling platform for the simulations along with a complete set of self-developed user-defined functions (UDFs). The simulation results are compared to the experimental data obtained previously by the research group in a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator. The comparison indicates that the proposed CFD model predicts well the evolution of the HM release for the bed temperatures analyzed. It shows that both bed temperature and bed dynamics have influence on the HM vaporization rate. It can be concluded that CFD is a rigorous tool that provides valuable information about HM vaporization and that the original two-scale simulation scheme adopted allows to better represent the actual particle behavior in a fluid bed incinerator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation Process of Fine Coals by Ultrasonic Vibration Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration gas-solid fluidized bed was proposed and introduced to separate fine coals (0.5–0.125 mm fraction. Several technological methods such as XRF, XRD, XPS, and EPMA were used to study the composition of heavy products to evaluate the separation effect. Results show that the ultrasonic vibration force field strengthens the particle separation process based on density when the vibration frequency is 35 kHz and the fluidization number is 1.8. The ash difference between the light and heavy products and the recovery of combustible material obtain the maximum values of 47.30% and 89.59%, respectively. The sulfur content of the heavy product reaches the maximum value of 6.78%. Chemical state analysis of sulfur shows that organic sulfur (-C-S-, sulfate-sulfur (-SO4, and pyrite-sulfur (-S2 are confirmed in the original coal and heavy product. Organic sulfur (-C-S- is mainly concentrated in the light product, and pyrite-sulfur (-S2 is significantly enriched in the heavy product. The element composition, phase composition, backscatter imagery, and surface distribution of elements for heavy product show concentration of high-density minerals including pyrite, quartz, and kaolinite. Some harmful elements such as F, Pb, and As are also concentrated in the heavy product.

  17. Vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed incinerator. (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong


    This paper investigated the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed reactor. Four metal chlorides (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were chosen as metal sources. The influence of redox conditions, water and mineral matrice on heavy metal volatilization was investigated. In general, Cd shows significant vaporization especially when HCl was injected, while Cu and Pb vaporize moderately and Zn vaporization is negligible. Increasing oxygen concentration can lower heavy metal vaporization. Heavy metal interactions with the mineral matter can result in the formation of stable metallic species thus playing a negative effect on their behavior. However, HCl can promote the heavy metal release by preventing the formation of stable metallic species. The chemical sorption (either physical or chemical) inside the pores, coupled with the internal diffusion of gaseous metal species, may also control the vaporization process. With SO(2) injected, Cd and Pb show a higher volatility as a result of SO(2) reducing characteristics. From the analysis, the subsequent order of heavy metal volatility can be found: Cd>Cu≥Pb≫Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  19. A particulate model of solid waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining combustion and heavy metal vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, UE Neuquen (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France)


    This study aims to develop a particulate model combining solid waste particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from burning particles during MSW incineration in a fluidized bed. The original approach for this model combines an asymptotic combustion model for the carbonaceous solid combustion and a shrinking core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization. A parametric study is presented. The global metal vaporization process is strongly influenced by temperature. Internal mass transfer controls the metal vaporization rate at low temperatures. At high temperatures, the chemical reactions associated with particle combustion control the metal vaporization rate. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data obtained with a laboratory-scale fluid bed incinerator and Cd-spiked particles shows that the heavy metal vaporization is correctly predicted by the model. The predictions are better at higher temperatures because of the temperature gradient inside the particle. Future development of the model will take this into account. (author)

  20. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  1. Lipase production by solid-state fermentation in fixed-bed bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa d'Avila Costa Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available In the present work, packed bed bioreactors were employed with the aim of increasing productivity and scaling up of lipase production using Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation. The influence of temperature and air flow rate on enzyme production was evaluated employing statistical experimental design, and an empirical model was adjusted to the experimental data. It was shown that higher lipase activities could be achieved at lower temperatures and higher air flow rates. The maximum lipase activity (26.4 U/g was obtained at the temperature of 27°C and air flow rate of 0.8 L/min.O fungo Penicillium simplicissimum se mostrou, em trabalhos anteriores, um ótimo produtor de lipase por fermentação no estado sólido, quando cultivado em biorreatores do tipo bandeja, utilizando a torta de babaçu como meio de cultura. Com o objetivo de aumentar a produtividade e possibilitar uma ampliação de escala, foi investigado, no presente trabalho, o emprego de biorreatores de leito fixo com aeração forçada. Os biorreatores utilizados tinham 4 cm de diâmetro interno e 14 cm de altura útil. Empregando-se planejamento estatístico de experimentos como ferramenta, foram avaliadas as influências da temperatura e da vazão de ar sobre a produção de lipase nestes biorreatores. Os resultados obtidos permitiram ajustar um modelo empírico, o qual indicou que maiores atividades lipásicas são alcançadas para temperaturas mais baixas e vazões de ar mais altas. A atividade lipásica máxima (26,4 U/g foi obtida para temperatura de 27°C e vazão de ar de 0,8 L/min.

  2. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn


    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p′-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p′-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Gas-Solid Flow by DEM-CFD Approach with Application to a Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhe FAN


    Full Text Available The paper presents a computational study of the gas-solid flow in a three- dimensional spouted bed by a combined approach of discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM-CFD.The coupling between the discrete particle and continuum gas was achieved by applying the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. As a result, it is found that the motion of particles was forming a distinct circulation between center zone and boundary zone of the 3D spouted bed in macro, and there was a stagnant zone near the bottom of the bed in which the particle velocity is almost zero near the wall, they do not move anywhere. Pressure drop will be affected by wind speed and particle density. With enhancing of wind velocity, pressure drop appears an increasing trend until it is up to a certain value, and then the curve will have a certain degree of back and keep in an extension; Adding particle density, pressure drop and its swing is increased markedly. The results of this study provide important information in the spouted bed and may be helpful for better application and modification of this type of spouted bed to the industrial process.

  4. Solid self-nanoemulsifying cyclosporin A pellets prepared by fluid-bed coating: preparation, characterization and in vitro redispersibility. (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Nie, Sufang; Hu, Fuqiang; Pan, Weisan; Wu, Wei


    The objective of this study was to evaluate fluid-bed coating as a new technique to prepare a pellet-based solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using cyclosporin A as a model of a poorly water-soluble drug. The rationale of this technique was to entrap a Liquid SNEDDS in the matrix of the coating material, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, by fluid-bed coating. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were used to screen the liquid SNEDDS formulations. The optimal formulation was composed of Labrafil M(®) 1944 CS, Transcutol P(®), and Cremophor(®) EL in a ratio of 9:14:7. To prepare solid SNEDDS pellets, liquid SNEDDS was first dispersed in an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone and then sprayed onto the surface of non-pareil pellets. Upon evaporation of water, polyvinylpyrrolidone precipitated and formed tight films to entrap the liquid SNEDDS. Visual observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed good appearance of the solid SNEDDS pellets. Our results indicated that up to 40% of the liquid SNEDDS could be entrapped in the coating layer. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed nonexistence of crystalline cyclosporin A in the formulation. Solid SNEDDS pellets showed a slower redispersion rate than the liquid SNEDDS. An increase in the total liquid SNEDDS loading led to faster redispersion, whereas increased coating weight (up to 400%) significantly decreased the redispersion rate. Both cyclosporin A loading and protective coating with 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 did not significantly affect the redispersion rate. It is concluded that fluid-bed coating is a new technique with considerable potential for preparation of pellet-based solid SNEDDS formulations.

  5. Bacterial counts on teat skin and in new sand, recycled sand, and recycled manure solids used as bedding in freestalls. (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L


    On modern dairy farms, environmental mastitis pathogens are usually the predominant cause of mastitis, and bedding often serves as a point of exposure to these organisms. The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine bacterial populations of 4 different bedding types [deep-bedded new sand (NES), deep-bedded recycled sand (RS), deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS), and shallow-bedded manure solids over foam core mattresses (SBMS)] and of teat skin swabs of primarily primiparous cows housed in a single facility over all 4 seasons. Samples of bedding were collected weekly (n=49wk) from pens that each contained 32 lactating dairy cows. Throughout the length of the same period, composite swabs of teat skin were collected weekly from all cows before and after premilking teat sanitation. Median numbers of streptococci and streptococci-like organisms (SSLO) were >8.6×10(6) cfu/g and >6.9×10(3) cfu/teat swab for all bedding types and teat swabs, respectively. Numbers of SSLO were greatest in samples of SBMS (2.1×10(8) cfu/g) and least in samples of NES (8.6×10(6) cfu/g), RS (1.3×10(7) cfu/g), and DBMS (1.7×10(7) cfu/g). Numbers of gram-negative bacteria in bedding (5.5×10(4) to 1.2×10(7) cfu/g) were fewer than numbers of SSLO (8.6×10(6) to 2.1×10(8) cfu/g). Numbers of coliform bacteria were greatest in samples of DBMS (2.2×10(6) cfu/g) and least in samples of NES (3.6×10(3) cfu/g). In general, the relative number of bacteria on teat skin corresponded to exposure in bedding. Numbers of gram-negative bacteria recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were greatest for cows bedded with DBMS (1.0×10(4) cfu/swab) and RS (2.5×10(3) cfu/swab) and least for cows bedded with NES (5.8×10(2) cfu/swab). Median numbers of coliform and Klebsiella spp. recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were below the limit of detection for all cows except those bedded with DBMS. Numbers of SSLO recovered from prepreparation teat swabs were least for cows bedded with DBMS (6.9

  6. Agglomeration and size distribution of debris in DEFOR-A experiments with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–WO{sub 3} corium simulant melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail:; Karbojian, Aram, E-mail:; Tran, Chi-Thanh, E-mail:; Villanueva, Walter, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Debris agglomeration in case of melt pouring into a coolant is experimentally investigated. • The effects of jet diameter, melt superheat and water subcooling are addressed. • Most influential factor which can significantly increase fraction of agglomerates is melt superheat. • Rapid decrease of the fraction of agglomerates as a function of water depth is obtained in all cases. • Provided data is valuable for model development and code validation. -- Abstract: Flooding of lower drywell has been adopted as a cornerstone of severe accident management strategy in Nordic type Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). It is assumed that the melt ejected into a deep pool of water will fragment, quench and form a porous debris bed coolable by natural circulation. If debris bed is not coolable, then dryout and possibly re-melting of the debris can occur. Melt attack on the containment basemat can threaten containment integrity. Agglomeration of melt debris and formation of solid “cake” regions provide a negative impact on coolability of the porous debris bed. In this work we present results of experimental investigation on the fraction of agglomerated debris obtained in the process of hot binary oxidic melt pouring into a pool of water. The Debris Bed Formation and Agglomeration (DEFOR-A) experiments provide data about the effects of the pool depth and water subcooling, melt jet diameter, and initial melt superheat on the fraction of agglomerated debris. The data presents first systematic study of the debris agglomeration phenomena and facilitates understanding of underlying physics which is necessary for development and validation of computational codes to enable prediction of the debris bed coolability in different scenarios of melt release.

  7. Endoglucanase production with the newly isolated Myceliophtora sp. i-1d3b in a packed bed solid state fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zanelato


    Full Text Available This work is aimed to produce endoglucanase through solid state fermentation in a packed bed bioreactor with the use of the fungus Myceliophtora sp. I-1D3busing a mixture of wheat bran (WB and sugar cane bagasse (SCB as culture medium. Preliminary tests were performed in polypropylene plastic bags, controlling the variables temperature (40, 45, and 50ºC, initial moisture content (75, 80, and 85%, w.b., and weight proportion SCB/WB (1:1, 7:3, and 9:1. The highest enzyme activities in plastic bags were obtained using the substrate proportion of 7:3, 50ºC temperature, and 80% initial moisture content (878 U/grams of dry solid. High activities of filter-paper cellulase and xylanase were also obtained in plastic bags and some results are reported. For the packed bed experiments, the temperature (45 and 50ºC and the air flow rate (80, 100 and 120L/h were the controlled variables. Activity of endoglucanase was similar to plastic bag tests. A longitudinal gradient of moisture content, was observed increasing from the bottom to the top of the reactor, even though the longitudinal enzyme activity profile was flat for almost the whole bed. Air flow rate did not affect enzyme activity, while experiments carried out at 50ºC showed higher enzyme activities. The maximum temperature peak observed was at about 6ºC above the process temperature.

  8. A Study of the Influence of Numerical Diffusion on Gas-Solid Flow Predictions in Fluidized Beds (United States)

    Ghandriz, Ronak; Sheikhi, Reza


    In this work, an investigation is made of the influence of numerical diffusion on the accuracy of gas-solid flow predictions in fluidized beds. This is an important issue particularly in bubbling fluidized beds since numerical error greatly affects the dynamics of bubbles and their associated mixing process. A bed of coal (classified as Geldart A) is considered which becomes fluidized as the velocity of nitrogen stream into the reactor is gradually increased. The fluidization process is simulated using various numerical schemes as well as grid resolutions. Simulations involve Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow modeling approach and results are compared with experimental data. It is shown that higher order schemes equipped with flux limiter give favorable prediction of bubble and particle dynamics and hence, the mixing process within the reactor. The excessive numerical diffusion associated with lower order schemes results in unrealistic prediction of bubble shapes and bed height. Comparison is also made of computational efficiency of various schemes. It is shown that the Monotonized Central scheme with down wind factor results in the shortest simulation time because of its efficient parallelization on distributed memory platforms.

  9. Air-drying beds reduce the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons in residual municipal wastewater solids. (United States)

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M


    This study investigated whether air-drying beds reduce antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids. Three laboratory-scale drying beds were operated for a period of nearly 100 days. Real-time PCR was used to quantify 16S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA genes specific to fecal bacteria (AllBac) and human fecal bacteria (HF183), the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1), and five ARGs representing a cross-section of antibiotic classes and resistance mechanisms (erm(B), sul1, tet(A), tet(W), and tet(X)). Air-drying beds were capable of reducing all gene target concentrations by 1 to 5 orders of magnitude, and the nature of this reduction was consistent with both a net decrease in the number of bacterial cells and a lack of selection within the microbial community. Half-lives varied between 1.5 d (HF183) and 5.4 d (tet(X)) during the first 20 d of treatment. After the first 20 d of treatment, however, half-lives varied between 8.6 d (tet(X)) and 19.3 d (AllBac), and 16S rRNA gene, intI1, and sul1 concentrations did not change (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that air-drying beds can reduce ARG and intI1 concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids within timeframes typical of operating practices.

  10. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States. (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M


    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Solid self-nanoemulsifying cyclosporin A pellets prepared by fluid-bed coating: preparation, characterization and in vitro redispersibility


    Lei Y; Lu Y.; Qi J; Nie S; Hu F; Pan W; Wu W


    Yang Lei1,2, Yi Lu2, Jianping Qi2, Sufang Nie1, Fuqiang Hu3, Weisan Pan1, Wei Wu21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang; 2School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai; 3School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The objective of this study was to evaluate fluid-bed coating as a new technique to prepare a pellet-based solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using cyclosporin A as a m...

  12. Eulerian simulations of bubble behaviour in a two-dimensional gas-solid bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Huilin; Liu Wentie; Zhao Guangbo; He Yurong [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Dept. of Power Engineering; Li Feng [Jiangxi Boiler Co. Ltd., Nanchang (China)


    In the present study, the CFD model is based on a two-fluid model extended with the kinetic theory of granular flow. The simulation results of bubble diameter and bubble rise velocity are compared to the Darton equation and the Davidson model in a free bubbling fluidized bed. The predicted values are in reasonable agreement with the values from the Darton bubble size equation and the Davidson model for isolated bubbles. It is shown that the break-up and direct wall interaction effects influence the dynamic bubble behavior in the free bubbling fluidized beds. (author)

  13. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding. (United States)

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P


    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids.

  14. Multi-gene genetic programming based predictive models for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier. (United States)

    Pandey, Daya Shankar; Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Leahy, James J; Kwapinski, Witold


    A multi-gene genetic programming technique is proposed as a new method to predict syngas yield production and the lower heating value for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier. The study shows that the predicted outputs of the municipal solid waste gasification process are in good agreement with the experimental dataset and also generalise well to validation (untrained) data. Published experimental datasets are used for model training and validation purposes. The results show the effectiveness of the genetic programming technique for solving complex nonlinear regression problems. The multi-gene genetic programming are also compared with a single-gene genetic programming model to show the relative merits and demerits of the technique. This study demonstrates that the genetic programming based data-driven modelling strategy can be a good candidate for developing models for other types of fuels as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of sludge filterability test to assess the solids removal potential of a sludge bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.


    A qualitative sludge characterisation technique called ¿sludge filterability technique¿ has been developed. This technique enables the determination of the sludge potential for the physical removal of solids, weighing the effect of different process parameters on solids removal and identifying the

  16. Emission characteristics of toxic pollutants from an updraft fixed bed gasifier for disposing rural domestic solid waste. (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Hai, Jing; Cheng, Jiang; Gui, Li; Lu, Jiawei; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Zong-Hui


    Gasification has gained advantage as an effective way to dispose domestic solid waste in mountainous rural of China. However, its toxic emissions such as PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, as well as their potential environmental risks, were not well studied in engineering application. In this study, an updraft fixed bed gasifier was investigated by field sampling analysis. Results showed that low toxic emissions (dust, SO2, NOx, HCl, CO, H2S, NH3, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals) in the flue gas were achieved when the rural solid waste was used as feedstock. The mass distribution of heavy metals showed that 94.00% of Pb, 80.45% of Cu, 78.00% of Cd, 77.31% of Cr, and 76.25% of As were remained in residual, whereas 86.58% of Hg was found in flue gas. The content of PCDD/Fs in the flue gas was 0.103 ngI-TEQ·Nm-3, and the total emission factor of PCDD/Fs from the gasifier was 50.04 μgI-TEQ·t-waste-1, among which only 0.04 μgI-TEQ·t-waste-1 was found in the flue gas. The total output of PCDD/Fs was1.89 times as high as input, indicting the updraft fixed bed gasifier increased emission of PCDD/Fs during the treatment domestic solid waste. In addition, the distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs congeners reflected that PCDD/Fs was mainly generated in the gasification process rather than the stage of flue gas cleaning, suggesting the importance to effectively control the generation of PCDD/Fs within the gasifier chamber in order to obtain a low PCDD/Fs emission level.

  17. The generation and disposal of solid wastes from circulating fluidised bed combustion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Tomlinson, P. (Ove Arup Partners, London (United Kingdom). Arup Environmental)


    This paper describes the environmental issues arising from proposals by British Coal and East Midlands Electricity to construct a circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) Power Station and an associated waste disposal facility at Bilsthorpe in the East Midlands of England. CFBC ash is novel to the UK and the problems of co-disposal of ash and colliery spoil from the power station and adjacent deep coal mine at a surface disposal site are highlighted. The chemical and physical properties of the wastes, research on the revegetation of the ash/spoil mound and the design philosophy developed for the disposal site are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Performance Study of a Novel Solar Solid Dehumidification/Regeneration Bed for Use in Buildings Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansheng Yang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel solar solid dehumidification/regeneration bed has been proposed, and its three regeneration methods, i.e., simulated solar radiation regeneration, microwave regeneration, and combined regeneration of the microwave and simulated solar radiation, were experimentally investigated and compared, as well as the dehumidification performance. The degree of regeneration of the proposed system under the regeneration method combining both microwave irradiation and simulated solar radiation could reach 77.7%, which was 3.77 times higher than that of the system under the simulated solar regeneration method and 1.05 times higher than that of the system under the microwave regeneration. The maximum energy efficiency of the proposed system under the combined regeneration method was 21.7%, while it was only 19.4% for the system under microwave regeneration. All these proved that the combined regeneration method of the simulated solar and microwave radiation not only improved the regeneration efficiency of the system, but also enhanced the energy efficiency. For the dehumidification performance, the maximum transient moisture removal was 14.1 g/kg, the maximum dehumidification efficiency was 68.0% and the maximum speed of dehumidification was 0.294 g/(kg·s when the inlet air temperature was at 26.09 °C and the air relative humidity was at 89.23%. By comparing the testing results with the semi-empirical results from the Page model, it was indicated that the Page model can predict the regeneration characteristics of the novel solar solid dehumidification/regeneration bed under the combined method of microwave and simulated solar regeneration. The results of this research should prove useful to researchers and engineers to exploit the potential of solar technologies in buildings worldwide.

  19. Numerical simulation of gas-solid flows in fluidized bed with TFM model (United States)

    Stanly, Ronith; Shoev, Georgy; Kokhanchik A., A.


    This work evaluates the effectiveness of the Two-Fluid Model (TFM) to simulate gas flows with dense particles by using a simplified Fluidized Bed as a test case. The overarching objective is to check the prediction accuracy of the TFM Model. This document includes the simulations performed using two drag models, namely Gidaspow and Syamlal-O'Brien, using Ansys Fluent 18.1. The bubble evolution as well as the time-averaged volume-fraction distributions have been compared with prior simulations conducted using MFIX, Barracuda and also with experimental data found in literature. Though the low computational requirements and capability to produce reasonable time-averaged results makes TFM a better choice for industrial applications, the low prediction accuracy for the instantaneous quantities often renders it unsuitable for more scientifically demanding studies. Hence, this work aims at a critical evaluation of the TFM model for the specified test problem.

  20. Scaling of permeabilities and friction factors of homogeneously expanding gas-solids fluidized beds: Geldart’s A powders and magnetically stabilized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan Y.


    Full Text Available The concept of a variable friction factor of fluid-driven de form able powder beds undergoing fluidization is discussed. The special problem discussed addresses the friction factor and bed permeability relationships of Geldart’s A powders and magnetically stabilized beds in axial fields. Governing equations and scaling relation ships are developed through three approaches (1 Minimization of the pressure drop with respect to the fluid velocity employing the Darcy-Forchheimer equation together with the Richardson-Zaki scaling law, (2 Minimization of the pres sure drop across an equivalent-channel replacing the actual packed beds by a straight pipe with bed-equivalent obstacle of a simple geometry, and (3 Entropy minimization method applied in cases of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation and the equivalent-channel model. Bed-to-surface heat transfer coefficients are commented in the context of the porosity/length scale relationships developed. Both the pressure drop curves developments and phase diagram de signs are illustrated by applications of the intersection of asymptotes technique to beds exhibiting certain degree of cohesion.

  1. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N


    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carrier effects on tertiary nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor: An examination of performance, biofilm and biologically produced solids. (United States)

    Forrest, Daina; Delatolla, Robert; Kennedy, Kevin


    Increasingly stricter ammonia and nitrogen release regulations with respect to wastewater effluents are creating a need for tertiary treatment systems. The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is being considered as an upgrade option for an increasing number of wastewater treatment facilities due to its small footprint and ease of operation. Despite the MBBRs creation as a system to remove nitrogen, recent research on MBBR systems showing that the system's performance is directly related to carrier surface area and is irrespective of carrier shape and type has been performed exclusively on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal systems. Furthermore, the influence of carrier type on the solids produced by MBBR systems has also been exclusively studied for COD removal systems. This work investigates the effects of three specific carrier types on ammonia removal rates, biofilm morphology, along with solids production and settleability of tertiary nitrifying MBBR systems. The study concludes that carrier type has no significant effect on tertiary nitrifying MBBR system performance under steady, moderate loading conditions. The research does however highlight the propensity of greater surface area to volume carriers to become clogged under high loading conditions and that the high surface area carriers investigated in this study required longer adjustment periods to changes in loading after becoming clogged.

  3. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)


    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  4. Natural gas drying of the solid of slurry in a fluidized bed; Sechage au gaz naturel sur lit fluidise a jet de la partie solide du lisier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duphily, C. [Centre des technologies du gaz naturel, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)


    On the invitation and the initiative of Gas Metropolitan, le centre des technologies du gaz naturel (CTGN) received a mandate for developing a technology that could handle a problem concerning a surplus of swine manure. This problem expressed itself in four main forms: 1) a surplus of manure on the farm-site, 2) a regional surplus of the same, 3) a release of odours, and 4) environmental concerns on the surrounding countryside. In collaboration with the Polytechniqie du Montreal, a management tool, PROGEST, was developed for these wastes. This process permits the drying of the swine wastes using natural gas on a jet fluidized bed followed by a heat treatment of the drying fumes in a combustion chamber. The deposits consisting of nearly 15% solids are sent along to a drying chamber where they dried and sterilized at 120 degrees C. The dried deposit recovered in the form of a powder in an assembly of a cyclone-deduster at the exit of the dryer can be granulated as needed and sold as a co-product. For example, it can be used as a fertilizer ingredient or as an ingredient in animal feed.

  5. Tritium recovery from helium purge stream of solid breeder blanket by cryogenic molecular sieve bed. 2. Regeneration operation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Regeneration operation is a very important operation, because it is the most influential factor for deciding the net operation cycle time and the minimum dimension of Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB). However, the experimental data of CMSB regeneration operation was not so sufficient that even the optimum regeneration procedure could not be decided yet. This work was focused on getting the primary information about various regeneration procedures. (author)

  6. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.


    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  7. Experimental investigation of ash deposits on convection heating surfaces of a circulating fluidized bed municipal solid waste incinerator. (United States)

    Tang, Zhi; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Daoyin; Zhuang, Yaming; Ye, Minghua; Sheng, Hongchan; Xu, Shaojuan


    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction, as well as a source of renewable energy. During MSW combustion, increased formation of deposits on convection heating exchanger surfaces can pose severe operational problems, such as fouling, slagging and corrosion. These problems can cause lower heat transfer efficiency from the hot flue gas to the working fluid inside the tubes. A study was performed where experiments were carried out to examine the ash deposition characteristics in a full-scale MSW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, using a newly designed deposit probe that was fitted with six thermocouples and four removable half rings. The influence of probe exposure time and probe surface temperature (500, 560, and 700°C) on ash deposit formation rate was investigated. The results indicate that the deposition mass and collection efficiency achieve a minimum at the probe surface temperature of 560°C. Ash particles are deposited on both the windward and leeward sides of the probe by impacting and thermophoretic/condensation behavior. The major inorganic elements present in the ash deposits are Ca, Al and Si. Compared to ash deposits formed on the leeward side of the probe, windward-side ash deposits contain relatively higher Ca and S concentrations, but lower levels of Al and Si. Among all cases at different surface temperatures, the differences in elemental composition of the ash deposits from the leeward side are insignificant. However, as the surface temperature increases, the concentrations of Al, Si, K and Na in the windward-side ash deposits increase, but the Ca concentration is reduced. Finally, governing mechanisms are proposed on the basis of the experimental data, such as deposit morphology, elemental composition and thermodynamic calculations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Flow-injection determination of total organic fluorine with off-line defluorination reaction on a solid sorbent bed. (United States)

    Musijowski, Jacek; Trojanowicz, Marek; Szostek, Bogdan; da Costa Lima, José Luis Fontes; Lapa, Rui; Yamashita, Hiroki; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji


    Considering recent reports on widespread occurrence and concerns about perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental and biological systems, analysis of these compounds have gained much attention in recent years. Majority of analyte-specific methods are based on a LC/MS/MS or a GC/MS detection, however many environmental or biological studies would benefit from a total organic fluorine (TOF) determination. Presented work was aimed at developing a method for TOF determination. TOF is determined as an amount of inorganic fluoride obtained after defluorination reaction conducted off-line using sodium biphenyl reagent directly on the sorbent without elution of retained analytes. Recovered fluoride was analyzed using flow-injection system with either fluorimetric or potentiometric detection. The TOF method was tested using perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), as model compounds. Considering low concentrations of PFAS in natural samples, solid-phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure was evaluated. Several carbon-based sorbents were tested, namely multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres and activated carbon. Good sorption of all analytes was achieved and defluorination reaction was possible to carry out directly on a sorbent bed. Recoveries obtained for PFCAs, adsorbed on an activated carbon sorbent, and measured as TOF, were 99.5+/-1.7, 110+/-9.4, 95+/-26, 120+/-32, 110+/-12 for C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12-PFCA, respectively. Two flow systems that would enable the defluorination reaction and fluoride determination in a single system were designed and tested.

  9. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation. (United States)

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R


    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud


    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Numerical Studies of the Gas-Solid Hydrodynamics at High Temperature in the Riser of a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Hodapp


    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics of circulating fluidized beds (CFBs is a complex phenomenon that can drastically vary depending on operational setup and geometrical configuration. A research of the literature shows that studies for the prediction of key variables in CFB systems operating at high temperature still need to be implemented aiming at applications in energy conversion, such as combustion, gasification, or fast pyrolysis of solid fuels. In this work the computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique was used for modeling and simulation of the hydrodynamics of a preheating gas-solid flow in a cylindrical bed section. For the CFD simulations, the two-fluid approach was used to represent the gas-solid flow with the k-epsilon turbulence model being applied for the gas phase and the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF for the properties of the dispersed phase. The information obtained from a semiempirical model was used to implement the initial condition of the simulation. The CFD results were in accordance with experimental data obtained from a bench-scale CFB system and from predictions of the semiempirical model. The initial condition applied in this work was shown to be a viable alternative to a more common constant solid mass flux boundary condition.

  12. Method and apparatus for the separation of a gas-solids mixture in a circulating fluidized bed reactor (United States)

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, WanWang


    The system of the present invention includes a centripetal cyclone for separating particulate material from a particulate laden gas solids stream. The cyclone includes a housing defining a conduit extending between an upstream inlet and a downstream outlet. In operation, when a particulate laden gas-solids stream passes through the upstream housing inlet, the particulate laden gas-solids stream is directed through the conduit and at least a portion of the solids in the particulate laden gas-solids stream are subjected to a centripetal force within the conduit.

  13. Gas−Solid Turbulent Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser: Numerical Study of Binary Particle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Numerical simulations were performed of a turbulent gas-particle multiphase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser using a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier−Stokes equations for the gas phase, where the subgrid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with

  14. Gas-solid two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser: an experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Hydrodynamics of gas-particle two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser is studied experimentally by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and numerically with the use of a 3D discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM). Mean particle velocities and RMS velocities are obtained and the

  15. Gas-Solid Turbulent Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser; Numerical Study of Binary Particle Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    A numerical simulation was performed on a turbulent gas-particle multi-phase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser based on a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas phase. The sub-grid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with

  16. Fluidization behavior in a circulating slugging fluidized bed reactor. Part I: Residence time and residence time distribution of polyethylene solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, I.C.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Weickert, G.


    Square nosed slugging fluidization behavior in a circulating fluidized bed riser using a polyethylene powder with a very wide particle size distribution was studied. In square nosed slugging fluidization the extent of mixing of particles of different size depends on the riser diameter, gas velocity,

  17. The physics of debris flows (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.


    Recent advances in theory and experimentation motivate a thorough reassessment of the physics of debris flows. Analyses of flows of dry, granular solids and solid-fluid mixtures provide a foundation for a comprehensive debris flow theory, and experiments provide data that reveal the strengths and limitations of theoretical models. Both debris flow materials and dry granular materials can sustain shear stresses while remaining static; both can deform in a slow, tranquil mode characterized by enduring, frictional grain contacts; and both can flow in a more rapid, agitated mode characterized by brief, inelastic grain collisions. In debris flows, however, pore fluid that is highly viscous and nearly incompressible, composed of water with suspended silt and clay, can strongly mediate intergranular friction and collisions. Grain friction, grain collisions, and viscous fluid flow may transfer significant momentum simultaneously. Both the vibrational kinetic energy of solid grains (measured by a quantity termed the granular temperature) and the pressure of the intervening pore fluid facilitate motion of grains past one another, thereby enhancing debris flow mobility. Granular temperature arises from conversion of flow translational energy to grain vibrational energy, a process that depends on shear rates, grain properties, boundary conditions, and the ambient fluid viscosity and pressure. Pore fluid pressures that exceed static equilibrium pressures result from local or global debris contraction. Like larger, natural debris flows, experimental debris flows of ???10 m3 of poorly sorted, water-saturated sediment invariably move as an unsteady surge or series of surges. Measurements at the base of experimental flows show that coarse-grained surge fronts have little or no pore fluid pressure. In contrast, finer-grained, thoroughly saturated debris behind surge fronts is nearly liquefied by high pore pressure, which persists owing to the great compressibility and moderate

  18. The debris-flow rheology myth (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.; ,


    Models that employ a fixed rheology cannot yield accurate interpretations or predictions of debris-flow motion, because the evolving behavior of debris flows is too complex to be represented by any rheological equation that uniquely relates stress and strain rate. Field observations and experimental data indicate that debris behavior can vary from nearly rigid to highly fluid as a consequence of temporal and spatial variations in pore-fluid pressure and mixture agitation. Moreover, behavior can vary if debris composition changes as a result of grain-size segregation and gain or loss of solid and fluid constituents in transit. An alternative to fixed-rheology models is provided by a Coulomb mixture theory model, which can represent variable interactions of solid and fluid constituents in heterogeneous debris-flow surges with high-friction, coarse-grained heads and low-friction, liquefied tails. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  19. Solid-state Fermentation of Xylanase from Penicillium canescens 10-10c in a Multi-layer-packed Bed Reactor (United States)

    Assamoi, Antoine A.; Destain, Jacqueline; Delvigne, Frank; Lognay, Georges; Thonart, Philippe

    Xylanase is produced by Penicillium canescens 10-10c from soya oil cake in static conditions using solid-state fermentation. The impact of several parameters such as the nature and the size of inoculum, bed-loading, and aeration is evaluated during the fermentation process. Mycelial inoculum gives more production than conidial inoculum. Increasing the quantity of inoculum enhances slightly xylanase production. Forced aeration induces more sporulation of strain and reduces xylanase production. However, forced moistened air improves the production compared to production obtained with forced dry air. In addition, increasing bed-loading reduces the specific xylanase production likely due to the incapacity of the Penicillium strain to grow deeply in the fermented soya oil cake mass. Thus, the best cultivation conditions involve mycelial inoculum form, a bed loading of 1-cm height and passive aeration. The maximum xylanase activity is obtained after 7 days of fermentation and attains 10,200 U/g of soya oil cake. These levels are higher than those presented in the literature and, therefore, show all the potentialities of this stock and this technique for the production of xylanase.

  20. Optimization of lipase production by solid-state fermentation of olive pomace: from flask to laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor. (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José M; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel


    Lipases are versatile catalysts with many applications and can be produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes. The aim of this work was to maximize the production of Aspergillus ibericus lipase under SSF of olive pomace (OP) and wheat bran (WB), evaluating the effect on lipase production of C/N ratio, lipids, phenols, content of sugars of substrates and nitrogen source addition. Moreover, the implementation of the SSF process in a packed-bed bioreactor and the improvement of lipase extraction conditions were assessed. Low C/N ratios and high content of lipids led to maximum lipase production. Optimum SSF conditions were achieved with a C/N mass ratio of 25.2 and 10.2% (w/w) lipids in substrate, by the mixture of OP:WB (1:1) and supplemented with 1.33% (w/w) (NH4)2SO4. Studies in a packed-bed bioreactor showed that the lower aeration rates tested prevented substrate dehydration, improving lipase production. In this work, the important role of Triton X-100 on lipase extraction from the fermented solid substrate has been shown. A final lipase activity of 223 ± 5 U g-1 (dry basis) was obtained after 7 days of fermentation.

  1. Meandering instability of air flow in a granular bed: self-similarity and fluid-solid duality

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Okumura, Ko


    Meandering instability is familiar to everyone through river meandering or small rivulets of rain flowing down a windshield. However, its physical understanding is still premature, although it could inspire researchers in various fields, such as nonlinear science, fluid mechanics and geophysics, to resolve their long-standing problems. Here, we perform a small-scale experiment in which air flow is created in a thin granular bed to successfully find a meandering regime, together with other remarkable fluidized regimes, such as a turbulent regime. We discover that phase diagrams of the flow regimes for different types of grains can be universally presented as functions of the flow rate and the granular-bed thickness when the two quantities are properly renormalized. We further reveal that the meandering shapes are self-similar as was shown for meandering rivers. The experimental findings are explained by theory, with elucidating the physics. The theory is based on force balance, a minimum-dissipation principle,...

  2. Improving the gas-solids contact efficiency in a fluidized bed of CO2 adsorbent fine particles. (United States)

    Valverde, J M; Pontiga, F; Soria-Hoyo, C; Quintanilla, M A S; Moreno, H; Duran, F J; Espin, M J


    A modified CO(2) adsorbent is obtained by dry mixing of a Ca(OH)(2) fine powder as received with a commercial silica nanopowder. Silica nanoparticles form light agglomerates of size of the order of tens of microns, which are uniformly fluidizable. These agglomerates act as dispersants of the Ca(OH)(2) fine particles, which coat the nanoparticle agglomerates likely due to contact charging. Ca(OH)(2) particles (CO(2) adsorbent) are thus provided with a vehicle for uniform fluidization. In this way, the contact efficiency between the CO(2) adsorbent and CO(2) in the fluidized bed is greatly enhanced. Experimental results show that the improvement of Ca(OH)(2) fluidizability serves to enhance the carbonation reaction in the fluidized bed. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  3. Analysis of Long-term Ex-vessel Debris Coolability with a Simple Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Byoung Cheol; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    In the late phase of the severe accident in light water reactors (LWRs), assuring the coolability of ex-vessel core debris is important because it is the last barrier to prevent the accident progression before the radioactive release to the environment. If the debris cooling is unsuccessful, the heated and possibly re-melted core debris may induces molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) that produces steam and non-condensable gases and causes the over-pressurization of containment vessel. Analysis for the long-term cooling of an ex-vessel debris bed was performed using a simple model developed by Hwang et al., and the model was originally developed to explain the feature of the debris bed in FARO experiments. It is assumed that the debris bed consists of a fluidized particles on top and a porous lump of sintered particles below. The bed formation process is also considered to determine the geometry and initial condition of the debris bed. Therefore, the simple model includes a wide range of cooling processes with a simplified zero or one-dimensional analysis. Sensitivity tests for the ex-vessel debris bed cooling behavior on selected input variables were performed using a modified version of a simple model developed by Hwang et al.. The model covers the series of phenomena from the breakup of the melt jet till the long-term cooling phase, and the results showed that the accumulation area of debris bed has significant impacts on the overall cooling performance.

  4. Finial Scientific/Technical Report: Application of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Process for the Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Ping Pan; Dr. John T. Riley


    Chemical Looping Combustion is a novel combustion technology for the inherent separation of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}. In 1983, Richter and Knoche proposed reversible combustion, which utilized both the oxidation and reduction of metal. Metal associated with its oxidized form as an oxygen carrier was circulated between two reactors--oxidizer and reducer. In the reducer, the solid oxygen carrier reacts with the fuel to produce CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and elemental metal only. Pure CO{sub 2} will be obtained in the exit gas stream from the reducer after H{sub 2}O is condensed. The pure CO{sub 2} is ready for subsequent sequestration. In the oxidizer, the elemental metal reacts with air to form metal oxide and separate oxygen from nitrogen. Only nitrogen and some unused oxygen are emitted from the oxidizer. The advantage of CLC compared to normal combustion is that CO{sub 2} is not diluted with nitrogen but obtained in a relatively pure form without any energy needed for separation. In addition to the energy-free purification of CO{sub 2}, the CLC process also provides two other benefits. First, NO{sub x} formation can be largely eliminated. Secondly, the thermal efficiency of a CLC system is very high. Presently, the CLC process has only been used with natural gas. An oxygen carrier based on an energy balance analysis and thermodynamics analysis was selected. Copper (Cu) seems to be the best choice for the CLC system for solid fuels. From this project, the mechanisms of CuO reduction by solid fuels may be as follows: (1) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are available, reduction of CuO could start at about 400 C or less. (2) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is lower, reduction of CuO could occur at an onset temperature of about 500 C, char gasification reactivity in CO{sub 2} was lower at lower temperatures. (3) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is higher than 750 C

  5. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  6. Debris flow monitoring in the Acquabona watershed on the Dolomites (Italian Alps) (United States)

    Berti, M.; Genevois, R.; LaHusen, R.; Simoni, A.; Tecca, P.R.


    In 1997 a field monitoring system was installed in Acquabona Creek in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps) to observe the hydrologic conditions for debris flow occurrence and some dynamic properties of debris flow. The monitoring system consists of three remote stations: an upper one located at the head of a deeply-incised channel and two others located downstream. The system is equipped with sensors for measuring rainfall, pore pressures in the mobile channel bottom, ground vibrations, debris flow depth, total normal stress and fluid pore-pressure at the base of the flow. Two video cameras record events at the upper channel station and one video is installed at the lowermost station. During summer 1998, three debris flows (volumes from less than 1000 m3 up to 9000 m3) occurred at Acquabona. The following results were obtained from a preliminary analysis of the data: 1) All of the flows were triggered by rainfalls of less than 1 hour duration, with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.8 to 14.7 mm / 10 minute. 2) Debris flows initiated in several reaches of the channel, including the head of the talus slope. 3) The initial surges of the mature flows had a higher solid concentration and a lower velocity (up to 4 m/s) than succeeding, more dilute surges (more than 7 m/s). 4) Total normal stress and pore fluid pressures measured at the base of the flow (mean depth about 1.1 m) were similar (about 15 kPa), indicating a completely liquefied flow. 5) Peak flows entrained debris at a rate of about 6 m3/m of channel length and channel bed scouring was proportional to the local slope gradient and was still evident in the lower channel where the slope was 7??. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport of large debris by tsunamis (United States)

    Conde, Daniel A. S.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos


    Tsunamis are notorious for the large disruption they can cause on coastal environments, not only due to the imparted momentum of the incoming wave but also due to its capacity to transport large quantities of solid debris, either from natural or human-made sources, over great distances. A 2DH numerical model under development at CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Conde, 2013) - STAV2D - capable of simulating solid transport in both Eulerian and Lagrangian paradigms will be used to assess the relevance of Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling when modelling the transport of solid debris by tsunamis. The model has been previously validated and applied to tsunami scenarios (Conde, 2013), being well-suited for overland tsunami propagation and capable of handling morphodynamic changes in estuaries and seashores. The discretization scheme is an explicit Finite Volume technique employing flux-vector splitting and a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver. Source term formulations are employed in a semi-implicit way, including the two-way coupling of the Lagrangian and Eulerian solvers by means of conservative mass and momentum transfers between fluid and solid phases. The model was applied to Sines Port, a major commercial port in Portugal, where two tsunamigenic scenarios are considered: an 8.5 Mw scenario, consistent with the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami of the 1st November 1755 (Baptista, 2009), and an hypothetical 9.5 Mw worst-case scenario based on the same historical event. Open-ocean propagation of these scenarios were simulated with GeoClaw model from ClawPack (Leveque, 2011). Following previous efforts on the modelling of debris transport by tsunamis in seaports (Conde, 2015), this work discusses the sensitivity of the obtained results with respect to the phenomenological detail of the employed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation and the resolution of the mesh used in the Eulerian solver. The results have shown that the fluid to debris mass ratio is the key parameter regarding the

  8. Carbon conversion of solid fuels in the freeboard of a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor -- application of in situ laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lackner; G. Loeffler; G. Totschnig; F. Winter; H. Hofbauer [Vienna University of Technology, Wien (Austria). Institute of Chemical Engineering


    The carbon conversion of different solid fuels (i.e. beech wood, fir wood, bituminous coal) was investigated in the freeboard of a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor by in situ tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. A room temperature continuous wave InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum well ridge diode laser emitting at 2.3-2.35 {mu}m was wavelength tuned at 300 Hz to determine simultaneously CH{sub 4} and CO during devolatilization and char combustion in situ 10 mm above the fuel particles. The lower detection limit was 0.2 vol% (5000 ppm m) for both species. In addition, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were determined ex situ by conventional methods. The experimental results obtained for the bituminous coal were compared to a detailed chemical kinetic model. The in situ measurements proved to be advantageous compared to conventional ex situ concentration measurements. The calculations confirm the determination of the primary products of solid fuel combustion during devolatilization and char combustion. A rather simple model for the devolatilization products was proven to describe well the release rates of CH{sub 4} and CO for the bituminous coal. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Observations on Marine Debris at Coastal Areas of Takalar District and Makassar City South Sulawesi


    Tahir, Akbar; Werorilangi, Shinta; Zulkarnaen, Adi; Isman, Fajar Mulana; Faisal, Ahmad


    Marine debris is defined as material that is solid, persistent, manufactured or processed, and deliberately or not-deliberately left in the marine environment. Marine debris comes in many shapes and forms, ranging in size from microscopic microplastics to large vessels. Marine debris is a big and growing global problem, pose threats to marine life sustainability. Plastic is a major component of marine debris, and single use packaging accounts for an increasing part of the global marine debris...

  10. Synthetic Ca-based solid sorbents suitable for capturing CO{sub 2} in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Coprecipitation and calcium oxide (CaO) hydrolysis were used to produce Ca-based synthetic solvents and capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a fluidized bed. Two methods were used to produce a reactive synthetic sorbent for CO{sub 2}. The methods used CaO as the reactive phase. In the coprecipitation method, solutions containing CaO were mixed with a basic agent to precipitate the 2 cations as insoluble hydroxides or carbonates. With the second method, reagent grade powdered CaO was added to an aqueous solution which then caused hydrolysis. The performance of the prepared sorbents was compared with different naturally-occurring sorbents such as limestone. Factors influencing the uptake of the sorbents and their stability were investigated while the sorbents were subjected to successive cycles of calcination and carbonation. A gas adsorption analyzer was used to examine the total surface area of each sorbent as well as the distribution of its pore sizes. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the samples. Results of the study showed that sorbents made by coprecipitation exhibited low uptakes of CO{sub 2}. Sorbents prepared using the hydrolysis method maintained a constant uptake of CO{sub 2} over 20 cycles. Synthetic sorbents achieved a lower initial uptake of CO{sub 2} than limestone or dolomite. It was concluded that pore size played a significant role in the uptake of the sorbents. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry


    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  12. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology


    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  13. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program (United States)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.


    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Real Debris-Flow Events (United States)

    Fraccarollo, L.; Papa, M.


    A one-dimensional model is presented to predict debris-flow runouts. The model is based on shallow water type assumptions. The fluid is assumed to be homogeneous and the original bed of the flow domain to be unerodible. The fluid is characterized by a rheology of Bingham type. A numerical tool able to cope with the nature of debris flows has been worked out. It represents an extension of a second order accurate and conservative method of Godunov type. Special care has been devoted to the influence of the source terms and of the geometrical representation of the natural cross sections, which play a fundamental role. The application concerns a monitored event in the Dolomites in Italy, where field analyses allowed a characterization of the behavior of solid-liquid mixture as a yield stress material. The comparison between numerical simulations and field observations highlights the impossibility of representing all phases of the flow with constant values of the rheological parameters. Nevertheless the results show that it is possible to separately represent the phase of the flow in the upstream reach and the phase of the deposition in the alluvial fan, with a good agreement with field observations.

  15. Orbital Debris-Debris Collision Avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James; Marshall, William; Levit, Creon


    We investigate the feasibility of using a medium-powered (5kW) ground-based laser combined with a ground-based telescope to prevent collisions between debris objects in low-Earth orbit (LEO), for which there is no current, effective mitigation strategy. The scheme utilizes photon pressure alone as a means to perturb the orbit of a debris object. Applied over multiple engagements, this alters the debris orbit sufficiently to reduce the risk of an upcoming conjunction. We employ standard assumptions for atmospheric conditions and the resulting beam propagation. Using case studies designed to represent the properties (e.g. area and mass) of the current debris population, we show that one could significantly reduce the risk of more than half of all debris-debris collisions using only one such laser/telescope facility. We speculate on whether this could mitigate the debris fragmentation rate such that it falls below the natural debris re-entry rate due to atmospheric drag, and thus whether continuous long-term ope...

  16. Heat transfer between a fluid and a bed of solid particles aiming the storage and recovery of solar energy; Transferencia de calor entre um fluido e um leito de particulas solidas visando a armazenagem e recuperacao de energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Soraya Lira


    The heat transfer between a fluid and a bed of particles has a great number of technological applications. This work presents experimental and analytical results of the dynamical response of the fix bed ceramic spheres parceled by air, when submitted to a step in the inlet gas temperature. The two-phase model approach was used. Based on the experimental profiles of the gas and solid temperature the characteristic time and local coefficient of heat transmission were calculated. 26 refs; 14 figs; 16 tabs

  17. Debris mitigation techniques for petawatt-class lasers in high debris environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwarz


    Full Text Available This paper addresses debris mitigation techniques for two different kinds of debris sources that are found in the high-energy density community. The first debris source stems from the laser-target interaction and this debris can be mitigated by avoiding a direct line of sight to the debris source (e.g. by using a sacrificial fold mirror or by inserting a thin debris shield. Several thin film debris shields have been investigated and nitrocellulose was found to be the best suited. The second debris source originates from an external high-energy density driver or experiment. In our specific case, this is the Z accelerator, a Z-pinch machine that generates 2 MJ of x rays at 300 TW. The center section of the Z accelerator is an extremely violent environment which requires the development of novel debris mitigation approaches for backlighting with petawatt lasers. Two such approaches are presented in this paper. First, a self-closing focusing cone. In our facility, the focused beam on target is fully enclosed inside a solid focusing cone. In the first debris mitigation scenario, the last part of the cone has a “flapper” that should seal the cone when the pressure wave from the Z-pinch explosion hits it. In the second scenario, an enclosed target assembly is used, with the last part of the focusing cone connected to a “target can” which houses the laser target. The laser produced x rays for backlighting escape through a 3 mm diameter hole that is protected by an x-ray filter stack. Both techniques are discussed in detail and have been successfully tested on the Z accelerator.

  18. Dynamic transition between fixed- and mobile-bed: mathematical and numerical aspects (United States)

    Zugliani, Daniel; Pasqualini, Matteo; Rosatti, Giorgio


    Free-surface flows with high sediment transport (as debris flow or hyper-concentrated flow) are composed by a mixture of fluid and solid phase, usually water and sediment. When these flows propagate over loose beds, particles constituting the mixture of water and sediments strongly interact with the ones forming the bed, leading to erosion or deposition. However, there are lots of other situations when the mixture flows over rigid bedrocks or over artificially paved transects, so there is no mass exchange between bed and mixture. The two situations are usually referred to as, respectively, mobile- and fixed-bed conditions. From a mathematical point of view, the systems of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) that describe these flows derive from mass and momentum balance of both phases, but, the two resulting PDEs systems are different. The main difference concerns the concentration: in the mobile-bed condition, the concentration is linked to the local flow conditions by means of a suitable rheological relation, while in the fixed-bed case, the concentration is an unknown of the problem. It is quite common that a free surface flow with high sediment transport, in its path, encounters both conditions. In the recent work of Rosatti & Zugliani 2015, the mathematical and numerical description of the transition between fixed- and mobile-bed was successfully resolved, for the case of low sediment transport phenomena, by the introduction of a suitable erodibility variable and satisfactory results were obtained. The main disadvantage of the approach is related to the erodibility variable, that changes in space, based on bed characteristics, but remains constant in time. However, the nature of the bed can change dynamically as result of deposition over fixed bed or high erosion over mobile bed. With this work, we extend the applicability of the mentioned approach to the more complex PDEs describing the hyper-concentrated flow. Moreover, we introduce a strategy that allows

  19. Bulk solid temperature or regulating process by means of a fluidized or mobile bed multicompartemented heat exchanger. Procede et dispositif de regulation ou controle du niveau thermique d'un solide pulverulent, comportant un echangeur de chaleur a compartiments en lit fluidise ou mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, R.; Hoffmann, F.


    A process and apparatus are disclosed for thermal regulation of mobile or fluidized catalyst beds. The apparatus comprises a fluidized or mobile bed heat exchanger. According to the invention, a pulverulent solid is made to circulate essentially at the base of an enclosure in a heat exchanger containing an internal separation partition which defines two elongated and adjacent compartments communicating by their lower part. In the compartment where the pulverulent solid flows downwards, the fluidization velocity is within the range of 0.1 cm/s and 2 m/s, while in the compartment where the rising of the pulverulent solid in the heat exchanger is carried out, the fluidization velocity is within the range of 0.1 and 6 m/s. The invention is applicable notably to refining reactions such as catalytic reforming, to the regeneration of a catalytic cracking catalyst, or to coal combustion. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Characteristics of debris in the lower head of a BWR in different severe accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Viet-Anh, E-mail:; Galushin, Sergey, E-mail:; Raub, Sebastian, E-mail:; Goronovski, Andrei, E-mail:; Villanueva, Walter, E-mail:; Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail:; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail:; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Station blackout scenario with delayed recovery of safety systems in a Nordic BWR is considered. • Genetic algorithm and random sampling methods are used to explore accident scenario domain. • Main groups of scenarios are identified. • Ranges and distributions of characteristics of debris bed in the lower head are determined. - Abstract: Nordic boiling water reactors (BWRs) adopt ex-vessel debris cooling to terminate severe accident progression. Core melt released from the vessel into a deep pool of water is expected to fragment and form a coolable debris bed. Characteristics of corium melt ejection from the vessel determine conditions for molten fuel–coolant interactions (FCI) and debris bed formation. Non-coolable debris bed or steam explosion can threaten containment integrity. Vessel failure and melt ejection mode are determined by the in-vessel accident progression. Characteristics (such as mass, composition, thermal properties, timing of relocation, and decay heat) of the debris bed formed in the process of core relocation into the vessel lower plenum define conditions for the debris reheating, remelting, melt-vessel structure interactions, vessel failure and melt release. Thus core degradation and relocation are important sources of uncertainty for the success of the ex-vessel accident mitigation strategy. The goal of this work is improve understanding how accident scenario parameters, such as timing of failure and recovery of different safety systems can affect characteristics of the debris in the lower plenum. Station blackout scenario with delayed power recovery in a Nordic BWR is considered using MELCOR code. The recovery timing and capacity of safety systems were varied using genetic algorithm (GA) and random sampling methods to identify two main groups of scenarios: with relatively small (<20 tons) and large (>100 tons) amount of relocated debris. The domains are separated by the transition regions, in which relatively small

  1. Particle size and concentration effects in laboratory debris flow mixtures (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Baselt, Ivo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Large scale chute experiments, as considered here, are essential for the proper understanding of the complex dynamic behavior of debris flow mixtures consisting of solid particles and viscous fluid. Main flow features that are measured on a laboratory scale are the debris flow front velocity, flow depth and mass evolution. We estimate the debris front position by image analysis technique, which in turn allows to evaluate the respective front velocity. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflections, and the masses are estimated with sensors measuring the normal forces. We investigate the influence of the two phase mixture material composition, including different fluid fractions. The laboratory set up consists of a large rectangular channel, 1.3 m wide and 7 m long. These dimensions allow also a lateral expansion of the debris flow when it moves down the inclined channel. Experiments on debris mixtures with different particle sizes and solid concentrations but same total mass are performed to evaluate the difference in spatial evolution of the debris flow dynamics with the same initial potential energy. The experiments reveal that the debris front with large particle size is faster than with the small ones for all solid volume concentrations. The increase of solid volume fraction shows a decrease of flow velocity, which was observed only in the experiments with the small particle. The flow depth and mass measurements at multiple locations along the downslope direction of the chute indicate different dynamical behavior for different particles sizes. The debris flow depth and mass showed no significant differences for large particles with varying initial solid volume concentrations. In contrast, low solid volume concentration resulted in low debris flow depth and mass in the experiments with small particles. This indicates that the particle size plays an important role in the debris flow transport in different solid volume concentration. So, the initial

  2. The importance of entrainment and bulking on debris flow runout modeling: examples from the Swiss Alps


    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; A. Vieli


    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed entrainment of sediment by debris flows. An entrainment model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the entrainment model, an empirical relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additional...

  3. The importance of erosion for debris flow runout modelling from applications to the Swiss Alps


    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; A. Vieli


    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed erosion of sediment by debris flows. An erosion model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the erosion model, the relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally,...

  4. Revue des aspects hydrodynamiques des réacteurs catalytiques gaz-liquide-solide à lit fixe arrosé Hydrodynamics of Gas-Liquid-Solid Trickle-Bed Reactors: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attou A.


    élation empirique de la perte de pression et du taux de rétention de liquide ne correspond à une erreur relative moyenne de prédiction acceptable. Seul le modèle phénoménologique étendu d'Al-Dahhan et al. (1998 semble constituer une technique satisfaisante pour la prédiction des deux paramètres hydrodynamiques en régime ruisselant. Néanmoins, son principal inconvénient réside dans la nécessité de déterminer préalablement les deux coefficients du modèle au moyen d'expériences sur des écoulements monophasiques gazeux. De telles expériences restent difficiles à réaliser dans la pratique. Il est cependant regrettable de constater qu'aucune des ces méthodes, qui se distinguent par leurs résultats, n'est basée sur une approche physique des phénomènes hydrodynamiques permettant d'améliorer la connaissance de ces écoulements et de prédire leur comportement en dehors des domaines de conditions expérimentales testées. De ce travail, il ressort la nécessité d'appliquer les outils classiques de la mécanique des fluides diphasique à la description de ces écoulements, en apportant une attention particulière aux phénomènes d'interactions hydrodynamiques auxquelles sont soumises les trois phases du système (gaz, liquide et solide. While it is recognised that the hydrodynamic aspects have a considerable importance in the design and the operation of gas-liquid-solid trickle-bed reactors, the accuracy of the proposed calculation methods remains poor. Most studies in this field have been performed in atmospheric conditions in contrast of industrial reactors operating at quite high pressures. Only recently, some experimental results have been obtained at elevated pressures and correlations have been proposed in these conditions in order to predict the tricking-pulsing transition, the pressure drop and the liquid holdup. The scope of this article is twice. Firstly, the knowledge on the several hydrodynamic aspects of three-phase trickle-bed reactors, including

  5. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple

  6. Slit-check dams for the control of debris flow (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele


    Debris flows are paroxysmal events that mobilize, alongside water, huge quantities of sediment in a very short time, then with both solid and liquid huge discharges, possibly exceeding the capacity of the current torrent restoration works. In this respect, the climate change forcing cannot be ignored. In the majority of urbanized areas, that are generally the most vulnerable, there is often not enough space to create channelling works able to let the volumes pass through without overflowing. The simplest, less expensive and most sustainable solution consists in reducing the peak solid discharge by creating storage areas upstream of the settlements, typically upstream of the alluvial fans, allowing for reduced works of canalization, that are compatible with the constraints imposed by the urbanization. The general idea consists in storing a part of the flowing solids during the peak of the hydrograph and releasing it in a successive phase or during minor floods. For this purpose, and in order to optimize the solid peak discharge reduction, it is necessary that properly designed open-check dams, capable of inducing a significative sedimentation of the solid discharge only when this exceeds a design-threshold value, control the deposition basins. A correct design of the check dam is crucial in order to induce the sedimentation in the right amount and at the right moment: a too early sedimentation might fill the volume before the peak, like in the case of close-check dams, while a too weak sedimentation might not use the whole available volume. In both cases, the channelling works might not be sufficient to let all the flow pass through, compromising the safety of the settlement. To avoid this inconvenience, we propose the use of slit-check dams, whose efficiency has already been proved for bed load. Check dams are often designed only on the base of the designer's experience. Besides, even today it is often believed that the filtering effect of open check dams is

  7. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.


    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  8. Woody debris flow behavior from experimental analysis (United States)

    Bateman, Allen; Medina, Vicente; Morloti, Emanuele; Renaud, Alexis


    A consequence of debris flow in streams are well known, the collapse of the stream flooding all over the land. The high momentum flux of those flows can devastate houses, drag and crushes cars, etc. The presence of woody debris into the flow rise the flow depth and increment the collapse of the streams, bridges and structures. The present preliminary study offer a qualitative comparison between a debris flow and a woody debris flow with similar flow characteristics. To obtain this a series of experiments were performed in the Morph-dynamic Laboratory of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Department. A high slope flume of 9 meters length, 40 cm width and 60 cm high was used. Up to 5 experiments were running in the flume. Initially the material was placed dry in the bed conforming a 20 cm depth of granular material changing the way of water wave entrance. Always water wave was introduced as a step function with different step size and different flow duration in order to introduce the same volume of water, just enough to saturate all the material in the channel. The flow was filmed with a handycam in order to see the general flow characteristics and with a high speed camera, just in a section, to visualize the flow velocities. Several woody pieces were placed along the channel to simulate the presence of wood and tress in the stream. Each tree was constructed in such a way that each one have a root made by rocks simulating a real root and different mass distribution. The comparison with experiments without wood was clever to understand the influence of woods in the debris flow. The woody debris flow alone creates natural dams along the stream without presence of inciters obstacles along the reach.

  9. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor (United States)

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.


    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  10. Density Estimations in Laboratory Debris Flow Experiments (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Bulk density and its variation is an important physical quantity to estimate the solid-liquid fractions in two-phase debris flows. Here we present mass and flow depth measurements for experiments performed in a large-scale laboratory set up. Once the mixture is released and it moves down the inclined channel, measurements allow us to determine the bulk density evolution throughout the debris flow. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflection, and the mass is measured with a total normal force sensor. The data were obtained at 50 Hz. The initial two phase material was composed of 350 kg debris with water content of 40%. A very fine pebble with mean particle diameter of 3 mm, particle density of 2760 kg/m³ and bulk density of 1400 kg/m³ in dry condition was chosen as the solid material. Measurements reveal that the debris bulk density remains high from the head to the middle of the debris body whereas it drops substantially at the tail. This indicates lower water content at the tail, compared to the head and the middle portion of the debris body. This means that the solid and fluid fractions are varying strongly in a non-linear manner along the flow path, and from the head to the tail of the debris mass. Importantly, this spatial-temporal density variation plays a crucial role in determining the impact forces associated with the dynamics of the flow. Our setup allows for investigating different two phase material compositions, including large fluid fractions, with high resolutions. The considered experimental set up may enable us to transfer the observed phenomena to natural large-scale events. Furthermore, the measurement data allows evaluating results of numerical two-phase mass flow simulations. These experiments are parts of the project that intends to develop a GIS-based open source computational tool to describe wide spectrum of rapid geophysical mass flows, including avalanches and real two-phase debris flows down complex natural

  11. Multiscale modeling of gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoef, Martin Anton; van Sint Annaland, M.; Ye, M.; Andrews, A.T.; Sundaresan, S.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Numerical models of gas-fluidized beds have become an important tool in the design and scale up of gas-solid chemical reactors. However, a single numerical model which includes the solid-solid and solid-fluid interaction in full detail is not feasible for industrial-scale equipment, and for this

  12. Debris disc constraints on planetesimal formation (United States)

    Krivov, Alexander V.; Ide, Aljoscha; Löhne, Torsten; Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen


    Two basic routes for planetesimal formation have been proposed over the last decades. One is a classical `slow-growth' scenario. Another one is particle concentration models, in which small pebbles are concentrated locally and then collapse gravitationally to form planetesimals. Both types of models make certain predictions for the size spectrum and internal structure of newly born planetesimals. We use these predictions as input to simulate collisional evolution of debris discs left after the gas dispersal. The debris disc emission as a function of a system's age computed in these simulations is compared with several Spitzer and Herschel debris disc surveys around A-type stars. We confirm that the observed brightness evolution for the majority of discs can be reproduced by classical models. Further, we find that it is equally consistent with the size distribution of planetesimals predicted by particle concentration models - provided the objects are loosely bound `pebble piles' as these models also predict. Regardless of the assumed planetesimal formation mechanism, explaining the brightest debris discs in the samples uncovers a `disc mass problem'. To reproduce such discs by collisional simulations, a total mass of planetesimals of up to ˜1000 Earth masses is required, which exceeds the total mass of solids available in the protoplanetary progenitors of debris discs. This may indicate that stirring was delayed in some of the bright discs, that giant impacts occurred recently in some of them, that some systems may be younger than previously thought or that non-collisional processes contribute significantly to the dust production.

  13. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  14. Study of pore fluid effect on the mobility of granular debris flows (United States)

    Zhou, Gordon G. D.; Sun, Q. C.


    Granular debris flows in nature are composed of a wide range of solids and viscous pore fluids, moving at high velocities down sloping channels. The pore fluids in a granular debris flow affect the interactions between the solid and fluid phases and thus govern the debris-flow mobility. Study of the pore fluid effect (i.e., excess pore water pressures correlated to solid structures, and the viscous shearing and dragging) is essential for understanding the high flow mobility of granular debris flows. This study critically reviews two dimensionless numbers with clear physical meanings, then demonstrates a new application of field monitoring data for identifying natural debris flows on large scales (i.e., surge and continuous debris-flows, respectively). This study illustrates that, the pore fluid viscous shearing stress dominates solid inertial stress due to solids collision. It is also found that different to continuous debris-flows, the high pore fluid pressures generated in surge debris-flow body dissipate quite slowly and mostly influence particle contact behaviour significantly. A new scientific criterion for identification of continuous and surge debris flow in nature can be given by this study.

  15. Gas-solid turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser: experimental and numerical study of mono-disperse particle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Numerical simulations were performed of a turbulent gas-particle multiphase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser using a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier−Stokes equations for the gas phase, where the subgrid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with

  16. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P


    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  17. ASTM standards for fire debris analysis: a review. (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Lentini, John J


    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) recently updated its standards E 1387 and E 1618 for the analysis of fire debris. The changes in the classification of ignitable liquids are presented in this review. Furthermore, a new standard on extraction of fire debris with solid phase microextraction (SPME) was released. Advantages and drawbacks of this technique are presented and discussed. Also, the standard on cleanup by acid stripping has not been reapproved. Fire debris analysts that use the standards should be aware of these changes.

  18. On the influence of water subcooling and melt jet parameters on debris formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, Louis, E-mail:; Kudinov, Pavel; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry


    Highlights: • Melt and water configuration effects on debris formation is studied experimentally. • Melt superheat and water subcooling are most influential compared to jet size. • Melt-water configuration and material properties influence particle fracture rate. • Results are compared with large scale experiments to study effect of spatial scales. - Abstract: Breakup of melt jet and formation of a porous debris bed at the base-mat of a flooded reactor cavity is expected during the late stages of a severe accident in light water reactors. Debris bed coolability is determined by the bed properties including particle size, morphology, bed height and shape as well as decay heat. Therefore understanding of the debris formation phenomena is important for assessment of debris bed coolability. A series of experiments was conducted in MISTEE-Jet facility by discharging binary-oxide mixtures of WO{sub 3}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} into water in order to investigate properties of resulting debris. The effect of water subcooling, nozzle diameter and melt superheat was addressed in the tests. Experimental results reveal significant influence of water subcooling and melt superheat on debris size and morphology. Significant differences in size and morphology of the debris at different melt release conditions is attributed to the competition between hydrodynamic fragmentation of liquid melt and thermal fracture of the solidifying melt droplets. The particle fracture rate increases with increased subcooling. Further the results are compared with the data from larger scale experiments to discern the effects of spatial scales. The present work provides data that can be useful for validation of the codes used for the prediction of debris formation phenomena.

  19. Space Debris & its Mitigation (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant


    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  20. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri


    Full Text Available The transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell activated carbon (KOH/JS was studied. The catalyst systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst bed height in packed bed reactor (PBR on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. SEM images showed that KOH was well distributed on the catalyst support. The optimum conditions for achieving the conversion yield of 86.7% consisted of a residence time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 60 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 16 and catalyst bed height of 250 mm. KOH/JS could be used repeatedly five times without any activation treatment, and no significant activity loss was observed. The results confirmed that KOH/JS catalyst had a great potential to be used for industrial application in the transesterification of WFO. The fuel properties of biodiesel were also determined.

  1. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi


    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  2. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning. (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo


    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells

  3. Managing Debris Flow Risks


    Zimmermann, Markus N.


    Debris flows represent a widespread threat to villages and small towns in the Swiss Alps. For many centuries people “managed” such risks by trying to avoid hazardous areas. However, major debris flow and flood events in the last 25 years have revealed that the degree of freedom to engage in this type of risk management has substantially decreased. This became especially evident during the 1999 disasters in a number of places in Switzerland. The winter of that year was unusually wet. In Februa...

  4. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  5. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  6. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  7. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo


    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  8. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris (United States)

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Baker, L. Jr.

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and can be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed of sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  9. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  10. Characterization of the efficiency of the gas-solid contact in circulating bed at by the use of a test reaction: the cumene catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, J.; Gauthier, T.; Pontier, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Briens, C.L.; Bergougnou, M. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics


    The gas-solid down with the stream reactor, the ``downer``, presents a main interest for the high-speed reactions because it is well adapted to hard conditions uses: very short residence times, high temperatures and feeds of catalyst. This reactor type already presents a certain advantage to estimate the charges or new catalysts potential. But, it particularly constitutes an interesting option for some processes as petroleum cuts catalytic cracking. In order to intensify the contact between the catalyst and the reagents, the temperature increase of the reagents has to be almost instantaneous and the initial contact between the gas and the solid particles particularly effective. So as to validate these two hypothesis, the test reaction of the cumene catalytic cracking is carried out in the pilot unit ``downer`` of the Western Ontario University. (O.M.). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt via gas-solid reaction in rotary bed reactor; Sintese e caracterizacao de carbeto de tungstenio dopado com cobalto via reacao gas-solido em reator de leito rotativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertuliano, R.S.C.; Araujo, C.P.B. de; Frota, A.V.V.M.; Moriyama, A.L.L.; Souza, C.P. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica


    The search for materials with high added value, high applicability and sustainability, motivates innovations in all areas of engineering. In this context, so-called doped carbides, ceramic and metal compounds are included. This work proposes the synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt (WC-Co) through the gas-solid reaction in a rotating bed reactor. The production stages of the material are: precursor synthesis by wetting, drying at 80 deg C, characterization of the precursor by MEV, DRX and FRX, gas-solid reaction at 750 deg C in a reducing atmosphere of CH{sub 4} / H{sub 2} in a rotary reactor at 34 rpm and characterization of the reaction product by the techniques already mentioned. The results showed that tungsten carbide powders were produced with cobalt inserted into the structure, with high surface area, nanometric grains and with potential for applications in the areas of catalysis, reactors and fuel cells, showing the relevance of this type of research.

  12. Space Debris Modeling at NASA (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOLVE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been released with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NASA Safety Standard 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the

  13. Response of a Brook Trout Population and Instream Habitat to a Catastrophic Flood and Debris Flow (United States)

    Criag N. Roghair; C. Andrew Dolloff; Martin K. Underwood


    In June 1995, a massive flood and debris flow impacted fish and habitat along the lower 1.9 km of the Staunton River, a headwater stream located in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In the area affected by debris flow, the stream bed was scoured and new substrate materials were deposited, trees were removed from a 30-m-wide band in the riparian area, and all fish...

  14. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor. (United States)

    Reddy, Prashant; Lekha, Prabashni; Reynolds, Wienke; Kirsch, Christian


    Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate changes in the residues, in particular due to the fate of lignin. FEG-SEM results show that the LHW treatment modified the surface morphology of the pretreated bagasse with lignin droplets being observed on the fibre surface. TEM showed an increase in the plant cell wall porosity and lignin migration across the plant cell wall. Increases in pretreatment temperature were observed to increase the average size and density of lignin droplets on the fibre surface. The results provide evidence that for LHW flow-through treatment, just as for batch treatment, lignin repolymerisation and deposition on the surface of pretreated sugarcane bagasse is an important consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical Rainfall Conditions Triggering Shallow Landslides or Debris Flows in Torrents - Analysis of Debris Flow events 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Austria (United States)

    Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Janu, Stefan


    Generally, debris flows are caused by both small-scale intensive precipitation and long lasting rainfalls with lower intensity but high pre-wetting or both combined. The triggering mechanism of the debris flow events in Austria 2012, 2013 and 2014 were mass movements (rapid shallow landslides) on steep slopes in the upper catchments. Those masses slide with very high velocity into the torrent beds provoking hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows. In areas of the geologically unstable Greywacke zone, the torrents were cleared up onto the bedrock and the debris was deposited in the storage areas of existing debris flow breakers or in torrents without technical protection measures the debris caused catastrophic damage to residential buildings and other infrastructural facilities on the alluvial fan. Following the events, comprehensive documentation work was undertaken comprising precipitation analysis (rainfall data, weather radar data), identification and quantification of the landslide masses, cross profiles along the channel and of deposition in the storage areas or on the fan. The documentation and analysis of torrential events is an essential part of an integrated risk management. It supports the understanding of the occurred processes to mitigate future hazards. Unfortunately, the small-scale heavy rain events are not detected by the precipitation stations. Therefore, weather radar data (INCA-Data) analysis was used to determine the - usually very local - intensities which caused those catastrophic landslides and debris flows. Analysis results showed an agreement with the range of the previously known precipitation thresholds for debris flow triggering in the Alps.

  16. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering


    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  17. Practical engineering approaches and infrastructure to address the problem of marine debris in Korea. (United States)

    Jung, Rho-Taek; Sung, Hong Gun; Chun, Tae-Byong; Keel, Sang-In


    As a solution to the problem of persistent solid marine debris, a nationwide project began in Korea in 1999 to develop and popularize fundamental changes to the infrastructure. The ten year project, called "A Practical Integrated System for Marine Debris," consists of four linked types of technology: prevention, deep-water survey, removal and treatment (recycling). These reflect the characteristics of marine debris, which though widespread, vary by location and time of generation. Each technical component has each representative outcome that has been outreached the local governments and marine debris-related associations. The in situ infrastructures lead to enhance the retrieval of the marine debris and create direct and indirect benefits to industry. Both end-of-pipe technology improvement and the introduction of front-of-pipe technology should be considered as we strive to reduce the generation of marine debris in Korean coastal areas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. External tank space debris considerations (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Baillif, F.; Robinson, J.


    Orbital debris issues associated with maintaining a Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on orbit are presented. The first issue is to ensure that the ET does not become a danger to other spacecraft by generating space debris, and the second is to protect the pressurized ET from penetration by space debris or meteoroids. Tests on shield designs for penetration resistance showed that when utilized with an adequate bumper, thermal protection system foam on the ET is effective in preventing penetration.

  19. Determination of the solid consumption in the transport of sands in sea beds with gold 198; Determinacion del gasto solido en el transporte de arenas en lechos marinos con oro 198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez A, G


    The study of the movement of sediments in sea beds, is necessary when one plans to build a port. Among the techniques used for this studies, it is the radiotracer balance that gives an useful estimation of the quantity of sediment that it moves per day and by meter (perpendicular to the displacement). The main objectives of this work are: to) to present the characteristics of the obtaining of the used radiotracer, describing details those used safety measures, b) to describe the handling of the radiotracer and it radiological safety, during the transport and injection in the sea bottom, c) description of the detection way and the used equipment, d) to describe the information processing obtained in the field and finally, e) the estimate of the solid consumption and the determination of the direction and speed of displacement of those sediments in the sea bottom, in front of the Tabasco coast, to be used jointly with the information obtained by means of other techniques so that one can make a good planning of the operations of dredging during the construction and later on the maintenance of the Dos Bocas marine terminal. The first step is to obtain the radiotracer that in this case was sand of uniform grain metric, marked superficially with Gold-198. The second step is to transport the sand to the place of interest, to place it in the injection equipment and to deposit it in the sea bottom. The third step is to detect the radiotracer in the sea bed, from a craft that drags a sled, which takes mounted a scintillation detector of sodium iodide activated with thallium NaI(Tl) (probe). The fourth step is to process the field information and to obtain the corresponding results. (Author)

  20. Microplastic debris in sandhoppers (United States)

    Ugolini, A.; Ungherese, G.; Ciofini, M.; Lapucci, A.; Camaiti, M.


    Adults of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator were fed with dry fish food mixed with polyethylene microspheres (diameter 10-45 μm). Observations of homogenized guts revealed the presence of microspheres independently of their dimensions. The gut resident time (GRT) was recorded and most of the microspheres are expelled in 24 h. Microspheres are totally expelled in one week. Preliminary investigations did not show any consequence of microsphere ingestion on the survival capacity in the laboratory. FT-IR analyses carried out on faeces of freshly collected individuals revealed the presence of polyethylene and polypropylene. This confirms that microplastic debris could be swallowed by T. saltator in natural conditions.

  1. Fluidized-bed combustion reduces atmospheric pollutants (United States)

    Jonke, A. A.


    Method of reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides released during combustion of fossil fuels is described. Fuel is burned in fluidized bed of solids with simultaneous feeding of crushed or pulverized limestone to control emission. Process also offers high heat transfer rates and efficient contacting for gas-solid reactions.

  2. Analysis of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Takehiko; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Yang, Guilin


    Fluidized bed combustors are commercialized as a technology to combust solid fuels with higher efficiency and lower emission and have functions of both combustion and simultaneous desulfurization and NOx reduction with dense phase fluidized beds but it is not so easy to realize these problems. The technology of circulating fluidized bed coal combustion is expected to offer potential break-through of various problems. But the details are not reported so far. Quantitative analysis of present situations was conducted and future problems were shown with officially available informations. This analysis includes the circulating rate and loading of solids, heat recovery and heat transfer rate as a function of loading of solids, the design of cyclones related to high solid concentration within the combustor, sulfur retention with reduced Ca/S ratio and problems related to NOx reduction to be developed in future. (51 refs, 23 figs, 8 tabs)

  3. Space debris; challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beurden, E.; Prins, C.


    Space debris has been a hot topic for the last few decades, ever since the space industry started growing exponentially. Everyone agrees that space debris is a growing problem and the saturation point has almost been reached. With a big risk of a chain reaction, called the Kessler syndrome, billions

  4. Influence of Spherical Particle Size Distribution on Pressure Gradients in Mixed Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Moon Eon; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    It is of key importance to ensure the long-term cooling of the relocated corium on the reactor containment floor by supplying coolant into the debris bed for stabilization and termination of the severe accident progression. Since the cooling mechanism is governed by pressure gradients which depend on the debris bed characteristics such as particle morphology, size distribution and bed porosity etc., it is necessary to investigate the two-phase flow pressure gradient mechanism in the debris bed under the conditions of hypothetical severe accident cases. The debris bed characteristics in such accident conditions can be found from previous molten fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) studies. In the FCIs experiments, the quenched particulate debris bed is composed of irregular shape particles with size distribution from a few of micrometers to about 10 mm. For water/air two-phase experiment, The Tung and Dhir model using the length mean diameter can predict the counter-current flow limitation although it does not predict the measured pressure gradients well for the whole range of the superficial air velocity.

  5. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Graves, S. R.


    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  6. Co-gasification of sewage sludge and woody biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier: toxicity assessment of solid residues. (United States)

    Rong, Le; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Jingwen Charmaine; Neoh, Koon Gee; Bay, Boon Huat; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa


    As the demand for fossil fuels and biofuels increases, the volume of ash generated will correspondingly increase. Even though ash disposal is now strictly regulated in many countries, the increasing volume of ash puts pressure on landfill sites with regard to cost, capacity and maintenance. In addition, the probability of environmental pollution from leakage of bottom ash leachate also increases. The main aim of this research is to investigate the toxicity of bottom ash, which is an unavoidable solid residue arising from biomass gasification, on human cells in vitro. Two human cell lines i.e. HepG2 (liver cell) and MRC-5 (lung fibroblast) were used to study the toxicity of the bottom ash as the toxins in the bottom ash may enter blood circulation by drinking the contaminated water or eating the food grown in bottom ash-contaminated water/soil and the toxic compounds may be carried all over the human body including to important organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart. It was found that the bottom ash extract has a high basicity (pH = 9.8-12.2) and a high ionic strength, due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals e.g. K, Na, Ca and Mg. Moreover, it also contains concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Mo) and non-toxic organic compounds. Although human beings require these trace elements, excessive levels can be damaging to the body. From the analyses of cell viability (using MTS assay) and morphology (using fluorescence microscope), the high toxicity of the gasification bottom ash extract could be related to effects of high ionic strength, heavy metals or a combination of these two effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the improper disposal of the bottom ash wastes arising from gasification can create potential risks to human health and, thus, it has become a matter of urgency to find alternative options for the disposal of bottom ash wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the behaviour of gaseous pollutants during the incineration of municipal solid waste in a circulating fluidized bed; Etude du devenir des polluants gazeux lors de l`incineration d`ordures menageres en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches-Ducarne, E.


    The Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustor seems to be a promising tool, being able to burn a variety of fuels whilst maintaining low emissions levels. The present work describes an experimental and theoretical investigation into the formation and destruction of acid gases (HCl and SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO and N{sub 2}O) during Municipal Solid Waste incineration. Experiments were conducted on six different fuels (namely MSW, mixtures of wood, paper, plastics, polyethylene...). The effect of five parameters (temperature, excess air, air staging, calcium addition and moisture) on the emissions levels was investigated. A statistical study on the experimental data allowed us to quantify the impact of the operating conditions and the influence of the fuel characteristics. A mathematical model has been developed which includes the main physical and chemical steps of combustion in CFB and which predicts the pollutant emissions under various operating conditions. A parametric study of the influence of operating conditions on emissions showed that in most cases the trends predicted by the model are in agreement with the experimental observations. (author) 175 refs.

  8. Study of the obtainment of Mo{sub 2}C by gas-solid reaction in a fixed and rotary bed reactor; Estudo da obtencao de Mo{sub 2}C por reacao gas-solido em reator de leito fixo e rotativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C.P.B. de; Souza, C.P. de; Souto, M.V.M.; Barbosa, C.M.; Frota, A.V.V.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    Carbides' synthesis via gas-solid reaction overcomes many of the difficulties found in other processes, requiring lower temperatures and reaction times than traditional metallurgic routes, for example. In carbides' synthesis in fixed bed reactors (FB) the solid precursor is permeated by the reducing/carburizing gas stream forming a packed bed without mobility. The use of a rotary kiln reactor (RK) adds a mixing character to this process, changing its fluid-particle dynamics. In this work ammonium molybdate was subjected to carbo-reduction reaction (CH4 / H2) in both reactors under the same gas flow (15L / h) and temperature (660 ° C) for 180 minutes. Complete conversion was observed Mo2C (dp = 18.9nm modal particles sizes' distribution) in the fixed bed reactor. In the RK reactor this conversion was only partial (∼ 40%) and Mo2C and MoO3 (34nm dp = bimodal) could be observed on the produced XRD pattern. Partial conversion was attributed to the need to use higher solids loading in the reactor CR (50% higher) to avoid solids to centrifuge. (author)

  9. What is the velocity profile of debris flows? (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; McArdell, Brian


    The distribution of flow velocity within a debris flow is difficult to determine at full scale in the field due to the large forces and inherently destructive nature of the flow. However, knowledge of the distribution of velocity within a flow would be helpful to constrain rheological models and to better understand the internal dynamics of such flows. Here we describe recent efforts to determine the velocity of debris flows as a function of distance from the channel bed. Measurements were made at the Illgraben, Switzerland, which exhibits a wide variety of flows, ranging from turbulent debris floods to flows which resemble laminar mud flows to more classical debris flows with a clear granular front. The Illgraben observation station is therefore an ideal location to investigate debris flow dynamics. Our measurements were made using sensors embedded on a 14 m long, 2.5 m tall steel-reinforced concrete wall constructed flush with the torrent channel walls. The main instrumentation consists of 18 geophones (10 Hz natural frequency) installed on square steel plates with a side length of 0.3 m. Each steel plate is acoustically isolated from the wall and the other plates through the use of elastomer elements. The geophone plates are arranged in six rows of three sensors with a dimension of 1.8 m in the vertical direction and 1.5 m in the horizontal direction (i.e. parallel to the flow direction). A sensorless plate separates each plate in the horizontal direction. The data are collected at 2 kHz using a high-speed (synchronous) capture card in a pc. The elevation of the flow surface is determined at a cross-stream distance 1 m away from the wall, using a laser sensor installed on a bridge above the wall. We present a processing approach for the geophone data with the goal to track particle sliding across the sensor plates. For signals near or above the sensors' natural frequency (10 Hz), the measured time series are poorly correlated between sensors. Therefore, we use a

  10. Runoff-generated debris flows: observations and modeling of surge initiation, magnitude, and frequency (United States)

    Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.


    Runoff during intense rainstorms plays a major role in generating debris flows in many alpine areas and burned steeplands. Yet compared to debris flow initiation from shallow landslides, the mechanics by which runoff generates a debris flow are less understood. To better understand debris flow initiation by surface water runoff, we monitored flow stage and rainfall associated with debris flows in the headwaters of two small catchments: a bedrock-dominated alpine basin in central Colorado (0.06 km2) and a recently burned area in southern California (0.01 km2). We also obtained video footage of debris flow initiation and flow dynamics from three cameras at the Colorado site. Stage observations at both sites display distinct patterns in debris flow surge characteristics relative to rainfall intensity (I). We observe small, quasiperiodic surges at low I; large, quasiperiodic surges at intermediate I; and a single large surge followed by small-amplitude fluctuations about a more steady high flow at high I. Video observations of surge formation lead us to the hypothesis that these flow patterns are controlled by upstream variations in channel slope, in which low-gradient sections act as “sediment capacitors,” temporarily storing incoming bed load transported by water flow and periodically releasing the accumulated sediment as a debris flow surge. To explore this hypothesis, we develop a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of a sediment capacitor that consists of a system of coupled equations for water flow, bed load transport, slope stability, and mass flow. This model reproduces the essential patterns in surge magnitude and frequency with rainfall intensity observed at the two field sites and provides a new framework for predicting the runoff threshold for debris flow initiation in a burned or alpine setting.

  11. Mechanics of debris flows and rock avalanches: Chapter 43 (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Fernando, Harindra Joseph


    Debris flows are geophysical phenomena intermediate in character between rock avalanches and flash floods. They commonly originate as water-laden landslides on steep slopes and transform into liquefied masses of fragmented rock, muddy water, and entrained organic matter that disgorge from canyons onto valley floors. Typically including 50%–70% solid grains by volume, attaining speeds >10 m/s, and ranging in size up to ∼109 m3, debris flows can denude mountainsides, inundate floodplains, and devastate people and property (Figure 43.1). Notable recent debris-flow disasters resulted in more than 20,000 fatalities in Armero, Colombia, in 1985 and in Vargas state, Venezuela, in 1999.

  12. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov


    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  13. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  14. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA


    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  15. The earth orbiting space debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.


    Full Text Available The space debris population is similar to the asteroid belt, since it is subject to a process of high-velocity mutual collisions that affects the long-term evolution of its size distribution. Presently, more than 10 000 artificial debris particles with diameters larger than 10 cm (and more than 300 000 with diameters larger than 1 cm are orbiting the Earth, and are monitored and studied by a large network of sensors around the Earth. Many objects of different kind compose the space debris population, produced by different source mechanisms ranging from high energy fragmentation of large spacecraft to slow diffusion of liquid metal. The impact against a space debris is a serious risk that every spacecraft must face now and it can be evaluated with ad-hoc algorithms. The long term evolution of the whole debris population is studied with computer models allowing the simulation of all the known source and sink mechanisms. One of these codes is described in this paper and the evolution of the debris environment over the next 100 years, under different traffic scenarios, is shown, pointing out the possible measures to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris population. .

  16. A new debris flow monitoring barrier to measure debris flow impact/structure/ground interaction in the Gadria torrent (United States)

    Nagl, Georg; Hübl, Johannes


    Debris flow monitoring is a keystone in debris flow research. Based on the lack of investigations of the interaction of rapid mass movement and structural mitigation measures, a new monitoring system has been installed in the well monitored Gadria torrent in South Tyrol. For design of active structural measures, like check dams, the engineering task is to come to an amicable solution of all necessary subjects. Starting with the estimation of parameters of the rapid mass movement itself to the design load and finally to the foundation of the structure. At all stages big uncertainties are given. The basis for accurate design is a comprehensive approach. For this reason, a new monitoring station was built in autumn 2016, to investigate the interaction of a debris flow with the structures and the ground. Two structures unify the new monitoring system. The first, a transversal check dam, flush to channel bed, contain two weighing devices each equipped with a pore pressure sensor. One device is also able to measure the shear force additional in two directions. The second barrier similar to a debris flow breaker but only with one singe wall centered on a foundation plate, is located downstream to the first one. 14 load cells are installed on the upward front of the structure to analyze the spatial force distribution of debris flow impact pressure. Nine earth pressure sensors under the foundation of the structure deliver the earth pressure distribution. The acceleration of the construction can be measured by a 3D accelerometer installed on the top. In case of a movement, two extensometers detect any displacement. Mounted strain gauges give insights of stresses in concrete and reinforcement. Each sensor has a sampling frequency of 2400 Hz. Furthermore it is planned to measure the flow velocity distribution over flow depth too. The new monitoring station should help to acquire data for understanding the debris flow/structure/ground interaction to facilitate the improvement

  17. Extraction of potential debris source areas by logistic regression technique: a case study from Barla, Besparmak and Kapi mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey) (United States)

    Tunusluoglu, M. C.; Gokceoglu, C.; Nefeslioglu, H. A.; Sonmez, H.


    Debris flow is one of the most destructive mass movements. Sometimes regional debris flow susceptibility or hazard assessments can be more difficult than the other mass movements. Determination of debris accumulation zones and debris source areas, which is one of the most crucial stages in debris flow investigations, can be too difficult because of morphological restrictions. The main goal of the present study is to extract debris source areas by logistic regression analyses based on the data from the slopes of the Barla, Besparmak and Kapi Mountains in the SW part of the Taurids Mountain belt of Turkey, where formation of debris material are clearly evident and common. In this study, in order to achieve this goal, extensive field observations to identify the areal extent of debris source areas and debris material, air-photo studies to determine the debris source areas and also desk studies including Geographical Information System (GIS) applications and statistical assessments were performed. To justify the training data used in logistic regression analyses as representative, a random sampling procedure was applied. By using the results of the logistic regression analysis, the debris source area probability map of the region is produced. However, according to the field experiences of the authors, the produced map yielded over-predicted results. The main source of the over-prediction is structural relation between the bedding planes and slope aspects on the basis of the field observations, for the generation of debris, the dip of the bedding planes must be taken into consideration regarding the slope face. In order to eliminate this problem, in this study, an approach has been developed using probability distribution of the aspect values. With the application of structural adjustment, the final adjusted debris source area probability map is obtained for the study area. The field observations revealed that the actual debris source areas in the field coincide with

  18. 14 CFR 417.211 - Debris analysis. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris analysis. 417.211 Section 417.211... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.211 Debris analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a debris analysis. For an orbital or suborbital launch, a debris analysis...

  19. Early Archean Spherule Beds-Confirmation of Impact Origin (United States)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Kyte, F. T.; Lugmair, G. W.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.


    The oldest record of major impact events on Earth may be a number of early Archean (3.5 to 3.2 Ga) spherule beds that have been identified in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Several field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria distinguish these beds from typical volcanic and clastic sediments. These criteria include the wide geographic distribution of two beds in a variety of depositional environments, the presence of relict quench textures, absence of juvenile volcaniclastic debris within the beds, and extreme enrichment of Ir and other platinum group elements (PGE) as compared to surrounding sediments. Some researchers, however, argued for a terrestrial origin for spherule bed formation, possibly related to volcanism and gold mineralization.

  20. Lightweight Shield Against Space Debris (United States)

    Redmon, John W., Jr.; Lawson, Bobby E.; Miller, Andre E.; Cobb, W. E.


    Report presents concept for lightweight, deployable shield protecting orbiting spacecraft against meteoroids and debris, and functions as barrier to conductive and radiative losses of heat. Shield made in four segments providing 360 degree coverage of cylindrical space-station module.

  1. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  2. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  3. Research team for Space Debris comprehensive measures


    Ohnishi, Mitsuru; 大西, 充


    The increasing number of pieces of space junk, that is "space debris", is supposed to be a serious threat on humankind's use of outer space in the future. JAXA has organized the research team for space debris comprehensive measures, which consists of following 4 key sub-themes, (1) Formulating International Standards and Guidelines, (2) Researching technologies for debris Mitigation, (3)Researching technologies for the low-cost Active Debris Removal, (4)Researching technologies for debris Sit...

  4. Backwater development by woody debris (United States)

    Geertsema, Tjitske; Torfs, Paul; Teuling, Ryan; Hoitink, Ton


    Placement of woody debris is a common method for increasing ecological values in river and stream restoration, and is thus widely used in natural environments. Water managers, however, are afraid to introduce wood in channels draining agricultural and urban areas. Upstream, it may create backwater, depending on hydrodynamic characteristics including the obstruction ratio, the Froude number and the surface level gradient. Patches of wood may trigger or counter morphological activity, both laterally, through bank erosion and protection, and vertically, with pool and riffle formation. Also, a permeable construction composed of wood will weather over time. Both morphodynamic activity and weathering cause backwater effects to change in time. The purpose of this study is to quantify the time development of backwater effects caused by woody debris. Hourly water levels gauged upstream and downstream of patches and discharge are collected for five streams in the Netherlands. The water level drop over the woody debris patch relates to discharge in the streams. This relation is characterized by an increasing water level difference for an increasing discharge, up to a maximum. If the discharge increases beyond this level, the water level difference reduces to the value that may represent the situation without woody debris. This reduction depends primarily on the obstruction ratio of the woody debris in the channel cross-section. Morphologic adjustments in the stream and reorientation of the woody material reduce the water level drop over the patches in time. Our results demonstrate that backwater effects can be reduced by optimizing the location where woody debris is placed and manipulating the obstruction ratio. Current efforts are focussed on representing woody debris in a one-dimensional numerical model, aiming to obtain a generic tool to achieve a stream design with woody debris that minimizes backwater.

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a Laboratory Fluidized-bed Reactor Combustion de charges solides avec la boucle chimique dans un lit fluidisé de laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leion H.


    Full Text Available When using solid fuel in a chemical looping system, the char fraction of the fuel needs to be gasified before syngas react with the oxygen carrier. This can be done inside the fuel reactor with fuel and oxygen carriers well mixed, and, since this gasification is comparably slow, this will be the time limiting step of such a system. An option is to use an oxygen carrier that is able to release gas-phase oxygen which can react with the fuel by normal combustion giving a significantly faster overall fuel conversion. This last option is generally referred to as Chemical Looping combustion with Oxygen Un-coupling (CLOU. In this work, an overview is given of parameters that affect the fuel conversion in laboratory CLC and CLOU experiments. The main factor determining the fuel conversion, in both CLC and CLOU, is the fuel itself. High-volatile fuels are generally more rapidly converted than low volatile fuels. This difference in fuel conversion rate is more pronounced in CLC than in CLOU. However, the fuel conversion is also, both for CLC and CLOU, increased by increasing temperature. Increased steam and SO2 fraction in the surrounding gas will also enhance the fuel conversion in CLC. CO2 gasification in CLC appears to be very slow in comparison to steam gasification. H2 can inhibit fuel gasification in CLC whereas CO did not seem to have any effect. Possible deactivation of oxygen carriers due to SO2 or ash also has to be considered. Lorsque l’on utilise des combustibles solides dans la boucle chimique (CLC pour Chemical Looping Combustion, il est nécessaire de gazéifier le char avant de faire la combustion du gaz de synthèse au contact du transporteur d’oxygène. Ces réactions peuvent s’effectuer dans le réacteur fuel, dans lequel le combustible et le transporteur d’oxygène sont bien mélangés. Cependant, la gazéification du charbon est lente et reste l’étape limitante du processus de combustion dans ces conditions. Une alternative

  6. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber (United States)

    Green, Norman W.


    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  7. Analysis of Petroleum Products in Fire Debris Residues by Gas Chromatography: A Literature Review


    Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah; Rajinder Kumar Sarin; Rakesh Mohan Sharma


    This review gives a brief overview of developments in the analysis of petroleum products (PP) in fire debris residues (FDR) by gas chromatography (GC). The review covers different aspects of analysis such as the substrates involved, isolation procedures, column and mobile phase used, and subsequent detection in tabular form. This paper covers detection of PP such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel in various types’ of samples of interest to fire debris analysts. Solid phase microextraction is mo...

  8. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scotto di Santolo


    Full Text Available A model able to describe all the processes involved in a debris flow can be very complex owing to the sudden changing of the material that turns from solid into liquid state. The two phases of the phenomenon are analysed separately referring to soil mechanics procedures with regard to the trigger phase, and to an equivalent fluid for the post-failure phase. The present paper is devoted to show the experimental results carried out to evaluate the behaviour assumed by a pyroclastic-derived soil during the flow. A traditional fluid tool has been utilized: a standard rotational rheometer equipped with two different geometries. The soils tested belong to deposits that cover the slopes of the Campania region, Italy, often affected by debris flows. The influence of solid concentration Cv and grain size distribution was tested: the soils were destructurated, sieved and mixed with water starting from the in situ porosity. All material mixtures showed a non-Newtonian fluid behaviour with a yield stress τy that increases with a solid volumetric concentration and decreases for an increase of sand fraction. The experimental data were fitted with standard model for fluids. A simple relation between Cv and τy was obtained. The yield stress seems to be a key parameter for describing and predicting the post-failure behaviour of debris flows. These results suggest that in the field a small change in solid fraction, due to rainfall, will cause a slight decrease of the static yield stress, readily inducing a rapid flow which will stop only when the dynamic yield stress is reached, namely on a much smoother slope. This can explain the in situ observed post-failure behaviour of debris flows, which are able to flow over very long distances even on smooth slopes.

  9. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G


    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  10. Influence of proximity to an urban center in the pattern of contamination by marine debris. (United States)

    Leite, A S; Santos, L L; Costa, Y; Hatje, V


    In order to test the relationship between the occurrence of marine debris and the distance from urban areas, nine beaches in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and the adjacent northern coast were studied. Marine debris were collected, sorted in several categories and weighed. It was observed that plastics were numerically the most abundant component of the collected debris. As expected, the beaches closest to Salvador presented the largest density of debris, with the exception of the Porto da Barra beach, which has an efficient public cleaning system and does not have any vegetation, making it difficult to accumulate solid waste. Linear regression analyses showed significant relationships between the distance from the urban center (Salvador) and the number of marine debris per m(2), the total number of debris per beach (abundance), and the diversity of debris types (richness). The results showed that proximity to urban regions was a key factor in the marine debris distribution along the coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Muhammad


    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m{sup 2}, polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements

  12. Optical Observations of Space Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, Kira; Rodriquez, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Kelecy, Thomas


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of optical telescopes to observe space debris. .It will present a brief review of how the survey is conducted, and what some of the significant results encompass. The goal is to characterize the population of debris objects at GEO, with emphasis on the faint object population. Because the survey observations extend over a very short arc (5 minutes), a full six parameter orbit can not be determined. Recently we have begun to use a second telescope, the 0.9-m at CTIO, as a chase telescope to do follow-up observations of potential GEO debris candidates found by MODEST. With a long enough sequence of observations, a full six-parameter orbit including eccentricity can be determined. The project has used STK since inception for planning observing sessions based on the distribution of bright cataloged objects and the anti-solar point (to avoid eclipse). Recently, AGI's Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) has been used to determine orbits, including the effects of solar radiation pressure. Since an unknown fraction of the faint debris at GEO has a high area-to-mass ratio (A/M), the orbits are perturbed significantly by solar radiation. The ODTK analysis results indicate that temporal variations in the solar perturbations, possibly due to debris orientation dynamics, can be estimated in the OD process. Additionally, the best results appear to be achieved when solar forces orthogonal to the object-Sun line are considered. Determining the A/M of individual objects and the distribution of A/M values of a large sample of debris is important to understanding the total population of debris at GEO

  13. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner


    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  14. Estimating construction and demolition debris generation using a materials flow analysis approach. (United States)

    Cochran, K M; Townsend, T G


    The magnitude and composition of a region's construction and demolition (C&D) debris should be understood when developing rules, policies and strategies for managing this segment of the solid waste stream. In the US, several national estimates have been conducted using a weight-per-construction-area approximation; national estimates using alternative procedures such as those used for other segments of the solid waste stream have not been reported for C&D debris. This paper presents an evaluation of a materials flow analysis (MFA) approach for estimating C&D debris generation and composition for a large region (the US). The consumption of construction materials in the US and typical waste factors used for construction materials purchasing were used to estimate the mass of solid waste generated as a result of construction activities. Debris from demolition activities was predicted from various historical construction materials consumption data and estimates of average service lives of the materials. The MFA approach estimated that approximately 610-78 × 10(6)Mg of C&D debris was generated in 2002. This predicted mass exceeds previous estimates using other C&D debris predictive methodologies and reflects the large waste stream that exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic modelling of debris flow erosion and deposition with application to the USGS debris flow flume experiments (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, Y.; McArdell, B. W.


    The dynamics of a debris flow can be significantly influenced by erosion and deposition processes during an event because volume changes have a strong influence on flow properties such as flow velocity, flow height and runout distance. It is therefore worth exploring how to include these processes in numerical models which are used for hazard assessment and mitigation measure planning. However, the mechanism that drives the erosion of material at the base of a debris flow, is still under debate. There are different processes attributed to erosion: it has been proposed that erosion is caused by stresses due to granular interactions at the front, which strongly depend on particle size, transmission of mean basal shear stresses to the bed or excess pore fluid pressure. Because there is no definitive solution for a general erosion model, we implement different erosion relationships accounting for different entrainment types in a numerical model and test its influence on the flow behavior. We use a 2D numerical model (RAMMS), based on the shallow water equations, employing the Voellmy friction relationship. Snow avalanche data indicate a simple velocity-driven erosion rate. Ice-avalanche simulations, on the other hand, showed that a correlation of erosion with velocity does not lead to satisfying results (too high entrainment in the tail) and a correlation with flow height combined with velocity (momentum) is preferably applied. The momentum-driven relationship enhances the entrainment at the flow front. However, these laws do not consider processes on smaller scales, such as particle fluctuations within the flowing mass. Therefore, we consider an erosion relationship based on an extended Voellmy friction model, which employs an additional equation for the energy conservation. The energy equation is a measure for the random kinetic energy (RKE, equivalent to granular temperature) produced by the random movement of particles in a debris flow. In this model friction is

  16. Introduction to Bed Bugs (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Contact Us Share Introduction to Bed Bugs Photo credit: CDC/ CDC-DPDx; ... and Guidance Regulations About EPA EPA Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results ...

  17. Practice Hospital Bed Safety (United States)

    ... Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hospital Bed Entrapment Zones An ... the side edge of the head or foot board 7. between the head or foot board and ...

  18. The importance of erosion for debris flow runout modelling from applications to the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; Vieli, A.


    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed erosion of sediment by debris flows. An erosion model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the erosion model, the relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally, the maximum rate of erosion, measured at the same field site, is used to constrain the erosion rate. The model predicts plausible erosion values in comparison with field data from highly erosive debris flow events at the Spreitgraben torrent channel, Switzerland in 2010, without any adjustment to the coefficients in the erosion model. We find that by including channel erosion in runout models a more realistic flow pattern is produced than in simulations where entrainment is not included. In detail, simulations without channel bed erosion show more lateral outflow from the channel where it has not been observed in the field. Therefore the erosion model may be especially useful for practical applications such as hazard analysis and mapping, as well as scientific case studies of erosive debris flows.

  19. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  20. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  1. Active space debris removal by a hybrid propulsion module (United States)

    DeLuca, L. T.; Bernelli, F.; Maggi, F.; Tadini, P.; Pardini, C.; Anselmo, L.; Grassi, M.; Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Chiesa, S.; Viola, N.; Bonnal, C.; Trushlyakov, V.; Belokonov, I.


    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now, most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in LEO) is concentrated in about 4600 intact objects, i.e. abandoned spacecraft and rocket bodies, plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Simulations and parametric analyses have shown that the most efficient and effective way to prevent the outbreak of a long-term exponential growth of the catalogued debris population would be to remove enough cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. In practice, according to the most recent NASA results, the active yearly removal of approximately 0.1% of the abandoned intact objects would be sufficient to stabilize the catalogued debris in low Earth orbit, together with the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures. The candidate targets for removal would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg, in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg, in the case of rocket upper stages. Current data suggest that optimal active debris removal missions should be carried out in a few critical altitude-inclination bands. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission in which the debris is removed by using a hybrid propulsion module as propulsion unit. Specifically, the engine is transferred from a servicing platform to the debris target by a robotic arm so to perform a controlled disposal. Hybrid rocket technology for de-orbiting applications is considered a valuable option due to high specific impulse, intrinsic safety, thrust throttle ability, low environmental impact and reduced operating costs. Typically, in hybrid rockets a gaseous or liquid oxidizer is injected into the combustion chamber along the axial direction to burn a solid fuel. However, the use of tangential injection on a solid grain Pancake Geometry allows for more compact design of

  2. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino


    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  3. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad


    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  4. The MASTER-99 space debris and meteoroid environment model (United States)

    Klinkrad, H.; Bendisch, J.; Bunte, K. D.; Krag, H.; Sdunnus, H.; Wegener, P.


    MASTER-99 is a space debris and meteoroid environment model produced by TU Braunschweig (D), eta_max space (D), and DERA (UK) under an ESA contract. The model allows to compute particulate impact fluxes on any terrestrial target orbit up to geostationary altitudes. Flux contributions can be discriminated with respect to debris source types (catalog objects, explosion and collision fragments, NaK droplets, solid rocket motor dust and slag, impact ejecta, and surface degradation products), meteoroid source types (Divine-Staubach populations, and annual stream events), and with respect to origin and impact direction of each flux contributing particulate. Impact fluxes of meteoroids and debris down to 1 μm sizes can be determined for spherical targets, for tumbling plates, or for oriented, planar surfaces which are controlled according to standard attitude steering laws. MASTER-99 is distributed by ESA/ESOC on a CD ROM which includes user documentation, and the necessary data files, executables, and GUI driven installation scripts for the most common operating systems and computer platforms. MASTER-99 is delivered together with PROOF-99, a program for radar and optical observation forecasting. Based on the MASTER-99 population larger than 1 mm, it predicts debris detections from ground-based or space-based sensors (radars or telescopes) of user-defined system performances.

  5. Agglomeration in fluidized beds : Detection and counteraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.


    Fluidized beds comprise a quantity of solid particles that is suspended by an upward flowing gas. They are used for a variety of processes in the chemical industry, such as catalytic reactions, drying, coating and energy conversion. A major problem in industrial practice is the occurrence of

  6. The ecological impacts of marine debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A.J.; Franeker, Van Jan A.; Thompson, Richard C.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.


    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological

  7. Space Debris Elimination (SpaDE) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The amount of debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) has increased rapidly over the last twenty years. This prevalence of debris increases the likelihood of cascading...

  8. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  9. Sediment entrainment by debris flows: In situ measurements from the headwaters of a steep catchment (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Kean, Jason W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Tucker, G.E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, T.A.


    Debris flows can dramatically increase their volume, and hence their destructive potential, by entraining sediment. Yet quantitative constraints on rates and mechanics of sediment entrainment by debris flows are limited. Using an in situ sensor network in the headwaters of a natural catchment we measured flow and bed properties during six erosive debris-flow events. Despite similar flow properties and thicknesses of bed sediment entrained across all events, time-averaged entrainment rates were significantly faster for bed sediment that was saturated prior to flow arrival compared with rates for sediment that was dry. Bed sediment was entrained from the sediment-surface downward in a progressive fashion and occurred during passage of dense granular fronts as well as water-rich, inter-surge flow.En massefailure of bed sediment along the sediment-bedrock interface was never observed. Large-magnitude, high-frequency fluctuations in total normal basal stress were dissipated within the upper 5 cm of bed sediment. Within this near surface layer, concomitant fluctuations in Coulomb frictional resistance are expected, irrespective of the influence of pore fluid pressure or fluctuations in shear stress. If the near-surface sediment was wet as it was overridden by a flow, additional large-magnitude, high-frequency pore pressure fluctuations were measured in the near-surface bed sediment. These pore pressure fluctuations propagated to depth at subsonic rates and in a diffusive manner. The depth to which large excess pore pressures propagated was typically less than 10 cm, but scaled as (D/fi)0.5, in which D is the hydraulic diffusivity and fi is the frequency of a particular pore pressure fluctuation. Shallow penetration depths of granular-normal-stress fluctuations and excess pore pressures demonstrate that only near-surface bed sediment experiences the full dynamic range of effective-stress fluctuations, and as a result, can be more easily entrained than deeper sediment

  10. Bubble size reduction in a fluidized bed by electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn van Willigen, F.; Van Turnhout, J.; Van Ommen, J.R.; Van den Bleek, C.


    The reduction of the size of bubbles can improve both selectivity and conversion in gas-solid fluidized beds. Results are reported of the reduction of bubble size by the application of electric fields to uncharged, polarizable particles in fluidized beds. It is shown how average bubble diameters can

  11. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  12. Space Debris: Its Causes and Management (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Orbital debris is internationally recognized as an environmental issue which needs to be addressed today to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. All major space agencies are committed to mitigating the growth of the debris environment. Many commercial space system operators have responded positively to orbital debris mitigation principles and recommendations. Orbital debris mitigation measures are most cost-effective if included in the design development phase.

  13. Modernization of Deployable Airfield Debris Removal Equipment (United States)


    30 Figure 38. Wire rope placed at the 20-ft marker...size, shape, and weight of the current ADR debris removal equipment, the inability to readily transport the larger machines due to weight and size...line with equipment and craters. 4.3 Final debris removal evaluation Sweepers and vacuums followed up to make sure no small debris or FOD remained

  14. Microchemical Analysis Of Space Operation Debris (United States)

    Cummings, Virginia J.; Kim, Hae Soo


    Report discusses techniques used in analyzing debris relative to space shuttle operations. Debris collected from space shuttle, expendable launch vehicles, payloads carried by space shuttle, and payloads carried by expendable launch vehicles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction chosen as techniques used in examining samples of debris.

  15. Vision-based Ground Test for Active Debris Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Lim


    Full Text Available Due to the continuous space development by mankind, the number of space objects including space debris in orbits around the Earth has increased, and accordingly, difficulties of space development and activities are expected in the near future. In this study, among the stages for space debris removal, the implementation of a vision-based approach technique for approaching space debris from a far-range rendezvous state to a proximity state, and the ground test performance results were described. For the vision-based object tracking, the CAM-shift algorithm with high speed and strong performance, and the Kalman filter were combined and utilized. For measuring the distance to a tracking object, a stereo camera was used. For the construction of a low-cost space environment simulation test bed, a sun simulator was used, and in the case of the platform for approaching, a two-dimensional mobile robot was used. The tracking status was examined while changing the position of the sun simulator, and the results indicated that the CAM-shift showed a tracking rate of about 87% and the relative distance could be measured down to 0.9 m. In addition, considerations for future space environment simulation tests were proposed.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the transport of a poorly sorted granular mixture as a debris-flow. The case of Madeira Island torrential floods in 2010 (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Oliveira, Rodrigo P.; Conde, Daniel


    On the 20th February 2010, heavy rainfall was registered at Madeira Island, North Atlantic. Stony debris flows, mudflows and mudslides ensued causing severe property loss, 1.5 m thick sediment deposits at downtown Funchal including 16th century monuments, and a death toll of 47 lives. Debris-flow fronts propagated downstream while carrying very high concentrations of solid material. These two-phase solid-fluid flows were responsible for most of the infrastructural damage across the island, due to their significantly increased mass and momentum. The objective of the present modelling work is to validate a 2DH model for torrential flows featuring the transport and interaction of several size fractions of a poorly-sorted granular mixture typical of stony debris flow in Madeira. The module for the transport of poorly-sorted material was included in STAV-2D (CERIS-IST), a shallow-water and morphology solver based on a finite-volume method using a flux-splitting technique featuring a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, with appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. STAV-2D also includes formulations of flow resistance and bedload transport adequate for debris-flows with natural mobile beds (Ferreira et al., 2009) and has been validated with both theoretical solutions and laboratory data (Soares-Frazão et al., 2012; Canelas et al., 2013). The modelling of the existing natural and built environment is fully explicit. All buildings, streets and channels are accurately represented within the mesh geometry. Such detail is relevant for the reliability of the validation using field data, since the major sedimentary deposits within the urban meshwork of Funchal were identified and characterized in terms of volume and grain size distribution during the aftermath of the 20th February of 2010 event. Indeed, the measure of the quality of the numerical results is the agreement between simulated and estimated volume of deposited sediment and between estimated and

  17. Secondary debris effects on personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsch, H.; Sohn, H.; Boonacker, B.; Duvall, P.


    Effects of munitions during operations in urban terrain are critical not only for enemy and allied soldiers but also to civilians. Besides the primary weapon effects caused by penetrating fragments, and blast overpressure; secondary effects from wall debris may contribute to the damage process. To

  18. Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development (United States)


    Rome II. Acta Astronautica, 66(1), 239-244. Space debris mitigation guidelines of the committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (2010). with respect to future space activities. Space Policy, 12(1), 5-8. 134 von der Dunk, Frans G. (2011). Space tourism , private spaceflight

  19. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt


    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus

  20. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong


    accumulation length is 1.91 km and 1.75 km, and the accumulation width is 4.71 km and 3.68 km for the case of P=0.5% and P=1% respectively. The accumulation depth along the main flow direction is 40˜60m and 25˜35m. Consequently, four plans of railway alignment including passing through the down-stream by tunnel, passing through the gully outlet by tunnel and bridge, passing through the middle-lower part of the accumulation fan by railway bed and bridge, passing through the middle-lower part of the accumulation fan by tunnel were presented. The four plans were compared and related debris flow mitigation measures were provided.

  1. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.


    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  2. A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.

  3. Debris disks in open stellar clusters (United States)

    Gorlova, Nadiya Igorivna

    Indirect searches for planets (such as radial velocity studies) show that their formation may be quite common. The planets are however too small and faint to be seen against the glare of their host stars; therefore, their direct detection is limited to the nearest systems. Alternatively one can study planets by studying their "by-product"---dust. We see raw material available for planets around young stars, and debris dust around old stars betraying planet-induced activity. Dust has a larger surface area per unit mass compared with a large body; it can be spread over a larger solid angle, intercepting more starlight and emitting much more light via reprocessing. By studying dusty disks we can infer the presence of planets at larger distances. Here we present results of a survey conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope of debris disks in three open clusters. With ages of 30--100 Myrs, these clusters are old enough that the primordial dust should have accreted into planetesimals, fallen onto the star, or been blown away due to a number of physical processes. The dust we observe must come from collisions or sublimation of larger bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dust evolution in the terrestrial planet zone, analogous to the Zodiacal cloud in our Solar system. We are most sensitive to this zone because the peak of a 125 K black body radiation falls into the primary pass-band of our survey---24mm. We investigate the fraction and amount of the infra-red excesses around intermediate- to solar-mass stars in open stellar clusters with well defined ages. The results are analyzed in the context of disk studies at other wavelengths and ages, providing an understanding of the time-scale for disk dissipation and ultimately planet building and frequency.

  4. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.


    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  5. Colisional Cloud Debris and Propelled Evasive Maneuvers (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Jesus, A. D. C.; Carvalho, T. C. F.; Sousa, R. R.


    Space debris clouds exist at various altitudes in the environment outside the Earth. Fragmentation of debris and/or collision between the debris of a cloud increases the amount of debris, producing smaller debris. This event also increases significantly the chances of collision with operational vehicles in orbit. In this work we study clouds of debris that are close to a spacecraft in relation to its distance from the center of the Earth. The results show several layers of colliding debris depending on their size over time of evasive maneuvers of the vehicle. In addition, we have tested such maneuvers for propulsion systems with a linear and exponential mass variation model. The results show that the linear propulsion system is more efficient.

  6. Bed Bugs FAQs (United States)

    ... . Bed Bugs Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Biology Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  7. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.


    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  8. Predicting debris flow occurrence in Eastern Italian Alps based on hydrological and geomorphological modelling (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Borga, Marco; Destro, Elisa; Marchi, Lorenzo


    Most of the work so far on the prediction of debris flow occurrence is focused on the identification of critical rainfall conditions. However, findings in the literature have shown that critical rainfall thresholds cannot always accurately identify debris flow occurrence, leading to false detections (positive or negative). One of the main reasons for this limitation is attributed to the fact that critical rainfall thresholds do not account for the characteristics of underlying land surface (e.g. geomorphology, moisture conditions, sediment availability, etc), which are strongly related to debris flow triggering. In addition, in areas where debris flows occur predominantly as a result of channel bed failure (as in many Alpine basins), the triggering factor is runoff, which suggests that identification of critical runoff conditions for debris flow prediction is more pertinent than critical rainfall. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a triggering index (TI), which combines variables related to runoff generation and channel morphology, for predicting debris flows occurrence. TI is based on a threshold criterion developed on past works (Tognacca et al., 2000; Berti and Simoni, 2005; Gregoretti and Dalla Fontana, 2008) and combines information on unit width peak flow, local channel slope and mean grain size. Estimation of peak discharge is based on the application of a distributed hydrologic model, while local channel slope is derived from a high-resolution (5m) DEM. Scaling functions of peak flows and channel width with drainage area are adopted since it is not possible to measure channel width or simulate peak flow at all channel nodes. TI values are mapped over the channel network thus allowing spatially distributed prediction but instead of identifying debris flow occurrence on single points, we identify their occurrence with reference to the tributary catchment involved. Evaluation of TI is carried out for five different basins

  9. Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds (United States)

    Parise, M.; Cannon, S.H.


    Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these changes, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Data from the Mediterranean area and Western United States of America help identify the primary processes that result in debris flows in recently burned areas. Two primary processes for the initiation of fire-related debris flows have been so far identified: (1) runoff-dominated erosion by surface overland flow; and (2) infiltration-triggered failure and mobilization of a discrete landslide mass. The first process is frequently documented immediately post-fire and leads to the generation of debris flows through progressive bulking of storm runoff with sediment eroded from the hillslopes and channels. As sediment is incorporated into water, runoff can convert to debris flow. The conversion to debris flow may be observed at a position within a drainage network that appears to be controlled by threshold values of upslope contributing area and its gradient. At these locations, sufficient eroded material has been incorporated, relative to the volume of contributing surface runoff, to generate debris flows. Debris flows have also been generated from burned basins in response to increased runoff by water cascading over a steep, bedrock cliff, and incorporating material from readily erodible colluvium or channel bed. Post-fire debris flows have also been generated by infiltration-triggered landslide failures which then mobilize into debris flows. However

  10. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick


    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  11. Debris Flows in a Changing Climate: Experimental and Field Investigations of the Influence of Changes in Moisture on Matrix Properties, Interparticle Interactions, and Subsequent Debris Flow Behaviors (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Densmore, A.; Longjas, A.; Mullenbach, J.; Fouty, T.; Fei, M.; Zhou, G.; Sun, Q.


    Debris flows, rapid gravity-driven mixtures of sediment (boulders, gravels, sands, and mud) and water, are important geomorphological agents of landscape change and common natural hazards in mountainous regions. Worldwide, there is evidence that the frequency and magnitude of debris flows are increasing under recent changes in macro and micro climate. We investigate the influence of moisture differences associated with climate change on debris flow behaviors at the field and laboratory scales. Field measurements of debris flow fan deposits in Owens Valley during glacial and interglacial periods - likely corresponding to periods of higher and lower levels of water content in the soil and flows - show marked differences in avulsion frequencies, channel aspect ratios, sorting in the deposits and depositional geometries. These measurements suggest that differing moisture levels change the density and rheology of the matrix - the watery / muddy interstitial fluid - which, in turn, can significantly alter the dynamic behavior of the debris flow itself. This supports recent experimental results (Kaitna et al., 2014 & 2015) that changing the properties of the matrix of experimental flows appears to change the nature and relative importance of interparticle interactions compared to those associated with the fluid and subsequently influence the flow dynamics. We test these hypotheses using controlled laboratory experiments in flumes of two different sizes and where we systematically vary interstitial fluid properties and scale of the experiments. In both flumes we present high speed particle tracking and measurements of pore pressure and stress at the bed to show how the flow and entrainment behavior varies as the flow transitions from inertial to viscous, that is, as pore pressures and other fluid effects become increasingly dominant over inter-particle interactions, reflected in the Bagnold (1954) number. We also demonstrate that some effects, like bed fabric and fragility

  12. Performance Verification of the Lattice-type ECCS Sump Strainer to Prevent the Thin-bed effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Je Joong; Kim, Chang Hyun; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a variety of debris could be generated under the post-LOCA conditions. The debris could block the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) sump strainer, leading to a considerable head loss which in turn causes an abnormal ECCS and/or CS pump performance. The determination of strainer capacity is very important through the optimization of the head loss due to debris blockage. Especially, the thin-bed effect is a dominant factor to the design of the strainer. This paper presents experimental head loss data to confirm an advantage of an advanced lattice-type strainer for the thin-bed effect and is compared to the results of NUREG/CR-6224 head loss correlation. The thin-bed effect is a dominant design factor because the head loss could increase drastically by the lack of available voids in the debris bed for coolant to pass through it. Though this study, the lattice-type strainer to reduce or prevent the thin-bed effect has been designed. As the experimental data shows, there is no thin-bed effect in the present lattice-type strainer. It is expected that the required capacity of the strainer to maintain the function of ECCS will be significantly reduced by the lattice-type strainer of the present study.

  13. Application of chemicals to substrates without the use of liquids: Proof of concepts for powder spray gun and fluidized bed solid-on- solid (SOS) processing of textiles, and continued research in textile xerography printing, solid shade coloration and electrostatic liquid spray SOS finishing of fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F.L.; Carr, W.W.; Tincher, W.C.; Sikorski, M.


    The first two years of research under DOE Contract No. FG05-84CE40702 were devoted toward developing processes whereby certain chemicals could be applied to textiles without the use of water, mainly concentrating on powder deposition techniques. The approach was to identify powder-based processes in other industry sectors (mainly the metals and paper industries) that possessed the potential to be adapted to continuous textile manufacturing lines. The adapted textile processes were classified under the general category of solid-on-solid (SOS) processes, since no liquid water was required, and 100% of the chemical materials applied to the substrate remained with it into final product manufacture. The current research focused on several areas of chemical treatment: yarn slashing, textile xerography printing, binding of nonwovens, fluoropolymer barrier finishing, and liquid spray and finishing. Several of these areas were sufficiently developed in the first phase to allow full-scale, proof-of-concept trials to be conducted at industrial sites in the third and fourth years of the project. Other areas were identified and preliminary investigations conducted in the first phase, but were largely left for full development in the reported phase, e.g., liquid spray finishing of 100% solids formulations. This report discusses work in each area of chemical treatment.

  14. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering


    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  15. Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions (United States)

    Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run

  16. Regional danger assessment of Debris flow and its engineering mitigation practice in Sichuan-Tibet highway (United States)

    Su, Pengcheng; Sun, Zhengchao; li, Yong


    Luding-Kangding highway cross the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where belong to the most deep canyon area of plateau and mountains in western Sichuan with high mountain and steep slope. This area belongs to the intersection among Xianshuihe, Longmenshan and Anninghe fault zones which are best known in Sichuan province. In the region, seismic intensity is with high frequency and strength, new tectonic movement is strong, rock is cracked, there are much loose solid materials. Debris flow disaster is well developed under the multiple effects of the earthquake, strong rainfall and human activity which poses a great threat to the local people's life and property security. So this paper chooses Kangding and LuDing as the study area to do the debris flow hazard assessment through the in-depth analysis of development characteristics and formation mechanism of debris flow. Which can provide important evidence for local disaster assessment and early warning forecast. It also has the important scientific significance and practical value to safeguard the people's life and property safety and the security implementation of the national major project. In this article, occurrence mechanism of debris flow disasters in the study area is explored, factor of evaluation with high impact to debris flow hazards is identified, the database of initial evaluation factors is made by the evaluation unit of basin. The factors with high impact to hazards occurrence are selected by using the stepwise regression method of logistic regression model, at the same time the factors with low impact are eliminated, then the hazard evaluation factor system of debris flow is determined in the study area. Then every factors of evaluation factor system are quantified, and the weights of all evaluation factors are determined by using the analysis of stepwise regression. The debris flows hazard assessment and regionalization of all the whole study area are achieved eventually after establishing the

  17. The impact of debris on marine life. (United States)

    Gall, S C; Thompson, R C


    Marine debris is listed among the major perceived threats to biodiversity, and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability and persistence in the marine environment. An extensive literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on the effects of marine debris on marine organisms. 340 original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic debris accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with the potential for sublethal effects of ingestion an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red List highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near threatened. Hence where marine debris combines with other anthropogenic stressors it may affect populations, trophic interactions and assemblages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The importance of entrainment and bulking on debris flow runout modeling: examples from the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; Vieli, A.


    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed entrainment of sediment by debris flows. An entrainment model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the entrainment model, an empirical relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally, the average rate of erosion, measured at the same field site, is used to constrain the erosion rate. The model predicts plausible erosion values in comparison with field data from highly erosive debris flow events at the Spreitgraben torrent channel, Switzerland in 2010, without any adjustment to the coefficients in the entrainment model. We find that by including bulking due to entrainment (e.g., by channel erosion) in runout models a more realistic flow pattern is produced than in simulations where entrainment is not included. In detail, simulations without entrainment show more lateral outflow from the channel where it has not been observed in the field. Therefore the entrainment model may be especially useful for practical applications such as hazard analysis and mapping, as well as scientific case studies of erosive debris flows.

  19. Marine debris occurrence and treatment: A review


    Iñiguez, María Esperanza; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres


    Marine debris produces a wide variety of negative environmental, economic, safety, health and cultural impacts. Most marine litter has a very low decomposition rate (as plastics, which are the most abundant type of marine debris), leading to a gradual, but significant accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. Along that time, marine debris is a significant source of chemical contaminants to the marine environment. Once extracted from the water, incineration is the method most widely...

  20. Analysis of the Mobilization of Debris Flows (United States)


    for the debris flows was determined by walking upstream from the deposits, following lateral ridges of debris and debris plastered along the creek...central Peru (Blackwelder, 1928, p. 482). The flows oc- cured during a period when thundershowers were raging on the high mountain slopes and are...Andes of central Peru (Singewald, In Blackwelder, 1928), Nelson County, Virginia (Williams and Guy, 1971, 1973), Ulvldal, Norway (Rapp, 1963), Mgeta

  1. The Herschel Debris And Jcmt Sons Surveys (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda


    The Herschel DEBRIS survey has been a great success, revealing a wide variety of resolved disks, suggesting a correlation between bright debris disks and systems of low-mass planets, and enabling us to estimate the true incidence of debris disks, rather than just a detection rate. I will review the survey and some of its key results and then highlight key areas of inquiry for future surveys.

  2. Small scale modelling of dynamic impact of debris flows (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth


    Fast landslides, such as debris flows, involve high speed downslope motion of rocks, soil and water. Engineering attempts to reduce the risk posed by these natural hazards often involve the placement of barriers or obstacles to inhibit movement. The impact pressures exert by debris flows are difficult to estimate because they not only depend on the geometry and size of the flow and the obstacle but also on the characteristics of the flow mixture. The presence of a solid phase can increase local impact pressure due to hard contact often caused by single boulder. This can lead to higher impact forces compared to the estimates of the peak pressure value obtained from hydraulic based models commonly adopted in such analyses. The proposed study aims at bringing new insight to the impact loading of structures generated by segregating granular debris flow. A small-scale flume, designed to enable plane laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and digital image correlation (DIC) to be applied internally will be used for 2D analyses. The flow will incorporate glass particles suitable for refractive index matching (RIM) with a matched fluid to gain optical access to the internal behaviour of the flow, via a laser sheet applied away from sidewall boundaries. For these tests, the focus will be on assessing 2D particle interactions in unsteady flow. The paper will present in details the methodology and the set-up of the experiments together with some preliminary results

  3. The perfect debris flow? Aggregated results from 28 large-scale experiments (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, Matthew; LaHusen, Richard G.; Berti, Matteo


    Aggregation of data collected in 28 controlled experiments reveals reproducible debris-flow behavior that provides a clear target for model tests. In each experiment ∼10 m3 of unsorted, water-saturated sediment composed mostly of sand and gravel discharged from behind a gate, descended a steep, 95-m flume, and formed a deposit on a nearly horizontal runout surface. Experiment subsets were distinguished by differing basal boundary conditions (1 versus 16 mm roughness heights) and sediment mud contents (1 versus 7 percent dry weight). Sensor measurements of evolving flow thicknesses, basal normal stresses, and basal pore fluid pressures demonstrate that debris flows in all subsets developed dilated, coarse-grained, high-friction snouts, followed by bodies of nearly liquefied, finer-grained debris. Mud enhanced flow mobility by maintaining high pore pressures in flow bodies, and bed roughness reduced flow speeds but not distances of flow runout. Roughness had these effects because it promoted debris agitation and grain-size segregation, and thereby aided growth of lateral levees that channelized flow. Grain-size segregation also contributed to development of ubiquitous roll waves, which had diverse amplitudes exhibiting fractal number-size distributions. Despite the influence of these waves and other sources of dispersion, the aggregated data have well-defined patterns that help constrain individual terms in a depth-averaged debris-flow model. The patterns imply that local flow resistance evolved together with global flow dynamics, contradicting the hypothesis that any consistent rheology applied. We infer that new evolution equations, not new rheologies, are needed to explain how characteristic debris-flow behavior emerges from the interactions of debris constituents.

  4. Debris Selection and Optimal Path Planning for Debris Removal on the SSO: Impulsive-Thrust Option (United States)

    Olympio, J. T.; Frouvelle, N.


    The current paper deals with the mission design of a generic active space debris removal spacecraft. Considered debris are all on a sun-synchronous orbit. A perturbed Lambert's problem, modelling the transfer between two debris, is devised to take into account J2 perturbation, and to quickly evaluate mission scenarios. A robust approach, using techniques of global optimisation, is followed to find optimal debris sequence and mission strategy. Manoeuvres optimization is then performed to refine the selected trajectory scenarii.

  5. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan


    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  6. A lagrangian-eulerian description of debris transport by a tsunami in the Lisbon waterfront (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo; Baptista, Maria Ana; João Telhado, Maria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    Several major tsunamis are known to have struck the Portuguese coast over the past millennia (Baptista and Miranda, 2009). The Tagus estuary has great exposure to tsunami occurrences and, being bordered by the largest metropolitan area in the country, is a particularly worrisome location in what concerns safety of populations and economic losses due to disruption of built infrastructures. The last major earthquake and tsunami combination known to have critically affected the Tagus estuary dates back to November 1st 1755. This catastrophe critically damaged Lisbon's infrastructures, led to numerous casualties and priceless heritage losses. The urban tissue of the present city still bears visible the effects of the catastrophe and of the ensuing protection measures. The objective of this work is to simulate the propagation of debris carried by a 1755-like tsunami along the present-day bathimetric and altimetric conditions of Lisbon waterfront. Particular emphasis was directed to the modeling of vehicles since the tsunami is likely to affect areas that are major traffic nodes such as Alcântara, with more than 1500 vehicles in road network of about 3 km. The simulation tool employed is based on a 2DH spatial (eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013). Two formulations were employed to model the advection of debris: a fully coupled continuum approach, where solid bodies are described by the concentration only and an uncoupled material (lagrangian) formulation where solid bodies are tracked between two time-steps once the flow field is determined by the eulerian solver. In the latter case, concentrations are updated after tracking the solid bodies thus correcting the mass and momentum balance to be used for the next time-step. The urban tissue was

  7. Investigating the self-organization of debris flows: theory, modelling, and empirical work (United States)

    von Elverfeldt, Kirsten; Keiler, Margreth; Elmenreich, Wilfried; Fehárvári, István; Zhevzhyk, Sergii


    Here we present the conceptual framework of an interdisciplinary project on the theory, empirics, and modelling of the self-organisation mechanisms within debris flows. Despite the fact that debris flows are causing severe damages in mountainous regions such as the Alps, the process behaviour of debris flows is still not well understood. This is mainly due to the process dynamics of debris flows: Erosion and material entrainment are essential for their destructive power, and because of this destructiveness it is nearly impossible to measure and observe these mechanisms in action. Hence, the interactions between channel bed and debris flow remain largely unknown whilst this knowledge is crucial for the understanding of debris flow behaviour. Furthermore, while these internal parameter interactions are changing during an event, they are at the same time governing the temporal and spatial evolution of a given event. This project aims at answering some of these unknowns by means of bringing theory, empirical work, and modelling of debris flows together. It especially aims at explaining why process types are switching along the flow path during an event, e.g. the change from a debris flow to a hyperconcentrated flow and back. A second focus is the question of why debris flows sometimes exhibit strong erosion and sediment mobilisation during an event and at other times they do not. A promising theoretical framework for the analysis of these observations is that of self-organizing systems, and especially Haken's theory of synergetics. Synergetics is an interdisciplinary theory of open systems that are characterized by many individual, yet interacting parts, resulting in spatio-temporal structures. We hypothesize that debris flows can successfully be analysed within this theoretical framework. In order to test this hypothesis, an innovative modelling approach is chosen in combination with detailed field work. In self-organising systems the interactions of the system

  8. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir


    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  9. Tapered bed bioreactor (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.


    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  10. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Characterizing Debris Disks in the Late Stages of Planet Formation (United States)

    White, Jacob


    The planet formation process shapes the morphology and grain size distribution of circumstellar disks, encoding the formation history of a given system. Remnants of planet formation, such as comets and asteroids, collisionally evolve and can replenish the dust and small solids that would otherwise be cleared on short timescales. These grains are observed through reprocessed starlight at submm to cm wavelengths.The spectrum of the mm/cm emission reveals details of the grain population. However, one confounding parameter in studying these grains around stars is the stars themselves. The emission from stars in the mm/cm is nontrivial and generally not well-constrained. I will present examples of debris systems (HD 141569 and Fomalhaut) studied by ALMA and the VLA, in which unconstrained stellar emission may be contributing to the observed flux densities. Such contamination in turn biases the inferred emission from the disk and the corresponding dust properties. In some cases, the behavior of the observed A/B stars can exhibit an emission profile that has similarities to that of the Sun's mm/cm emission, although the same processes are not thought to necessarily occur in the atmospheres of massive stars.To address the uncertainty in stellar emission at mm/cm wavelengths, we present ongoing radio observations (JCMT, SMA, VLA) of Sirius A, which is a bright, nearby star with no known debris. We seek to use this system to set an observationally determined standard for stellar atmosphere modeling and debris disk studies around A stars, as well as to take the first step toward characterizing potential intrinsic uncertainty in stellar emission at these wavelengths. This talk will highlight the effort to characterize stellar atmospheres through a project known as MESAS (Measuring the Emission of Stellar Atmospheres at Submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths) which is imperative to the success of current and future debris disk studies.

  12. Characterizing Debris Disks and the Late Stages of Planet Formation (United States)

    White, Jacob


    The planet formation process shapes the morphology and grain size distribution of circumstellar disks, encoding the formation history of a given system. Remnants of planet formation, such as comets and asteroids, collisionally evolve and can replenish the dust and small solids that would otherwise be cleared on short timescales. These grains are observed through reprocessed starlight at submm to cm wavelengths.The spectrum of the mm/cm emission reveals details of the grain population. However, one confounding parameter in studying these grains around stars is the stars themselves. The emission from stars in the mm/cm is nontrivial and generally not well-constrained. I will present examples of debris systems (HD 141569 and Fomalhaut) studied by ALMA and the VLA, in which unconstrained stellar emission may be contributing to the observed flux densities. Such contamination in turn biases the inferred emission from the disk and the corresponding dust properties. In some cases, the behavior of the observed A/B stars can exhibit an emission profile that has similarities to that of the Sun's mm/cm emission, although the same processes are not thought to necessarily occur in the atmospheres of massive stars.To address the uncertainty in stellar emission at mm/cm wavelengths, we present ongoing radio observations (JCMT, SMA, VLA) of Sirius A, which is a bright, nearby star with no known debris. We seek to use this system to set an observationally determined standard for stellar atmosphere modeling and debris disk studies around A stars, as well as to take the first step toward characterizing potential intrinsic uncertainty in stellar emission at these wavelengths. This talk will highlight the effort to characterize stellar atmospheres through a project known as MESAS (Measuring the Emission of Stellar Atmospheres at Submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths) which is imperative to the success of current and future debris disk studies.

  13. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans (United States)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten


    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  14. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression


    Wild G.; Larachi F.; Laurent A.


    While most catalytic fixed bed gas-liquid reactors of the petrol industry work at quite high pressures, the academic scientific work in this field concerned itself almost exclusively with the domain of approximatively atmospheric pressures. The authors present the results of some years of experimental investigations on the hydrodynamic characteristics of trickle bed reactors and lately of cocurrent upflow reactors. During the last years, results were also obtained under pressures up to 8 MPa....

  15. Internal characteristics of refractive-index matched debris flows (United States)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Sanvitale, Nicoletta


    Debris flows are channelized masses of granular material saturated with water that travel at high speeds downslope. Their destructive character represents a hazard to lives and properties, especially in regions of high relief and runoff. The characteristics that distinguish their heterogeneous, multi-phase, nature are numerous: non-uniform surge formation, particle size ranging from clay to boulders, flow segregation with larger particles concentrating at the flow front and fluid at the tail making the composition and volume of the bulk varying with time and space. These aspects render these events very difficult to characterise and predict, in particular in the area of the deposit spread or runout - zones which are generally of most interest in terms of human risk. At present, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of the flow dynamics of debris flows, which originates from their complex motion and relatively poor observations available. Flume studies offer the potential to examine in detail the behaviour of model debris flows, however, the opaque nature of these flows is a major obstacle in gaining insight of their internal behaviour. Measurements taken at the sidewalls may be poorly representative leading to incomplete or misleading results. To probe internally to the bulk of the flow, alternative, nonintrusive techniques can be used, enabling, for instance, velocities and solid concentrations within the flowing material to be determined. We present experimental investigations into polydisperse granular flows of spherical immersed particles down an inclined flume, with specific attention directed to their internal behavior. To this end, the refractive indices of solids and liquid are closely matched allowing the two phases to be distinguished. Measurements are then made internally at a point in the channel via Plane Laser Induced Fluorescence, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, PTV and Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. The objective is to to increase our

  16. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.


    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  17. Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chuanping


    Full Text Available Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads, the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3, as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.

  18. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions. (United States)

    Stoyer, M A; Velsko, C A; Spears, B K; Hicks, D G; Hudson, G B; Sangster, T C; Freeman, C G


    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  19. Development of the Space Debris Sensor (United States)

    Hamilton, J.; Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P. D.; Corsaro, B.; Giovane, F.; Matney, M.; Christiansen, E.


    The Space Debris Sensor (SDS) is a NASA experiment scheduled to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2017. The SDS is the first flight demonstration of the Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital NASA-Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) developed and matured by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The DRAGONS concept combines several technologies to characterize the size, speed, direction, and density of small impacting objects. With a minimum two-year operational lifetime, SDS is anticipated to collect statistically significant information on orbital debris ranging from 50 micron to 500 micron in size. This paper describes the SDS features and how data from the ISS mission may be used to update debris environment models. Results of hypervelocity impact testing during the development of SDS and the potential for improvement on future sensors at higher altitudes will be reviewed.

  20. Development of the Space Debris Sensor (SDS) (United States)

    Hamilton, J.; Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P. D.; Corsaro, B.; Giovane, F.; Matney, M.; Christiansen, E.


    The Space Debris Sensor (SDS) is a NASA experiment scheduled to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2018. The SDS is the first flight demonstration of the Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital NASA-Navy Sensor (DRAGONS) developed and matured at NASA Johnson Space Center's Orbital Debris Program Office. The DRAGONS concept combines several technologies to characterize the size, speed, direction, and density of small impacting objects. With a minimum two-year operational lifetime, SDS is anticipated to collect statistically significant information on orbital debris ranging from 50 microns to 500 microns in size. This paper describes the features of SDS and how data from the ISS mission may be used to update debris environment models. Results of hypervelocity impact testing during the development of SDS and the potential for improvement on future sensors at higher altitudes will be reviewed.

  1. Hydrodynamics of a hybrid circulating fluidized bed reactor with a partitioned loop seal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dal-Hee; Moon, Jong-Ho; Jin, Gyoung Tae; Shun, Dowon [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Minyoung; Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph M. [University of California, Riverside (United States)


    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) with a hybrid design has been developed and optimized for steam hydrogasification. The hybrid CFB is composed of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) type combustor and a fast fluidized bed (FB) type gasifier. Char is burnt in the combustor and the generated heat is supplied to the gasifier along with the bed materials. Two different types of fluidized beds are connected to each other with a newly developed partitioned loop seal to avoid direct contact between two separate gas streams flowing in each fluidized bed. Gas mixing tests were carried out with Air and Argon in a cold model hybrid CFB to test the loop seal efficiency. Increase in solid inventory in the loop seal can improve the gas separation efficiency. It can be realized at higher gas velocity in fast bed and with higher solid inventory in the loop seal system. In addition, bed hydrodynamics was investigated with varying gas flow conditions and particle sizes in order to obtain a full understanding of changes of solid holdup in the FB. The solid holdup in the FB increased with increasing gas velocity in the BFB. Conversely, increase in gas velocity in the FB contributed to reducing the solid holdup in the FB. It was observed that changing the particle size of bed material does not have a big impact on hydrodynamic parameters.

  2. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia); Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat [Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Naser, Jamal, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)


    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO{sub 2} emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can’t model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  3. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat; Naser, Jamal


    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO2 emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can't model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  4. Analysis of Petroleum Products in Fire Debris Residues by Gas Chromatography: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah


    Full Text Available This review gives a brief overview of developments in the analysis of petroleum products (PP in fire debris residues (FDR by gas chromatography (GC. The review covers different aspects of analysis such as the substrates involved, isolation procedures, column and mobile phase used, and subsequent detection in tabular form. This paper covers detection of PP such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel in various types’ of samples of interest to fire debris analysts. Solid phase microextraction is most frequently used along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for the extraction and identification of PP from FDR. Chemometric tools should be used to improve the significance and reliability of results obtained from the analysis of FDR. However, the potential utility of portable GC-MS in fire debris analysis cannot be ignored, and its proper development and validation is required before using it for this purpose.

  5. The Debris of Urban Imagination

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    Claudio Sgarbi


    Full Text Available “Il Guasto” is an urban context, a place in the heart of the historic city of Bologna which is a mound of debris (resulting from the demolition of an important building, the Bentivoglio Family palace during a popular revolt in the 1506 on top of which a “public garden” was created 40 years ago. The garden is well known in Bologna as “Giardino del Guasto”. Underneath, in between the debris, an underground space (bunker was created to protect the citizen during the bombing of the second world war.The aim of the Design Studio of Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada, DSA Directed Studies Abroad (January 15th - April 13th, 2012, is to exercise creativity and design skills in an historical context bearing some negative connotations. A spell was cast on the site and the negative effects of this spell are still perceivable today after more than five hundred years. This makes us ponder upon the notions of permanence and durability (of architecture and ideas in the urban fabric and in the meanders of human memory. The site, centered on a garden, has been undergoing many changes in use, purpose and meaning and today still requires to be reimagined in the social context of the city and its famous university. [In the menu on the right, ARTICLE TOOLS, in "Supplementary Files" link you can download the .pdf presentations of Carleton University students, related to the workshop on Giardino del Guasto area, developed in Bologna in 2012].


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Widespread coring of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin has outlined the existence of a systematic relation between lithology of debris flow deposits and physiographic setting. Whilst the topographic highs are characterized by pelagic sedimentation, the basin floors are alternatively subject to pelagic sedimentation and re-sedimentation pro cesses. Amongst the latters, turbidity flows and debris flows are the most common transport mechanisms.In this paper we present the study of the debris flow pro cess in the Ionian Sea using visual description of cores, grain size, carbonate content and smear slide analysis carried out on gravity and piston cores recovered over the past 20 years. A distinction has been made between debris flow deposits originating from the continental margins (North Africa and Malta Escarpment and those emplaced in the small basins amidst the Calabrian and Mediterranean ridges "Cobblestone Topography". As a result of the difference in setting, the former debris flow deposits include a great variety of lithologies and ages whilst the latter involve the pelagic sediments forming the typical Eastern Mediterranean Plio-Quaternary succession. A detailed study of clast and matrix structures makes it possible to describe the flows in terms of existing classifications of sediment gravity flows and to assume a clast support mechanism. Finally, biostratigraphy coupled with the presence of widespread marker beds enabled us to estimate the age of emplacement of the deposits and to hypothesize a triggering mechanism for flow initiation. Three flows are strictly related to the pelagic turbidite named homogenite, triggered by the explosive eruption of the Santorini volcano (Minoan eruption and therefore have an estimated age of 3,500 BP. The other deposits have ages ranging from 9,000 BP to about 70,000 BP and were originated by debris flows triggered by events such as earthquakes and glacial low sea level stands.    

  7. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization (United States)

    Ravindram, M.


    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  8. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F


    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article

  9. Space Debris Removal: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klima


    Full Text Available We analyse active space debris removal efforts from a strategic, game-theoretical perspective. Space debris is non-manoeuvrable, human-made objects orbiting Earth, which pose a significant threat to operational spacecraft. Active debris removal missions have been considered and investigated by different space agencies with the goal to protect valuable assets present in strategic orbital environments. An active debris removal mission is costly, but has a positive effect for all satellites in the same orbital band. This leads to a dilemma: each agency is faced with the choice between the individually costly action of debris removal, which has a positive impact on all players; or wait and hope that others jump in and do the ‘dirty’ work. The risk of the latter action is that, if everyone waits, the joint outcome will be catastrophic, leading to what in game theory is referred to as the ‘tragedy of the commons’. We introduce and thoroughly analyse this dilemma using empirical game theory and a space debris simulator. We consider two- and three-player settings, investigate the strategic properties and equilibria of the game and find that the cost/benefit ratio of debris removal strongly affects the game dynamics.

  10. Orbital debris removal and meteoroid deflection (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Taylor, Charles R.; Smalley, Larry L.; Dickerson, Thomas


    Orbital debris in low-Earth orbit in the size range from 1 to 10 cm in diameter can be detected but not tracked reliably enough to be avoided by spacecraft. It can cause catastrophic damage even to a shielded spacecraft. With adaptive optics, a ground-based pulsed laser ablating the debris surface can produce enough propulsion in several hundred pulses to cause such debris to reenter the atmosphere. A single laser station could remove all of the 1 - 10 cm debris in three years or less. A technology demonstration of laser space propulsion is proposed which would pave the way for the implementation of such a debris removal system. The cost of the proposed demonstration is comparable with the estimated annual cost of spacecraft operations in the present orbital debris environment. Orbital debris is not the only space junk that is deleterious to the Earth's environment. Collisions with asteroids have caused major havoc to the Earth's biosphere many times in the ancient past. Since the possibility still exists for major impacts of asteroids with the Earth, it shown that it is possible to scale up the systems to prevent these catastrophic collisions providing sufficient early warning is available from new generation space telescopes plus deep space radar tracking.

  11. Scaling up debris-flow experiments on a centrifuge (United States)

    Hung, C.; Capart, H.; Crone, T. J.; Grinspum, E.; Hsu, L.; Kaufman, D.; Li, L.; Ling, H.; Reitz, M. D.; Smith, B.; Stark, C. P.


    Boundary forces generated by debris flows can be powerful enough to erode bedrock and cause considerable damage to infrastructure during runout. Formulation of an erosion-rate law for debris flows is therefore a high priority, and it makes sense to build such a law around laboratory experiments. However, running experiments big enough to generate realistic boundary forces is a logistical challenge to say the least [1]. One alternative is to run table-top simulations with unnaturally weak but fast-eroding pseudo-bedrock, another is to extrapolate from micro-erosion of natural substrates driven by unnaturally weak impacts; hybrid-scale experiments have also been conducted [2]. Here we take a different approach in which we scale up granular impact forces by running our experiments under enhanced gravity in a geotechnical centrifuge [3]. Using a 40cm-diameter rotating drum [2] spun at up to 100g, we generate debris flows with an effective depth of over several meters. By varying effective gravity from 1g to 100g we explore the scaling of granular flow forces and the consequent bed and wall erosion rates. The velocity and density structure of these granular flows is monitored using laser sheets, high-speed video, and particle tracking [4], and the progressive erosion of the boundary surfaces is measured by laser scanning. The force structures and their fluctuations within the granular mass and at the boundaries are explored with contact dynamics numerical simulations that mimic the lab experimental conditions [5]. In this presentation we summarize these results and discuss how they can contribute to the formulation of debris-flow erosion law. [1] Major, J. J. (1997), Journal of Geology 105: 345-366, doi:10.1086/515930 [2] Hsu, L. (2010), Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley [3] Brucks, A., et al (2007), Physical Review E 75, 032301, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.032301 [4] Spinewine, B., et al (2011), Experiments in Fluids 50: 1507-1525, doi: 10.1007/s00348

  12. Laboratory experiments investigating entrainment by debris flows and associated increased mobility (United States)

    Moberly, D.; Maki, L.; Hill, K. M.


    As debris flows course down a steep hillside they entrain bed materials such as loose sediments. The entrainment of materials not only increases the size of the debris flows but the mobility as well. The mechanics underlying the particle entrainment and the associated increased mobility are not well-understood. Existing models for the entrainment process include those that explicitly consider stress ratios, the angle of inclination, and the particle fluxes relative to those achieved under steady conditions. Others include an explicit consideration of the physics of the granular state: the visco-elastic nature of particle flows and, alternatively, the role of macroscopic force chains. Understanding how well these different approaches account for entrainment and deposition rates is important for accurate debris flow modeling, both in terms of the rate of growth and also in terms of the increased mobility associated with the entrainment. We investigate how total and instantaneous entrainment and deposition vary with macroscopic stresses and particle-scale interactions for different particle sizes and different fluid contents using laboratory experiments in an instrumented experimental laboratory debris flow flume. The flume has separate, independent water supplies for the bed and "supply" (parent debris flow), and the bed is instrumented with pore pressure sensors and a basal stress transducer. We monitor flow velocities, local structure, and instantaneous entrainment and deposition rates using a high speed camera. We have found that systems with a mixture of particle sizes are less erosive and more depositional than systems of one particle size under otherwise the same conditions. For both mixtures and single-sized particle systems, we have observed a relatively linear relationship between total erosion and the slope angle for dry flows. Increasing fluid content typically increases entrainment. Measurements of instantaneous entrainment indicate similar dependencies

  13. Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence in an alpine basin (United States)

    Amponsah, William


    values when considering the local runoff regime. We used a threshold criterion based on past works (Tognaccaet al., 2000; Berti and Simoni, 2005; Gregoretti and Dalla Fontana, 2008) to identify tributaries associated to debris flow events. The threshold is defined for each channel grid as a function of the simulated unit width peak flow, of the local channel bed slope and of the mean grain size. Based on assumptions concerning the mean grain size and given the distribution of the threshold values over the river network, we derive a catchment scale threshold index for the tributaries. The results show that the index has considerable skill in identifying the catchments where the studied rainstorm caused debris-flows. Berti, M. andA.Simoni, 2005: Experimental evidences and numerical modelling of debris flow initiated by channel runoff. Landslides, 2 (3), 171-182. Gregoretti, C. and G. Dalla Fontana, 2008:The triggering of debris flow due to channel-bed failure in some alpine headwater basins of the Dolomites: analyses of critical runoff. Hydrol. Process. 22, 2248-2263. Tognacca C., G.R. Bezzola andH.E.Minor, 2000: Threshold criterion fodebrisflow initiation due to channel bed failure. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Debris Flow Hazards Mitigation Taipei,August, Wiezczorek, Naeser (eds): 89-97.

  14. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  15. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  16. On the efficiency of an open retention check dam against a debris flow (United States)

    D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Bertoldi, Gabriele; Bettella, Francesco


    The high-intensity rainfalls occurred on the 4th of August 2015 triggered different debris flows in the torrent Boite valley (Belluno, Italy). Three people died and considerable damages to villages and infrastructures were caused. The research investigates on the debris-flow event occurred in the rio Rudan catchment (south facing slope of the Antelao peak, Dolomites; tributary of the Boite torrent) and particularly on the interaction of the debris-flow front with a retention open check dam placed at the fan apex. The rainfall intensity of the rainstorm reached a value of 38 mm in 0.5 h (precipitation measured by the raingauge installed on the Antelao massif by the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto Region, ARPAV). This rainfall triggered a debris flow, which deposited 25000 cubic meters of solid material in the terminal reach of the channel and in the storage basin of the retention check dam. The research is voted to: i) conduct the back analysis of the debris-flow event estimating the peak discharge upstream and downstream of the check dam; ii) evaluate the influence of the structure on the reduction of the maximum debris-flow surge; iii) estimate the impact force of the flow on the structure. The back analysis was carried out through the application of different methodologies supported by field surveys (significant cross sections in different channel reaches, Close Range Photogrammetry of the fan area, measurement of the sizes of the biggest boulders entrained by the flow). The different methods used for the reconstruction of the maximum discharge of the debris flow provided converging values, allowing to conclude that the structure was capable to halve the peak discharge and to efficiently protect the neighboring village. Finally, the back calculation of the impact force of the flow against the check dam was conducted through the analysis of structure damages and indicated some design criteria for the most exposed parts of the

  17. Space Shuttle crew compartment debris-contamination (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Villarreal, Leopoldo J.


    Remedial actions undertaken to reduce debris during manned flights and ground turnaround operations at Kennedy Space Center and Palmdale are addressed. They include redesign of selected ground support equipment and Orbiter hardware to reduce particularization/debris generation; development of new detachable filters for air-cooled avionics boxes; application of tape-on screens to filter debris; and implementation of new Orbiter maintenance and turnaround procedures to clean filters and the crew compartment. Most of these steps were implemented before the return-to-flight of STS-26 in September 1988 which resulted in improved crew compartment habitability and less potential for equipment malfunction.

  18. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risk (United States)

    Matney, Mark J.


    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper presents an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  19. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risks (United States)

    Matney, Mark


    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of non-spherical satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper will present an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  20. A comparative assessment of two different debris flow propagation approaches - blind simulations on a real debris flow event (United States)

    Stancanelli, L. M.; Foti, E.


    A detailed comparison between the performances of two different approaches to debris flow modelling was carried out. In particular, the results of a mono-phase Bingham model (FLO-2D) and that of a two-phase model (TRENT-2D) obtained from a blind test were compared. As a benchmark test the catastrophic event of 1 October 2009 which struck Sicily causing several fatalities and damage was chosen. The predicted temporal evolution of several parameters of the debris flow (such as flow depth and propagation velocity) was analysed in order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the two models in reproducing the global dynamics of the event. An analysis between the models' results with survey data have been carried out, not only for the determination of statistical indicators of prediction accuracy, but also for the application of the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) approach. Provided that the proper rheological parameters and boundary conditions are assigned, both models seem capable of reproducing the inundation areas in a reasonably accurate way. However, the main differences in the application rely on the choice of such rheological parameters. Indeed, within the more user-friendly FLO-2D model the tuning of the parameters must be done empirically, with no evidence of the physics of the phenomena. On the other hand, for the TRENT-2D the parameters are physically based and can be estimated from the properties of the solid material, thus reproducing more reliable results. A second important difference between the two models is that in the first method the debris flow is treated as a homogeneous flow, in which the total mass is kept constant from its initiation in the upper part of the basin to the deposition in a debris fan. In contrast, the second approach is suited to reproduce the erosion and deposition processes and the displaced mass can be directly related to the rainfall event. Application of both models in a highly urbanized area reveals the

  1. Numerical simulation of failure behavior of granular debris flows based on flume model tests. (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Ye-xun; Jia, Min-cai; Li, Cui-na


    In this study, the failure behaviors of debris flows were studied by flume model tests with artificial rainfall and numerical simulations (PFC(3D)). Model tests revealed that grain sizes distribution had profound effects on failure mode, and the failure in slope of medium sand started with cracks at crest and took the form of retrogressive toe sliding failure. With the increase of fine particles in soil, the failure mode of the slopes changed to fluidized flow. The discrete element method PFC(3D) can overcome the hypothesis of the traditional continuous medium mechanic and consider the simple characteristics of particle. Thus, a numerical simulations model considering liquid-solid coupled method has been developed to simulate the debris flow. Comparing the experimental results, the numerical simulation result indicated that the failure mode of the failure of medium sand slope was retrogressive toe sliding, and the failure of fine sand slope was fluidized sliding. The simulation result is consistent with the model test and theoretical analysis, and grain sizes distribution caused different failure behavior of granular debris flows. This research should be a guide to explore the theory of debris flow and to improve the prevention and reduction of debris flow.

  2. Bed Bug Myths (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  3. Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (United States)

    Griffith, Anthony; Schottel, Matthew; Lee, David; Scully, Robert; Hamilton, Joseph; Kent, Brian; Thomas, Christopher; Benson, Jonathan; Branch, Eric; Hardman, Paul; hide


    The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes, allowing for up to four times as much data to be analyzed by one-quarter of the personnel required by earlier methods. There are two applications that comprise the DEBRIS system: the Automated Radar Debris Examination Tool (ARDENT) and the primary DEBRIS tool.

  4. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem. (United States)

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva


    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen


    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids

  6. Managing Debris After a Natural Disaster (United States)

    Hauling Hurricane-related debris to the curb in participating areas. Following these specific guidelines (PDF) will make for a speedier removal process. Check with your local government on what is available to you.

  7. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  8. New solutions for the space debris problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    Addressing a pressing issue in space policy, Pelton explores the new forms of technology that are being developed to actively remove the defunct space objects from orbit and analyzes their implications in the existing regime of international space law and public international law. This authoritative review covers the due diligence guidelines that nations are using to minimize the generation of new debris, mandates to de-orbit satellites at end of life, and innovative endeavours to remove non-functional satellites, upper stage rockets and other large debris from orbit under new institutional, financial and regulatory guidelines.  Commercial space services currently exceed 100 billion USD business per annum, but the alarming proliferation in the population of orbital debris in low, medium and geosynchronous satellite orbits poses a serious threat to all kinds of space assets and applications. There is a graver concern that the existing space debris will begin to collide in a cascading manner, generating furth...

  9. Influence of shape and size on the combustion time of solid waste in a fluidized bed furnace; Ryudosoro niokeru kokeihaikibutsu no nenshojikan ni oyobosu keijo to ookisa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Teruyuk; Sugiyama, Hideko; Kamiya, Hidehiro; Horio, Masayuki [Tokyo Unversity of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The combustion time of volatile matters and fixed carbon matters in a model waste having various shapes, sizes and materials in a fluidized bed furnace was theoretically and experimentally examined. Concerning the combustion of volatile matters, an estimation model of volatile matter combustion time was developed for the cases when a fixed carbon layer was formed or not formed. The estimation values of combustion time almost agreed with the experimental results of a model waste combustion having various shapes and sizes when the Carman shape coefficient {phi}{sub s0} was in the range of 0.3 to 0.9. In the case of the formation of a fixed carbon layer, combustion time of volatile matter was estimated by using a numerical analysis method for the moving boundary problem, and its results were confirmed to agree with the un-reacting karyotype heat transfer model solution in assumption of quasistationary heat transfer and experimental results. According to these results, it could be proved that the combustible time of volatile matter in the case of formation of a fixed carbon layer could be simply estimated by the un-reacting karyotype heat transfer model. (translated by NEDO)

  10. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of spent bedding from deep litter piggery housing. (United States)

    Tait, Stephan; Tamis, Jelmer; Edgerton, Bruce; Batstone, Damien J


    This paper investigates spent litter from deep litter piggery housing as a potential substrate for farm-scale anaerobic digestion. Degradability and degradation rates were evaluated under mesophilic conditions for unused, lightly soiled (used by weaner/small pigs), and heavily soiled (used by finishing/large pigs) wheat straw, barley straw, and rice husks bedding. Apparent first order hydrolysis rate coefficients varied, but were comparable across all samples analysed (Digestion of spent barley and wheat straw litter was significantly faster (approximately twice the rate) at low (8% solids) than high (14% solids) solids loading. Rice husks degradation kinetics were not significantly influenced by solids concentration. Intrinsic methanogenic activity of heavily soiled spent wheat straw and rice husks bedding was initially poor, but achieved full activity after 40-60 days, indicating that reactor operation without external inoculum may be possible with care.

  12. Orbiting Space Debris: Dangers, Measurement and Mitigation (United States)


    September 1990.. 11 "The Orbital Debris Monitor" is published by Darrin McKnight. Information is available at 12624 Veny Place, Fairfax, VA 22033...1975). These treaties cover numerous areas, including the peaceful use of space and the possible contamination of 192 Earth from space-borne diseases ...construed as applying to space debris; however, the main concern at the time of passage was the introduction of extraterrestrial diseases into the

  13. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors (United States)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher


    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  14. Modeling an oil shale fluid bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasalos, I.A.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Georgiadou, M.


    Oil shale retorting involves heating of solid particles and pyrolysis of the organic matter to produce hydrocarbon liquid shale oil. During the pyrolysis process, part of the organic material remains in the inorganic matrix as coke residue. Combustion of the coke residue can provide the energy necessary for retorting. In this paper the use of a fluid bed combustor to burn the coke residue is examined. The basis for predicting the performance of the fluid bed combustor is the application of the two-phase theory of fluidization. The carbon burning efficiency was calculated as a function of temperature, pressure, and bubble size. For the same conditions, the carbonate decomposition and the associated energy loss were also established. Conditions were found which make feasible complete carbon combustion with minimum carbonate decomposition.

  15. Modeling an oil shale fluid bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasalos, I.A.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Georgiadou, M.


    Oil shale retorting involves heating of solid particles and pyrolysis of the organic matter to produce hydrocarbon liquid--shale oil. During the pyrolysis process part of the organic material remains in the inorganic matrix as coke residue. Combustion of the coke residue can provide the energy necessary for retorting. In this paper the use of a fluid bed combustor to burn the coke residue is examined. The basis for predicting the performance of the fluid bed combustor is the application of the two-phase theory of fluidization. The carbon burning efficiency was calculated as a function of temperature, pressure, and bubble size. For the same conditions the carbonate decomposition and the associated energy loss was also established.

  16. VA National Bed Control System (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  17. An energy-balance model for the debris layer on debris-covered glaciers (United States)

    Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben


    Many glacier ablation zones are mantled in near-continuous blankets of rock debris. These debris-covered glaciers are important drivers of the water cycle in many mountain regions, for example, in the headwaters of the Ganges and Indus Rivers. The debris layers have a very significant impact on glacier thermodynamics, and have been seen to expand in recent years, so it is essential to assess exactly how their presence affects a glacier's response to climate changes. However, while many studies have investigated the surface energy balance on clean or debris-free glaciers, there is still a lack of models of the processes that influence debris-covered snow and ice. This paper presents a physically-based, one-dimensional energy balance model for the surface of a debris-covered glacier. The model is driven by meteorological variables and specified debris thermal properties without the need for surface temperature measurements, and was developed and tested using data collected hourly at Miage Glacier, Italy, which has an extensive cover of rock debris, during the ablation seasons (June to September) of 2005, 2006 and 2007. In the model, fluxes of solar shortwave and atmospheric longwave radiation can be entered directly from measurements or calculated using appropriate parameterisations. All other surface fluxes including upwelling longwave from the debris surface, sensible and latent heat transfer, and the conductive flux into the debris, depend on equations requiring the debris surface temperature. Therefore, the surface temperature is solved using an iterative Newton-Raphson procedure, assuming that it will adjust to a value such that the total sum of fluxes at the air-debris interface is zero. Temperatures within the debris are found by dividing the debris into several layers and solving the heat conservation equation numerically, with boundary conditions defined by the newly-calculated surface temperature and the temperature at the debris-ice interface (which is

  18. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles. (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy


    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Demonstration of an advanced circulation fludized bed coal combustor phase 1: Cold model study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    It was found that there was a strong dependence of the density profile on the secondary air injection location and that there was a pronounced solid separation from the conveying gas, due to the swirl motion. Furthermore, the swirl motion generated strong internal circulation patterns and higher slip velocities than in the case of nonswirl motion as in an ordinary circulating fluidized bed. Radial solids flux profiles were measured at different axial locations. The general radial profile in a swirling circulating fluidized bed indicated an increased downward flow of solids near the bed walls, and strong variations in radial profiles along the axial height. For swirl numbers less than 0.9, which is typical for swirling circulating fluidized beds, there is no significant increase in erosion due to swirl motion inside the bed. Pending further investigation of swirl motion with combustion, at least from our cold model studies, no disadvantages due to the introduction of swirl motion were discovered.

  20. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  1. Modelling the runout of a debris flow of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India (United States)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; Luna, B. Quan; Begueria Portugues, S.; van Westen, C. J.


    Debris flows as a result of shallow landslides are increasingly a concern in Kerala, the south western state of India. The plateau margins of highland Kerala (The Western Ghats) have all prerequisites of an active erosion zone where the natural terrain setup is conducive to slope failure/mass movements. Rainfall during two monsoons (South West and North East) that are effective in the state is identified as the primary trigger of debris flows. The flows are confined to the existing drainage lines and widen the streambeds that they follow, causing significant crop destruction (and occasionally loss of lives) along the path. Most often the amount of material that initiates the flows is less than a 1000 m3. Scouring is seen along the runout zone adding often an additional 30 to 80% more material. One such debris flow event of 2001 which occurred in the Kottayam district of Kerala was modelled with a Coulomb frictional and a Voellmy model in the DAN3D software. DAN3D is based on a Lagrangian formulation that discretises the flow in a number of particles representing bed-normal columns of flow. The values of the field variables for each particle are calculated at each time step using an interpolation technique based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Bed entrainment was simulated after defining an entrainment zone, a maximum depth of supply material and the average growth or erosion rate. Result of the modeling shows that shallow failures using frictional material overestimates the runout zone and velocities. The Voellmy model underestimate deposit thickness where spreading is dominant but the velocity is better fitted during the course of the flow. Entrainment of material from the path and the ability to change rheology depending on the path material can be important. The reasonable results of the modeling show its flexibility which can be used to predict a simplified behaviour of debris flows.

  2. Bed Prism Spectacles (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados


    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal reflection in a prism. In this article we explain the physics behind this unfamiliar device, supported by geometrical optics principles.

  3. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora


    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  4. Plastic Beaches: occurrence and accumulation of marine debris on barrier islands in the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Wessel, C.; Albins, K.; Cebrian, J.


    Marine debris is any persistent solid material that is manufactured or processed and directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, disposed of or abandoned into the marine environment (33USC§1951). Marine debris is an economic, environmental, human health and aesthetic problem posing a complex challenge. Coastal communities are among the most seriously affected because of increased expenses for beach cleaning, public health and waste disposal, as well as a loss of income from decreased tourism. To better document this problem we are monitoring the occurrence and accumulation rate of marine debris on 6 barrier islands in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM). Surveys are conducted at low tide and consist of 100m-long transects along the shoreline extending from the water edge to the upland shoreline limit. All debris larger than 5 mm is collected and recorded. Debris is then sorted by material, and dry mass is recorded. With this information we are investigating four specific questions: (1) what are the major types and possible sources (land or ocean based) of shoreline debris; (2) does the rate of debris deposition onto the shoreline show seasonal oscillations; (3) how does debris deposition change from east to west in the nGoM; and (4) what are the possible causes of the temporal and spatial trends found (e.g. rainfall and runoff, human population, boat traffic)? During the first year of sampling we are beginning to see trends emerge. More trash consistently washes up on the ocean side versus the sound side of the barrier islands, which suggests either large amounts of trash in the nGoM is ocean-based debris, or it is driven by beach goers, or both. In addition, we have found a significant increase in the amount of trash on the shoreline during tourist/boating season (May to September), although trash items tend to be smaller in size during that season. At the presentation we will discuss these and other trends that emerge with a more complete data set.

  5. Debris flow monitoring experience in the Cancia basin (Dolomites, Northeast Italian Alps). (United States)

    Stancanelli, Laura; Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo; Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro; Lanzoni, Stefano


    summer 2014 a monitoring station, composed by a rain gauge and two couples of cameras and pressure transducers, was installed in the triggering area at the purpose of investigating the debris flow initial development. Comparison of the channel cross section geometry in proximity of the monitoring station allows us to investigate the morphological tendencies of the Cancia basin. The analysis of collected data suggests that the catchment is characterized by the cyclic occurrence of sediment accumulation in the main channel as a consequence of intense meteorological events, followed by debris flow activations when both the volume of deposited material and the rainfall intensity are large enough. The consequent severe erosion of the channel bed channel and of the side-slopes leads to the starting of a new deposition-erosion cycle. This morphological behaviour of the basin clearly emerges from the analysis of the data collected on July 23th, 2015 and August 4th, 2015. In particular, the monitoring station provided information about: debris flow depth and basal pressure, and characteristics of the triggering rainfalls. The analysis of such data show that during the stony debris flow event occurred on July 23th, 2015, no excess pore pressure is observed along the front propagation as already observed in recent experimental laboratory flume investigations. Therefore a quasi hydrostatic pressure distribution is associated to the fluid phase.

  6. A comparison of laboratory and field observations of superelevation in debris flows (United States)

    McArdell, Brian W.; Scheidl, Christian; Graf, Christoph; Rickenmann, Dieter


    the flow ( 10 m) and radius of curvature (71 m), the local variability in both parameters is certainly larger than in the laboratory. The laboratory channel was a regular half-pipe with uniform roughness lining the channel bed. In the field the channel is approximately trapezoidal, with local topographic variability produced by the presence of bars and large boulders on the channel bed, which were observed to change between debris flows. Similarly, the local roughness within the channel, which locally influences the speed of the flow, is also spatially variable. Differences in the grain-size distribution among the debris flows in the field are almost certainly present, although field measurements of grain size are not available for every event. While it would have been possible to derive the relation of Scheidl et al. (2015) independently of the laboratory experiments, it would not have been possible to validate the method without high-quality laboratory data.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of a lab-scale Fluidised Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Halvorsen


    Full Text Available The flow behaviour of a lab-scale fluidised bed with a central jet has been simulated. The study has been performed with an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD model named FLOTRACS-MP-3D. The CFD model is based on a multi-fluid Eulerian description of the phases, where the kinetic theory for granular flow forms the basis for turbulence modelling of the solid phases. A two-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system is used to describe the geometry. This paper discusses whether bubble formation and bed height are influenced by coefficient of restitution, drag model and number of solid phases. Measurements of the same fluidised bed with a digital video camera are performed. Computational results are compared with the experimental results, and the discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Estimation of supraglacial debris thickness using a novel target decomposition on L-band polarimetric SAR images in the Tianshan Mountains (United States)

    Huang, L.; Li, Zh.; Tian, B. S.; Han, H. D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Zhou, J. M.; Chen, Q.


    Debris is widely distributed in the ablation zones of mountain glaciers in the Tianshan Mountains. Supraglacial debris can accelerate or hamper glacier ablation, depending on its thickness. Thus, it plays an important role in the mass balance of debris-covered glaciers. This paper proposes a novel method to estimate supraglacial debris thickness by using L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar. A new model-based target decomposition is used to extract the surface scattering, double bounce, and volume scattering components. The surface scatter model uses the extended Bragg scatter, which considers the depolarization effect for rough surfaces. The volume scatter model uses elliptical scatterers, which approximate the shape of the solids in the debris. The volume scattering power is related to the dielectric properties of the debris, the radar wavelength, the incidence angle, and the elliptical scatter shape. Once the target decomposition is performed, the debris thickness can be inverted from the volume scattering power and other known parameters. Through comparison with a large number of field measurements, the inversion is shown to be reasonable, and the accuracy is validated to be ±0.12 m. Based on the inversion map in the study area, the debris thicknesses of the Koxkar glacier and its neighboring glaciers are presented and analyzed.

  9. A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.


    Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.

  10. Modelling of a recycling sludge bed reactor using AQUASIM: reprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recycling sludge bed reactor (RSBR) allows for increased solids retention time, resulting in greater substrate conversion for all particulate degradation and biological reactions. The purpose of the RSBR is to hydrolyse primary settled sewage (PSS). Soluble products are then used for the biological treatment of acid mine ...

  11. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.


    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  12. A Fixed Bed Barrier Reactor with Separate Feed of Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A new type of gas-solid reactor was developed and characterised in the series of reactor configurations with separate feed of reactants studied by our group. The novelty in the proposed design lies in the use of a fixed bed of small catalytic particles instead of a porous catalytic membrane. The

  13. Multi-scale CFD simulation of hydrodynamics and cracking reactions in fixed fluidized bed reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jin H; Wang, Zhen B; Zhao, Hui; Tian, Yuan Y; Shan, Hong H; Yang, Chao H


    ...–solid flow and cracking reactions. The gas mixing and particle volume fraction distributions, as well as product yields in the conventional and modified fixed fluidized bed reactors were analyzed...

  14. Estimating the topographic predictability of debris flows (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver; Romstad, Bård; Etzelmüller, Bernd


    The Norwegian traffic network is impacted by about 2000 landslides, avalanches, and debris flows each year that incur high economic losses. Despite the urgent need to mitigate future losses, efforts to locate potential debris flow source areas have been rare at the regional scale. We tackle this research gap by exploring a minimal set of possible topographic predictors of debris flow initiation that we input to a Weights-of-Evidence (WofE) model for mapping the regional susceptibility to debris flows in western Norway. We use an inventory of 429 debris flows that were recorded between 1979 and 2008, and use the terrain variables of slope, total curvature, and contributing area (flow accumulation) to compute the posterior probabilities of local debris flow occurrence. The novelty of our approach is that we quantify the uncertainties in the WofE approach arising from different predictor classification schemes and data input, while estimating model accuracy and predictive performance from independent test data. Our results show that a percentile-based classification scheme excels over a manual classification of the predictor variables because differing abundances in manually defined bins reduce the reliability of the conditional independence tests, a key, and often neglected, prerequisite for the WofE method. The conditional dependence between total curvature and flow accumulation precludes their joint use in the model. Slope gradient has the highest true positive rate (88%), although the fraction of area classified as susceptible is very large (37%). The predictive performance, i.e. the reduction of false positives, is improved when combined with either total curvature or flow accumulation. Bootstrapping shows that the combination of slope and flow accumulation provides more reliable predictions than the combination of slope and total curvature, and helps refining the use of slope-area plots for identifying morphometric fingerprints of debris flow source areas, an

  15. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Porter, C.L. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wallace, M.T. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications.

  16. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches. (United States)

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L


    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow structure formation and evolution in circulating gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects the gas-solid contacting and transport processes in high-velocity gas-fluidized beds. Particles do not disperse uniformly in the flow but pass through the bed in a swarm of clusters. The so-called "core-annulus"

  18. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara. (United States)

    Silva, Melanie Lopes da; Araújo, Fábio Vieira de; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza


    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends and drivers of marine debris on the Atlantic coast of the United States 1997-2007 (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Sheavly, S.B.; Rugg, D.J.; Erdmann, Eric S.


    For the first time, we documented regional differences in amounts and long-term trends of marine debris along the US Atlantic coast. The Southeast Atlantic had low land-based and general-source debris loads as well as no increases despite a 19% increase in coastal population. The Northeast (8% population increase) also had low land-based and general-source debris loads and no increases. The Mid-Atlantic (10% population increase) fared the worst, with heavy land-based and general-source debris loads that increased over time. Ocean-based debris did not change in the Northeast where the fishery is relatively stable; it declined over the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast and was correlated with declining regional fisheries. Drivers, including human population, land use status, fishing activity, and oceanic current systems, had complex relationships with debris loads at local and regional scales. Management challenges remain undeniably large but solid information from long-term programs is one key to addressing this pressing pollution issue. ?? 2010.

  20. Employing terrestrial photogrammetry to determine surface roughness on a debris covered glacier (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Miles, E. S.; Brun, F.; Detert, M.


    Aerodynamic surface roughness is an essential parameter in energy balance studies on glaciers. While actual measurements on bare ice glaciers are rare, a number of literature values exist for different types of ice and snow covers. There are only very few constant values suggested in the literature for debris covered glaciers and actual measurements are even scarcer. This is a significant shortcoming as the debris surface is often very heterogeneous, which results in variable turbulent fluxes. These fluxes, which use surface roughness as an input parameter, are also employed to derive debris thickness from surface temperature. The increased use of aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry on glaciers provides an opportunity to better account for this present shortcoming. On a number of locations of Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas we produced high resolution DEMs from terrestrial photogrammetry, from 1 x 1 m plots to a wider basin spanning more than 100 m. These images were then downsampled to different resolutions, ranging from one millimeter to a few centimeters. Employing different equations from the literature we determine surface roughness at different scales. This way we can discuss (1) the variability of results between different commonly used approaches, (2) the variability of surface roughness in space and (3) the impact of image resolution. From a tower with wind and temperature sensors at different heights we additionally infer surface roughness locally. We can then compare these values as well as see the effect of different wind speeds on the derivation of the value. Employing a software originally developed to determine grain size distributions in river beds from optical imagery, we additionally determine rock shapes and size as well as provide an estimate for the grain size distribution of the debris cover. This could provide an initial step to a better estimation of the porous space of the debris cover, which is essential to determine energy flux

  1. A novel technique for particle tracking in cold 2-dimensional fluidized beds - simulating fuel dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Pallares; Filip Johnsson [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Conversion


    This paper presents a novel technique for particle tracking in 2-dimensional fluidized beds operated under ambient conditions. The method is applied to study the mixing mechanisms of fuel particles in fluidized beds and is based on tracking a phosphorescent tracer particle by means of video recording with subsequent digital image analysis. From this, concentration, velocity and dispersion fields of the tracer particle can be obtained with high accuracy. Although the method is restricted to 2-dimensional, it can be applied under flow conditions qualitatively resembling a fluidized-bed combustor. Thus, the experiments cover ranges of bed heights, gas velocities and fuel-to-bed material density and size ratios typical for fluidized-bed combustors. Also, several fluidization regimes (bubbling, turbulent, circulating and pneumatic) are included in the runs. A pattern found in all runs is that the mixing pattern of the tracer (fuel) solids is structured in horizontally aligned vortexes induced by the bubble flow. The main bubble paths always give a low concentration of tracer solids and with the tracer moving upwards, while the downflow of tracer particles in the dense bottom bed is found to take place in zones with low bubble density and at the sidewalls. The amount of bed material (bed height) has a strong influence on the bottom bed dynamics (development and coalescence of bubbles) and, consequently, on the solids mixing process. Local dispersion coefficients reach maximum values around the locations of bubble eruptions, while, in the presence of a dense bottom bed, an increase in fluidization velocity or amount of bed material enhances dispersion. Dispersion is found to be larger in the vertical than in the horizontal direction, confirming the critical character of lateral fuel dispersion in fluidized-bed combustors of large cross section.

  2. Propagation of a channelized debris-flow: experimental investigation and parameters identification for numerical modelling (United States)

    Termini, Donatella


    Recent catastrophic events due to intense rainfalls have mobilized large amount of sediments causing extensive damages in vast areas. These events have highlighted how debris-flows runout estimations are of crucial importance to delineate the potentially hazardous areas and to make reliable assessment of the level of risk of the territory. Especially in recent years, several researches have been conducted in order to define predicitive models. But, existing runout estimation methods need input parameters that can be difficult to estimate. Recent experimental researches have also allowed the assessment of the physics of the debris flows. But, the major part of the experimental studies analyze the basic kinematic conditions which determine the phenomenon evolution. Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy). The experiments, carried out in a laboratory flume appositely constructed, were planned in order to evaluate the influence of different geometrical parameters (such as the slope and the geometrical characteristics of the confluences to the main channel) on the propagation phenomenon of the debris flow and its deposition. Thus, the aim of the present work is to give a contribution to defining input parameters in runout estimation by numerical modeling. The propagation phenomenon is analyzed for different concentrations of solid materials. Particular attention is devoted to the identification of the stopping distance of the debris flow and of the involved parameters (volume, angle of depositions, type of material) in the empirical predictive equations available in literature (Rickenmanm, 1999; Bethurst et al. 1997). Bethurst J.C., Burton A., Ward T.J. 1997. Debris flow run-out and landslide sediment delivery model tests. Journal of hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 123(5), 419-429 Rickenmann D. 1999. Empirical relationships

  3. Prediction of the bed-load transport by gas-liquid stratified flows in horizontal ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Erick de Moraes


    Solid particles can be transported as a mobile granular bed, known as bed-load, by pressure-driven flows. A common case in industry is the presence of bed-load in stratified gas-liquid flows in horizontal ducts. In this case, an initially flat granular bed may be unstable, generating ripples and dunes. This three-phase flow, although complex, can be modeled under some simplifying assumptions. This paper presents a model for the estimation of some bed-load characteristics. Based on parameters easily measurable in industry, the model can predict the local bed-load flow rates and the celerity and the wavelength of instabilities appearing on the granular bed.

  4. Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peter Simmonds


    Full Text Available Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish entanglement in active fishing gear from that in lost or discarded gear. The overall significance of the threat from ingested plastics and other debris remains unclear for any population or species of cetaceans, although there are concerns for some taxa, including at the population level, and marine debris in the oceans continues to grow. Further research including the compilation of unpublished material and the investigation of important habitat areas is strongly recommended.

  5. Loopy, Floppy and Fragmented: Debris Characteristics Matter (United States)

    Parrish, J.; Burgess, H. K.


    Marine debris is a world-wide problem threatening the health and safety of marine organisms, ecosystems, and humans. Recent and ongoing research shows that risk of harm is not associated with identity, but rather with a set of specific character states, where the character state space intersection is defined by the organism of interest. For example, intersections of material, color, rigidity and size predict the likelihood of an object being ingested: plastic, clear-white, floppy objects collection approach to quantifying the diversity and abundance of marine debris found on beaches. Development resulted in meta-analysis of the literature and expert opinion eliciting harmful character state space. Testing included data collection on inter-rater reliability and accuracy, where the latter included 75 participants quantifying marine debris characteristics on monthly surveys of 30 beaches along the Washington and Oregon coastlines over the past year. Pilot work indicates that characters must be simply and operationally defined, states must be listed, and examples must be provided for color states. Complex characters (e.g., windage, shape) are not replicable across multiple data collectors. Although data collection takes longer than other marine debris surveys for a given amount of debris and area surveyed, volunteer rapidity and accuracy improved within 3-5 surveys. Initial feedback indicated that volunteers were willing to continue collecting data as long as they valued the approach.

  6. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins


    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  7. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk


    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  8. Piloted Ignition Regimes of Wildland Fuel Beds (United States)

    Thomas, J. C.; Simeoni, A.; Colella, F.; Torero, J. L.


    Pine needle litters, a key fuel in North American and Mediterranean forest systems, are highly porous fuel beds. They provide a source of continuous fuel medium that can be easily ignited and will sustain flame spread in forest fires. This study is a continuation of previous piloted ignition experimentation [1]. Here, focus was drawn to the influence of airflow in a porous fuel bed for three species: Pinus halepensis, Pinus strobus, and Pinus resinosa. Each needle species is characterized by surface-to-volume ratio and density. The tests samples are characterized by the bulk density, porosity and absorptivity. The needles are subjected to an external radiant heat flux using the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus. Ignition delay times and surface temperatures were recorded under a range of different test conditions (basket open area, flow conditions and different level of the radiant heat flux). A comparison of the results indicates that the flow condition must be considered for the modeling of such fuel beds. For conditions where the air flow through the sample is blocked a solid like behavior can be observed. The results show that this cannot be granted for open sample baskets. The goal of this study is to understand the effects, cooling and mixing, of airflow through the porous medium on the time to ignition of the sample and aid in the development of new models for characterizing the ignition behavior.

  9. Dust and Debris Tolerant Retractable Cover Connector (United States)

    Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor); Townsend, III, Ivan I. (Inventor); Carlson, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Bastin, Gary L. (Inventor); Murtland, Kevin A. (Inventor)


    A debris exclusion and removal apparatus for connectors which have retractable cover configurations which include internal wafers that clean the connectors prior to mating. XXXX connectors. More particularly, embodiments relate to dust tolerant connectors. Some embodiments also relate to an intelligent connector system capable of detecting damage to or faults within a conductor and then rerouting the energy to a non-damaged spare conductor. Discussion Connectors of the present invention may be used to transfer electrical current, fluid, and gas in a wide variety of environments containing dust and other debris, wherein that debris may present substantial challenges. For example, lunar/Martian dust intrusion and/or accumulation in connectors used to transfer oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc., may lead to larger system failures as well as loss of life in extraterrestrial human exploration endeavors. Additionally, embodiments of the present invention may also be suitable for use where connectors must resist water intrusion, such as terrestrial deep water operations.

  10. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris (United States)

    Kean, Jason W.; McGuire, Luke; Rengers, Francis; Smith, Joel B.; Staley, Dennis M.


    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  11. "State of the Art" of technical protection measures in Austria and the effectiveness documented during bedload and debris flow events (United States)

    Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Rudolf-Miklau, Florian; Suda, Jürgen


    Since the beginning of systematic torrent control in Austria 130 years ago, barriers are constructed for protection purposes. Until the end of the 1960s, solid barriers were built at the exits of depositional areas to prevent dangerous debris flows from reaching high consequence areas. The development of solid barriers with large slots or slits to regulate sediment transport began with the use of reinforced concrete during the 1970s (Rudolf-Miklau, Suda 2011). In order to dissipate the energy of debris flows debris flow breakers have been designed since the 1980s. By slowing and depositing the surge front of the debris flow, downstream reaches of the stream channel and settlement areas should be exposed to considerably lower dynamic impact. In the past, the technological development of these constructions was only steered by the experiences of the engineering practice while an institutionalized process of standardization comparable to other engineering branches was not existent. In future all structures have to be designed and dimensioned according to the EUROCODE standards. This was the reason to establish an interdisciplinary working group (ON-K 256) at the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI), which has managed to developed comprehensive new technical standards for torrent control engineering, including load models, design, dimensioning and life cycle assessment of torrent control works (technical standard ONR 24800 - series). Extreme torrential events comprise four definable displacement processes floods; fluvial solid transport; hyper-concentrated solid transport (debris floods) and debris flow (stony debris flow or mud-earth flow). As a rule, the design of the torrential barriers has to follow its function (Kettl, 1984). Modern protection concepts in torrent control are scenario-oriented and try to optimize different functions in a chain of protections structures (function chain). More or less the first step for the designing the optimal construction type is

  12. HD 76582's Circumstellar Debris Disk (United States)

    Marshall, J. P.


    The debris disk host star HD 76582 was observed at 450 μm and 850 μm as part of the JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey `Sub-millimetre Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS). The sub-millimetre data are inconsistent with a disk undergoing a steady-state collisional cascade. Combining the sub-millimetre (sub-mm) measurements with mid- and far-infrared measurements from Spitzer and Herschel, we simultaneously model the disk's thermal emission and radial extent in a self-consistent manner.

  13. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems. (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José


    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  14. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, M.A.; Underwood, A.J.; Chapman, M.G.; Williams, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Franeker, van J.A.


    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that

  15. Enabling Large-body Active Debris Removal Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research suggests that: (1) orbital debris has reached an unstable point whereby, even with no future launches, the amount of debris will continue to grow through...

  16. Enabling Large-body Active Debris Removal Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research suggests that: (1) orbital debris has reached the point that, even with no future launches, collisions among large-body debris will lead to unstable growth...

  17. Marine debris collects within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone. (United States)

    Pichel, William G; Churnside, James H; Veenstra, Timothy S; Foley, David G; Friedman, Karen S; Brainard, Russell E; Nicoll, Jeremy B; Zheng, Quanan; Clemente-Colón, Pablo


    Floating marine debris, particularly derelict fishing gear, is a hazard to fish, marine mammals, turtles, sea birds, coral reefs, and even human activities. To ameliorate the economic and environmental impact of marine debris, we need to efficiently locate and retrieve dangerous debris at sea. Guided by satellite-derived information, we made four flights north of Hawaii in March and April 2005. During these aerial surveys, we observed over 1800 individual pieces of debris, including 122 derelict fishing nets. The largest debris concentrations were found just north of the North Pacific Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front (TZCF) within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ). Debris densities were significantly correlated with sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla), and the gradient of Chla. A Debris Estimated Likelihood Index (DELI) was developed to predict where high concentrations of debris would be most likely in the North Pacific during spring and early summer.

  18. Orbiting Debris: a Space Environmental Problem. Background Paper (United States)


    Artificial debris, deposited in a multitude of orbits about the Earth as the result of the exploration and use of the space environment, poses a growing hazard to future space operations. Unless nations sharply reduce the amount of orbital debris they produce, future space activites could suffer loss of capability, loss of income, and even loss of life as a result of collisions between spacecraft and debris. This background paper discusses the sources of debris and how they can be greatly reduced.

  19. Space debris: Conjunction opportunities and opportunities for international cooperation


    Patricia K. McCormick


    Space debris comprises all non-functional human-made objects in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere. Potentially hazardous orbital debris is proliferating. If current trends continue, orbital debris will become a significant factor in constraining space activity. Space, however, is one of the most strategically important theatres of the 21st century. It is thus imperative, given humanity's reliance on space, that the issue of space debris be addressed. This paper provides an overview of...

  20. Debris flow relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees


    Beguería, S.; A. Lorente; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Debris flows represent the most active geomorphic risk in mountainous areas, affecting infrastructures, human settlements and touristic resorts (Takahashi et al., 1981). For this reason, much effort has been put in assessing where debris flows occur and ranking the factors that trigger them, but also in defining two essential parameters in establishing debris flow hazards: what is the distance travelled by debris flows (especially the runout distance), and what is the volume of material carri...

  1. Space Shuttle Systems Engineering Processes for Liftoff Debris Risk Mitigation (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher


    This slide presentation reviews the systems engineering process designed to reduce the risk from debris during Space Shuttle Launching. This process begins the day of launch from the tanking to the vehicle tower clearance. Other debris risks (i.e., Ascent, and micrometeoroid orbital debit) are mentioned) but are not the subject of this presentation. The Liftoff debris systems engineering process and an example of how it works are reviewed (i.e.,STS-119 revealed a bolt liberation trend on the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) 275 level elevator room). The process includes preparation of a Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) that includes (1) Lift-off debris from previous mission dispositioned, (2) Flight acceptance rationale has been provided for Lift-off debris sources/causes (3) Lift-off debris mission support documentation, processes and tools are in place for the up-coming mission. The process includes a liftoff debris data collection that occurs after each launch. This includes a post launch walkdown, that records each liftoff debris, and the entry of the debris into a database, it also includes a review of the imagery from the launch, and a review of the instrumentation data. There is also a review of the debris transport analysis process, that includes temporal and spatial framework and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. which incorporates a debris transport analyses (DTA), debris materials and impact tests, and impact analyses.

  2. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J. C.J.; Franeker, van J.A.; Moloney, C.L.


    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and

  3. Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards, North Mountain, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    Reavis, K. J.; Wasklewicz, T. A.


    Urban sprawl in many western U.S. cities has expanded development onto alluvial fans. In the case of metropolitan Phoenix, AZ (MPA), urban sprawl has led to an exponential outward growth into surrounding mountainous areas and onto alluvial fans. Building on alluvial fans places humans at greater risk to flooding and debris flow hazards. Recent research has shown debris flows often supply large quantities of material to many alluvial fans in MPA. However, the risk of debris flows to built environments is relatively unknown. We use a 2D debris flow modeling approach, aided by high-resolution airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) topographic data, to examine debris flow behavior in a densely populated portion of the MPA to assess the risk and vulnerability of debris flow damage to the built infrastructure. A calibrated 2D debris flow model is developed for a "known" recent debris flow at an undeveloped site in MPA. The calibrated model and two other model scenarios are applied to a populated area with historical evidence of debris flow activity. Results from the modeled scenarios show evidence of debris flow damage to houses built on the alluvial fan. Debris flow inundation is also evident on streets on the fan. We use housing values and building damage to estimate the costs assocaited with various modeled debris flow scenarios.

  4. Uncertainties in Predicting Debris Flow Hazards Following Wildfire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyde, K.D.; Riley, Karin; Stoof, C.R.


    Wildfire increases the probability of debris flows posing hazardous conditions where values-at-risk exist downstream of burned areas. Conditions and processes leading to postfire debris flows usually follow a general sequence defined here as the postfire debris flow hazard cascade: biophysical

  5. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction


    Moro-Martin, Amaya


    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  6. Space Surveillance, Asteroids and Comets, and Space Debris. Volume 3: Space Debris Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naka, R


    .... NASA personnel predicted in 1978 that collisional cascading would be an important source of new orbital debris, possibly before the year 2000, and, as a result, would make low Earth orbits at Space...

  7. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward (United States)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  8. Plastic Debris Is a Human Health Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Leslie, H.A.


    The global threat of highly persistent plastic waste accumulating and fragmenting in the world’s oceans, inland waters and terrestrial environments is becoming increasingly evident.1−3 Humans are being exposed to both plastic particles and chemical additives being released from the plastic debris of

  9. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Francesco


    Full Text Available Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a ‘shear layer’, typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.

  10. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout (United States)

    Federico, Francesco; Cesali, Chiara


    Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model) to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a `shear layer', typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.

  11. Evaluating intensity parameters for debris flow vulnerability (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth


    In mountain regions natural hazard processes such as debris flows or hyper-concentrated flows repeatedly lead to high damages. After an event, detailed documentation of the meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological indicators are standardized, and additional data on debris covering run out areas, indicators for processes velocity and transported volumes are gathered. Information on deposition height of debris is an important parameter to estimate the intensity of the process impacting the buildings and infrastructure and hence to establish vulnerability curves. However, the deposition height of mobilized material in settlements and on infrastructure is mostly not directly evaluated because recovery work starts immediately or even during the event leading to a removal of accumulated material. Different approaches exist to reconstruct deposition heights after torrent events, such as mind mapping, comparison of LIDAR-based DEM before and after the event as well as the reconstruction by using photo documentation and the estimation of deposition heights according to standardised elements at buildings and infrastructure. In our study, these different approaches to estimate deposition height and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material are applied and compared against each other by using the case study of the debris flow event in Brienz (Switzerland) which occurred during the serve flood events of August 2005 in the Alps. Within the analysis, different factors including overall costs and time consumption (manpower, equipment), accuracy and preciseness are compared and evaluated to establish optimal maps of the extent and deposition depth after torrent events and to integrate this information in the vulnerability analysis.

  12. Optical Photometric Observations of GEO Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Horstman, Matt


    We report on a continuing program of optical photometric measurements of faint orbital debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). These observations can be compared with laboratory studies of actual spacecraft materials in an effort to determine what the faint debris at GEO may be. We have optical observations from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile of two samples of debris: 1. GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 t11 magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. 2. A smaller sample of high area to mass ratio (AMR) objects discovered independently, and acquired using predictions from orbits derived from independent tracking data collected days prior to the observations. Our optical observations in standard astronomical BVRI filters are done with either telescope, and with the telescope tracking the debris object at the object's angular rate. Observations in different filters are obtained sequentially. We have obtained 71 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes. A total of 66 of these sequences have 3 or more good measurements in all filters (not contaminated by star streaks or in Earth's shadow). Most of these sequences show brightness variations, but a small subset has observed brightness variations consistent with that expected from observational errors alone. The majority of these stable objects are redder than a solar color in both B-R and R-I. There is no dependence on color with brightness. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and

  13. Photometric Studies of GEO Orbital Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt


    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R=15th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? More than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes for a sample of 50 objects have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the

  14. Assessing the effects of check dams on sediment dynamics in a debris-flow catchment through SfM technique (United States)

    Cucchiaro, Sara; Beinat, Alberto; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Cavalli, Marco; Cazorzi, Federico; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo


    The Moscardo Torrent (eastern Italian Alps) is a small rugged catchment (drainage area 4.1 km2, range in elevation between 890 and 2043 m) frequently affected by debris flows that deliver large amounts of sediment to the receiving stream, and cause concerns for infrastructures located on the alluvial fan and near the confluence. Over the last decades, hydraulic control works were implemented in the main channel to limit bed erosion and to stabilize channel banks. Although the objectives of training works have been only partly achieved, check dams and hillslope stabilization works have affected the sediment transfer from hillslopes to the channels and along the main channel. The effects of hydraulic control works were investigated by means of multi-temporal Structure from Motion (SfM) surveys based on images taken from the ground and UAV. The ground and air based surveys were carried out over a channel reach in which two check dams have recently been built. SfM surveys were taken before and after three debris-flow events (occurred between June and July 2016), allowing the generation of four high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Geomorphic changes caused by the debris-flow events have been assessed in order to produce the DEM of Differences (DoDs with a 0.2 m spatial resolution) that allowed estimating erosion and deposition volumes in the study area. Furthermore a debris-flow monitoring system has been in operation in the Moscardo Torrent; the analysis of the videos and of the hydrographs recorded by ultrasonic sensors permitted to assess the debris-flow volumes. These estimates were used to characterize the magnitude of events in support of the topographic analysis. By examining the changing pattern of erosion and deposition over time it was possible to understand the check dams' effects on sediment dynamics. The results show that the new check dams effectively stored sediment transported by the three debris flows. However, once the check dams have been

  15. Sediment delivery in debris-flow torrents: two case studies in the Italian Alps (United States)

    Bertoldi, Gabriele; Vincenzo, D'Agostino


    stream length of 1.4 km downstream of the source areas. Topographical survey of these cross sections have been repeated periodically regardless the occurrence of rainstorm events, so directly detecting morphological changes and tracks of new flow depths on the banks. To monitor the recharging rates from the hillslopes surrounding the channel, some sediment traps have been also installed in the Rio Rudan and in the Rio Gadria (8 and 6 sediment traps respectively). Thanks to the time comparison of the cross sections under observation a sediment budget was conducted both for successive flood events and/or for silent periods. This budget has been related to morphological, geometric and flow dependent variables in order to detect the forcing and, in case it exists, a trend of the phenomena. The debris recharge of the channels from the directly connected sediment source areas resulted lowly dependent on the rain storms causing debris flows, and more related with the year rainfall, local bank instabilities and failures, which might be amplified by the channel bed moisture before/after the debris-flow occurrence.

  16. Ingestion of marine debris by the White-chinned Petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis): Is it increasing over time off southern Brazil? (United States)

    Petry, Maria V; Benemann, Victória R F


    Seabirds are amongst the most affected organisms by plastic pollution worldwide. Ingestion of marine debris has been reported in at least 122 species, and owing to the increasing global production and persistence of these anthropogenic materials within the marine environment, it is expected to be a growing problem to the marine fauna. Here we report evidence of an increasing frequency in marine debris ingestion and a decrease in the amount of plastic pellets ingested by White-chinned Petrels attending south Brazilian waters during the last three decades. Future studies comprising large temporal scales and large sample sizes are needed to better understand the trends of marine debris ingestion by seabirds. We expect our findings to highlight the need for prevention policies and mitigation measures to reduce the amount of solid litter in the oceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Debris flow cartography using differential GNSS and Theodolite measurements (United States)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Guinau, Marta; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Gloria; Victoriano, Ane; Génova, Mar; Suriñach, Emma


    The presented results form part of a CHARMA project, which pursues a broad objective of reducing damage caused by uncontrolled mass movements, such as rockfalls, snow avalanches and debris flows. Ultimate goal of the project is to contribute towards the establishment of new scientific knowledge and tools that can help in the design and creation of early warning systems. Here we present the specific results that deal with the application of differential GNSS and classical geodetic (e.g. theodolite) methods for mapping debris and torrential flows. Specifically, we investigate the Portainé stream located in the Pallars Sobirà region of Catalonia (Spain), in the eastern Pyrenees. In the last decade more than ten debris-flow type phenomena have affected the region, causing considerable economic losses. Since early 2014, we have conducted several field campaigns within the study area, where we have employed a multi-disciplinary approach, consisting of geomorphological, dendro-chronological and geodetic methods, in order to map the river bed and reconstruct the history of the extreme flooding and debris flow events. Geodetic studies included several approaches, using the classical and satellite based methods. The former consisted of angle and distance measurements between the Geodolite 502 total station and the reflecting prisms placed on top of the control points located within the riverbed. These type of measurements are precise, although present several disadvantages such as the lack of absolute coordinates that makes the geo-referencing difficult, as well as a relatively time-consuming process that involves two persons. For this reason, we have also measured the same control points using the differential GNSS system, in order to evaluate the feasibility of replacing the total station measurements with the GNSS. The latter measuring method is fast and can be conducted by one person. However, the fact that the study area is within the riverbed, often below the trees

  18. Brief communication: Thinning of debris-covered and debris-free glaciers in a warming climate (United States)

    Banerjee, Argha


    Recent geodetic mass-balance measurements reveal similar thinning rates on glaciers with or without debris cover in the Himalaya-Karakoram region. This comes as a surprise as a thick debris cover reduces the surface melting significantly due to its insulating effects. Here we present arguments, supported by results from numerical flowline model simulations of idealised glaciers, that a competition between the changes in the surface mass-balance forcing and that of the emergence/submergence velocities can lead to similar thinning rates on these two types of glaciers. As the climate starts warming, the thinning rate on a debris-covered glacier is initially smaller than that on a similar debris-free glacier. Subsequently, the rate on the debris-covered glacier becomes comparable to and then larger than that on the debris-free one. The time evolution of glacier-averaged thinning rates after an initial warming is strongly controlled by the time variation of the corresponding emergence velocity profile.

  19. The 1980 Polallie Creek debris flow and subsequent dam-break flood, East Fork Hood River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Gallino, Gary L.; Pierson, Thomas C.


    At approximately 9 p.m. on December 25, 1980, intense rainfall and extremely wet antecedent conditions combined to trigger a landslide of approximately 5,000 cubic yards at the head of Polallie Creek Canyon on the northeast flank of Mount Hood. The landslide was transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which surged down the channel at velocities between about 40 and 50 ft/s, eroding and incorporating large volumes of channel fill and uprooted vegetation. When it reached the debris fan at the confluence with the East Fork Hood River, the debris flow deposited approximately 100,000 cubic yards of saturated, poorly sorted debris to a maximum thickness of 35 ft, forming a 750-ft-long temporary dam across the channel. Within approximately 12 minutes, a lake of 85 acre-feet formed behind the blockage, breached the dam, and sent a flood wave down the East Fork Hood River. The combined debris flow and flood resulted in one fatality and over $13 million in damage to a highway, bridges, parks, and a water-supply pipeline. Application of simple momentum- and energy-balance equations, and uniform flow equations resulted in debris flow peak discharges ranging from 50,000 ft3/s to 300,000 ft3/s at different locations in the Polallie Creek Canyon. This wide range is attributed to temporary damming at the boulder- and log-rich flow front in narrow, curving reaches of the channel. When the volume of the solid debris was subtracted out, assuming a minimum peak debris-flow discharge of 100,000 ft3/s at the canyon mouth, a minimum peak-water discharge of 40,000 ft3/s was obtained. A computer dam-break model simulated peak flow for the outbreak flood on the East Fork Hood River in the range of 20,000 to 30,000 ft3/s using various breach shapes and durations of breach between 5 and 15 minutes. A slope conveyance computation 0.25 mi downstream from the dam gave a peak water discharge (solids subtracted out) for the debris-laden flood of 12,000 to 20,000 ft3/s, depending on the channel

  20. 15 CFR 909.1 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and... (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 909.1 Section 909.1 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS MARINE DEBRIS § 909.1 Definition of...

  1. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Roman

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  2. Biographical sketch of a giant: Deciphering recent debris-flow dynamics from the Ohya landslide body (Japanese Alps) (United States)

    Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Trappmann, Daniel; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Ohsaka, Okihiro; Stoffel, Markus


    Debris-flow frequency, discharge, and travel distance are highly catchment dependent and typically controlled by topography, hydrological conditions, and sediment supply. As a consequence, detailed and case-specific investigations are needed to decipher debris-flow histories in order to improve hazard mitigation. This study documents past (ca. 10 years) debris-flow occurrences originating from the Ohya landslide, central Japan, by using a large set of methods including field monitoring, repeat airborne LiDAR, orthophoto interpretation, and tree-ring reconstructions. We demonstrate that the different approaches generally agree on the occurrence of debris flows but that mismatches may exist when it comes to the assessment of areas affected by individual events. These differences may even exceed the usual errors in precision inherent to each of the methods used. In the present case, high-resolution orthophoto interpretation tends to underestimate areas affected by debris flows, especially in the vertical direction, in the absence of lateral movement of the channel bed and as a result of shade and areas under trees. On the other hand, we realize that LiDAR data cannot necessarily be used to distinguish local changes in topography from noise. Tree-ring analyses can help to improve the temporal resolution of the analysis, but may have limitations when it comes to the definition of areas affected by an event because of the point-type nature of data. We conclude that the best and most complete results are obtained by combining multiple methods to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of past debris flows and to delimit areas affected by individual events.

  3. Debris-flow modeling at Meretschibach and Bondasca catchments, Switzerland: sensitivity testing of field-data-based entrainment model (United States)

    Frank, Florian; McArdell, Brian W.; Oggier, Nicole; Baer, Patrick; Christen, Marc; Vieli, Andreas


    Debris-flow volumes can increase due to the incorporation of sediment into the flow as a consequence of channel-bed erosion along the flow path. This study describes a sensitivity analysis of the recently introduced RAMMS (Rapid Mass Movements) debris-flow entrainment model, which is intended to help solve problems related to predicting the runout of debris flows. The entrainment algorithm predicts the depth and rate of erosion as a function of basal shear stress based on an analysis of erosion measurements at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland (Frank et al., 2015). Starting with a landslide-type initiation in the RAMMS model, the volume of entrained sediment was calculated for recent well-documented debris-flow events at the Bondasca and the Meretschibach catchments, Switzerland. The sensitivity to the initial landslide volume was investigated by systematically varying the initial landslide volume and comparing the resulting debris-flow volume with estimates from the field sites. In both cases, the friction coefficients in the RAMMS runout model were calibrated using the model, whereby the entrainment module was (1) inactivated to find plausible values for general flow properties by adjusting both coefficients (ξ and μ) and then (2) activated to further refine coefficient μ, which controls erosion (patterns). The results indicate that the model predicts plausible erosion volumes in comparison with field data. By including bulking due to entrainment in runout models, more realistic runout patterns are predicted in comparison to starting the model with the entire debris-flow volume (initial landslide plus entrained sediment). In particular, lateral bank overflow - not observed during these events - is prevented when using the sediment entrainment model, even in very steep (≈ 60-65 %) and narrow (4-6 m) torrent channels. Predicted sediment entrainment volumes are sensitive to the initial landslide volume, suggesting that the model may be useful for both

  4. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  5. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes (United States)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.


    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased resistance to compaction meaning that the extent of compaction is reduced and the speed of compaction waves are faster. The long-term objective of this

  6. Reading the Signatures of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.


    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris dish around Fomalhaut; probably ma ny other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks --- difficult processes to model simultanemus]y. I will describe new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time, allowing us to decode debris disk images and read the signatures of the planets they contain.

  7. GIS-based cell model for simulating debris flow runout on a fan (United States)

    Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Boreggio, Mauro


    A GIS-based cell model, based on a kinematic approach is proposed to simulate debris flow routing on a fan. The sediment-water mixture is modeled as a monophasic continuum, and the flow pattern is discretized by square cells, 1 m in size, that coincide with the DEM cells. Flow occurs from cells with a higher mixture free surface to those with a lower mixture free surface. A uniform-flow law is used if the elevation of the former cell is higher than that of the latter; otherwise, the flow is simulated using the broad-crested weir law. Erosion and deposition are simulated using an empirical law that is adjusted for a monophasic continuum. The sediment concentration in the routing volume is computed at each time step and controls both erosion and deposition. The cell model is used to simulate a debris flow that occurred on the Rio Lazer (Dolomites, North-Eastern Italian Alps) on November 4th, 1966. Furthermore, the hydrologic and the hydraulic conditions for the initiation of debris flow are simulated, providing the solid-liquid hydrograph of the resulting debris flow. A number of simulations has been carried out with physically reasonable parameters. The results are compared with the extension of the debris-flow deposition area and the map of observed depths of deposited sediments. This comparison shows that the proposed model provides good performance. The analysis of sensitivity carried out by systematically varying the model parameters shows that lower performances are associated with parameter values that are not physically reasonable. The same event is also simulated using a cellular automata model and a finite volume two-dimensional model. The results show that the two models provide a sediment deposition pattern less accurate than that provided by the present cell model.

  8. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher


    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  9. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow]. (United States)

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu


    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow.

  10. Rendimiento de los productos del proceso de pirólisis en lecho fijo de los residuos de naranja del proceso de obtención de jugos concentrados en la provincia de Pinar del Río, Cuba. // Yields in pirolysis process in fixed bed of solid residues of orange i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aguiar-Trujillo


    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Pinar Río en Cuba, existe un residuo de la biomasa, como son los residuos sólidosde naranja del proceso de obtención de jugos concentrados. Este desecho se podría transformarpor medio de un proceso termoquímico, como es la pirólisis. No se han encontrado datos en laliteratura acerca del comportamiento de la pirólisis de este tipo de biomasa, que se utilizanormalmente para la comida animal. En este trabajo, se ha estudiado el proceso de pirólisis deestos residuos, realizando experimentos en un reactor de lecho fijo a escala de laboratorio. Elproducto obtenido (carbón, gas y el alquitrán y la composición de la distribución de los gases hansido obtenidas para diferentes tamaños de partículas (menores a 300 micrómetros y mayores a 800micrómetros y temperaturas del proceso 3000, 4500 y 6000 C.Los resultados fundamentales que se obtienen:Rendimiento a carbón oscila entre 25 y 35 %, Rendimiento a gas oscilan entre 21 y 29 %,Rendimiento a alquitrán entre 5 y 9 %. Los gases fundamentales que se obtienen en el proceso son:H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C2H2, con una energía máxima entregada entre 150 y 1000 Kcal.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn Pinar del Río, Cuba, a residue of the biomass exists, such as the solid residues of orange in theconcentrated juices process. This waste would be able to transform through a termo-chemicalprocess, such as in the pirolysis in fixed bed. No data in the literature about the behavior of thepirolysis of this type of biomass have been found, which is employed normally for animal feeding.In this work we has been study the pirolysis process in fixed bed of early residues, carrying outexperiments in a reactor of fixed bed to scale of laboratory. The product obtained (coal, gas andthe tar and the composition of distribution of gases, they have been obtained for different sizes ofparticles (smaller to 300 micrometers and greater to

  11. Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans. (United States)

    Baulch, Sarah; Perry, Clare


    Global in its distribution and pervading all levels of the water column, marine debris poses a serious threat to marine habitats and wildlife. For cetaceans, ingestion or entanglement in debris can cause chronic and acute injuries and increase pollutant loads, resulting in morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge of the severity of effects lags behind that for other species groups. This literature review examines the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans reported to date. It finds that ingestion of debris has been documented in 48 (56% of) cetacean species, with rates of ingestion as high as 31% in some populations. Debris-induced mortality rates of 0-22% of stranded animals were documented, suggesting that debris could be a significant conservation threat to some populations. We identify key data that need to be collected and published to improve understanding of the threat that marine debris poses to cetaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-organization criticality of debris flow rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuyi; JAN Chyandeng; CHEN Xiaoqing; HAN Wenliang


    Based on the viewpoint of stress and strain self-organization criticality of debris flow mass, this paper probes into inter-nonlinear action between different factors in the thixotropic liquefaction system of loose clastic soil onslope to make clastic soil in slope develop naturally towards critical stress status, and slope debris flow finally occurs under trigging by rainstorm. Also according to observation and analysis of self-organization criticality of sedimentrunoff system of viscous debris flow surges in ravines and power relation between magnitude and frequency of debris flows, this paper expounds similarity of the self-organized structure of debris flow mass. The self-organized critical system is a weak chaotic system. Debris flow occurrences can be predicted accordingly by means of observation at certain time scale and analysis of self-organization criticality of magnitude, frequency and time interval of debris flows.

  13. Superelevation Calculation of Debris Flow Climbing Ascending Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiXin Zhao


    Full Text Available We present a new method for calculating the superelevation of debris flow when it encounters obstacles in the process of flowing. Our calculation method is based on the Bingham Model for debris flow determination and considers the vertical difference of debris flow velocity and characteristic parameters of debris flow on a hypothetical basis. Moreover, we conducted an indoor flume experiment to verify the accuracy and reasonability of our calculation method. The experimental results showed that our method is able to accurately calculate the superelevation of debris flow with a root-mean-square error (16%. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth example of how our calculation method can be employed. Ultimately, we conclusively prove that our calculation method can be used for the superelevation calculation of debris flow climbing ascending slopes. Finally, we provide more exact parameters for debris flow protection engineering.

  14. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway. (United States)

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J


    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  15. Change in snow avalanche and debris flow hazards in the region of Krasnaya Polyana as the result of anthropogenic activity (United States)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Seliverstov, Y. G.; Sokratov, S. A.; Koltermann, K. P.


    The first evaluations of the snow avalanches and debris flow danger in the region of Krasnaya Polyana (Winter Olympic Games 2014 site) were made by the staff of LSADF in 1960s. In those times the danger was estimated as medium and low. Active development of the region started in 2000, when the ski (mountain climatic health) resort Alpika Service was constructed at the north slope of Aibga mountain range. Then the Alpine resorts Rosa Khutor and Gornaya Karusel [Mountain Carousel] were put into operation on the same slope. OAO Gazprom was also developing its own ski resort at the neighbouring Psekhako ridge. As the result of deforestation the quantity of small snow avalanches increased on the Aibga slopes. Skiers were caught several times by avalanches initiated by them in the reported avalanche events. The construction of ski runs, motorways, roads, as well as building of other related infrastructure has resulted in considerable change in relief. The sediment capping was dumped into stream canals, which resulted in the formation of debris flows, threatening the infrastructure of the ski resorts. The relief change related to the on going Olympic constructions is especially pronounced, when newly formed landfilling on some slopes becomes the material for landslides and debris flows and beds for avalanches. Thus, the degree of snow avalanche and debris flows danger increased considerably in the recent years, requiring originally unplanned mitigation measures.

  16. Incidence of Debris Discs Around FGK Stars in the Solar Neighbourhood (United States)

    Montesinos, B.; Eiroa, C.; Krivov, A. V.; Marshall, J. P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Liseau, R.; Mora, A.; Maldonado, J.; Wolf, S.; Ertel, S.; hide


    Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their counterparts in the solar system are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims. The aim of this paper is to provide robust numbers for the incidence of debris discs around FGK stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods. The full sample of 177 FGK stars with d approx. less than 20 pc proposed for the DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES) survey is presented. Herschel/PACS observations at 100 and 160 micrometers were obtained, and were complemented in some cases with data at 70 micrometers and at 250, 350, and 500 micrometer SPIRE photometry. The 123 objects observed by the DUNES collaboration were presented in a previous paper. The remaining 54 stars, shared with the Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in IR and Sub-mm (DEBRIS) consortium and observed by them, and the combined full sample are studied in this paper. The incidence of debris discs per spectral type is analyzed and put into context together with other parameters of the sample, like metallicity, rotation and activity, and age. Results. The subsample of 105 stars with d approx. less than 15 pc containing 23 F, 33 G, and 49 K stars is complete for F stars, almost complete for G stars, and contains a substantial number of K stars from which we draw solid conclusions on objects of this spectral type. The incidence rates of debris discs per spectral type are 0.26(+0.21/-0.14) (6 objects with excesses out of 23 F stars), 0.21(+0.17/-0.11) (7 out of 33 G stars), and 0.20(+0.14/-0.09) (10 out of 49 K stars); the fraction for all three spectral types together is 0.22(+0.08/-0.07) (23 out of 105 stars).The uncertainties correspond to a 95 confidence level. The medians of the upper limits of L(sub dust)/L(sub *) for each spectral type are 7.8 x 10(exp -7) (F), 1.4 x 10(exp -6) (G), and 2.2 x 10(exp -6) (K); the lowest values are around 4.0 x 10(exp -7). The incidence of debris

  17. Hexahedral modular bioreactor for solid state bioprocesses


    Cunha, Daniele Colembergue da; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Costa,Jorge Alberto Vieira


    The design of a modular bioreactor for solid state fermentation is a promising development because it keeps the homogeneity of the bed at optimal levels. This study determines the optimum geometry of elementary modules of hexahedral bioreactors subjected to constant volume. The bioreactors have a square section and do not need an external cooling system, because the optimization limits the temperature of the bed to 35 C. The geometric optimization followed the Constructal principle o...

  18. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.


    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  19. Modeling of fuel mixing in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Pallares; Filip Johnsson [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment


    This paper presents a three-dimensional model for fuel mixing in fluidized bed combustors. The model accounts for mixing patterns which were experimentally shown to govern mixing in risers with geometry and operational conditions representative for furnaces in fluidized bed combustors. The mixing process is modeled for three different solid phases in the furnace and the model, which includes the return leg, can be applied both under bubbling and circulating regimes. The semi-empirical basis of the model was previously validated in different large-scale fluidized bed combustors and is combined with a model for fuel particle conversion to obtain the fuel concentration field. Model results are compared with experimental data from the Chalmers 12 MW{sub th} CFB combustor, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  20. Community Based Warning and Evacuation System against Debris Flow in the Upper Jeneberang River, Gowa, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Hardjosuwarno


    field and sand mining. It was also resulted that at the elevation of 700 m to the upper stream, the arrival time of debris flow is too short (< 3 minutes, it means that there is no time to evacuate when debris flow occurs. There are enough time to evacuate along the reaches between 700 m to 390 m and more time to evacuate along the downstream of 390 m river bed elevation due to the longer arrival time of debris flow. The existing community based warning system against debris flow uses radio transceiver to communicate between post and uses kentongan and sirens to propagate the warning message to inhabitants. Based on the sound test conducted in Jeneberang River, the manual siren has a coverage of 160 m to 600 m and it can be used in the warning system, being co-existence with the kentongan which has been used for a long time. In order to keep the community based warning system well functioned, it is recommended to synergize between the Local Government of Gowa Regency and the other stake holders with the inhabitants along Jeneberang River and the Sabo Community of Jeneberang in the operation and maintenance of the system.

  1. The Influence of an EPS Concrete Buffer Layer Thickness on Debris Dams Impacted by Massive Stones in the Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Yu


    Full Text Available The failure of debris dams impacted by the massive stones in a debris flow represents a difficult design problem. Reasonable materials selection and structural design can effectively improve the resistance impact performance of debris dams. Based on the cushioning properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS concrete, EPS concrete as a buffer layer poured on the surface of a rigid debris dam was proposed. A three-dimensional numerical calculation model of an EPS concrete buffer layer/rigid debris dam was established. The single-factor theory revealed change rules for the thickness of the buffer layer concerning the maximal impact force of the rigid debris dam surface through numerical simulation. Moreover, the impact force-time/history curves under different calculation conditions for the rigid debris dam surface were compared. Simulation results showed that the EPS concrete buffer layer can not only effectively extend the impact time of massive stones affecting the debris dam but also reduce the impact force of the rigid debris dam caused by massive stones in the debris flow. The research results provide theoretical guidance for transferring the energy of the massive stone impact, creating a structural design and optimizing debris dams.

  2. Resolved granular debris-flow simulations with a coupled SPH-DCDEM model (United States)

    Birjukovs Canelas, Ricardo; Domínguez, José M.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    Debris flows represent some of the most relevant phenomena in geomorphological events. Due to the potential destructiveness of such flows, they are the target of a vast amount of research (Takahashi, 2007 and references therein). A complete description of the internal processes of a debris-flow is however still an elusive achievement, explained by the difficulty of accurately measuring important quantities in these flows and developing a comprehensive, generalized theoretical framework capable of describing them. This work addresses the need for a numerical model applicable to granular-fluid mixtures featuring high spatial and temporal resolution, thus capable of resolving the motion of individual particles, including all interparticle contacts. This corresponds to a brute-force approach: by applying simple interaction laws at local scales the macro-scale properties of the flow should be recovered by upscaling. This methodology effectively bypasses the complexity of modelling the intermediate scales by resolving them directly. The only caveat is the need of high performance computing, a demanding but engaging research challenge. The DualSPHysics meshless numerical implementation, based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is expanded with a Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) in order to explicitly solve the fluid and the solid phase. The model numerically solves the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the liquid phase and Newton's motion equations for solid bodies. The interactions between solids are modelled with classical DEM approaches (Kruggel-Emden et al, 2007). Among other validation tests, an experimental set-up for stony debris flows in a slit check dam is reproduced numerically, where solid material is introduced trough a hopper assuring a constant solid discharge for the considered time interval. With each sediment particle undergoing tens of possible contacts, several thousand time-evolving contacts are efficiently treated

  3. Reactive Gas Solids Flow in Circulating Fluidised Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertager, Bjørn Helge; Solberg, Tron; Hansen, Kim Granly


    Progress in modelling and simulation of flow processes in gas/particle systems carried out at the authors? research group are presented. Emphasis is given to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that use the multi-dimensional multi fluid techniques. Turbulence modelling strategies for gas....../particle flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows are given. Sub models for the interfacial transfer processes and chemical kinetics modelling are presented. Examples are shown for several gas/particle systems including flow in risers, segregation by size and reacting systems....

  4. Micrometeoroid/space debris effects on materials (United States)

    Zwiener, James M.; Finckenor, Miria M.


    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) micrometeoroid/space debris impact data has been reduced in terms that are convenient for evaluating the overall quantitative effect on material properties. Impact crater flux has been evaluated as a function of angle from velocity vector and as a function of crater size. This data is combined with spall data from flight and ground testing to calculate effective solar absorption and emittance values versus time. Results indicate that the surface damage from micrometeoroid/space debris does not significantly affect the overall surface optical thermal physical properties. Of course the local damage around impact craters radically alter optical properties. Damage to composites and solar cells on an overall basis was minimal.


    Chen, Cheng-lung


    The earliest model developed by R. A. Bagnold was based on the concept of the 'dispersive' pressure generated by grain collisions. Some efforts have recently been made by theoreticians in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics to modify or improve Bagnold's concept or model. A viable rheological model should consist both of a rate-independent part and a rate-dependent part. A generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model that has both parts as well as two major rheological properties (i. e. , the normal stress effect and soil yield criterion) is shown to be sufficiently accurate, yet practical for general use in debris-flow modeling. In fact, Bagnold's model is found to be only a particular case of the GVF model. analytical solutions for (steady) uniform debris flows in wide channels are obtained from the GVF model based on Bagnold's simplified assumption of constant grain concentration.

  6. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge


    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  7. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Rheinberger


    Full Text Available Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  8. Deployable Debris Shields For Space Station (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Cour-Palais, Burton G.; Crews, Jeanne


    Multilayer shields made of lightweight sheet materials deployed from proposed Space Station Freedom for additional protection against orbiting debris. Deployment mechanism attached at each location on exterior where extra protection needed. Equipment withdraws layer of material from storage in manner similar to unfurling sail or extending window shade. Number of layers deployed depends on required degree of protection, and could be as large as five.

  9. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil


    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  10. Plastic debris in the open ocean


    Cózar, A. (Andrés); Echevarria, F. (Fidel); González-Gordillo, J.I. (Juan Ignacio); Irigoien, X. (Xabier); Úbeda, B. (Bárbara); Hernández-León, S. (Santiago); Palma, A.T. (Álvaro T.); Navarro, S. (Sandra); García-de-Lomas, J. (Juan); Ruiz, A. (Andrea); Fernández-de-Puelles, M.L. (María Luz); Duarte, C.M. (Carlos M.)


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. Howeve...

  11. Orbital Debris: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Stansbery, Gene; Johnson, Nicholas


    In the early days of spaceflight, the gBig Sky h theory was the near universally accepted paradigm for dealing with collisions of orbiting objects. This theory was also used during the early years of the aviation industry. Just as it did in aviation, the gBig Sky h theory breaks down as more and more objects accumulate in the environment. Fortunately, by the late 1970 fs some visionaries in NASA and the US Department of Defense (DoD) realized that trends in the orbital environment would inevitably lead to increased risks to operational spacecraft from collisions with other orbiting objects. The NASA Orbital Debris Program was established at and has been conducted at Johnson Space Center since 1979. At the start of 1979, fewer than 5000 objects were being tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and very few attempts had been made to sample the environment for smaller sizes. Today, the number of tracked objects has quadrupled. Ground ]based and in situ measurements have statistically sampled the LEO environment over most sizes and mitigation guidelines and requirements are common among most space faring nations. NASA has been a leader, not only in defining the debris environment, but in promoting awareness of the issues in the US and internationally, and in providing leadership in developing policies to address the issue. This paper will discuss in broad terms the evolution of the NASA debris program from its beginnings to its present broad range of debris related research. The paper will discuss in some detail current research topics and will attempt to predict future research trends.

  12. Visible Light Spectroscopy of GEO Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.


    Our goal is to understand the physical characteristics of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Our approach is to compare the observed reflectance as a function of wavelength with laboratory measurements of typical spacecraft surfaces to understand what the materials are likely to be. Because debris could be irregular in shape and tumbling at an unknown rate, rapid simultaneous measurements over a range of wavelengths are required. Acquiring spectra of optically faint objects with short exposure times to minimize these effects requires a large telescope. We describe optical spectroscopy obtained during 12-14 March 2012 with the IMACS imaging spectrograph on the 6.5-m 'Walter Baade' Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. When used in f/2 imaging mode for acquisition, this instrument has a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. After acquisition and centering of a GEO object, a 2.5 arc-second wide slit and a grism are moved into the beam for spectroscopy. We used a 200 l/mm grism blazed at 660 nm for wavelength coverage in the 500-900 nm region. Typical exposure times for spectra were 15-30 seconds. Spectra were obtained for five objects in the GEO regime listed as debris in the US Space Command public catalog, and one high area to mass ratio GEO object. In addition spectra were obtained of three cataloged IDCSP (Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program) satellites with known initial properties just below the GEO regime. All spectra were calibrated using white dwarf flux standards and solar analog stars. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris spectroscopy, and our initial results.

  13. Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Qun


    Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the SPI and peak discharge in the basin increased after a recurrence of debris flow. The TWI was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and indicated higher potential of landslide initiation when the slope of the basin was steeper. The HI revealed that the basin was in its mature stage and was shifting toward the old stage. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the parameters' mean depth, maximum depth, affected area, mean flow rate, maximum flow rate, and peak flow discharge were increased after recurrent debris flow, and peak discharge occurred quickly.

  14. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber


    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  15. Plastic debris in the open ocean (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean. PMID:24982135

  16. Space debris detection in optical image sequences. (United States)

    Xi, Jiangbo; Wen, Desheng; Ersoy, Okan K; Yi, Hongwei; Yao, Dalei; Song, Zongxi; Xi, Shaobo


    We present a high-accuracy, low false-alarm rate, and low computational-cost methodology for removing stars and noise and detecting space debris with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in optical image sequences. First, time-index filtering and bright star intensity enhancement are implemented to remove stars and noise effectively. Then, a multistage quasi-hypothesis-testing method is proposed to detect the pieces of space debris with continuous and discontinuous trajectories. For this purpose, a time-index image is defined and generated. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect space debris effectively without any false alarms. When the SNR is higher than or equal to 1.5, the detection probability can reach 100%, and when the SNR is as low as 1.3, 1.2, and 1, it can still achieve 99%, 97%, and 85% detection probabilities, respectively. Additionally, two large sets of image sequences are tested to show that the proposed method performs stably and effectively.

  17. Plastic debris in the open ocean. (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ubeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Alvaro T; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L; Duarte, Carlos M


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  18. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Cozar, Andres


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  19. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  20. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  1. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips (United States)

    ... full year without tearing. 5. Regularly wash and heat-dry your bed sheets, blankets, bedspreads and any clothing ... and very high temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work ...

  2. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk


    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  3. Print a Bed Bug Card (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  4. The West Elk Breccia: Evidence of a Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanche in the Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, USA (United States)

    Whalen, P. J.; Ettensohn, F. R.


    The West Elk Breccia of the Gunnison River Valley in west-central Colorado is an Oligocene diamictite ascribed to a lahar origin by previous workers. In contrast, our work suggests that one or more volcanic debris avalanches that transformed to debris flows are a more likely depositional mechanism in the eastern Gunnison River valley and tributaries. We examined deposits over an area of 250 km2 for sedimentological and stratigraphic evidence of depositional mechanisms and flow rheology. Large blocks, or megaclasts, of stratified volcaniclastic deposits, which retain original stratigraphy, can be found over 30 km from the likely source volcano in a tuffaceous stream-gravel conglomerate. The most proximal conglomerate probably represents the transition from debris avalanche to debris flow as the initial avalanche bulked up and dilated during entry into the local drainage basins of the ancient Gunnison River and its tributaries. Mono-lithologic breccia beds of proximal deposits, almost entirely surrounded by the tuffaceous conglomerate, may represent megaclasts that dip at angles greater than normal stream gradient (up to 50 degrees or more with no thickening or thinning of beds). Some beds in distal deposits (>20 km from the source) show graded bedding and inverse grading, indicative of deposition by lahars; others contain breadcrust bombs, typically the product of dome collapse and block-and-ash flows. Jigsaw fracturing of individual clasts and megaclasts are further evidence of debris avalanche emplacement. Conversely, beds in proximal locations, which represent the steepest slopes of the ancient volcano, show sub-horizontal bedding of andesite and basaltic andesite. The presence of megaclasts is difficult to determine greater than 30 km from the source, and exposures are sparse in the most distal deposits, about 40 km from the source. Field observations and comparisons with Quaternary events suggest that the West Elk Breccia probably represents a series of sector

  5. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal. (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    a flux-splitting technique with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver and appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. Additionally, STAV-2D features Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling enabling solid transport simulation under both continuum and discrete approaches, and has been validated with both laboratory data and paleo-tsunami evidence (Conde, 2013a; Conde, 2013b). The interactions between the inundating flow and coal stockpiles or natural mobile bed reaches were simulated using a continuum debris-flow approach, featuring fractional solid transport, while the containers at the new terminal were advected with an explicit Lagrangian method. The meshwork employed at the port models the existing geometry and structures in great detail, enabling explicitly resolved interactions between the current infrastructure and the overland propagating tsunami. The obtained preliminary results suggest that several structures, some of them critical in a nationwide context, are exposed to tsunami actions. The coal deposition pattern and the final location of monitored containers were determined for two magnitude scenarios (8.5 Mw and 9.5 Mw) in the case of a tsunami generated at the Horseshoe fault and one magnitude scenario (9.5 Mw) for a tsunami generated at the Gorringe bank. The inland washing of the coal stockpiles may impose great loss of both economical and environmental value, while the impact of large mobile debris, such as the containers in the terminal area, significantly increases the severity of infrastructural damage. Acknowledgements This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012. References Baptista M.A. & Miranda, J.M. (2009), Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42. Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013), Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam

  6. Air Distributor Designs for Fluidized Bed Combustors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shukrie


    Full Text Available Fluidized bed combustion (FBC has been recognized as one of the suitable technologies for converting a wide variety of biomass fuels into energy. One of the key factors affecting the successful operation of fluidized bed combustion is its distributor plate design. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to provide a critical overview of the published studies that are relevant to the characteristics of different fluidized bed air distributor designs. The review of available works display that the type of distributor design significantly affects the operation of the fluidized bed i.e., performance characteristics, fluidization quality, air flow dynamics, solid pattern and mixing caused by the direction of air flow through the distributors. Overall it is observed that high pressure drop across the distributor is one of the major draw backs of the current distributor designs. However, fluidization was stable in a fluidized bed operated at a low perforation ratio distributor due to the pressure drop across the distributor, adequate to provide uniform gas distribution. The swirling motion produced by the inclined injection of gas promotes lateral dispersion and significantly improves fluidization quality. Lastly, the research gaps are highlighted for future improvement consideration on the development of efficient distributor designs.

  7. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of solid propellants. 420.65 Section 420.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... from the closest debris or explosive hazard source in an explosive hazard facility. ...

  8. Comprehensive Shuttle Foam Debris Reduction Strategies (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.


    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was clear in its assessment of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 3, 2003. Foam liberated from the External Tank (ET) impacting the brittle wing leading edge (WLE) of the orbiter causing the vehicle to disintegrate upon re-entry. Naturally, the CAB pointed out numerous issues affecting this exact outcome in hopes of correcting systems of systems failures any one of which might have altered the outcome. However, Discovery s recent return to flight (RTF) illustrates the primacy of erosion of foam and the risk of future undesirable outcomes. It is obvious that the original RTF focused approach to this problem was not equal to a comprehensive foam debris reduction activity consistent with the high national value of the Space Shuttle assets. The root cause is really very simple when looking at the spray-on foam insulation for the entire ET as part of the structure (e.g., actual stresses > materials allowable) rather than as some sort of sizehime limited ablator. This step is paramount to accepting the CAB recommendation of eliminating debris or in meeting any level of requirements due to the fundamental processes ensuring structural materials maintain their integrity. Significant effort has been expended to identify root cause of the foam debris In-Flight Anomaly (FA) of STS-114. Absent verifiable location specific data pre-launch (T-0) and in-flight, only a most probable cause can be identified. Indeed, the literature researched corroborates NASNTM-2004-2 13238 disturbing description of ill defined materials characterization, variable supplier constituents and foam processing irregularities. Also, foam is sensitive to age and the exposed environment making baseline comparisons difficult without event driven data. Conventional engineering processes account for such naturally occurring variability by always maintaining positive margins. Success in a negative margin range is not consistently achieved

  9. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild G.


    Full Text Available While most catalytic fixed bed gas-liquid reactors of the petrol industry work at quite high pressures, the academic scientific work in this field concerned itself almost exclusively with the domain of approximatively atmospheric pressures. The authors present the results of some years of experimental investigations on the hydrodynamic characteristics of trickle bed reactors and lately of cocurrent upflow reactors. During the last years, results were also obtained under pressures up to 8 MPa. The measurements were made in a small scale cold flow equipment (diameter 23 mm. Different aqueous and organic more or less viscous, eventually coalescence inhibiting liquids, four gases and a number of non porous more or less wettable particles were used. The liquid holdup was determined in all cases by measuring liquid phase residence time distribution by different tracers. The following conclusions may be drawn:(a In the high interaction regime, it is the inertia of the gas and the liquid phases which is the main cause of the dissipation of mechanical energy. In this regime, results obtained in cocurrent upflow and downflow are approximately equal. (b Most correlations of literature are unable to predict the effect of pressure on the pressure drop or the liquid holdup. (c The gas viscosity has no influence on the hydrodynamics. It is therefore possible to simulate for example hydrogen under high pressure conditions by another gas of the same density (at a much lower pressures. A critical evaluation of the correlations and/or models of literature is presented, concerning their ability to represent the different characteristics as a function of pressure. Tandis que la plupart des réacteurs industriels gaz-liquide à lit de catalyseur fixe fonctionnent à assez hautes pressions, les travaux scientifiques académiques sont, dans ce domaine, presque exclusivement consacrés aux pressions avoisinant la pression atmosphérique. Les auteurs présentent les r

  10. Orbital Debris: the Growing Threat to Space Operations (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    For nearly 50 years the amount of man-made debris in Earth orbit steadily grew, accounting for about 95% of all cataloged space objects over the past few decades. The Chinese anti-satellite test in January 2007 and the accidental collision of two spacecraft in February 2009 created more than 4000 new cataloged debris, representing an increase of 40% of the official U.S. Satellite Catalog. The frequency of collision avoidance maneuvers for both human space flight and robotic operations is increasing along with the orbital debris population. However, the principal threat to space operations is driven by the smaller and much more numerous uncataloged debris. Although the U.S. and the international aerospace communities have made significant progress in recognizing the hazards of orbital debris and in reducing or eliminating the potential for the creation of new debris, the future environment is expected to worsen without additional corrective measures.

  11. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.


    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  12. Quantifying Stream Bed Gravel Mobility from Friction Angle Measurements (United States)

    Meyers, M. A.; Dunne, T.


    A method to measure friction angles using force gauges was field tested to determine its utility at quantifying critical shear stress in a gravel bedded reach of the San Joaquin River in California. Predictions of mobility from friction angles were compared with observations of the movement of tagged particles from locations for which local shear stress was quantified with a validated 2-D flow model. The observations of movement, distance of travel, and location of the end of travel were made after extended flow releases from Friant dam. Determining the critical shear stress for gravel bed material transport currently depends upon bedload sampling or tracer studies. Often, such measurements can only be made during occasional and untimely flow events, and at limited, suboptimal locations. Yet, theoretical studies conclude that the friction angle is an important control on the critical shear stress for mobility of any grain size, and therefore of the excess shear stress which strongly influences bedload transport rate. The ability to predict bed mobility at ungauged and unmonitored locations is also an important requirement for planning of flow regimes and channel design. Therefore, a method to measure friction angles that can be performed quickly in low flow conditions would prove useful for river management and research. To investigate this promising method friction angle surveys were performed at two riffle sites where differences in bed material size and distribution, and channel slope were observed. The friction angle surveys are sensitive enough to detect differences between the sites as well as spatially and temporally within a single riffle. Low friction angles were observed along the inside of a long bend where sand content was greater (by ~20%) than other surveyed locations. Friction angles decreased slightly after a depositional event associated with transient large woody debris and bank erosion, and increased again after a 5 year return interval flow

  13. Solids flow mapping in gas-solid risers (United States)

    Bhusarapu, Satish Babu

    Gas-solid risers are extensively used in many industrial processes for gas-solid reactions (e.g. coal combustion and gasification) and for solid catalyzed gas phase reactions (e.g. fluid catalytic cracking, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride). Ab initio prediction of the complex multiphase fluid dynamics in risers is not yet possible, which makes reactor modeling difficult. In particular, quantification of solids flow and mixing is important. Almost all the experimental techniques used to characterize solids flow lead to appreciable errors in measured variables in large scale, high mass flux systems. In addition, none of the experimental techniques provide all the relevant data required to develop a satisfactory solids flow model. In this study, non-invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) is employed to visualize and quantify the solids dynamics and mixing in the gas-solid riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). A single radioactive tracer particle is monitored during its multiple visits to the riser and with an assumption of ergodicity, the following flow parameters are estimated: (a) Overall solids mass flux in the CFB loop. (b) Solids residence time distribution in the riser and down-comer. (c) Lagrangian and Eulerian solids velocity fields in a fully-developed section of the riser. This includes velocity fluctuations and components of the diffusivity tensor. The existing CARPT technique is extended to large scale systems. A new algorithm, based on a cross-correlation search, is developed for position rendition from CARPT data. Two dimensional solids holdup profiles are estimated using gamma-ray computed tomography. The image quality from the tomography data is improved by implementing an alternating minimization algorithm. This work establishes for the first time a reliable database for local solids dynamic quantities such as time-averaged velocities, Reynolds stresses, eddy diffusivities and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition

  14. Numerical simulation of a full-loop circulating fluidized bed under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yupeng [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Musser, Jordan M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); AECOM, Morgantown, WV (United States); Rogers, William A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Both experimental and computational studies of the fluidization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles in a small-scale full-loop circulating fluidized bed are conducted. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are taken at different locations along the bed. The solids circulation rate is measured with an advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The bed height of the quasi-static region in the standpipe is also measured. Comparative numerical simulations are performed with a Computational Fluid Dynamics solver utilizing a Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM). This paper reports a detailed and direct comparison between CFD-DEM results and experimental data for realistic gas-solid fluidization in a full-loop circulating fluidized bed system. The comparison reveals good agreement with respect to system component pressure drop and inventory height in the standpipe. In addition, the effect of different drag laws applied within the CFD simulation is examined and compared with experimental results.

  15. An Imaging System for Satellite Hypervelocity Impact Debris Characterization (United States)


    Debris Program Office and the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center. 8. REFERENCES 1. Osiander, R., and Ostdiek, P., “Introduction to Space ... Debris ,” Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology, and Heritage, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009, pp. 363-379. 2. Englert, C., et al., “Optical...An Imaging System for Satellite Hypervelocity Impact Debris Characterization Matthew Moraguez, Dr. Kunal Patankar University of Florida Dr

  16. An Optical Navigation System for Capturing Space Debris (United States)


    System for Capturing Space Debris Shin-Ichiro Nishida 1 , Maroi Kodama 1 and Naohiko Kikuchi 2 1 Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami...steadily increasing, space debris , if left unchecked, will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities and so effective measures to...mitigate it are becoming urgent. The active removal of space debris and the retrieval of failed satellites by spacecraft are the most effective

  17. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches


    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji


    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth?s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with ...

  18. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles


    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy


    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prev...

  19. Can we reduce debris flow to an equivalent one-phase flow? (United States)

    Chareyre, B.; Marzougui, D.; Chauchat, J.


    A recent extension of the discrete element method is reported for the simulation of dense mixtures of non-colloidal particles and viscous fluids in the non-inertial regime. As an application, we examine the interplay between rate dependent dilatancy and hydro-mechanical coupling which can be expected in debris flow. The numerical model includes sphere-sphere contacts using a soft contact approach [2], short range hydrodynamic interactions defined by frame-invariant expressions of forces and torques in the lubrication approximation, and drag forces resulting from the poromechanical coupling computed with the DEM-PFV technique [3]. The bulk shear stress is decomposed into contact stress and hydrodynamic stress. Both contributions are shown to be increasing functions of a dimensionless shear rate Iv, in agreement with experimental results [4]. Statistics of microstructural variables highlight a complex interplay between solid contacts and hydrodynamic interactions. In contrast with a popular idea, the results suggest that lubrication may not necessarily reduce the contribution of contact forces to the bulk shear stress. The proposed model is general and applies directly to sheared satured granular media in which pore pressure feedback plays a key role. We argue that it can be the case for debris fow, especially during the triggering phase, when run-out include transitional phases, and when the flow is stopped. It is then concluded that debris cannot be computed by assuming solely the rheological properties of an equivalent mixture.

  20. Reentry trajectory and survivability estimation of small space debris with catalytic recombination (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hyeon; Park, Gisu


    A code has been developed to analyze reentry trajectories and survivability of space debris. In particular, an attention was given to small sizes. Based on simple shapes such as a sphere, a cylinder, and a box with sizes of 12.5-50 cm, reentry trajectories were calculated. Materials considered were graphite epoxy, aluminum, and titanium. In total, 120 different cases were examined. The results were compared and validated with various existing codes. Good agreement was found. In the heat transfer calculation, all of the existing codes used the well known Lees' and Fay and Riddell's formulae which assume an equilibrium boundary layer flow with a super-catalytic wall where the surface recombination efficiency is regarded infinity. In the case of small space debris having sizes of 2.5-10 cm, however, the flow residence time behind a shock wave is far too short, so that the super-catalytic assumption leads to over-estimation of surface heat transfer rates. Assuming a frozen boundary layer, a finite catalytic recombination can be considered and the results were compared with that of the super-catalytic cases. Both hollow and solid spheres were considered with different sizes and materials. In total, 24 different cases were examined. The results showed that, 16 out of 24 cases survived, while only 8 cases for the super-catalytic and 19 cases for the non-catalytic walls survived, implying the importance of catalytic wall effects for the study of small space debris.

  1. Experimental study of single-phase pressure drops in coarse particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavier, R., E-mail: [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chikhi, N., E-mail: [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fichot, F., E-mail: [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Quintard, M., E-mail: [Université de Toulouse, Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS, Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); IMFT (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)


    Motivated by uncertainty reduction in nuclear debris beds coolability, experiments have been conducted on the CALIDE facility in order to investigate single-phase pressure losses in representative debris beds, i.e., high sphericity (>80%) particle beds with small size dispersion (from 1 mm to 10 mm), for which no validated model exists. In this paper, experimental results are presented and analyzed in order to identify a simple correlation for single-phase flow pressure losses generated in this kind of porous media in reflooding flowing conditions, which cover Darcy to weakly turbulent regimes. In the literature, it has been observed that their behavior can be accurately described by a Darcy–Forchheimer law, involving the sum of a linear term and a quadratic non-linear deviation, with respect to the filtration velocity. Expressions for the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined by assessing the possibility to evaluate equivalent diameters, i.e., characteristic lengths allowing correct predictions of the linear and quadratic terms by the Ergun equation. It has been observed that the Sauter diameter of particles allows a very precise prediction of the linear term, while the quadratic term can be predicted using the product of the Sauter diameter and a sphericity coefficient as an equivalent diameter.

  2. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet stop...

  3. Procedures for analysis of debris relative to Space Shuttle systems (United States)

    Kim, Hae Soo; Cummings, Virginia J.


    Debris samples collected from various Space Shuttle systems have been submitted to the Microchemical Analysis Branch. This investigation was initiated to develop optimal techniques for the analysis of debris. Optical microscopy provides information about the morphology and size of crystallites, particle sizes, amorphous phases, glass phases, and poorly crystallized materials. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry is utilized for information on surface morphology and qualitative elemental content of debris. Analytical electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectrometry provides information on the quantitative elemental content of debris.

  4. Engineering and technology challenges for active debris removal (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.


    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modeling studies have suggested that the commonlyadopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal (ADR) must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward.

  5. Morphology, size distribution and elemental composition of several dental debris (United States)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Iwadera, Nobuki; Esaki, Mitsue; Aoyama, Ken-Ichi; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Morita, Manabu; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Watari, Fumio


    We investigated morphologies, size distributions and elemental compositions of dental debris formed by cutting/grinding teeth or dental alloys. The average size of debris formed by cutting/grinding dental alloy was around 100 μm and that of teeth was 20 μm. The debris formed by grinding with diamond or carborundum point had isotropic irregular shape, while the debris formed by cutting with carbide bar had characteristic lathe-cut shape. The elemental analysis indicated that the debris formed by grinding dental alloy with carborundum point consisted of not only the particles of the alloy but also the particles of Si compounds with the size of around 10 μm. The particles of Si compounds would be formed by abrasion of the grinding instrument (carborundum, SiC). Similarly, the debris formed by grinding with diamond point also contained submicro-sized particles consisting of C compounds. The results indicate that the morphology and composition of dental debris are varied depending on the combination between the workpiece and the cutting/grinding materials and that the dental debris consist of both the workpiece and the cutting/grinding materials in some combination. In addition, some of the debris of tooth had the size less than 2 μm, which has a potential to induce inflammation. Though the inflammation can be expected at low level, it is required to investigate the details in future.

  6. Orbital Debris Quarterly News. Volume 13; No. 1 (United States)

    Liou, J.-C. (Editor); Shoots, Debi (Editor)


    Topics discussed include: new debris from a decommissioned satellite with a nuclear power source; debris from the destruction of the Fengyun-1C meteorological satellite; quantitative analysis of the European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle 'Jules Verne' reentry event; microsatellite impact tests; solar cycle 24 predictions and other long-term projections and geosynchronus (GEO) environment for the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008). Abstracts from the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, examining satellite reentry risk assessments and statistical issues for uncontrolled reentry hazards, are also included.

  7. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shuangyan


    Full Text Available High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concentrates on ground-based laser systems but pays little attention to space-based laser systems. There are drawbacks of a ground-based laser system in cleaning space debris. Therefore the placement of a laser system in space is proposed and investigated. Under assumed conditions, the elimination process of space debris is analyzed. Several factors such as laser repetition frequency, relative movement between the laser and debris, and inclination of debris particles which may exercise influence to the elimination effects are discussed. A project of a space-based laser system is proposed according to the numerical results of a computer study. The proposed laser system can eliminate debris of 1–10 cm and succeed in protecting a space station.

  8. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai


    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  9. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system


    Shen, Shuangyan; Jin, Xing; Hao, Chang


    High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concen...

  10. Radar Measurements of Small Debris from HUSIR and HAX (United States)

    Hamilton J.; Blackwell, C.; McSheehy, R.; Juarez, Q.; Anz-Meador, P.


    For many years, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has been collecting measurements of the orbital debris environment from the Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar (HUSIR) and its auxiliary (HAX). These measurements sample the small debris population in low earth orbit (LEO). This paper will provide an overview of recent observations and highlight trends in selected debris populations. Using the NASA size estimation model, objects with a characteristic size of 1 cm and larger observed from HUSIR will be presented. Also, objects with a characteristic size of 2 cm and larger observed from HAX will be presented.

  11. Elements of an improved model of debris-flow motion (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.


    A new depth-averaged model of debris-flow motion describes simultaneous evolution of flow velocity and depth, solid and fluid volume fractions, and pore-fluid pressure. Non-hydrostatic pore-fluid pressure is produced by dilatancy, a state-dependent property that links the depth-averaged shear rate and volumetric strain rate of the granular phase. Pore-pressure changes caused by shearing allow the model to exhibit rate-dependent flow resistance, despite the fact that the basal shear traction involves only rate-independent Coulomb friction. An analytical solution of simplified model equations shows that the onset of downslope motion can be accelerated or retarded by pore-pressure change, contingent on whether dilatancy is positive or negative. A different analytical solution shows that such effects will likely be muted if downslope motion continues long enough, because dilatancy then evolves toward zero, and volume fractions and pore pressure concurrently evolve toward steady states. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Marine debris removal: one year of effort by the Georgia Sea Turtle-Center-Marine Debris Initiative. (United States)

    Martin, Jeannie Miller


    Once in the marine environment, debris poses a significant threat to marine life that can be prevented through the help of citizen science. Marine debris is any manufactured item that enters the ocean regardless of source, commonly plastics, metal, wood, glass, foam, cloth, or rubber. Citizen science is an effective way to engage volunteers in conservation initiatives and provide education and skill development. The Georgia Sea Turtle Center Marine Debris Initiative (GSTC-MDI) is a grant funded program developed to engage citizens in the removal of marine debris from the beaches of Jekyll Island, GA, USA and the surrounding areas. During the first year of effort, more than 200 volunteers donated over 460 h of service to the removal of marine debris. Of the debris removed, approximately 89% were plastics, with a significant portion being cigarette materials. Given the successful first year, the GSTC-MDI was funded again for a second year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remediation of scattered light in NEAR-Shoemaker MSI imager; study of Martian debris aprons (United States)

    Li, Han

    shape. These deposits exist as large debris apron complexes composed of multiple flows, but each flow is volumetrically smaller than the northern counterpart. Aprons in the southern hemisphere display profiles more convex than both northern ones and simple plastic models. This may indicate southern deposits are still evolving through solid-state ice deformation.

  14. Numerical simulation of the debris flow dynamics with an upwind scheme and specific friction treatment (United States)

    Sánchez Burillo, Guillermo; Beguería, Santiago; Latorre, Borja; Burguete, Javier


    Debris flows, snow and rock avalanches, mud and earth flows are often modeled by means of a particular realization of the so called shallow water equations (SWE). Indeed, a number of simulation models have been already developed [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Debris flow equations differ from shallow water equations in two main aspects. These are (a) strong bed gradient and (b) rheology friction terms that differ from the traditional SWE. A systematic analysis of the numerical solution of the hyperbolic system of equations rising from the shallow water equations with different rheological laws has not been done. Despite great efforts have been done to deal with friction expressions common in hydraulics (such as Manning friction), landslide rheologies are characterized by more complicated expressions that may deal to unphysical solutions if not treated carefully. In this work, a software that solves the time evolution of sliding masses over complex bed configurations is presented. The set of non- linear equations is treated by means of a first order upwind explicit scheme, and the friction contribution to the dynamics is treated with a suited numerical scheme [8]. In addition, the software incorporates various rheological models to accommodate for different flow types, such as the Voellmy frictional model [9] for rock and debris avalanches, or the Herschley-Bulkley model for debris and mud flows. The aim of this contribution is to release this code as a free, open source tool for the simulation of mass movements, and to encourage the scientific community to make use of it. The code uses as input data the friction coefficients and two input files: the topography of the bed and the initial (pre-failure) position of the sliding mass. In addition, another file with the final (post-event) position of the sliding mass, if desired, can be introduced to be compared with the simulation obtained result. If the deposited mass is given, an error estimation is computed by

  15. Observations of Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentation Debris (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Buckalew, B.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.


    The fragmentation of a Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the U. S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper presents a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots are also shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) thought to be associated with the Titan Transtage break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN 25001, 33509, and 33510) and the parent rocket body (SSN 3432). Color index data are used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In order to better characterize the break-up fragments, spectral measurements were acquired on three Titan fragments (one fragment observed over two different time periods) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra of SSN 25000 (May 2012 and January 2013), SSN 38690, and SSN 38699 are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., aluminum and various paints) to determine the surface material.

  16. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment (United States)

    Liou, J.C.


    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  17. Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh (United States)

    handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.


    A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the "chip" through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

  18. Small satellite debris catalog maintenance issues (United States)

    Jackson, Phoebe A.


    The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) is a unified command of the Department of Defense, and one of its tasks is to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all man-made objects in Earth orbit. This task is called space surveillance, and the most important tool for space surveillance is the satellite catalog. The command's reasons for performing satellite catalog maintenance is presented. A satellite catalog is described, and small satellite-debris catalog-maintenance issues are identified. The underlying rationale is to describe the catalog maintenance services so that the members of the community can use them with assurance.

  19. Scale-up guidelines for a circulating fluidized bed biomass pyrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslinger, W.; Hofbauer, H. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria); Gavriil, L.; Boukis, I. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (Greece)


    A new circulating fluidized bed design has been proposed and successfully operated at lab scale (10 kg/h biomass feed). This fluidized bed system consists of a bubbling bottom bed, above this bottom bed a riser, a cyclone and a return leg. The heat necessary for the pyrolysis process is produced in the bottom bed by burning some solid residue from the pyrolysis that circulates together with the bed material as the bottom bed is fluidized with air. The flue gas from the bottom bed enters into the riser and serves there as transport gas. The circulation rate is very sensitive to the amount of bed inventory and the fluidization velocities. As the riser uses the flue gas of the dense bottom bed the ratio of the cross sections of the two fluidized beds has to be in a certain range to get a satisfying operation. The fluid mechanic behavior of this new circulating fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been studied using three different cold flow models. One cold flow model was built for the existing 10 kg/h lab scale pyrolyzer according to Glicksman's (1984) similarity rules. The purpose of this cold model was to study the fluid mechanics and optimize the performance with respect to the pyrolysis process. For scale-up purposes further cold flow models (135 kg/h, 1000 kg/h) have been designed, built and investigated intensively. The idea and the new design of the pyrolyzer, the results of the experimental work as well as the scale-up criteria will be presented. (orig.)

  20. Improving Efficiency of a Counter-Current Flow Moving Bed Granular Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colver, G.M.; Brown, R.C.; Shi, H.; Soo, D.S-C.


    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second goal of the research is to optimize the performances of both solids and gas filtering processes through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, feed rates etc. in a factorial study. These goals are directed toward applications of advanced coal-fired power cycles under development by the U.S. Department of Energy including pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification/combined cycles based on gas turbines and fuel cells. Only results for particulate gas cleaning are reported here.

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Flow instability in particle-bed nuclear reactors (United States)

    Kerrebrock, Jack L.


    The particle-bed core offers mitigation of some of the problems of solid-core nuclear rocket reactors. Dividing the fuel elements into small spherical particles contained in a cylindrical bed through which the propellant flows radially, may reduce the thermal stress in the fuel elements, allowing higher propellant temperatures to be reached. The high temperature regions of the reactor are confined to the interior of cylindrical fuel assemblies, so most of the reactor can be relatively cool. This enables the use of structural and moderating materials which reduce the minimum critical size and mass of the reactor. One of the unresolved questions about this concept is whether the flow through the particle-bed will be well behaved, or will be subject to destructive flow instabilities. Most of the recent analyses of the stability of the particle-bed reactor have been extensions of the approach of Bussard and Delauer, where the bed is essentially treated as an array of parallel passages, so that the mass flow is continuous from inlet to outlet through any one passage. A more general three dimensional model of the bed is adopted, in which the fluid has mobility in three dimensions. Comparison of results of the earlier approach to the present one shows that the former does not accurately represent the stability at low Re. The more complete model presented should be capable of meeting this deficiency while accurately representing the effects of the cold and hot frits, and of heat conduction and radiation in the particle-bed. It can be extended to apply to the cylindrical geometry of particle-bed reactors without difficulty. From the exemplary calculations which were carried out, it can be concluded that a particle-bed without a cold frit would be subject to instability if operated at the high temperatures desired for nuclear rockets, and at power densities below about 4 megawatts per liter. Since the desired power density is about 40 megawatts per liter, it can be concluded

  3. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom


    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  4. Geomorphic change caused by outburst floods and debris flows at Mount Rainier, Washington, with emphasis on Tahoma Creek valley (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; Driedger, C.L.


    Debris flows have caused rapid geomorphic change in several glacierized drainages on Mount Rainier, Washington. Nearly all of these flows began as glacial outburst floods, then transformed to debris flows by incorporating large masses of sediment in channel reaches where streams have incised proglacial sediments and stagnant glacier ice. This stagnant ice is a relic of advanced glacier positions achieved during the mid-nineteenth century Little Ice Age maximum and the readvance of the 1960's and 1970's. Debris flows have been especially important agents of geomorphic change along Tahoma Creek, which drains South Tahoma Glacier. Debris flows in Tahoma Creek valley have transported downstream about 107 m3 Of sediment since 1967, causing substantial aggradation and damage to roads and facilities in Mount Rainier National Park. The average denudation rate in the upper part of the Tahoma Creek drainage basin in the same period has been extraordinarily high: more than 20 millimeters per year, a value exceeded only rarely in basins affected by debris flows. However, little or none of this sediment has yet passed out of the Tahoma Creek drainage basin. Outburst floods from South Tahoma Glacier form by release of subglacially stored water. The volume of stored water discharged during a typical outburst flood would form a layer several tens of millimeters thick over the bed of the entire glacier, though it is more likely that large linked cavities account for most of the storage. Statistical analysis shows that outburst floods usually occur during periods of atypically hot or rainy weather in summer or early autumn, and that the probability of an outburst increases with temperature (a proxy measure of ablation rate) or rainfall rate. On the basis of these results, we suggest that outburst floods are triggered when rapid input of water to the glacier bed causes transient increase in water pressure, thereby destabilizing the linked-cavity system. The probabilistic nature of

  5. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.


    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  6. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea. (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano


    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator. Technology spotlight report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator combines and improves upon the fluidized-bed, agglomeration/ incineration-technology and the cyclonic-combustion technology developed at Institute of Gas Technolgy (IGT) over many years. The result is a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions and has a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) greater than 99.99%. Solid inorganic contaminants are contained within aglassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill.

  8. International Space Station: Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Survivability and Vulnerability (United States)

    Graves, Russell


    This slide presentation reviews the surviability and vulnerability of the International Space Station (ISS) from the threat posed by meteoroid and orbital debris. The topics include: (1) Space station natural and induced environments (2) Meteoroid and orbital debris threat definition (3) Requirement definition (4) Assessment methods (5) Shield development and (6) Component vulnerability

  9. Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters. (United States)

    Unger, B; Herr, H; Benke, H; Böhmert, M; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Dähne, M; Hillmann, M; Wolff-Schmidt, K; Wohlsein, P; Siebert, U


    Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals). Objects comprised general debris (35.1%) and fishing related debris (64.9%). Injuries associated with marine debris included lesions, suppurative ulcerative dermatitis, perforation of the digestive tract, abscessation, suppurative peritonitis and septicaemia. This study is the first investigation of marine debris findings in all three marine mammal species from German waters. It demonstrates the health impacts marine debris can have, including severe suffering and death. The results provide needed information on debris burdens in the North and Baltic Seas for implementing management directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches. (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji


    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth's environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  11. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning (United States)

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott


    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  12. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A. J.; Chapman, M. G.; Williams, Rob; Thompson, Richard C.; van Franeker, Jan A.


    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to disease and mortality, and (ii) debris is considered non-hazardous by policy-makers, possibly because individuals can be injured or removed from populations and assemblages without ecological impacts. We reviewed the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to assemblages and populations. Using plastic, we show microplastics reduce the ‘health’, feeding, growth and survival of ecosystem engineers. Larger debris alters assemblages because fishing-gear and tyres kill animals and damage habitat-forming plants, and because floating bottles facilitate recruitment and survival of novel taxa. Where ecological linkages are not known, we show how to establish hypothetical links by synthesizing studies to assess the likelihood of impacts. We also consider how population models examine ecological linkages and guide management of ecological impacts. We show that by focusing on linkages to ecological impacts rather than the presence of debris and its sublethal impacts, we could reduce threats posed by debris. PMID:25904661

  13. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.


    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement

  14. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott


    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  15. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Mapping debris flow ... Rapid debris flows, a mixture of unconsolidated sediments and water travelling at speeds >10 m/s are the most destructive water related mass movements that affect hill and mountain regions. The predisposing factors setting the ...

  16. Frequency and initiation of debris flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.


    Debris flows from 740 tributaries transport sediment into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, creating rapids that control its longitudinal profile. Debris flows mostly occur when runoff triggers failures in colluvium by a process termed "the fire hose effect." Debris flows originate from a limited number of geologic strata, almost exclusively shales or other clay-rich, fine-grained formations. Observations from 1984 through 2003 provide a 20 year record of all debris flows that reached the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, and repeat photography provides a 100 year record of debris flows from 147 tributaries. Observed frequencies are 5.1 events/year from 1984 to 2003, and historic frequencies are 5.0 events/year from 1890 to 1983. Logistic regression is used to model historic frequencies based on drainage basin parameters observed to control debris flow initiation and transport. From 5 to 7 of the 16 parameters evaluated are statistically significant, including drainage area, basin relief, and the height of and gradient below debris flow source areas, variables which reflect transport distance and potential energy. The aspect of the river channel, which at least partially reflects storm movement within the canyon, is also significant. Model results are used to calculate the probability of debris flow occurrence at the river over a century for all 740 tributaries. Owing to the variability of underlying geomorphic controls, the distribution of this probability is not uniform among tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.

  17. Rapid Assessment of Tree Debris Following Urban Forest Ice Storms (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Angela J. Hauer; Dudley R. Hartel; Jill R. Johnson


    This paper presents a rapid assessment method to estimate urban tree debris following an ice storm. Data were collected from 60 communities to quantify tree debris volumes, mostly from public rights-of-way, following ice storms based on community infrastructure, weather parameters, and urban forest structure. Ice thickness, area of a community, and street distance are...

  18. 14 CFR 417.225 - Debris risk analysis. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris risk analysis. 417.225 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.225 Debris risk analysis. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that the risk to the public potentially exposed to inert and...

  19. Predicting Debris-Slide Locations in Northwestern California (United States)

    Mark E. Reid; Stephen D. Ellen; Dianne L. Brien; Juan de la Fuente; James N. Falls; Billie G. Hicks; Eric C. Johnson


    We tested four topographic models for predicting locations of debris-slide sources: 1) slope; 2) proximity to stream; 3) SHALSTAB with "standard" parameters; and 4) debris-slide-prone landforms, which delineates areas similar to "inner gorge" and "headwall swale" using experience-based rules. These approaches were compared in three diverse...

  20. Orbital debris and near-Earth environmental management: A chronology (United States)

    Portree, David S. F.; Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.


    This chronology covers the 32-year history of orbital debris and near-Earth environmental concerns. It tracks near-Earth environmental hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy-making, with emphasis on the orbital debris problem. Included are the Project West Ford experiments; Soviet ASAT tests and U.S. Delta upper stage explosions; the Ariane V16 explosion, U.N. treaties pertinent to near-Earth environmental problems, the PARCS tests; space nuclear power issues, the SPS/orbital debris link; Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; the Solwind ASAT test; milestones in theory and modeling the Cosmos 954, Salyut 7, and Skylab reentries; the orbital debris/meteoroid research link; detection system development; orbital debris shielding development; popular culture and orbital debris; Solar Max results; LDEF results; orbital debris issues peculiar to geosynchronous orbit, including reboost policies and the stable plane; seminal papers, reports, and studies; the increasing effects of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  1. Applied Astronomy: An Optical Survey for Space Debris at GEO (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriquez, H.


    A viewgraph is presented to discuss space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The topics include: 1) Syncom1 launched February 14, 1963 Failed on orbit insertion 1st piece of GEO debris!; 2) Example of recent GEO payload: XM-2 Rock satellite for direct broadcast radio; 3) MODEST Michigan Orbital DEbrisSurvey Telescope the telescope formerly known as the Curtis-Schmidt; 4) GEO Debris Survey; 5) Examples of Detections; 6) Brightness Variations Common; 7) Observed Angular Rates; 8) Two Populations at GEO; 9) High Area-to-Mass Ratio Material (A/M); 10) Examples of MLI; 11) Examples of MLI Release in LEO; 12) Liou & Weaver (2005) models; 13) ESA 1-m Telescope Survey; 14) Two Telescopes March 2007 Survey and Follow-up; 15) Final Eccentricity; and 16) How control Space Debris?

  2. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration. (United States)

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J


    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Space debris clearing with lasers: Myth and reality (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.


    Since the Chinese anti-missile test in 2007 the problem of space debris and their threat to all space assets has become known to a larger community. Today, advances in laser sources and large mirrors including adaptive optics have matured and are in principle available. The paper first addresses the current situation of accumulated space debris and future predictions of collisions in space. Second, different solutions to mitigate the debris problem will be reviewed with emphasis on the use of high power pulsed lasers as derived from fundamental relations governing the momentum imparted to the debris by the laser pulse and causing their re-entry into the atmosphere with subsequent burn up. Unfortunately the required laser specifications lead to a demand of laser sources which cannot be satisfied with currently available devices. Therefore, two novel laser architectures will be presented. Finally, operational concepts and safety aspects will be addressed in order to evaluate the prospects of laser debris removal.

  4. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments. (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L


    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  5. How to Find Bed Bugs (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  6. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.


    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  7. Char binder for fluidized beds (United States)

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.


    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  8. Bubble wake dynamics in liquids and liquid-solid suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Brenner, Howard


    This book is devoted to a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamic nature of a bubble wake, more specifically the primary wake, in liquids and liquid-solid suspensions, an dto the role it plays in various important flow phenomena of multiphase systems. Examples of these phenomena are liquid/solids mixing, bubble coalescence and disintergration, particle entrainment to the freeboard, and bed contraction.

  9. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)


    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  10. Activities on Space Debris in U.S. (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    In the U.S. space debris activities are addressed at all government levels, from the Executive Office of the President to the individual federal agencies to specialized centers, laboratories, organizations, and research groups. U.S. Space Policy specifically challenges government agencies to seek to minimize the creation of space debris and to promote debris minimization practices both domestically and internationally. A set of space debris mitigation standard practices has been developed and adopted by relevant US government agencies, and their application by the commercial aerospace community is highly encouraged. A growing number of US government agencies have issued their own space debris mitigation policies, directives, regulations, and standards. Space debris research, including the definition and modeling of the current and future near-Earth space environment and the development of debris protection technologies, is principally conducted by NASA and the Department of Defense. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network continues to provide the most complete and timely characterization of the population of space debris larger than 10 cm. During the past several years major advancements have been achieved in extending this environment definition in LEO to include particles as small as only a few millimeters. The inspection of returned spacecraft surfaces continues to shed light on the even smaller debris population. With improvements in computer technology, new and more capable programs have been and are being developed to solve a number of operational and research problems. Finally, the academic and industrial sectors of the U.S. are also increasing their participation in and contributions to space debris operations and research. The cooperation of satellite and launch vehicle developers and operators is essential to the U.S. objective of promoting the preservation of the space environment for future generations.

  11. The NASA Bed Rest Project (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice


    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  12. The influence of increasing riverbank vegetation density on bed shear stresses and transport of bed material (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos


    Riverbank vegetation can significantly influence the hydrodynamics of the river, such as flow velocity and bed shear stress, as well as affecting geomorphic processes across it. The aim of this study is to report preliminary results from extensive set of experiments aiming to better establish the link between flow and solid transport processes at the vicinity of the riverbank. A set of laboratory experiments is conducted in a recirculating flume with a series of acrylic panels mounted on the side of the flume at an angle to simulate the riverbank, and a large number of acrylic rods placed on top of it simulating riparian vegetation. Ten different vegetation configurations are examined, for the range of vegetation densities found in natural river systems. Three of these are configured in linear arrangement; another three of them in staggered; and the other four follow a random configuration at chosen densities. Turbulent flow is measured across the channel using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) along a dense measurement grid. The measurements covered the whole cross-section of the channel at the main measurement plane, as well as the riverbank region. The results reported include mean streamwise flow velocity and turbulent intensity profiles, bed shear stresses, momentum transfer at the riverbank region. These are associated with transport metrics obtained using an instrumented tracer particle entrained from different release locations (both from the centerline of the main channel and the near bank region). The results show that the flow velocity at the riverbank reduces with increasing densities of riparian vegetation, while they increase at the main channel. Likewise, the bed shear stresses increased at the main channel, and decreased within the vegetated riverbank, which is replicated by the observations from the particle transport experiments.

  13. Lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with tubes bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, M.A.; Martin, G.; Le Gal, J.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)


    Dense fluidized beds are acknowledge as homogeneous systems from both temperature and composition aspects. However, some situation such as very large units or fluidized beds with tubes bundle lead to thermal gradients within the bed. These thermal gradients are due to solids motion limitation and may have detrimental effects on the process. This paper relates investigations aiming an determining lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with an without a tubes bundle. These investigations have been carried out with an experimental setup of significant size (bed size = 0.6 x 1.1 x 1.3) and with small particles (less 500 microns) so as to fill some gaps of the literature. Thermal diffusivities have been deduced from temperature gradients measured between a hot wall and a cold wall in a perpendicular fluidized bed and by applying a conventional 2-D conduction model. Lateral thermal conductivities as well as vertical thermal conductivities increase with the gas velocity and the height of the bed, and when the particle size decreases. Immersing a vertical tube bundle into the fluidized bed leads to a significant reduction of the lateral thermal diffusivity, while there is no effect on the vertical thermal diffusivity. Correlations have been drawn from the experimental results. They would have to be applied for calculation of any system running at gas velocity ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 m/s and with particle size between 50 and 300 microns. (authors). 14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Two compounds in bed bug feces are sufficient to elicit off-host aggregation by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius. (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Vers, Leonard M Ver; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A


    After feeding, bed bugs aggregate in cracks and crevices near a host. Aggregation and arrestment are mediated by tactile and chemical stimuli associated with the bugs' feces and exuviae. Volatiles derived from fecally stained filter papers were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and evaluated using a multichoice behavioral assay to determine their impact on bed bug aggregation. In addition, crude fecal extracts were collected in methanol, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated in open-air multichoice behavioral assays. The SPME method was used to detect (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal in heated bed bug feces. The presence of these two volatile components did not affect aggregation. Analysis of the crude fecal extracts revealed several semi-volatile nitrogenous compounds, a carboxylic acid and a sulfur-based compound. Adult antennae responded to compounds eluted from three regions of the crude extract using GC-EAD. A combination of two compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyldiethanolamine, resulted in aggregation responses equivalent to the original crude extract. Bed bug aggregation is mediated by semi-volatile compounds derived from fecal extracts, and two compounds are sufficient to elicit aggregation. The two compounds identified here could be used to enhance the effectiveness of insecticidal applications or improve monitoring techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The influence of the intensity of use, rainfall and location in the amount of marine debris in four beaches in Niteroi, Brazil: Sossego, Camboinhas, Charitas and Flechas. (United States)

    Silva, Melanie Lopes da; Sales, Alessandro Souza; Martins, Suzane; Castro, Rebeca de Oliveira; Araújo, Fábio Vieira de


    The presence of marine debris in coastal and oceanic regions is a worldwide and growing problem and own to different factors. In order to check the influence of some of these factors in the amount of debris in these areas, we quantified and identified marine debris found on sand of four beaches in the city of Niterói, RJ during dry and rainy seasons; two in oceanic region and two in Guanabara Bay, and observed the intensity of use of them by people. Our results showed that intensity of use and intensity of rain had influence in the presence and amount of solid waste collected. Environmental education campaigns and improvements in basic sanitation are extremely necessary to prevent the pollution of aquatic environments and get improvements on waste management in the cities of Niterói, RJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical study on hygroscopic material drying in packed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stakić


    Full Text Available The paper addresses numerical simulation for the case of convective drying of hygroscopic material in a packed bed, analyzing agreement between the simulated and the corresponding experimental results. In the simulation model of unsteady simultaneous one-dimensional heat and mass transfer between gas phase and dried material, it is assumed that the gas-solid interface is at thermodynamic equilibrium, while the drying rate of the specific product is calculated by applying the concept of a "drying coefficient". Model validation was done on the basis of the experimental data obtained with potato cubes. The obtained drying kinetics, both experimental and numerical, show that higher gas (drying agent velocities (flow-rates, as well as lower equivalent grain diameters, induce faster drying. This effect is more pronounced for deeper beds, because of the larger amount of wet material to be dried using the same drying agent capacity.

  17. Photometric Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, Kira J.; Rodriguez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt


    We report on optical observations of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) using two telescopes simultaneously at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The University of Michigan s 0.6/0.9-m Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope) was used in survey mode to find objects that potentially could be at GEO. Because GEO objects only appear in this telescope s field of view for an average of 5 minutes, a full six-parameter orbit can not be determined. Interrupting the survey for follow-up observations leads to incompleteness in the survey results. Instead, as objects are detected with MODEST, initial predictions assuming a circular orbit are done for where the object will be for the next hour, and the objects are reacquired as quickly as possible on the CTIO 0.9-m telescope. This second telescope follows-up during the first night and, if possible, over several more nights to obtain the maximum time arc possible, and the best six parameter orbit. Our goal is to obtain an initial orbit and calibrated colors for all detected objects fainter than R = 15th in order to estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: magnitude and angular rate. One objective is to estimate what fraction of objects selected on the basis of angular rate are not at GEO. A second objective is to obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials.

  18. Pulling a patient up in bed (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  19. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional ...

  20. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.