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Sample records for solid ceramic electrolyte

  1. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  2. Impedance spectroscopy of ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Cosentino, I.C.; Florio, D.Z. de; Franca, Y.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has been used to the study of Th O 2 :Y 2 O 3 , Zr O 2 :La 2 O 3 and Zr O 2 :Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. The results show that solid solution has been attained, grain boundaries act as oxygen-ion blockers, and the importance of the IS technique to study phase transformation in ceramics. (author)

  3. Ceramic membrane fuel cells based on solid proton electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Guangyao; Ma, Qianli; Peng, Ranran; Liu, Xingqin [USTC Lab. for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ma, Guilin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has reached its new stage characterized with thin electrolytes on porous electrode support, and the most important fabrication techniques developed in which almost all are concerned with inorganic membranes, and so can be named as ceramic membrane fuel cells (CMFCs). CMFCs based on proton electrolytes (CMFC-H) may exhibit more advantages than CMFCs based on oxygen-ion electrolytes (CMFC-O) in many respects, such as energy efficiency and avoiding carbon deposit. Ammonia fuelled CMFC with proton-conducting BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.9} (BCGO) electrolyte (50 {mu}m in thickness) is reported in this works, which showed the open current voltage (OCV) values close to theoretical ones and rather high power density. And also, we have found that the well known super oxide ion conductor, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSGM), is a pure proton conductor in H{sub 2} and mixed proton and oxide ion conductor in wet air, while it is a pure oxide ion conductor in oxygen or dry air. To demonstrate the CMFC-H concept to get high performance fuel cells the techniques for thin membranes, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), particularly novel CVD techniques, should be given more attention because of their many advantages. (author)

  4. Zirconium oxide based ceramic solid electrolytes for oxygen detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Taking advantage of the high thermal shock resistance of zirconia-magnesia ceramics and the high oxide ion conductivity of zirconia-yttria ceramics, composites of these ceramics were prepared by mixing, pressing and sintering different relative concentrations of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO and ZrO 2 : 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. Microstructural analysis of the composites was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The thermal behavior was studied by dilatometric analysis. The electrical behavior was evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy technique. An experimental setup was designed for measurement the electrical signal generated as a function of the amount of oxygen at high temperatures. The main results show that these composites are partially stabilized (monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal) and the thermal behavior is similar to that of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO materials used in disposable high temperature oxygen sensors. Moreover, the results of analysis of impedance spectroscopy show that the electrical conductivity of zirconia:magnesia is improved with zirconia-yttria addition and that the electrical signal depends on the amount of oxygen at 1000 deg C, showing that the ceramic composites can be used in oxygen sensors. (author)

  5. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  6. Impedance spectroscopy of ceramic solid electrolytes; Espectroscopia de impedancia de eletrolitos solidos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R.; Cosentino, I.C.; Florio, D.Z. de; Franca, Y.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1996-12-31

    The Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has been used to the study of Th O{sub 2}:Y{sub 2} O{sub 3}, Zr O{sub 2}:La{sub 2} O{sub 3} and Zr O{sub 2}:Y{sub 2} O{sub 3} solid electrolytes. The results show that solid solution has been attained, grain boundaries act as oxygen-ion blockers, and the importance of the IS technique to study phase transformation in ceramics. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs.

  7. A Li-Garnet composite ceramic electrolyte and its solid-state Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Liu, Cai; Lu, Yang; Xiu, Tongping; Jin, Jun; Badding, Michael E.; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2018-04-01

    A high strength Li-Garnet solid electrolyte composite ceramic is successfully prepared via conventional solid state method with Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 and nano MgO powders. Well sintered ceramic pellets and bars are obtained with 0-9 wt.% MgO. Fracture strength is approximately 135 MPa for composite ceramics with 5-9 wt.% MgO, which is ∼50% higher than that of pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (90 MPa). Lithium-ion conductivity of the composite is above 5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature; comparable to the pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 material. SEM cross-sections of the composite ceramic shows a much more uniform microstructure comparing with pure ones, owing to the grain growth inhibition effect of the MgO second phase. A battery cell consisting of Li/composite ceramics/Sulfur-Carbon at 25 °C exhibits a capacity of 685 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C at the 200th cycle, while maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 100%. These results indicate that the composite ceramic Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12-MgO is promising for the production of electrolyte membrane and fabrication of Li-Sulfur batteries.

  8. Electrospinning of Ceramic Solid Electrolyte Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Ionic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods, which demonstrated the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics. Cubic phase LLZO was stabilized at room temperature in the form of electrospun NWs without extrinsic dopants. Bulk LLZO with tetragonal structure was transformed to the cubic phase using particle size reduction via ball milling. Heating conditions that promoted particle coalescence and grain growth induced a transformation from the cubic to tetragonal phase in both types of nanostructured LLZO. Composite polymer solid electrolyte was fabricated using LLZO NWs as the filler and showed an improved ionic conductivity at room temperature. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li+ conduction through the modified polymer regions. Doping did not have significant effect on improving the overall conductivity as the interfaces played a predominant role. By comparing fillers with different morphologies and intrinsic conductivities, it was found that both NW morphology and high intrinsic conductivity are desired.

  9. Study of the distribution of magnesium in zirconia-magnesia ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Nogueira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    ZrO 2 : 3%MgO ceramic samples have been prepared according to three different experimental procedures in order to find out the best method for processing powders for the conformation of solid electrolytes for disposable oxygen sensors. These procedures were I) simple mechanical mixing, II) homogeneization in liquid medium, and III) homogeneization of the ceramic pellet by grinding, pressing and sintering. All samples have been analysed by electron microprobe and electrical resistivity measurements. The main results show the same degree of homogeneity and electrical resistivity are obtained for the specimens of the 2nd and 3rd group, whereas the specimens of the 1st group have non-homogeneous distribution of magnesium and scattered values of electrical resistivity. (author) [pt

  10. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  11. The thermal stability of sodium beta'-Alumina solid electrolyte ceramic in AMTEC cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.; Lara, Liana; Manatt, Ken; Shields, Virgil; Cortez, Roger H.; Kulleck, James

    1999-01-01

    A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the beta'-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute. The temperature and environmental conditions under which BASE remains stable control operational parameters of AMTEC devices. We have used mass loss experiments in vacuum to 1573K to characterize the kinetics of BASE decomposition, and conductivity and exchange current measurements in sodium vapor filled exposure cells to 1223K to investigate changes in the BASE which affect its ionic conductivity. There is no clear evidence of direct thermal decomposition of BASE below 1273K, although limited soda loss may occur. Reactive metals such as Mn or Cr can react with BASE at temperatures at least as low as 1223K

  12. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-01-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher

  13. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  14. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm 2 O 3 ) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd 2 O 3 ), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce 0,8 (SmGd) 0,2 O 1,9 powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO 2 and other containing 51% of Sm 2 O 3 and 30% of Gd 2 O 3 , both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m 2 .g -1 ) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the employment of hydrothermal treatment (about 100 m 2 .g -1

  15. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  17. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  18. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  19. Nanoporous palladium anode for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells with nanoscale proton-conducting ceramic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wong, Lai Mun; Xie, Hanlin; Wang, Shijie; Su, Pei-Chen

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the operation of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (μ-SOFCs) with nanoscale proton-conducting Y-BaZrO3 (BZY) electrolyte to avoid the fuel crossover problem for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). The μ-SOFCs are operated with the direct utilisation of ethanol vapour as a fuel and Pd as anode at the temperature range of 300-400 °C. The nanoporous Pd anode is achieved by DC sputtering at high Ar pressure of 80 mTorr. The Pd-anode/BYZ-electrolyte/Pt-cathode cell show peak power densities of 72.4 mW/cm2 using hydrogen and 15.3 mW/cm2 using ethanol at 400 °C. No obvious carbon deposition is seen from XPS analysis after fuel cell test with ethanol fuel.

  20. The effect of Bi2 O3 on the electrical properties of Zr O2: 3 wt% Mg O ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Zr O 2 : 3 wt% Mg O ceramic solid electrolytes have been prepared to study the effect of Bi 2 O 3 addition on densification and electrical conductivity. Microstructural characterization have been done by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. Electrical conductivity measurements have been done by two probe dc technique in the 400 0 C - 700 0 C temperature range. The results show that 5 wt% Bi 2 O 3 addition improves densification: 93% TD and 98% TD specimens are obtained from zirconia stabilized by powder mixture and by coprecipitation of oxides, respectively. Moreover, electrical conductivity values are found to be two orders of magnitude higher for Zr O 2 : 3 wt% Mg O with 5% Bi 2 O 3 . (author)

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -β/β -alumina ceramics come from two parent phases designated as β-alumina and β ..... Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & ... of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20142010102460).

  3. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Facile and scalable fabrication of polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte with high ceramic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Chen, X. Chelsea; Chen, Jihua; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Ruther, Rose E.; Yang, Guang; Lou, Kun; Nanda, Jagjit; Delnick, Frank M.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2018-06-01

    Solid state electrolytes are a promising alternative to flammable liquid electrolytes for high-energy lithium battery applications. In this work polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte membrane with high ceramic loading (greater than 60 vol%) is fabricated using a model polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide) + lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate and a lithium-conducting ceramic powder. The effects of processing methods, choice of plasticizer and varying composition on ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte are thoroughly investigated. The physical, structural and thermal properties of the composites are exhaustively characterized. We demonstrate that aqueous spray coating followed by hot pressing is a scalable and inexpensive technique to obtain composite membranes that are amazingly dense and uniform. The ionic conductivity of composites fabricated using this protocol is at least one order of magnitude higher than those made by dry milling and solution casting. The introduction of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether further increases the ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte's interfacial compatibility with metallic lithium and good cyclability is verified by constructing lithium symmetrical cells. A remarkable Li+ transference number of 0.79 is discovered for the composite electrolyte.

  5. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  6. Low-cost fabrication of thin-walled solid electrolyte tubes from doctor-bladed ceramic tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirstine, R T

    1979-01-01

    Sodium ..beta..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ tubes having wall thicknesses of typically 0.4 mm were fabricated from doctor-bladed (cast) ceramic tape by use of proprietary organic slip compositions and zeta-processed, lithia-stabilized alumina power. The ceramic tubes fabricated from cast tape had low porosity, low resistivity (approx. 4 ohm-cm at 300/sup 0/C), and good mechanical strength. Alternative fabrication techniques for manufacture of tubes from tape were evaluated, and the primary processing requirements/obstacls were identified. Closed-end tubes, nominally 10 mm outer diameter, 60 mm in length, and with a wall thickness of 0.3 mm, were supplied to the Department of Energy. 26 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  8. Facile synthesis of Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolyte with micron range particles for all-solid-state batteries via a low-temperature solution technique (LTST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Lee, Sewook; Park, Jongyeop; Nichols, William T.; Shin, Dongwook

    2018-06-01

    A lithium ion conductive 75Li2Sṡ25P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolyte is, for the first time, successfully synthesized via a new low-temperature solution technique (LTST) and compared to the conventional mechanical-milling technique. Both samples are composed of the highly lithium ion conductive thio-LISICON III analog phase. Due to the uniform dispersion of reactants in an organic liquid, the use of LTST produced significantly smaller and more uniform particle sizes (2.2 ± 1.68 μm) resulting in a 6.5 times higher specific surface area compared to the mechanically-milled sample. A pronounced enhancement of both the rate capability and cyclability is demonstrated for the LTST solid electrolyte sample due to the more intimate contact with the LiCoO2 active material. Furthermore, the LTST sample shows excellent electrochemical stability throughout the potential range of -1 to 5 V. These results suggest that the proposed technique using the optimized LTST process is promising for the preparation of 75Li2Sṡ25P2S5 solid electrolytes for use in advanced Li-ion batteries.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte-grade 10%Gd-doped ceria thin film/ceramic substrate structures for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chourashiya, M. G.; Bharadwaj, S. R.; Jadhav, L. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present research, spray pyrolysis technique is employed to synthesize 10%Gd-doped ceria (GDC) thin films on ceramic substrates with an intention to use the "film/substrate" structure in solid oxide fuel cells. GDC films deposited on GDC substrate showed enhanced crystallite formation....... In case of NiO-GDC composite substrate, the thickness of film was higher (∼ 13 μm) as compared to the film thickness on GDC substrate (∼ 2 μm). The relative density of the films deposited on both the substrates was of the order of 95%. The impedance measurements revealed that ionic conductivity of GDC...

  10. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  11. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  12. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  13. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes; Sintese e processamento de compositos de zirconia-alumina para aplicacao como eletrolito em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-07-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  15. Development status of oxygen solid electrolyte sensors in HLMC in respect to monoblock reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Shelemet'ev, V.M.; Sadovnichij, R.P.; Ivanov, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    The results of developing sensors on the base of solid electrolytes to control oxygen in lead and lead-bismuth coolants are considered. It is found out that ceramic detecting elements on the base of solid electrolytes from oxide ceramics are able to work a long time in conditions of high temperatures and thermal shocks in molten metals (in gases). They show stable conducting and mechanical properties, thermal resistance, low gas permeability. Using considered detecting elements different sensors, including ones for monoblock reactors and facilities, are developed and manufactured. The given sensors can be used for both continuous and periodical oxygen control in heavy liquid metal coolants [ru

  16. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  17. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  18. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  19. Sulfide-conducting solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Murin, I.V.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Fominykh, E.G.; Lyalina, M.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Feasibility of sulfide transfer in phases on the basis of BaZrS 3 and MLn 2 S 4 ( M = Ca, Ba; Ln = La, Y, Tm, Nd, Sm, Pr) is considered. Solid solution regions on the basis of ternary compounds are determined. Systematic study of the phases is carried out making use of the methods of conductometry, emf in chemical concentration chains without/with transfer, potentiostatic chronoamperometry. Possible mechanism of defect formation during successive alloying of ternary sulfides by binary ones in suggested [ru

  20. Thermal expansion of proton solid electrolytes on the basis of BaCeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, V.P.; Arestova, N.V.; Kurumchin, Eh.Kh.; Vdovin, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal expansion of BaCeO 3 base ceramics is under study. It is shown that within the range of 600-800 deg C solid electrolytes on barium cerate basis exhibity the anomaly of thermal expansion. This fact makes their application difficult. 9 refs., 3 figs

  1. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  3. Preparation of thoria calcia solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental procedures for the preparation of thoria-calcia solid electrolytes are described. Cold-pressed specimens pre-sintered at 1400 0 C and sintered at 2000 0 C have been used for thermally stimulated depolarization currents measurements in the temperature range 100 K - 300 K as well as for ionic conductivity measurements in the temperature range RT - 900 K. The detection of a relaxation peak probably due to the reorientation of the Ca'' sub(Th) - V sup(..) sub(O) complex shows that solid solution has been attained. Preliminary results of electrical conductivity are also reported. (Author) [pt

  4. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  5. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  6. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  7. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  8. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  9. Neutron scattering studies of solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role which neutron scattering can play in determining the nature of the disorder and the conducting mechanism in the solid electrolytes is discussed. First, some of the general formalism for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering is reviewed, and the quantities which can be measured are pointed out. Then the application of neutron scattering to the studies of three different problems is examined; the anion disorder in the fluorite system, the dynamical behavior in beta-alumina, and the cation diffusion in αAgI are discussed. 8 figures

  10. Microwave assisted sintering of gadolinium doped barium cerate electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arumugam Senthil, E-mail: senthu.ramp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamilnadu (India); Balaji, Ramamoorthy [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamilnadu (India); Jayakumar, Srinivasalu [Department of Physics, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore, 641 062, Tamilnadu (India); Pradeep, Chandran [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 600 036, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-10-01

    In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), electrolyte plays a vital role to increase the energy conversion efficiency. The main hurdle of such electrolyte in fuel cell is its higher operating temperature (1000 °C) which results in design limitation and higher fabrication cost. In order to reduce the operating temperature of SOFC, a suitable electrolyte has been prepared through co-precipitation method followed by microwave sintering of solid ceramic. The calcination temperature for the as-prepared powder was identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The crystal structure of the sample was found to exhibit its orthorhombic perovskite structure. The particle size was determined using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope with uniform in shape and size, match with XRD results and confirmed from structural analysis. Thus, the sample prepared via co-precipitation method and the solid ceramic sintered through microwave can be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells operated at intermediate temperature. - Highlights: • To synthesis the composite electrolyte by chemical method and sinter using microwave. • To reduce the operating temperature of electrolyte for high ionic conductivity in SOFC's. • To study the phase purity and to develop nanocomposite at reduced temperature.

  11. Crystalline structure and microstructural characteristics of the cathode/electrolyte solid oxide half-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Rubens; Vargas, Reinaldo Azevedo; Andreoli, Marco; Santoro, Thais Aranha de Barros; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru

    2009-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device generating of electric energy, constituted of cathode, electrolyte and anode; that together they form a unity cell. The study of the solid oxide half-cells consisting of cathode and electrolyte it is very important, in way that is the responsible interface for the reduction reaction of the oxygen. These half-cells are ceramic materials constituted of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for the cathode and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for the electrolyte. In this work, two solid oxide half-cells have been manufactured, one constituted of LSM cathode thin film on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - YSZ half-cell), and another constituted of LSM cathode and LSM/YSZ composite cathode thin films on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - LSM/YSZ - YSZ half cell). The cathode/electrolyte solid oxide half-cells were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results have been presented with good adherence between cathode and electrolyte and, LSM and YSZ phases were identified. (author)

  12. Electrochemical Approach for Analyzing Electrolyte Transport Properties and Their Effect on Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Nikolay; Lyagaeva, Julia; Vdovin, Gennady; Medvedev, Dmitry; Demin, Anatoly; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    2017-08-16

    The design and development of highly conductive materials with wide electrolytic domain boundaries are among the most promising means of enabling solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to demonstrate outstanding performance across low- and intermediate-temperature ranges. While reducing the thickness of the electrolyte is an extensively studied means for diminishing the total resistance of SOFCs, approaches involving an improvement in the transport behavior of the electrolyte membranes have been less-investigated. In the present work, a strategy for analyzing the electrolyte properties and their effect on SOFC output characteristics is proposed. To this purpose, a SOFC based on a recently developed BaCe 0.5 Zr 0.3 Dy 0.2 O 3-δ proton-conducting ceramic material was fabricated and tested. The basis of the strategy consists of the use of traditional SOFC testing techniques combined with the current interruption method and electromotive force measurements with a modified polarization-correction assessment. This allows one to determine simultaneously such important parameters as maximal power density; ohmic and polarization resistances; average ion transport numbers; and total, ionic, and electronic film conductivities and their activation energies. The proposed experimental procedure is expected to expand both fundamental and applied basics that could be further adopted to improve the technology of electrochemical devices based on proton-conducting electrolytes.

  13. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  14. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  15. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  16. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  19. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  20. Advances in Ceramic Supports for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Lori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Durability of catalyst supports is a technical barrier for both stationary and transportation applications of polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells. New classes of non-carbon-based materials were developed in order to overcome the current limitations of the state-of-the-art carbon supports. Some of these materials are designed and tested to exceed the US DOE lifetime goals of 5000 or 40,000 hrs for transportation and stationary applications, respectively. In addition to their increased durability, the interactions between some new support materials and metal catalysts such as Pt result in increased catalyst activity. In this review, we will cover the latest studies conducted with ceramic supports based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, and some composite materials.

  1. Carbon dioxide electrolysis using a ceramic electrolyte. [for space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstfeld, T. E.; Mullins, O., Jr.; Williams, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an experimental study of the electrical aspects of carbon dioxide electrolysis using a ceramic electrolyte. The electrolyte compositions used in this study are 8% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2, 7.5% CaO stabilized ZrO2, and 5% Y2O3 stabilized ThO2. Results indicate that the 8% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 is the best material to use for electrolysis, in terms of current as a function of voltage and temperature, and in terms of efficiency of oxide ion flow through it. The poorest results were obtained with the 5% Y2O3 stabilized ThO2 composition. An electrolysis system which might be employed to reclaim oxygen and carbon from effluents of space manufacturing, assuming that an industry would have to electrolyze 258,000 tonnes of CO2 per year, is predicted to require a total cell area of 110,000 sq m of 1 mm thickness and electrical capacity of 441 MW.

  2. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites ...

  3. Solid polymer composite electrolytes for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S M.J.; Mikhailenko, S D; Kaliaguine, S

    1998-07-01

    Composite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell technology were prepared from solid state proton conductors and polymer binders. The polymers were partially sulfonated and non-sulfonated polysulfone (PS), porous polyetherimide (PEI) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). As proton conductors H-chabazite, tungstophosphoric acid and its Na-salt and non-stoichiometric boron phosphate were employed. All membranes prepared using sulfonated PS as a binder with sulfonation degree higher than 50% were found to be mechanically unstable. They possess however reasonably high conductivity up to 6{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. Introducing the tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) into the nonsulfonated porous PS makes possible to obtain strong and flexible membranes with s=4{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, while use of boron phosphate in that case results in the conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. Porous PEI impregnated with aqueous solution of TPA retains its original tensile strength and exhibited the conductivity s=2{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. It however fell to 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} S/cm when the binder was modified with 2% of propionic acid, which caused a decrease in polymer pore size. Incorporation of the sodium acid salt of TPA into PEI allows one to obtain a composite with reasonably good mechanical properties and a conductivity of ca 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm for membranes prepared by the cast method. Using the phase inversion technique for preparation of the membranes of the same composition makes possible to increase their conductivity up to 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. When boron phosphate was used in lieu of TPA salt the conductivity obtained is still higher reaching 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 3{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm for membranes prepared by cast and phase inversion techniques respectively. The PMMA based membranes were mechanically stable even when a solid content reached 55wt.%. Among PMMA membranes the highest conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm was registered for

  4. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  5. In situ formation of low friction ceramic coatings on carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation in two types of electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunlong; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on Q235 carbon steel was achieved by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in carbonate electrolyte and silicate electrolyte, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphology, phase and elemental composition of PEO coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The bond strength of the coating was determined using a direct pull-off test. The hardness as well as tribological properties of the ceramic coating was primarily studied. The results indicated that the coating obtained in carbonate electrolyte was Fe 3 O 4 , while the coating achieved from silicate electrolyte was proved to be amorphous. Both kinds of coatings showed coarse and porous surface. The Fe 3 O 4 coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte showed a high bonding strength to the substrate up to 20 ± 2 MPa and the value was 15 ± 2 MPa for the amorphous coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte. The micro hardness of the amorphous coating and the Fe 3 O 4 coating was 1001 Hv and 1413 Hv, respectively, which was more than two and three times as that of the Q235 alloy substrate (415 Hv). The friction coefficient exhibited by amorphous coating and Fe 3 O 4 coating was 0.13 and 0.11, respectively, both lower than the uncoated Q235 substrate which ranged from 0.17 to 0.35.

  6. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of 9-YSZ solid electrolyte on Ni- YSZ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.S.; Yoshito, W.K.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.

    2010-01-01

    9-YSZ ceramic and Ni-YSZ metal/ceramic composite are the more commonly used materials for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte and anode, respectively. The main challenges for these applications are the forming of both materials as superposed double thin layers. In the present work ceramic powder of 9- YSZ was synthesized by a coprecipitation technique and the Ni O-YSZ composite by a combustion technique. The later was formed by uniaxial pressing as cylindrical pellets of 15 mm diameter. Thin ceramic layers of 9-YSZ were deposited on composite pellets from a suspension with 10% solid content by an Electrophoretic Deposition technique. Applied voltage varied in the range of 30 to 200 V and deposition time from 15 to 90 seconds, evaluating the deposited mass, porosity on the interface and adhesion of layers. Resulted ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and were observed in a scanning electron microscope. Results showed that deposited layers are thin (∼20μm), dense and have good adhesion on the surface of composite substrate. (author)

  8. Sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagane, Fumihiro; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Sodium-ion transfer through the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes was studied by AC impedance spectroscopy. Na{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.88}Y{sub 0.12}Si{sub 2}PO{sub 12} (NASICON) and Na-{beta}''-alumina were used as ceramic electrolytes, and propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.05 mol dm{sup -3} NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were used as organic electrolytes. The semi-circle ascribed to interfacial charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) was observed. The activation energies for sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes were evaluated by the temperature dependency of R{sub ct}. As a result, the activation energies depended on the ceramic electrolytes but not on the solvents. These results suggest that sodium-ion transfer from ceramic to organic electrolytes should be responsible for the activation energies, which is contrary to the case in a lithium-ion transfer system. Based on these results, the mechanism of interfacial sodium-ion transfer was discussed. (author)

  9. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  11. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  12. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  13. Solid-state electrolyte for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Sabin

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy has become a primary focus for scientific community since last decade. Great interesting investigations and creative works have been carried out to develop technology for powering our society, including disrupt technology for efficient energy storage and power manage. Supercapacitors (SP) also known as electrochemical double layer capacitors uses high surface area active electrode materials and various electrolytes to achieve capacitance of several order magnitude greater tha...

  14. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  15. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  16. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li + -ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li 6.25 Al 0.25 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZ) with Li + -ion conductivity of ~10 –4 S ⋅cm −1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO 2 /LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO 2 –LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li 3 BO 3 , which is a mechanically soft solid electrolyte with a low melting point at around 700

  17. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2008-01-10

    In this work, we have developed solid oxide fuel cells with a bi-layered electrolyte of 2 {mu}m SSZ and 4 {mu}m SDC using tape casting, screen printing, and co-firing processes. The cell reached power densities of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C and 0.85 W cm{sup -2} at 700 C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values larger than 1.02 V. The electrical leaking between anode and cathode through an SDC electrolyte has been blocked in the bi-layered electrolyte structure. However, both the electrolyte resistance (R{sub el}) and electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p,a+c}) increased in comparison to cells with single-layered SDC electrolytes. The formation of a solid solution of (Ce, Zr)O{sub 2-x} during sintering process and the flaws in the bi-layered electrolyte structure seem to be the main causes for the increase in the R{sub el} value (0.32 {omega} cm{sup 2}) at 650 C, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the calculated value. (author)

  19. Polarization behavior of lithium electrode in polymetric solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Morita, Masayuki (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Tsutsumi, Hiromori (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

    1993-04-15

    Complexes of novel polymer matrices and lithium salts have been prepared as polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PEO-PMMA) and poly(methylsiloxane) (PMS) were used as the matrices. The conductance behavior of the complexes and the basic polarization characteristics of the lithium electrode in the polymeric electrolytes were studied. As high conductivities as 10[sup -3] S cm[sup -1] were obtained at room temperature for the PMMA-based electrolytes containing some liquid plasticizer. Limiting current densities of 3 to 5 mA cm[sup -2] were observed for the anodic and cathodic polarization of the lithium electrode. The transport number of Li[sup +] was approximately unity in 'single-ion type' PMS-based electrolyte, in which the polarization curve of the lithium electrode showed no current hysteresis. (orig.)

  20. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarto, W.; Ramdhan, A. M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.; Warsito

    An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-x)TeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC) frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6), monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10-7 S cm-1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323-473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures.

  1. A solid state actuator based on polypyrrole (PPy) and a solid electrolyte NBR working in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Misuk; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan

    2005-05-01

    The solid polymer electrolyte based conducting polymer actuator was presented. In the preparation of acutuator module, an ionic liquid impregnated a synthetic rubber (NBR) and PPy were used as a solid polymer electrolyte and conducting polymer, respectively. An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) is gradually dispersed into the NBR film and the conducting polymer, PPy was synthesized on the surface of NBR. The ionic conductivity of new type solid polymer electrolyte as a function of the immersion time was investigated. The cyclic voltammetry responsed and the redox switching dynamics of PEDOT in NBR matrix were studied. The displacement of the actuator was measured by laser beam.

  2. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garagounis, Ioannis; Kyriakou, Vasileios; Skodra, Aglaia; Vasileiou, Eirini; Stoukides, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Developed in the early 1900s, the “Haber–Bosch” synthesis is the dominant NH 3 synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS), more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13 × 10 -8 mol s -1 cm -2 , obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe 0.7 Cu 0.1 Ni 0.2 O 3 , cathode. At high temperatures (>500°C), the maximum rate was 9.5 × 10 −9 mol s -1 cm -2 using Ce 0.8 Y 0.2 O 2-δ –[Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 –K 3 PO 4 ] as electrolyte and Ag–Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs. the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level are discussed.

  3. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  4. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L. (Setif Univ. (Algeria). Unite de Recherche Electrochimie)

    1992-05-01

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn[sup 2+] electrode (e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased. (orig.).

  5. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  6. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagounis, Ioannis; Kyriakou, Vasileios [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skodra, Aglaia [Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece); Vasileiou, Eirini; Stoukides, Michael, E-mail: stoukidi@cperi.certh.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-17

    Developed in the early 1900s, the “Haber–Bosch” synthesis is the dominant NH{sub 3} synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS), more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13 × 10{sup -8} mol s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe{sub 0.7}Cu{sub 0.1}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, cathode. At high temperatures (>500°C), the maximum rate was 9.5 × 10{sup −9} mol s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} using Ce{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-δ}–[Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}] as electrolyte and Ag–Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs. the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level are discussed.

  7. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eGaragounis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed in the early 1900's, the Haber-Bosch synthesis is the dominant NH3 synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS, more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13×10−8 mol s−1 cm−2, obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe0.7Cu0.1Ni0.2O3, cathode. At high temperatures (>500oC the maximum rate was 9.5*10-9 mol s−1 cm−2 using Ce0.8Y0.2O2-δ -[Ca3(PO42 -K3PO4] as electrolyte and Ag-Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level, are discussed.

  8. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  9. Effects of chemical synthesis parameters on the Zr O2: 8% mol Mg O solid electrolytes electric conductivity and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, D.M.; Muccillo, E.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements and scanning electron microscope observations have been done in Zr O 2 - 8 mol % Mg O solid electrolytes. The main purpose was to investigate to what extent some processing variables can influence the electrical behaviour and microstructural characteristics of the sintered ceramic. Zirconia powders have been prepared under different pH and temperature of precipitation, and washing media conditions. The results show that many structural characteristics of the calcined powders are 'lost' during sintering, giving rise to ceramics with similar electrical properties, besides minor differences in the final microstructure. The washing media play the major role on both microstructural development and electrical conductivity. (author)

  10. On the theory of the electroreduction of solid oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotin, V.N.; Brajnin, M.I.; Solov'eva, L.M.; Pakhnutov, I.A.; Lukach, Yu.S.

    1986-01-01

    The process of direct current passage through the cell with MOsub(2)+MeOsub(r) solid electrolyte (M-Zr, Hf, Ce, Th; Me-Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, lanthanides), a blockage cathode and a reversible anode is considered; it leads to electrolyte deviation from stoichiometric composition to insufficient oxygen content. The degree of this deviation and n-type electron conductivity proportional to it, depending on coordinate and time, is described by the nonlinear differential equation of the diffusion type. Electron conductivity of the electrolyte near the cathode increases in time approximating to the limiting value proportional to current conducted. As the distance to the cathode increases electron conductivity reduces by the exponential law, which transforms to a linear one in due course

  11. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  12. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  13. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  14. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  15. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  16. High-temperature solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Sayed, Farheen N.; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal fragility of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a major source of performance decay in graphite anodes, and efforts to overcome the issues offered by extreme environments to Li-ion batteries have had limited success. Here, we demonstrate that the SEI can be extensively reinforced by carrying the formation cycles at elevated temperatures. Under these conditions, decomposition of the ionic liquid present in the electrolyte favored the formation of a thicker and more protective layer. Cells in which the solid electrolyte interphase was cast at 90 °C were significantly less prone to self-discharge when exposed to high temperature, with no obvious damages to the formed SEI. This additional resilience was accomplished at the expense of rate capability, as charge transfer became growingly inefficient in these systems. At slower rates, however, cells that underwent SEI formation at 90 °C presented superior performances, as a result of improved Li+ transport through the SEI, and optimal wetting of graphite by the electrolyte. This work analyzes different graphite hosts and ionic liquids, showing that this effect is more pervasive than anticipated, and offering the unique perspective that, for certain systems, temperature can actually be an asset for passivation.

  17. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  18. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widanarto

    Full Text Available An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-xTeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6, monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10−7 S cm−1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323–473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures. Keywords: Zinc-tellurite, Glass-ceramics, X-ray diffraction, Ionic conductivity, Lithium oxide

  19. Moessbauer studies of microscopic disorder in solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1987-01-01

    We implement for the first time Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) to investigate short-range properties of disorder in solid electrolytes. MS in 129 I and 119 Sn was carried out in RbAg 4 I 5 and as impurity in Ag 2 Se, respectively. Measurements were performed both in the superionic and the normal phases. It is shown that localized cation hopping is an inherent feature of the α-AgI-type solid electrolytes. In RbAg 4 I 5 , at temperatures far below T c , a small fraction of Ag is still locally mobile and at T>T c , its concentration increases exponentially. A strong linear temperature dependence of the point-charge electric field gradient is observed and explained in terms of local hopping. With 119 Sn in Ag 2 Se we observe the onset of 'local melting' of the Ag surroundingt the SnSe 4 cluster at 50 K below the bulk superionic phase transition. The characteristic features of MS related to microscopic studies of solid electrolytes are fully described. (orig.)

  20. Internal-reference solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor has been developed that eliminates the conventional oxygen reference in previous solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor designs and is, therefore, ideally suited as an insertion device for remote oxygen monitoring applications. It is constructed with two cells of stabilized zirconia sealed into a small unit using a new high-temperature platinum-zirconia seal. One electrochemical cell monitors the ratio of oxygen partial pressures inside and outside the sensor while the other solid-electrolyte cell is used for quantitative electrochemical pumping of oxygen. The internal oxygen reference is generated by initially pumping all oxygen out of the known internal volume of the sensor and then quantitatively pumping oxygen back in until oxygen partial pressures are equal inside and out. This information is used with the ideal gas law to calculate oxygen partial pressures. Tests were conducted from 400 to 1000 0 C in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen spanning approximately 0.2 to 21 percent oxygen concentration range. Sensors with sputtered platinum and porous platinum paste electrodes were compared

  1. Co-extrusion of electrolyte/anode functional layer/anode triple-layer ceramic hollow fibres for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells-electrochemical performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an anode functional layer (AFL) with controlled thickness on physical and electrochemical properties of a micro-tubular SOFC have been systematically studied. A series of electrolyte/AFL/anode triple-layer hollow fibres with controllable AFL thicknesses (16.9-52.7 μm) have been fabricated via a single-step phase-inversion assisted co-extrusion technique. Both robustness of the cell and gas-tightness of the electrolyte layer are considerably improved by introducing the AFL of this type. The fracture force of the sample with the thickest AFL (9.67 N) almost doubles when compared to the electrolyte/anode dual-layer counterpart (5.24 N). Gas-tightness of the electrolyte layer is also considerably increased as AFL contributes to better-matched sintering behaviours between different components. Moreover, the formation of an AFL simultaneously with electrolyte and anode significantly improves the cell performances. The sample with the thinnest AFL (approximately 16.9 μm, 6% of the total anode thickness) leads to a 30% (from 0.89 to 1.21 W cm-2) increase in maximum power density, due to increased triple-phase boundaries (TPB). However, further increase in TPB from a thicker AFL is less effective for improving the cell performance, due to the substantially increased fuel diffusion resistance and subsequently higher concentration polarization. This indicates that the control over the AFL thickness is critically important in avoiding offsetting the benefits of extended TPB and consequently decreased cell performances.

  2. Review on solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Song, Shufeng; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2018-06-01

    All-solid-state (ASS) lithium-ion battery has attracted great attention due to its high safety and increased energy density. One of key components in the ASS battery (ASSB) is solid electrolyte that determines performance of the ASSB. Many types of solid electrolytes have been investigated in great detail in the past years, including NASICON-type, garnet-type, perovskite-type, LISICON-type, LiPON-type, Li3N-type, sulfide-type, argyrodite-type, anti-perovskite-type and many more. This paper aims to provide comprehensive reviews on some typical types of key solid electrolytes and some ASSBs, and on gaps that should be resolved.

  3. High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Bermejo, Raul; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell systems are efficient devices to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels into electricity. The functionality of the cell is related to the structural integrity of the ceramic electrolyte, since its failure can lead to drastic performance losses. The mechanical property which is of most interest is the strength distribution at all relevant temperatures and how it is affected with time due to the environment. This study investigates the impact of the temperature on the strength and the fracture toughness of different zirconia electrolytes as well as the change of the elastic constants. 3YSZ and 6ScSZ materials are characterised regarding the influence of sub critical crack growth (SCCG) as one of the main lifetime limiting effects for ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, the reliability of different zirconia tapes is assessed with respect to temperature and SCCG. It was found that the strength is only influenced by temperature through the change in fracture toughness. SCCG has a large influence on the strength and the lifetime for intermediate temperature, while its impact becomes limited at temperatures higher than 650 °C. In this context the tetragonal 3YSZ and 6ScSZ behave quite different than the cubic 10Sc1CeSZ, so that at 850 °C it can be regarded as competitive compared to the tetragonal compounds.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, Nityanand; Chattopadhyaya, M.C.; Wani, B.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The high operating temperature of SOFCs using zirconia based electrolyte have several restrictions on materials used as interconnect and sealing and also requires use of expensive ceramics. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 600-800 deg C will enable to use cheaper materials and reduce the cost of fabrication while keeping the high power density. Lanthanide gallates are considered to be very promising solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature (600-800 deg C) solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) due to their high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. These materials are prepared at very high temperature (∼1400 deg C), since it is known that at around 1100 deg C, solubilities of Sr and Mg in LaGaO 3 were close to zero. Hence in the present work perovskite oxides of Ln 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (Ln= Sm, Gd and x = 0.10, y=0.20) have been prepared by different methods i.e. solid state reaction, gel combustion and co-precipitation methods

  5. Novel Ceramic Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysers' Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonsky, J.; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum carbide was evaluated as a possible new support for the IrO2 for use in anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. A series of supported electrocatalysts varying in mass content of iridium oxide was prepared. XRD, powder conductivity measurements and cyclic and linear...

  6. Interactions between lanthanum gallate based solid electrolyte and ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrovat, M.; Ahmad-Khanlou, A.; Samardzija, Z.; Holc, J.

    1999-10-01

    Possible interactions between La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped CeO{sub 2} (solid electrolyte and anode binding materials, respectively, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)) at 1,300 C were studied with diffusion couples and fired powder mixtures. The SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} compound was detected and its formation was attributed to the diffusion of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} from La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85} into Ce{sub 1{minus}x}La{sub x}O{sub 2{minus}x/2} solid solution. As the resistivity of SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} is rather high, around 1 M{center_dot}ohm at 800 C, its presence in the solid electrolyte/anode interface could significantly increase the internal resistivity of an SOFC.

  7. Process Developed for Generating Ceramic Interconnects With Low Sintering Temperatures for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Min; Goldsby, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered as premium future power generation devices because they have demonstrated high energy-conversion efficiency, high power density, and extremely low pollution, and have the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuel. The Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and private industries, is leading the development and commercialization of SOFCs for low-cost stationary and automotive markets. The targeted power density for the initiative is rather low, so that the SECA SOFC can be operated at a relatively low temperature (approx. 700 C) and inexpensive metallic interconnects can be utilized in the SOFC stack. As only NASA can, the agency is investigating SOFCs for aerospace applications. Considerable high power density is required for the applications. As a result, the NASA SOFC will be operated at a high temperature (approx. 900 C) and ceramic interconnects will be employed. Lanthanum chromite-based materials have emerged as a leading candidate for the ceramic interconnects. The interconnects are expected to co-sinter with zirconia electrolyte to mitigate the interface electric resistance and to simplify the processing procedure. Lanthanum chromites made by the traditional method are sintered at 1500 C or above. They react with zirconia electrolytes (which typically sinter between 1300 and 1400 C) at the sintering temperature of lanthanum chromites. It has been envisioned that lanthanum chromites with lower sintering temperatures can be co-fired with zirconia electrolyte. Nonstoichiometric lanthanum chromites can be sintered at lower temperatures, but they are unstable and react with zirconia electrolyte during co-sintering. NASA Glenn Research Center s Ceramics Branch investigated a glycine nitrate process to generate fine powder of the lanthanum-chromite-based materials. By simultaneously doping calcium on the lanthanum site, and cobalt and aluminum on the

  8. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  9. Failure analysis of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Tiefenauer, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) one key aspect is the structural integrity of the cell and hence its thermo mechanical long term behaviour. The present study investigates the failure mechanisms and the actual causes for fracture of electrolyte supported SOFCs which were run using the current μ-CHP system of Hexis AG, Winterthur - Switzerland under lab conditions or at customer sites for up to 40,000 h. In a first step several operated stacks were demounted for post-mortem inspection, followed by a fractographic evaluation of the failed cells. The respective findings are then set into a larger picture including an analysis of the present stresses acting on the cell like thermal and residual stresses and the measurements regarding the temperature dependent electrolyte strength. For all investigated stacks, the mechanical failure of individual cells can be attributed to locally acting bending loads, which rise due to an inhomogeneous and uneven contact between the metallic interconnect and the cell.

  10. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible...... electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries....

  12. Na3Si2Y0.16Zr1.84PO12-ionic liquid hybrid electrolytes: An approach for realizing solid-state sodium-ion batteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Gamarra, Carmen; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Ulissi, Ulderico; Varzi, Alberto; Varez, Alejandro; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic electrolytes are prepared through sintering processes which are carried out at high temperatures and require prolonged operating times, resulting unwelcome in industrial applications. We report a physicochemical characterization on hybrid, sodium conducting, electrolyte systems obtained by coating NASICON ceramic powders with the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. The goal is to realize a ceramic-IL interface with improved sodium mobility, aiming to obtain a solid electrolyte with high ion transport properties but avoiding sintering thermal treatment. The purpose of the present work, however, is showing how simply combining NASICON powder and Py14TFSI does not lead to any synergic effect on the resulting hybrid electrolyte, evidencing that an average functionalization of the ceramic powder surface and/or ionic liquid is needed. Also, the processing conditions for preparing the hybrid samples are found to affect their ion transport properties.

  13. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 , LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li 2 CO 3 . Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 . Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g -1 carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  14. Solid electrolyte batteries and fast ion conducting glasses, factors affecting a proposed merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, D R; Tuller, H L; Button, D P; Valez, M [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1983-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with advanced battery systems employing glass as a solid electrolyte. After an initial discussion of battery systems employing solid electrolytes, and of the attractive features offered by glass electrolytes, consideration is given to batteries fabricated with such electrolytes and to their performance characteristics. Subsequent discussion is directed to the two principal characteristics of glasses which are critical to their use as solid electrolytes - viz., their electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosive attack. The present state of knowledge in each of these areas is summarized, with particular focus on glasses with exceptionally high ionic conductivities - so-called fast ion conductors or FIC's.

  15. Nanostructured Gd-CeO2 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell by aqueous tape casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Fakhrabadi, A.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Sanhueza, Felipe A.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Ananthakumar, S.; Chan, S. H.

    2012-11-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95, GDC) electrolyte was fabricated by aqueous-based tape casting method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The ceramic powder prepared by combustion synthesis was used with poly acrylic acid (PAA), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), poly ethylene glycol (PEG), Octanol, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol ethoxylate and double distilled water as dispersant, binder, plasticizer, defoamer, surfactant and solvent respectively, to prepare stable GDC slurry. The conditions for preparing stable GDC slurries were studied and optimized by sedimentation, zeta potential and viscosity measurements. Green tapes with smooth surface, flexibility, thickness in the range of 0.35-0.4 mm and 45% relative green density were prepared. Conventional and flash sintering techniques were used and compared for densification which demonstrated the possibility of surpassing sintering at high temperatures and retarding related grain growth.

  16. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  17. High temperature fuel cell with ceria-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Eguchi, K.; Yahiro, H.; Baba, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cation-doped ceria is investigated as an electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cell. As for application to the fuel cells, the electrolyte are desired to have high ionic conductivity in deriving a large electrical power. A series of cation-doped ceria has higher ionic conductivity than zirconia-based oxides. In the present study, the basic electrochemical properties of cation-doped ceria were studied in relation to the application of fuel cells. The performance of fuel cell with yttria-doped ceria electrolyte was evaluated. Ceria-based oxides were prepared by calcination of oxide mixtures of the components or calcination of co-precipitated hydroxide mixtures from the metal nitrate solution. The oxide mixtures thus obtained were sintered at 1650 0 C for 15 hr in air into disks. Ionic transference number, t/sub i/, was estimated from emf of oxygen concentration cell. Electrical conductivities were measured by dc-4 probe method by varying the oxygen partial pressure. The fuel cell was operated by oxygen and hydrogen

  18. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  19. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  20. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  1. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  2. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  3. High Ionic Conductivity of Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte via In Situ Synthesis of Monodispersed SiO2 Nanospheres in Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yayuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-13

    High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.

  4. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O. [Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3.} By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  5. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O.

    2012-01-01

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl 2 O 4 , α-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3. By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl 2 O 4 phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  6. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  7. Synthesis, processing and characterization of the solid oxide half-cells cathode/electrolyte of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Rubens

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic films of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and strontium doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (LSM/YSZ) are used as cathodes of the high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HTSOFC). These porous ceramic films had been deposited on the YSZ dense ceramic substrate, used as electrolyte, structural component of the module, thus conferring a configuration of half-cell called auto-support. The study of the half-cell it is basic, therefore in the interface cathode/electrolyte occurs the oxygen reduction reaction, consequently influencing in the performance of the HTSOFC. In this direction, the present work contributes for the processing of thin films, using the wet powder spraying technique, adopted for the conformation of the ceramic films for allowing the attainment of porous layers with thicknesses varied in the order of micrometers. The LSM powders were synthesized by the citrate technique and the LSM/YSZ powders synthesized by the solid mixture technique. In the stage of formation were prepared organic suspensions of LSM and LSM/YSZ fed by gravity in a manual aerograph. For the formation of the YSZ substrate was used a hydraulic uniaxial press. The attainment of solid oxide half-cells cathode/electrolyte was possible of crystalline structures hexagonal for phase LSM and cubic for phase YSZ. The half-cells micrographs show that the YSZ substrate is dense, enough to be used as solid electrolyte, and the LSM and LSM/YSZ films are presented porous with approximately 30 μm of thickness and good adherence between the cathodes and the electrolyte. The presence of composite cathode between the LSM cathode and YSZ substrate, presented an increase in the electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction. (author)

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  9. Establishing Value of Ceramic Solid Waste Into Light Weight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Prasetya, H. R.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    Ceramic solid waste is a waste in the form of the ceramic or ceramic powder that has a defect and cannot be resold where the amount will continue to increase as the ceramic industry continues to produce. Handling waste so far is done by pilling it on vacant land so that if the waste continues to grow the more areas are also needed to stockpile. In addition, waste handling by boards can be a potential hazard to the surrounding environment such as chemical content in ceramics can be carried to the waters and the dust can be blown by the wind and disrupt breathing. This study aims to convert ceramics solid wastes into bricks that have more added value. Data collection is done with primary and secondary data. The method used is Taguchi experiment design to determine the optimum brick composition. The experiment consisted of 4 factors and 3 levels of ceramic with 4 kg, 5 kg and 6 kg, cement with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, silica with level 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg, water level 500 ml, 750 ml, and 1000 ml. After that proceed with the financial analysis that is determining the selling price, Break Event Point (BEP, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Pay Back Period (PBP), and Profitability Index. The results of this research are the optimum composition of the concrete blocks, 6 kg of ceramics, 5 kg of cement, 4 kg of silica sand and 1000 ml of water with the compressive strength of 125,677 kg/cm2 and signal to noise is 41,964 dB. In the financial analysis, the selling price of brick is Rp 7,751.75/unit and BEP 318,612 units of product, IRR level 43.174% and PBP for 1 year and 10 months

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  11. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V. (paper)

  12. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V.

  13. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  14. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-09-29

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite crystalline phases and good ionic conductivity were developed during the second annealing step. These films showed properties comparable to those of thermally annealed films. This process is much faster than conventional annealing processes (e.g. halogen furnaces); a few seconds compared to tens of hours, respectively. The significance of this work includes the treatment of solid-state electrolyte oxides for SOFCs and the demonstration of the feasibility of other oxide components for solid-state energy devices.

  15. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin [Export, PA; Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  16. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kanamura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li{sup +}-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li{sub 6.25}Al{sub 0.25}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ) with Li{sup +}-ion conductivity of ~10{sup –4} S ⋅cm{sup −1} at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO{sub 2}/LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO{sub 2}–LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, which is a

  17. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  18. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic lithium garnets particulate reinforced PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Samson Ho-Sum; He, Kang-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zha, Jun-Wei; Kamruzzaman, Md; Ma, Robin Lok-Wang; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K.Y.; Chung, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries are proposed to have ultimate safety and higher power and energy densities over conventional lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolytes. The Li ion conductivity and interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes are the major bottleneck of the development of all-solid-state batteries for practical uses. Here, we reported a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of uniform distributed Li ion conducting Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO) fillers in PEO/LiClO 4 matrix. The EO:Li + ratio of 15:1 is being used to achieve lower interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes through the melting process. The composite electrolyte is fabricated by simple solution casting method, which is more advantageous comparing with high temperature sintering or sol-gel method used in the fabrication of ceramic electrolytes. The composite electrolyte exhibits good Li ion conductivity of 4.8 × 10 −4 Scm −1 at 60 °C and excellent interfacial stability against Li metal. The all-solid-state lithium battery using this composite electrolyte shows a specific capacity of 140mAhg −1 and an unprecedentedly high capacity retention of 83% after 500 cycles at 60 °C and the rate of 1C. It is concluded that good electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability and contact as well as fast Li ion conductivity obtained by the addition of active garnet particulates to PEO/LiClO 4 matrix are essential criteria for good charge/discharge performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  19. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  20. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  1. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  2. Dense garnet-like Li5La3Nb2O12 solid electrolyte prepared by self-consolidation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Xiang, Yu; Xu, Yan; Wen, Yuehua; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhu, Xiayu; Li, Meng; Zhang, Sontong; Ming, Hai; Jin, Zhaoqing; Cao, Gaoping

    2018-06-01

    Li5La3Nb2O12 (LLNO) is a typical garnet-like solid electrolyte with solitary cubic structure. However, its ionic conductivity is relatively low due to the low relative density when prepared by cold isostatic pressing method, which usually involves high-pressure machines, poor productivity, tedious pressing operations, and low density. In this paper, self-consolidation method is developed to sinter dense LLNO electrolyte. Although not any pressing operations are employed in the entire process, the relative density of LLNO is promoted up to 95%, which is much higher than the reported values of 45-80%. SEM images reveal that the sample is built by huge particles in size of 80 μm indicating that there are few boundaries in the sample. Moreover, a rich content of Li-Al-O compounds is detected out in the boundary areas, which may act as sintering aids for the sample to consolidate automatically. According to the highest density, the bulk ionic conductivity of LLNO sample reaches up to 1.61 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is in the same order of magnitude as the value of cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte. This work verifies the self-consolidation mechanism for the sintering of ceramic electrolytes and could significantly facilitate the development of LLNO membrane technology.

  3. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  4. Fermi Potential across Working Solid Oxide Cells with Zirconia or Ceria Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    A solid electrolyte will always possess a finite electronic conductivity, in particular electrolytes like doped ceria that easily get reduced and become mixed ionic and electronic conductors. This given rise too high leak currents through the solid oxide cell (SOC). Especially, problems have been...... driving the O2-ions is not the Fermi potential, which is the potential of the electrons, but the Galvani potential (or inner potential) (1). The concepts of potentials describing the electrical situation of a solid electrolyte is shown i Fig. 1, and an example of the Fermi potential (π) and Galvani...

  5. Challenges and perspectives of garnet solid electrolytes for all solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Geng, Zhen; Han, Cuiping; Fu, Yongzhu; Li, Song; He, Yan-bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-06-01

    Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes recently have attracted tremendous interest as they have the potential to enable all solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) owing to high ionic conductivity (10-3 to 10-4 S cm-1), negligible electronic transport, wide potential window (up to 9 V), and good chemical stability. Here we present the key issues and challenges of LLZO in the aspects of ion conduction property, interfacial compatibility, and stability in air. First, different preparation methods of LLZO are reviewed. Then, recent progress about the improvement of ionic conductivity and interfacial property between LLZO and electrodes are presented. Finally, we list some emerging LLZO-based solid-state batteries and provide perspectives for further research. The aim of this review is to summarize the up-to-date developments of LLZO and lead the direction for future development which could enable LLZO-based ASSLBs.

  6. Preparation of ceramic coating on Ti substrate by Plasma electrolytic oxidation in different electrolytes and evaluation of its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhfar, M.; Dehghanian, C.; Baradaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic oxide coatings (titania) were produced on Ti by micro-arc oxidation in different aluminate and carbonate based electrolytes. This process was conducted under constant pulsed DC voltage condition. The effect of KOH and NaF in aluminate based solution was also studied. The surface morphology, growth and phase composition of coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior of the coatings was also examined by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sparking initiation voltage (spark voltage) had a significant effect on the form and properties of coatings. Coatings obtained from potassium aluminate based solution had a lower spark voltage, higher surface homogeneity and a better corrosion resistance than the carbonate based solution. Addition of NaF instead of KOH had improper effects on the homogeneity and adhesion of coatings which in turn caused a poor corrosion protection behavior of the oxide layer. AC impedance curves showed two time constants which is an indication of the coatings with an outer porous layer and an inner compact layer.

  7. Nonlinear ionic transport through microstructured solid electrolytes: homogenization estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the transport of multiple ionic species by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes in the presence of strong electric fields. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is heuristically deduced from a multi-scale convergence analysis of the relevant field equations. The resulting homogenized response involves an effective dissipation potential per species. Each potential is mathematically akin to that of a standard nonlinear heterogeneous conductor. A ‘linear-comparison’ homogenization technique is then used to generate estimates for these nonlinear potentials in terms of available estimates for corresponding linear conductors. By way of example, use is made of the Maxwell-Garnett and effective-medium linear approximations to generate estimates for two-phase systems with power-law dissipation. Explicit formulas are given for some limiting cases. In the case of threshold-type behavior, the estimates exhibit non-analytical dilute limits and seem to be consistent with fields localized in low energy paths.

  8. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries.

  9. Diffusion welding of ZrO2 solid electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Schmidberger, R.

    1980-01-01

    Zirconia based solid-electrolyte-cells can be applied as electrolysis-cells or fuel cells at high temperatures. Scaling up to technical aggregates must be realized by a gastight electrical series-connection of many tubular single cells. A suitable process for connecting single cells is diffusion welding. Starting materials were sintered zirconia-tubes (16 mm diameter, 10 mm length) and gastight interconnecting rings (16 mm diameter, 0.5-2mm length) from gold, platinum or electrically conducting mixed oxides. ZrO 2 -tubes and interconnecting rings were mounted in alternating sequence and diffusion welded under axial pressure at high temperatures. From economic reasons noble metals cannot be used for technical aggregates. The developments were therefore concentrated on the connection with mixed oxides. Optimized welding parameters are: 1400-1500 0 C welding temperature, 2 hours welding time and an axial pressure of approximately 1 Nmm 2 . Up to now gastight tubes consisting of 20 single cells were preparated by diffusion-welding in one step. The process will be further developed for the production of 50-cell-tubes with a total length of about 60 cm. (orig.) [de

  10. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  11. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite cr...

  12. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  13. Recent progress in sulfide-based solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D., E-mail: liu.dongqiang@ireq.ca; Zhu, W.; Feng, Z.; Guerfi, A.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}S-GeS{sub 2}-P{sub 2}S{sub 5} ternary diagram showing various sulphide compounds as solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. • Thio-LISICON type electrolytes exhibited high ionic conductivity due to their bcc sublattice and unique Li{sup +} diffusion pathway. • “Mixed-anion effect” is also an effective way to modify the energy landscape as well as the ionic conductivity. - Abstract: Sulfide-based ionic conductors are one of most attractive solid electrolyte candidates for all-solid-state batteries. In this review, recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. In particular, lithium thio-phosphates such as Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11}, Li{sub 10}GeP{sub 2}S{sub 12} and Li{sub 11}Si{sub 2}PS{sub 12} etc. exhibit extremely high ionic conductivity of over 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at room temperature, even higher than those of commercial organic carbonate electrolytes. The relationship between structure and unprecedented high ionic conductivity is delineated; some potential drawbacks of these electrolytes are also outlined.

  14. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  15. Recent Developments of All-Solid-State Lithium Secondary Batteries with Sulfide Inorganic Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Zhang, Shengzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Wu, Jianbo; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-20

    Due to the increasing demand of security and energy density, all-solid-state lithium ion batteries have become the promising next-generation energy storage devices to replace the traditional liquid batteries with flammable organic electrolytes. In this Minireview, we focus on the recent developments of sulfide inorganic electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries. The challenges of assembling bulk-type all-solid-state batteries for industrialization are discussed, including low ionic conductivity of the present sulfide electrolytes, high interfacial resistance and poor compatibility between electrolytes and electrodes. Many efforts have been focused on the solutions for these issues. Although some progresses have been achieved, it is still far away from practical application. The perspectives for future research on all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Configuring PSx tetrahedral clusters in Li-excess Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wo Dum Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the Li-ion conductivity can be improved by adding a certain amount of Li (x = 0.25–0.5 as a charge carrier to the composition of glass-ceramic Li7+xP3S11. Structural analysis clarified that the structural changes caused by the ratio of ortho-thiophosphate tetrahedra PS43− and pyro-thiophosphate ditetrahedra P2S74− affect the Li-ion conductivity. The ratio of PS43− and P2S74− varies depending on x and the highest Li-ion conductivity (2.5 × 10−3 S cm−1 at x = 0.25. All-solid-state LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/Li7.25P3S11/In-metal cell exhibits the discharge capacity of 106.2 mAh g−1. This ion conduction enhancement from excess Li is expected to contribute to the future design of sulfide-type electrolytes.

  17. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  18. Modulation of solid electrolyte interphase of lithium-ion batteries by LiDFOB and LiBOB electrolyte additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Wang, Shuwei; Hu, Guohong; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Shen, Cai

    2018-05-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is an organic-inorganic composite layer that allows Li+ transport across but blocks electron flow across and prevents solvent diffusing to electrode surface. Morphology, thickness, mechanical and chemical properties of SEI are important for safety and cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we employ a combination of in-situ AFM and XPS to investigate the effects of two electrolyte additives namely lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) on SEI layer. LiDFOB is found to result in a thin but hard SEI layer containing more inorganic species (LiF and LiCO3); meanwhile LiBOB promotes formation of a thick but soft SEI layer containing more organic species such as ROCO2Li. Findings from present study will help development of electrolyte additives that promote formation of good SEI layer.

  19. Local Structure and Ionic Conduction at Interfaces of Electrode and Solid Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotsohi; Oga, Yusuke; Saruwatari, Isamu; Moriguchi, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    All solid state batteries are attracting interests as next generation energy storage devices. However, little is known on interfaces between active materials and solid electrolytes, which may affect performance of the devices. In this study, interfacial phenomena between electrodes and solid electrolytes of all solid state batteries were investigated by using nano-composites of Li 2SiO 3-TiO 2, Li 2SiO 3-LiTiO 2, and Li 2SiO 3-FePO 4. Studies on ionic conductivity of these composites revealed...

  20. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  1. CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES OF (PEO +KHCO3 SOLID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION AS AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte system, polyethylene oxide (PEO complexed with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 salt was prepared by solution-cast technique. Several experimental techniques such as infrared radiation (IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and composition dependence conductivity, temperature dependence conductivity in the temperature range of 308–368 K and transport number measurements were employed to characterize this polymer electrolyte system. The conductivity of the (PEO+KHCO3 electrolyte was found to be about 3 times larger than that of pure PEO at room temperature. The transference data indicated that the charge transport in these polymer electrolyte systems is predominantly due to K+ ions. Using this polymer electrolyte an electrochemical cell with configuration K+/(PEO+KHCO3/(I2+C+electrolyte was fabricated and its discharge characteristics are studied. A number of other cell parameters associated with the cell were evaluated and are reported in this paper.

  2. A modified anode/electrolyte structure for a solid oxide electrochemical cell and a method for making said structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    -stabilised zirconium oxide electrolyte and (c) a metallic and/or a ceramic electrocatalyst in the shape of interlayers incorporated in the interface between the anode and the electrolyte. This assembly is first sintered at a given temperature and then at a lower temperature in reducing gas mixtures. These heat...... treatments resulted in a distribution of the metallic and/or ceramic interlayers in the electrolyte/anode backbone junction taking place. The structure is prepared by (a) depositing a ceramic interlayer onto one side of the electrolyte, (b) optionally applying a metallic interlayer thereon, (c) repeating...... steps (a) and (b), (d) applying a layer of the selected anode backbone onto the electrolyte with applied interlayers, (e) sintering the raw assembly and (f) infiltrating the electrocatalyst precursor into the sintered assembly and heat treating the assembly to incorporate additional electrocatalyst...

  3. Electrolytic in process dressing (ELID) applied to double side grinding of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Cristian E.

    The objective of the present work is to design, optimize, and validate an electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID)-assisted double side grinding process for finishing advanced ceramic components. To attain this objective, an original ELID double side grinding system was designed, fabricated, and operated at Precision Micro-Machining Center at The University of Toledo, Ohio. The ELID technique was selected from among other options to assure the in-situ dressing of the metal-bonded superabrasive grinding wheel and to maintain its cutting ability throughout the operation, which is, otherwise, a challenging enterprise. Optimizing the ELID double side grinding process parameters is an important goal of the present study. To achieve this goal, a complex integrated model was developed and validated through extensive experimental testing. Four analytical computerized models were developed and integrated: (1) an improved kinematic model of double side grinding accounting for workpiece rotation, which is used to simulate the grinding trajectories; (2) a microscopic model of the interaction between a single diamond grit and the work surface, which is used to predict the volume of material removed; (3) a stochastic model for the topographical characterization of the superabrasive wheel, which leads to a new prediction method of depth of indentation; and (4) an electrolytic oxidation model, which explains the dynamics of the oxide layer. In order to validate the models and to confirm the optimized process, experimental tests were conducted under different conditions: with vitrified and metallic bond grinding wheels, with various average grain sizes of diamond grits, with different superabrasive concentrations, with different grinding fluids, with and without ELID assistance. Our findings show that an optimized ceramic double side grinding process using fine diamond grit is more efficient than lapping in producing very fine surfaces. The experiments confirmed the superiority of

  4. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  5. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  6. Zirconia based ceramic coating on a metal with plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, T.; Kato, T.; Shinoda, Y.; Wakai, F.

    2011-10-01

    We challenge to fabricate a thermal barrier coating (TBC) made of ZrO2 based ceramics on a Ni based single crystal superalloy with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) by incorporating metal species from electrolyte into the coating. The PEO process is carried out on the superalloy galvanized with aluminium for 15min in Na4O7P4 solution for an oxygen barrier coating (OBC) and is followed by PEO in K2[Zr(CO3)2(OH)2] solution for TBC. We obtained the following results; (1) Monoclinic-, tetragonal-, cubic-ZrO2 crystals were detected in TBC. (2) High porosity with large pores was observed near the interface between OBC and TBC. The fine grain structure with a grain size of about 300nm was typically observed. (3) The adhesion strength between PEO coatings and substrate was evaluated to be 26.8±6.6MPa. At the adhesion strength test, PEO coatings fractured around the interface between OBC and TBC. The effect of coating structure on adhesion strength is explained through the change in spark discharge during PEO process.

  7. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  8. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  9. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of 9-YSZ solid electrolyte on Ni- YSZ composite; Estudos de deposicao eletroforetica de ceramicas de 9-YSZ sobre Ni-YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.S.; Yoshito, W.K.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V., E-mail: vussui@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    9-YSZ ceramic and Ni-YSZ metal/ceramic composite are the more commonly used materials for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte and anode, respectively. The main challenges for these applications are the forming of both materials as superposed double thin layers. In the present work ceramic powder of 9- YSZ was synthesized by a coprecipitation technique and the Ni O-YSZ composite by a combustion technique. The later was formed by uniaxial pressing as cylindrical pellets of 15 mm diameter. Thin ceramic layers of 9-YSZ were deposited on composite pellets from a suspension with 10% solid content by an Electrophoretic Deposition technique. Applied voltage varied in the range of 30 to 200 V and deposition time from 15 to 90 seconds, evaluating the deposited mass, porosity on the interface and adhesion of layers. Resulted ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and were observed in a scanning electron microscope. Results showed that deposited layers are thin ({approx}20{mu}m), dense and have good adhesion on the surface of composite substrate. (author)

  11. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda, Yasushi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Katoh, Takashi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode, a Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic. (author)

  12. A novel thermosetting gel electrolyte for stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Z.; Lin, J.M.; Huang, M.L.; Hao, S.C. [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Sato, T.; Yin, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-Chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wu, J.H.

    2007-11-19

    Using poly(acrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-absorbing liquid electrolyte, we prepare a novel thermosetting gel electrolyte (TSGE) with ionic conductivity of 6.12 mS cm{sup -1}. Based on the TSGE, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with a good long-term stability and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.10 % is attained under AM 1.5 irradiation. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Functional Polymer Electrolytes for Multidimensional All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Pressing demands for high power and high energy densities in novel electrical energy storage units have caused reconsiderations regarding both the choice of battery chemistry and design. Practical concerns originating in the conventional use of flammable liquid electrolytes have renewed the interests of using solvent-free polymer electrolytes (SPEs) as solid ionic conductors for safer batteries. In this thesis work, SPEs developed from two polymer host structures, polyethers and polycarbonate...

  14. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  15. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  16. Kinetics of aging of metastable, zirconium-dioxide-based solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of aging of zirconium-dioxide-based metastable solid oxide electrolytes stabilized with 8 to 10 mole % of yttrium, holmium, or scandium oxide were studied over the temperature range from 1200 to 1373 0 K. Kinetic equations were proposed which describe the conduction behavior of two-phase solid electrolytes in a wide time range. The processes were found to occur independently at the initial stage of aging in the cubic solution, viz., an increase in the number of nuclei of the new phase, and a growth in volume of nuclei of the new phase. After a long time the former process ceases, and the kinetics of aging of the electrolyte only are determined by the kinetics of volume growth of the inclusions of new phase. The time-dependent behavior of two-phase solid solutions is discussed theoretically and examined experimentally

  17. Kinetics of aging of metastable solid electrolytes based on zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of aging of metastable solid electrolytes on the base of zirconium dioxide stabilized with 8-10 mol.%of yttrium, holmium, and scandium oxides has been studied within the 1200-1373 K temperature range. Kinetic equations describibg behaviour of electric conductivity of two-phase solid electrolytes within a wide temperature interval have been suggested. It has been established that at the initial stage of ageing in cubic solid solution two processes proceed independently of one another: growth of a number of new phase centres and of a volume of new phase centres. At large times growth of a number of new phase centres stops, and kinetics of electrolyte aging is defined only by the growth kinetics of a volume of new phase inclusions

  18. Screening possible solid electrolytes by calculating the conduction pathways using Bond Valence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Chu, Geng; He, Meng; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, RuiJuan; Li, Hong; Chen, LiQuan

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic solid electrolytes have distinguished advantages in terms of safety and stability, and are promising to substitute for conventional organic liquid electrolytes. However, low ionic conductivity of typical candidates is the key problem. As connective diffusion path is the prerequisite for high performance, we screen for possible solid electrolytes from the 2004 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) database by calculating conduction pathways using Bond Valence (BV) method. There are 109846 inorganic crystals in the 2004 ICDD database, and 5295 of them contain lithium. Except for those with toxic, radioactive, rare, or variable valence elements, 1380 materials are candidates for solid electrolytes. The rationality of the BV method is approved by comparing the existing solid electrolytes' conduction pathways we had calculated with those from experiments or first principle calculations. The implication for doping and substitution, two important ways to improve the conductivity, is also discussed. Among them Li2CO3 is selected for a detailed comparison, and the pathway is reproduced well with that based on the density functional studies. To reveal the correlation between connectivity of pathways and conductivity, α/ γ-LiAlO2 and Li2CO3 are investigated by the impedance spectrum as an example, and many experimental and theoretical studies are in process to indicate the relationship between property and structure. The BV method can calculate one material within a few minutes, providing an efficient way to lock onto targets from abundant data, and to investigate the structure-property relationship systematically.

  19. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  20. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

    2007-02-12

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  1. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Hammond, Mark H.; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  2. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-01-01

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and α- and γ- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  3. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei

    2009-08-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard conducting ceramic material often used as a coating for titanium alloys as well as steel and aluminum components to improve their surface properties. In this study, conducting ceramic nanoparticles (CCNPs) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached 1.68%, which was higher than that without adding TiC (1.18%); however, cell efficiency decreased when the TiC content reached 1.0 wt%. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was employed to analyze the interfacial resistance in DSSCs, and it was found that the resistance of the charge-transfer process at the Pt counter electrode (Rct1) decreased when up to 1.0 wt% TiC was added. Presumably, this was due to the formation of the extended electron transfer surface (EETS) which facilitates electron transfer to the bulk electrolyte, resulting in a decrease of the dark current, whereby the open-circuit potential (VOC) could be improved. Furthermore, a significant increase in the fill factor (FF) for all TiC additions was related to the decrease in the series resistance (RS) of the DSSCs. However, at 1.0 wt% TiC, the largest charge-transfer resistance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface was observed and resulted from the poor penetration of the electrolyte into the porous TiO2. The long-term stability of DSSCs with a binary ionic liquid electrolyte, which is superior to that of an organic solvent-based electrolyte, was also studied. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Grinding Parameter Optimization of Ultrasound-Aided Electrolytic in Process Dressing for Finishing Nanocomposite Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the precision and efficient processing of nanocomposite ceramics, the ultrasound-aided electrolytic in process dressing method was proposed. But how to realize grinding parameter optimization, that is, the maximum processing efficiency, on the premise of the assurance of best workpiece quality is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. Firstly, this research investigated the influence of grinding parameters on material removal rate and critical ductile depth, and their mathematic models based on the existing models were developed to simulate the material removal process. Then, on the basis of parameter sensitivity analysis based on partial derivative, the sensitivity models of material removal rates on grinding parameter were established and computed quantitatively by MATLAB, and the key grinding parameter for optimal grinding process was found. Finally, the theoretical analyses were verified by experiments: the material removal rate increases with the increase of grinding parameters, including grinding depth (ap, axial feeding speed (fa, workpiece speed (Vw, and wheel speed (Vs; the parameter sensitivity of material removal rate was in a descending order as ap>fa>Vw>Vs; the most sensitive parameter (ap was optimized and it was found that the better machining result has been obtained when ap was about 3.73 μm.

  5. Design of high quality doped CeO2 solid electrolytes with nanohetero structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Ou, D.R.; Ye, F.; Drennan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doped cerium (CeO 2 ) compounds are fluorite related oxides which show oxide ionic conductivity higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia in oxidizing atmosphere. As a consequence of this, a considerable interest has been shown in application of these materials for low (400-650 o C) temperature operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this paper, our experimental data about the influence of microstructure at the atomic level on electrochemical properties were reviewed in order to develop high quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in fuel cell applications. Using this data in the present paper, our original idea for a design of nanodomain structure in doped CeO 2 electrolytes was suggested. The nanosized powders and dense sintered bodies of M doped CeO 2 (M:Sm,Gd,La,Y,Yb, and Dy) compounds were fabricated. Also nanostructural features in these specimens were introduced for conclusion of relationship between electrolytic properties and domain structure in doped CeO 2 . It is essential that the electrolytic properties in doped CeO 2 solid electrolytes reflect in changes of microstructure even down to the atomic scale. Accordingly, a combined approach of nanostructure fabrication, electrical measurement and structure characterization was required to develop superior quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in the fuel cells. (author)

  6. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  7. Development of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte for fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Matui, Yoshinori; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Kobiyama, Mamoru; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    1999-01-01

    The oxygen potential in oxide fuel pellet is an important parameter to understand behavior of high burn up fuel and its integrity. Zirconia solid electrolyte which is durable under irradiation and high temperature is considered as candidate material for the oxygen potential. Combined use of solid electrolyte and Ni/NiO as a solid standard electrode will realize small size oxygen sensor which can be easily loaded in the fuel rod. Prototypes of the oxygen sensor made of these materials were irradiated with neutrons the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), and characteristics of electromotive force (EMF) by sensors were examined under irradiation. For a prototype using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by Y 2 O 3 (YSZ), measured EMF under irradiation was nearly equivalent to the value under unirradiated condition, and very stable within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1.52 x 10 23 m -2 and for the time of 600 h. However, the measured EMFs were slightly smaller than the theoretical values. The reason for this decrease of the EMF was thought as due to insufficient adhesion forces between solid electrolyte and standard electrode. After modification of the sensor to increase adhesion force, EMF was measured again under irradiation. The results showed improvement of the characteristics of the sensor in which measured EMFs were almost equivalent to the theoretical values. (author)

  8. Microwave-assisted reactive sintering and lithium ion conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallopeau, Leopold; Bregiroux, Damien; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Portehault, David; Stevens, Philippe; Toussaint, Gwenaëlle; Laberty-Robert, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) materials are made of a three-dimensional framework of TiO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra, which provides several positions for Li+ ions. The resulting high ionic conductivity is promising to yield electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In order to elaborate dense ceramics, conventional sintering methods often use high temperature (≥1000 °C) with long dwelling times (several hours) to achieve high relative density (∼90%). In this work, an innovative synthesis and processing approach is proposed. A fast and easy processing technique called microwave-assisted reactive sintering is used to both synthesize and sinter LATP ceramics with suitable properties in one single step. Pure and crystalline LATP ceramics can be achieved in only 10 min at 890 °C starting from amorphous, compacted LATP's precursors powders. Despite a relative density of 88%, the ionic conductivity measured at ambient temperature (3.15 × 10-4 S cm-1) is among the best reported so far. The study of the activation energy for Li+ conduction confirms the high quality of the ceramic (purity and crystallinity) achieved by using this new approach, thus emphasizing its interest for making ion-conducting ceramics in a simple and fast way.

  9. Application of sol gel spin coated yttria-stabilized zirconia layers for the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Tang, Zhaolin; Burgess, Alan [Northwest Mettech Corp., 467 Mountain Hwy, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7J 2L3 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Due to its high thermal stability and purely oxide ionic conductivity, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most commonly used electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Standard electrolyte fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs involve wet ceramic techniques such as tape-casting or screen printing, requiring sintering steps at temperatures above 1300 C. Plasma spraying (PS) may provide a more rapid and cost efficient method to produce SOFCs without sintering. High-temperature sintering requires long processing times and can lead to oxidation of metal alloys used as mechanical supports, or to detrimental interreactions between the electrolyte and adjacent electrode layers. This study investigates the use of spin coated sol gel derived YSZ precursor solutions to fill the pores present in plasma sprayed YSZ layers, and to enhance the surface area for reaction at the electrolyte-cathode interface, without the use of high-temperature firing steps. The effects of different plasma conditions and sol concentrations and solid loadings on the gas permeability and fuel cell performance have been investigated. (author)

  10. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  11. Electrical Properties Of Indium And Yttrium-Doped Barium Cerate-Based Compounds For Use As Ceramic Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawel R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the electrical properties of BaCe0.85Y0.15O3−δ (BCY15, BaCe0.70In0.30O3−δ (BCI30 and a composite material consisting of 30%vol. BCY15 and 70%vol. Ce0.85Y0.15O2−δ (YDC15. BCY15 and YDC15 were synthesized by co-precipitation, whereas BCI30 was obtained using the solid-state reaction method. Pellets were initially formed from powders at 5 MPa, after which they were isostatically pressed at 250 MPa and sintered at 1500°C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to determine the electrical properties of the samples in both air (pO2 = 0.021 MPa and Ar-5%H2 atmospheres. In the temperature range 200-400°C in air atmosphere the highest conductivity values were determined for BCY15 (5,22·10−5 − 2.74·10−3 S/cm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity values obtained for Y70B30 in both atmospheres between 200 and 550°C are in the order of magnitude of 10−7 − 10−3 S/cm. Consequently, it can be concluded that the compounds exhibit significant H+ and O2− electrical conductivity at temperatures above 500°C, which indicates the possibility for their potential use as ceramic fuel cell electrolytes.

  12. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  13. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  14. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, 301B Still Gym, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hubaud, A.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, J.T., E-mail: vaughey@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: • Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. • Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. • Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  15. Point Electrode Studies of the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben

    the equivalent capacity, $C^{1/\\alpha}$, plotted against the contact area during an experimental period of 2 weeks. The contact area is calculated from the electrolyte resistance as $A=1/(4\\pi(\\sigma R_{YSZ})^2)$. After the electrode has been allowed to touch the electrolyte an increasing capacity proportional......$C in air. The different perturbations are indicated on the graph by numbers. 1-2\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at equilibrium. Determination of activation energies.} 3-4\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to -0.150\\,V for 5 hours. Activation.} 5-6\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential staircase 0...... $\\rightarrow$ -0.150 $\\rightarrow$ 0.050$\\rightarrow$ -0.150 0V. Potential dependence of parameters.} 6-7\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to 0.050\\,V for 4 hours. Activation.} 8-9\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ As 5-6.} 9-10\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at -0.150\\,V. Activation energies.} 11-12\\hfill...

  16. Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with proton-conducting Y:BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte on porous anodic aluminum oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seungbum [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Su, Pei-Chen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a nano thin-film yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) solid-oxide fuel cell that uses nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a supporting and gas-permeable substrate. The anode was fabricated by sputtering 300 nm platinum thin film that partially covered the AAO surface pores, followed by an additional conformal platinum coating to tune the pore size by atomic layer deposition. Two different nano-porous anode structures with a pore size of 10 nm or 50 nm were deposited. Proton-conducting BYZ ceramic electrolyte with increasing thicknesses of 300, 600, and 900 nm was deposited on top of the platinum anode by pulsed laser deposition, followed by a 200 nm layer of porous Pt sputtered on BYZ electrolyte as a cathode. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cells was characterized at 250 °C with 1:1 volumetric stoichiometry of a methanol/water vapor mixture as the fuel. The OCVs were 0.17 V with a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 50 nm pores and 0.3 V with a 600 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, respectively, but it increased to 0.8 V for a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, indicating that increasing the film thickness and decreasing a surface pore size help to reduce the number of electrolyte pinholes and the gas leakage through the electrolyte. A maximum power density of 5.6 mW/cm{sup 2} at 250 °C was obtained from the fuel cell with 900 nm of BYZ electrolyte using methanol vapor as a fuel. - Highlights: • A low temperature ceramic fuel cell on nano-porous substrate was demonstrated. • A thin-film yttrium doped barium zirconate (BYZ) was deposited as an electrolyte. • An open circuit voltage (OCV) was measured to verify the BYZ film quality. • An OCV increased by increasing BYZ film thickness and decreasing pore size of anode. • The current–voltage performance was measured using vaporized methanol fuel at 250 °C.

  17. Interaction between cobalt-containing materials and solid electrolyte on the basis of lanthanum gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronin, D.I.; Kuzin, B.L.; Sokolova, Yu.V.; Polyakova, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature interaction of solid electrolyte La 0.88 Sr 0.12 Mg 0.18 Ga 0.82 O 3-α with material of oxygen electrode La 0.7 Sr 0.3 CoO 3-δ (LSC) and with Co 3 O 4 and its influence on electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSO and Pt were studied using the methods of X-ray microanalysis, conductometry and impedance-spectroscopy. It was ascertained that the surface of the solid electrolyte contacting LSC or Co 3 O 4 at a temperature of 1100 Deg C and higher is enriched by cobalt. Electric conductivity of the electrolyte layer modified by cobalt is noticeably higher than that of the initial one. Electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSC is 1-2 ordered higher than the one characteristic of platinum electrode [ru

  18. Three-dimensional ionic conduction in the strained electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yupei; Zou, Minda; Lv, Weiqiang; He, Weidong; Mao, Yiwu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Flexible power sources including fuel cells and batteries are the key to realizing flexible electronic devices with pronounced foldability. To understand the bending effects in these devices, theoretical analysis on three-dimensional (3-D) lattice bending is necessary. In this report, we derive a 3-D analytical model to analyze the effects of electrolyte crystal bending on ionic conductivity in flexible solid-state batteries/fuel cells. By employing solid oxide fuel cells as a materials' platform, the intrinsic parameters of bent electrolyte materials, including lattice constant, Young's modulus, and Poisson ratio, are evaluated. Our work facilitates the rational design of highly efficient flexible electrolytes for high-performance flexible device applications.

  19. Electrocatalysis in Water Electrolysis with Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasten, Egil

    2001-10-01

    Development and optimization of the electrodes in a water electrolysis system using a polymer membrane as electrolyte have been carried out in this work. A cell voltage of 1.59 V (energy consumption of about 3.8 kWh/Nm{sub 3} H{sub 2}) has been obtained at practical operation conditions of the electrolysis cell (10 kA . m2, 90{sup o}C) using a total noble metal loading of less than 2.4 mg.cm{sub 2} and a Nafion -115 membrane. It is further shown that a cell voltage of less than 1.5 V is possible at the same conditions by combination of the best electrodes obtained in this work. The most important limitation of the electrolysis system using polymer membrane as electrolyte has proven to be the electrical conductivity of the catalysts due to the porous backing/current collector system, which increases the length of the current path and decreases the cross section compared to the apparent one. A careful compromise must therefore be obtained between electrical conductivity and active surface area, which can be tailored by preparation and annealing conditions of the metal oxide catalysts. Anode catalysts of different properties have been developed. The mixed oxide of Ir-Ta (85 mole% Ir) was found to exhibit highest voltage efficiency at a current density of 10 kA.m{sub 2} or below, whereas the mixed oxide of Ir and Ru (60-80 mole% Ir) was found to give the highest voltage efficiency for current densities of above 10 kA.m{sub 2}. Pt on carbon particles, was found to be less suitable as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis. The large carbon particles introduced an unnecessary porosity into the catalytic layer, which resulted in a high ohmic drop. Much better voltage efficiency was obtained by using Pt-black as cathode catalyst, which showed a far better electrical conductivity. Ru-oxide as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis systems using a polymer electrolyte was not found to be of particular interest due to insufficient electrochemical activity and too low

  20. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  1. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...

  2. Proton-conducting solid acid electrolytes based upon MH(PO3H)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.

    2011-01-01

    Solid acids, such as CsHSO4 and CsH2PO4, are a novel class of anhydrous proton-conducting compounds that can be used as electrolyte in H2/O2 and direct methanol fuel cells. The disordering of the hydrogen-bonded network above the so-called superprotonic phase transition results in an increase of the

  3. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  4. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  5. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  6. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...... vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions...... between ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C. The available literature on chemical stability of cerate perovskites to reduction and attack by carbon dioxide is reviewed in brief....

  7. Review on modeling of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiping; Kadam, Sanket; Li, Hong; Shi, Siqi; Qi, Yue

    2018-03-01

    A passivation layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed on electrode surfaces from decomposition products of electrolytes. The SEI allows Li+ transport and blocks electrons in order to prevent further electrolyte decomposition and ensure continued electrochemical reactions. The formation and growth mechanism of the nanometer thick SEI films are yet to be completely understood owing to their complex structure and lack of reliable in situ experimental techniques. Significant advances in computational methods have made it possible to predictively model the fundamentals of SEI. This review aims to give an overview of state-of-the-art modeling progress in the investigation of SEI films on the anodes, ranging from electronic structure calculations to mesoscale modeling, covering the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrolyte reduction reactions, SEI formation, modification through electrolyte design, correlation of SEI properties with battery performance, and the artificial SEI design. Multi-scale simulations have been summarized and compared with each other as well as with experiments. Computational details of the fundamental properties of SEI, such as electron tunneling, Li-ion transport, chemical/mechanical stability of the bulk SEI and electrode/(SEI/) electrolyte interfaces have been discussed. This review shows the potential of computational approaches in the deconvolution of SEI properties and design of artificial SEI. We believe that computational modeling can be integrated with experiments to complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the complex SEI for the development of a highly efficient battery in the future.

  8. Behavior of strontium- and magnesium-doped gallate electrolyte in direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Xiao, Jie; Xie, Yongmin; Tang, Yubao; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3−δ (LSGM) can be used as electrolyte of direct carbon SOFCs. • DC-SOFC with LSGM electrolyte gives higher performance than that with YSZ. • LSGM-electrolyte DC-SOFC gives maximum power density of 383 mW cm −2 at 850 °C. • Operation of LSGM-DC-SOFC at 210 mA cm −2 lasts 72 min, with fuel utilization of 60%. - Abstract: Perovskite-type La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3−δ (LSGM) is synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. Its phase composition, microstructure, relative density, and oxygen-ionic conductivity are investigated. Tubular electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are prepared with the LSGM as electrolyte and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) mixed with silver as anode. The SOFCs are operated with Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. A typical single cell gives a maximum power density of 383 mW cm −2 at 850 °C, which is nearly 1.3 times higher than that of the similar cell with YSZ as electrolyte. A stability test of 72 min is carried out at a constant current density of 210 mA cm −2 , with a fuel utilization of 60%, indicating that LaGaO 3 -based electrolyte is promising to be applied in direct carbon SOFCs (DC-SOFCs)

  9. Behavior of strontium- and magnesium-doped gallate electrolyte in direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Xiao, Jie; Xie, Yongmin [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tang, Yubao [Key Laboratory of Sensor Analysis of Tumor Marker Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao o 266042 (China); Liu, Jiang, E-mail: jiangliu@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Meilin [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (LSGM) can be used as electrolyte of direct carbon SOFCs. • DC-SOFC with LSGM electrolyte gives higher performance than that with YSZ. • LSGM-electrolyte DC-SOFC gives maximum power density of 383 mW cm{sup −2} at 850 °C. • Operation of LSGM-DC-SOFC at 210 mA cm{sup −2} lasts 72 min, with fuel utilization of 60%. - Abstract: Perovskite-type La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (LSGM) is synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. Its phase composition, microstructure, relative density, and oxygen-ionic conductivity are investigated. Tubular electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are prepared with the LSGM as electrolyte and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) mixed with silver as anode. The SOFCs are operated with Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. A typical single cell gives a maximum power density of 383 mW cm{sup −2} at 850 °C, which is nearly 1.3 times higher than that of the similar cell with YSZ as electrolyte. A stability test of 72 min is carried out at a constant current density of 210 mA cm{sup −2}, with a fuel utilization of 60%, indicating that LaGaO{sub 3}-based electrolyte is promising to be applied in direct carbon SOFCs (DC-SOFCs)

  10. Structural and optical characterization of PVA:KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omed Gh. Abdullah

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA doped with a different weight percent of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 were prepared by standard solution cast method. XRD and FTIR techniques were performed for structural study. Complex formation between the PVA polymer and KMnO4 salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The description of crystalline nature of the solid polymer electrolyte films has been confirmed by XRD analysis. The UV-Visible absorption spectra were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The fundamental optical parameters such as optical band gap energy, refractive index, optical conductivity, and dielectric constants have been investigated and showed a clear dependence on the KMnO4 concentration. The observed value of optical band gap energy for pure PVA is about 6.27 eV and decreases to a value 3.12 eV for the film sample formed with 4 wt% KMnO4 salt. The calculated values of refractive index and the dielectric constants of the polymer electrolyte films increase with increasing KMnO4 content. Keywords: Solid polymer electrolyte, XRD analysis, FTIR study, Optical band gap, Dielectric constant, Refractive index

  11. Ion transport property studies on PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Agrawal, R C; Mahipal, Y K

    2009-01-01

    The ion transport property studies on Ag + ion conducting PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes, (1 - x)[90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ] : xPVP, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 (wt%), are reported. SPE films were caste using a novel hot-press technique instead of the traditional solution cast method. The conventional solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) film, (90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ), also prepared by the hot-press method and identified as the highest conducting composition at room temperature on the basis of PEO-AgNO 3 -salt concentration dependent conductivity studies, was used as the first-phase polymer electrolyte host into which PVP were dispersed as second-phase dispersoid. A two-fold conductivity enhancement from that of the PEO host could be achieved at room temperature for PVP blended SPE film composition: 98(90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ) : 2PVP. This has been referred to as optimum conducting composition (OCC). The formation of SPE membranes and material characterizations were done with the help of the XRD and DSC techniques. The ion transport mechanism in this SPE OCC has been characterized with the help of basic ionic parameters, namely ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion ). Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions.

  12. Bioinspired Ultrastrong Solid Electrolytes with Fast Proton Conduction along 2D Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangwei; Xu, Mingzhao; Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Shengtao; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Zhen; He, Xueyi; Huang, Tong; Cao, Moyuan; Wu, Hong; Guiver, Michael D; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2017-07-01

    Solid electrolytes have attracted much attention due to their great prospects in a number of energy- and environment-related applications including fuel cells. Fast ion transport and superior mechanical properties of solid electrolytes are both of critical significance for these devices to operate with high efficiency and long-term stability. To address a common tradeoff relationship between ionic conductivity and mechanical properties, electrolyte membranes with proton-conducting 2D channels and nacre-inspired architecture are reported. An unprecedented combination of high proton conductivity (326 mS cm -1 at 80 °C) and superior mechanical properties (tensile strength of 250 MPa) are achieved due to the integration of exceptionally continuous 2D channels and nacre-inspired brick-and-mortar architecture into one materials system. Moreover, the membrane exhibits higher power density than Nafion 212 membrane, but with a comparative weight of only ≈0.1, indicating potential savings in system weight and cost. Considering the extraordinary properties and independent tunability of ion conduction and mechanical properties, this bioinspired approach may pave the way for the design of next-generation high-performance solid electrolytes with nacre-like architecture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  14. Further studies on the lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichonat, Tristan; Lethien, Christophe; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Godey, Sylvie; Pichonat, Emmanuelle; Roussel, Pascal; Colmont, Marie; Rolland, Paul Alain

    2010-01-01

    First step in the way to the fabrication of an all-solid microbattery for autonomous wireless sensor node, amorphous thin solid films of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) were prepared by radio-frequency sputtering of a mixture target of P 2 O 5 /Li 2 O in ambient nitrogen atmosphere. The morphology, composition, and ionic conductivity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and A.C. impedance spectroscopy. With a thickness of 1.4 μm, the obtained LiPON amorphous layer provided an ionic conductivity close to 6 x 10 -7 S cm -1 at room temperature. MicroRaman UV spectroscopy study was successfully carried out for the first time on LiPON thin films to complete the characterization and bring further information on LiPON structure.

  15. Current limit diagrams for dendrite formation in solid-state electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R.; Wolfenstine, J.

    2017-03-01

    We build upon the concept that nucleation of lithium dendrites at the lithium anode-solid state electrolyte interface is instigated by the higher resistance of grain boundaries that raises the local electro-chemical potential of lithium, near the lithium-electrode. This excess electro-chemo-mechanical potential, however, is reduced by the mechanical back stress generated when the dendrite is formed within the electrolyte. These parameters are coalesced into an analytical model that prescribes a specific criterion for dendrite formation. The results are presented in the form of current limit diagrams that show the "safe" and "fail" regimes for battery function. A higher conductivity of the electrolyte can reduce dendrite formation.

  16. Conformation of LSM/YSZ and LSM ceramic films obtained by the citrate and solid mixture techniques; Conformacao de filmes ceramicos de LSM e LSM/YSZ obtidos pelas tecnicas citratos e mistura de solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, R.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: rchiba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de SOFC - Insumos e Componentes

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the ceramic films of LSM/YSZ (strontium-doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM used as cathodes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are conformed by the wet powder spraying technique. The composite LSM/YSZ was obtained by the solid mixture technique and LSM by the citrate technique. For the formation of the LSM/YSZ and LSM ceramic films was necessary the preparation of dispersed ceramic suspensions for the deposition in YSZ substrate, used as electrolyte of the CaCOS. These powders were conformed using an aerograph for the deposition of the LSM/YSZ and LSM thin films of approximately 40 microns. The half-cells had been characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), identifying the phases hexagonal (LSM) and cubica (YSZ). And electronic scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the adherence and porosity of the ceramic films according to the characteristics of the cathode. (author)

  17. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  18. Silica-scavenging effects in ceria-based solid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova, D.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials based on gadolinium doped ceria (CGO with additions of silica, with both silica and lanthanum oxide, and with lanthanum silicate, were prepared by the conventional ceramic route, to assess the silica scavenging role of lanthanum oxide additions. Structural, microstructural and electrical characterization of these samples confirmed the formation of one apatite type lanthanum silicate-based phase from reaction of silica with lanthanum oxide. The formation of this phase occurred in parallel with a significant enhancement of the grain boundary conductivity of these composite materials. Further interaction between constituents, involving diffusion of La to CGO, and Ce and Gd to the apatite phase, had no significant consequences on the electrical performance of these materials. Overall, lanthanum oxide was shown to remove the siliceous phases from the grain boundaries of CGO.

    Se prepararon materiales compuestos basados en óxido de cerio dopado con gadolinio (TGO con adicciones de sílice, con sílice y óxido de lantano y silicato del lantano, mediante procesamiento cerámico convencional con objeto de confirmar el papel secuestrante de sílice de las adicciones. La caracterización estructural, microestructural y eléctrica de las muestras confirmó la formación de una fase tipo apatito basada en silicato de lantano a partir de la reacción de la sílice con el óxido de lantano. La formación de esta fase ocurre en paralelo con un incremento significativo de la conductividad a través del borde de grano de estos materiales. La interacción entre los constituyentes, incluyendo la difusión del La al CGO, y el Ce y el Gd a la fase apatito, no tiene consecuencias significativas sobre el comportamiento eléctrico de estos materiales. Resumiendo, el óxido de lantano es capaz de eliminar las fases silicias del borde de grano del CGO.

  19. SmBaCoCuO5+x as cathode material based on GDC electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Shiquan; Long, Guohui; Ji Yuan; Meng Xiangwei; Zhao Hongyuan; Sun Cuicui

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We synthesize a new kind of layered perovskite SmBaCoCuO 5+x (SBCCO) as a cathode material of a solid oxide fuel cell. → There are some reports on the performance of cathodes in proton-conducting SOFCs based on BaCe 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 3-δ electrolyte. → However, to the best of our knowledge, the performance of SBCCO cathodes in oxygen-ion conducting SOFCs has not been reported to date. → In this work, the ceramic powder SBCCO is examined as a cathode for IT-SOFCs based on Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (GDC) electrolyte. - Abstract: The performance of SmBaCoCuO 5+x (SBCCO) cathode has been investigated for their potential utilization in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal expansion and electrochemical performance on Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (GDC) electrolyte are evaluated. XRD results show that there is no chemical reaction between SBCCO cathode and GDC electrolyte when the temperature is below 950 o C. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) value of SBCCO is 15.53 x 10 -6 K -1 , which is ∼23% lower than the TEC of the SmBaCo 2 O 5+x (SBCO) sample. The electrochemical impedance spectra reveals that SBCCO symmetrical half-cells by sintering at 950 deg. C has the best electrochemical performance and the area specific resistance (ASR) of SBCCO cathode is as low as 0.086 Ω cm 2 at 800 o C. An electrolyte-supported fuel cell generates good performance with the maximum power density of 517 mW cm -2 at 800 deg. C in H 2 . Preliminary results indicate that SBCCO is promising as a cathode for IT-SOFCs.

  20. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural bamboo charcoal (BC powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10−2 S·cm−1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and mKOH:mPVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g−1.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lidan; Wang, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhen; Qin, Gang; Hu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Qiang

    2018-04-26

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC) impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10 −2 S·cm −1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and m KOH : m PVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g −1 .

  3. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  4. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.

  5. Improved ceramic anodes for SOFCs with modified electrode/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The electrode performance of solid oxide fuel cell anode with Pd nanoparticles at the interface of ScYSZ electrolyte and Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3 (STN) electrode introduced in the form of metal functional layer have been investigated at temperatures below 600 °C. A metal functional layer consisting of Pd...... was deposited by magnetron sputtering. Effecting from heat treatments, Pd nanoparticles with particle sizes in the range of 5–20 nm were distributed at the interface, and throughout the backbone. The polarization resistance of the modified STN reduced to 30 Ωcm2 at 600 °C, which is three times less than...... an unmodified STN backbone. In order to improve the anode performance further, Pd and Gd-doped CeO2 electrocatalysts were infiltrated into the STN backbone. The modified interface with Pd nanoparticles in combination with nanostructured electrocatalyst by infiltration resulted in polarisation resistances of 0...

  6. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuai; Li Zhicheng; Bergman, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 2.85 , LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 , CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO 2 phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm 3 Ga 5 O 12 . The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 o C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shuai, E-mail: shuail@kth.s [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Li Zhicheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha, Hunan (China); Bergman, Bill [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-03-04

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85}, LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}, CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO{sub 2} phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}. The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 {sup o}C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  8. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  9. Fabrication of WO3-based electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M; Aspiotis, G; Kostis, I; Argitis, P; Davazoglou, D

    2005-01-01

    New all solid-state electrochromic displays were fabricated by chemically vapor depositing and patterning a tungsten oxide film on SnO 2 :F covered glass substrates. Aluminum sheets were used as counter electrodes to form electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes. These ionically conductive and electronically insulating electrolytes were based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) into which phospho-tungstic acid was added at various concentrations. In some devices the electrolyte was formed by addition of photoacid generator into the polymeric matrix and exposure at deep UV light. It was found that displays exhibit an intense, reversible electrochromic effect with reflectivity varying by a factor of five between the uncolored to the colored state. The coloring voltage depends strongly on the polymeric matrix, the thickness of the electrolyte and post-apply baking conditions and is of the order of 6-9 V. The response time was found to be of the order of 500 ms; coloration and bleaching times were comparable

  10. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Rizwan; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Shakir, Imran; Mohsin, Munazza; Alvi, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Yasir Rafique, M.; Zhu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O-2 (oxygen ions) and H+ (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm2, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  11. Some regularities in aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO2+Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the temperature effect on the rate and depth of aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO 2 +Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 +Ho 2 O 3 , stabilized by 10-15 mol.% R 2 O 3 following isothermal hold-up during 2000-3000 h in the 725-1550 deg C range in oxidizing medium. It was shown that solid electrolyte aging proceeds only at temperatures below a certain boundary value. The depth of complete aging at that increases with the R 2 O 3 concentration and a temperature decrease. The aging rate depends substantially on both temperature and concentration of a stabilizing addition. A decrease in the electric conductivity with time is accompanied by an increase in the conductivity activation energy

  12. Synthesis of new solid polymer electrolyte and actuator based on PEDOT/NBR/ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2006-03-01

    The conducting polymer actuator was presented. The solid polymer electrolyte based on nitrile rubber (NBR) activated with different ionic liquids was prepared. The three different grades of NBR films were synthesized by emulsion polymerization with different amount of acrylonitrile, 23, 35, and 40 mol. %, respectively. The effect of acrylonitrile content on the ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of solid polymer electrolytes was characterized. A conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X [where X= BF 4 -, PF 6 -, (CF 3SO II) IIN -], were absorbed into the composite film. The effects of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator were examined. The displacement increased with increasing the anion-size of the ionic liquids.

  13. Elaboration and characterization of solid electrolytes for electrochemical oxygen sensors in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabard, M.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis was prepared within the framework of the research program on 'Generation IV' nuclear reactors with sodium as coolant. One of the main technological problem concerns the control of the corrosion processes of the materials (structural materials, fuel claddings, etc.) by liquid sodium. A key parameter is the dissolved oxygen content in the coolant. This thesis focuses on the development and characterization of ceramic materials based on ThO 2 doped with Y 2 O 3 for making potentiometric oxygen sensor used in liquid sodium. Work has been carried out and probes were tested in the past, however, the probes had at the time, a lack of reliability. The objective of this thesis is to develop and characterize electrolytes based on thorium oxide doped with yttrium oxide using specific synthesis techniques to control purity, grain size, compactness, etc. To develop experimental protocols a ceramic model has been chosen, i.e., yttria-doped ceria. Transport processes were studied using the impedance spectroscopy technique. An interpretation of the blocking phenomena of the ionic conduction in both ceramics as a function of the oxygen partial pressure has been given. (author) [fr

  14. Modifying zirconia solid electrolyte surface property to enhance oxide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, B.Y.; Song, S.Y. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, BSCCO) is known for its high T{sub c} superconducting behavior and mixed conducting property. The applicability of similar high T{sub c} cuprates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application has been studied recently. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of several Ag{vert_bar}BSCCO{vert_bar}10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ){vert_bar}Ag and Ag{vert_bar}YSZ{vert_bar}Ag cells using complex impedance spectroscopy. A highly uniform and porous microstructure was observed at the interface of the YSZ and BSCCO. The ionic conductivity determined from the Nyquest plots in the temperature range of 200-700{degrees}C agrees with the values reported in the literature. The specific resistance of the BSCCO{vert_bar}YSZ interface was also determined to be lower than those of the conventional manganite electrode, suggesting that BSCCO seems attractive for cathode applications in SOFC.

  15. Development of Sulfide Solid Electrolytes and Interface Formation Processes for Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Li and Na Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi, E-mail: hayashi@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sakuda, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are recognized as an ultimate goal of rechargeable batteries because of their high safety, versatile geometry, and good cycle life. Compared with thin-film batteries, increasing the reversible capacity of bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using electrode active material particles is difficult because contact areas at solid–solid interfaces between the electrode and electrolyte particles are limited. Sulfide SEs have several advantages of high conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and appropriate mechanical properties, such as formability, processability, and elastic modulus. Sulfide electrolyte with Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11} crystal has a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 25°C. It is far beyond the Li{sup +} ion conductivity of conventional organic liquid electrolytes. The Na{sup +} ion conductivity of 7.4 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved for Na{sub 3.06}P{sub 0.94}Si{sub 0.06}S{sub 4} with cubic structure. Moreover, formation of favorable solid–solid interfaces between electrode and electrolyte is important for realizing solid-state batteries. Sulfide electrolytes have better formability than oxide electrolytes. Consequently, a dense electrolyte separator and closely attached interfaces with active material particles are achieved via “room-temperature sintering” of sulfides merely by cold pressing without heat treatment. Elastic moduli for sulfide electrolytes are smaller than that of oxide electrolytes, and Na{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} glass electrolytes have smaller Young’s modulus than Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} electrolytes. Cross-sectional SEM observations for a positive electrode layer reveal that sulfide electrolyte coating on active material particles increases interface areas even with a minimum volume of electrolyte, indicating that the energy density of bulk-type solid-state batteries is enhanced. Both surface coating

  16. Fabrication of thin yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte layers by inkjet printing for high performing solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present how a low-cost HP Deskjet 1000 inkjet printer was used to fabricate a 1.2 mm thin, dense and gas tight 16 cm2 solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrolyte. The electrolyte was printed using an ink made of highly diluted (

  17. Formation of Ca/P ceramic coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) on Ti6Al4V ELI alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jaimes, Y.; Naranjo, D. I.; Blanco, S.; García-Vergara, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of PEO ceramic coatings on Ti6Al4V ELI alloy was investigated using a phosphate/calcium containing electrolyte at 300 and 400V at 310K for different times. The Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coated specimens were then heat treated at 873 and 1073K for 2 hours. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to study the composition and the morphology of the ceramic coatings. The corrosion behaviour of the coatings was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The PEO-treated specimens primarily revealed a porous structure with thickness between 4 and 12μm, according to the voltage and process time used. The coatings are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite; however, as the voltage and anodizing time increase, the Ca/P ratio decreases. Generally, the corrosion resistance of the alloy was improved by the PEO-treated coatings, although the specimens treated at 1073K showed the presence of cracks that reduced the protective effect of the coatings.

  18. Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) for high-efficiency, precision grinding of ceramic parts: An experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) as applied to the efficient, high-precision grinding of structural ceramics, and describes work performed jointly by Dr. B.P. Bandyopadhyay, University of North Dakota, and Dr. R. Ohmori, of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RINEN), Tokyo, Japan, from June through August, 1994. Dr. Ohmori pioneered the novel ELID grinding technology which incorporates electrolytically enhanced, in-process dressing of metal bonded superabrasive wheels. The principle of ELID grinding technology is discussed in the report as will its application for rough grinding and precision grinding. Two types of silicon nitride based ceramics (Kyocerals Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and Eaton`s SRBSN) were ground under various conditions with ELID methods. Mirror surface finishes were obtained with {number_sign} 4000 mesh size wheel (average grain size = 4 {mu}m). Results of these investigations are presented in this report. These include the effects of wheel bond type, type of power supply, abrasive grit friability, and cooling fluid composition. The effects of various parameters are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of ELID grinding, and in particular, the manner of boundary layer formation on the wheels and abrasive grit protrusion.

  19. Designable ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphases of three alkali metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Juan; Wu, Qi-Hui; Tang, Shuai; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Wu, De-Yin; Fan, Chun-Hai; Hu, Wei-Qiang; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Dong, Quan-Feng; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2018-04-09

    Dendrite growth of alkali metal anodes limited their lifetime for charge/discharge cycling. Here, we report near-perfect anodes of lithium, sodium, and potassium metals achieved by electrochemical polishing, which removes microscopic defects and creates ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase layers at metal surfaces for providing a homogeneous environment. Precise characterizations by AFM force probing with corroborative in-depth XPS profile analysis reveal that the ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase can be designed to have alternating inorganic-rich and organic-rich/mixed multi-layered structure, which offers mechanical property of coupled rigidity and elasticity. The polished metal anodes exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability, specifically the lithium anodes can cycle for over 200 times at a real current density of 2 mA cm -2 with 100% depth of discharge. Our work illustrates that an ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase may be robust enough to suppress dendrite growth and thus serve as an initial layer for further improved protection of alkali metal anodes.

  20. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  1. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  2. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  3. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  4. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  5. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte

  6. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space. Delivery Order 0001: Single Ionic Conducting Solid-State Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of a lithium-ion conducting channel as a solid-state electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries through the use of thin films of dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc...

  7. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.S.C.; Flynn, J.T.; Cook, R.G.; Casaday, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  8. The LiBH4-LiI Solid Solution as an Electrolyte in an All-Solid-State Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Viskinde, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The charge and discharge performance of an all-solid-state lithium battery with the LiBH4-LiI solid solution as an electrolyte is reported. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. The performance of the all-solid-state cell...

  9. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane as a polymer electrolyte matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Shi, Gaojian; Tao, Can; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chen; Cheng, Liang; Qian, Gang; Chen, Chunhua

    2018-06-01

    Four kinds of polycarbonate-based polyurethane with 8-14 wt% hard segments content are synthesized via reactions of polycarbonatediol, hexamethylene diisocyanate and diethylene glycol. The mechanical strength of the polyurethanes increase with the increase of hard segments content. Solid polymer electrolytes composed of the polycarbonate-based polyurethanes and LiTFSI exhibits fascinating characteristics for all-solid-state lithium batteries with a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C, an electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent mechanical strength and superior interfacial stability against lithium metal. The all-solid-state batteries using LiFePO4 cathode can deliver high discharge capacities (161, 158, 134 and 93 mAh g-1 at varied rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C) at 80 °C and excellent cycling performance (with 91% capacity retention after 600 cycles at 1 C). All the results indicate that such a polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte can be a promising candidate for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  10. Ionic conductivity in polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium perchlorate solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, L.A.; Borges, R.S.; Moraes, E. Mara S.; Silva, G. Goulart; Pimenta, M.A.; Marletta, A.; Silva, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ionic conductivity and phase arrangement of solid polymeric electrolytes based on the block copolymer polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) and LiClO 4 have been investigated. One set of electrolytes was prepared from copolymers with 75% of PEO units and another set was based on a blend of copolymer with 50% PEO units and homopolymers. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, for electrolytes based on the copolymer with 75% of PEO units, were dominated by the PEO phase. The PEO block crystallinity dropped and the glass transition increased with salt addition due to the coordination of the cation by PEO oxygen. The conductivity for copolymers 75% PEO-based electrolyte with 15 wt% of salt was higher than 10 -5 S/cm at room temperature and reached to 10 -3 S/cm at 100 deg. C on a heating measurement. The blend of PE-b-PEO (50% PEO)/PEO/PE showed a complex thermal behavior with decoupled melting of the blocks and the homopolymers. Upon salt addition the endotherms associated with PEO domains disappeared and the PE crystals remained untouched. The conductivity results were limited at 100 deg. C to values close to 10 -4 S/cm and at room temperature values close to 3 x 10 -6 S/cm were obtained for the 15 wt% salt electrolyte. Raman study showed that the ionic association of the highly concentrated blend electrolytes at room temperature is not significant. Therefore, the lower values of conductivity in the case of the blend with 50% PEO can be assigned to the higher content of PE domains leading to a morphology with lower connectivity for ionic conduction both in the crystalline and melted state of the PE domains

  11. A method for the densification of ceramic layers, especially ceramic layers within solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, and products obtained by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic layer, especially for use in solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, is densified in a method comprising (a) providing a multilayer system by depositing the porous ceramic layer, which is to be densified, onto the selected system of ceramic layers on a support, (b) pre-sintering the resulting......(s) in the porous layer surface and (e) performing a thermal treatment at a temperature T2, where T2 > ?1, to obtain densification of and grain growth in the porous layer formed in step (b). The method makes it possible to obtain dense ceramic layers at temperatures, which are compatible with the other materials...... present in a ceramic multilayer system....

  12. New generation Li+ NASICON glass-ceramics for solid state Li+ ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelakshi; Dalvi, Anshuman

    2018-04-01

    Lithiumion conducting NASICON glass-ceramics have been prepared by a novel planetary ball milling assisted synthesis route. Structural, thermal and electrical investigations have been carried out on the novel composites composed of LiTi(PO4)3 (LTP) and 50[Li2SO4]-50[Li2O-P2O5] ionic glass reveal interesting results. Composites were prepared keeping the concentration of the ionic glass fixed at 20 wt%. X-ray diffraction and diffe rential thermal analysis confirm the glass-ceramic formation. Moreover, the structure of LTP remains intact during the glass -ceramic formation. Electrical conductivity of the glass-ceramic composite is found to be higher than that of the pristine glass (50LSLP) and LTP. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of LTP exhibit improvement in composite. Owing to high ionic conductivity and thermal stability, novel glass -ceramic seems to be a promising candidate for all solid-state battery applications.

  13. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  14. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  15. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  16. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  17. Materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells based on doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify a materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Towards this goal, alternating current complex impedance spectroscopy was employed as a tool to study electrode polarization effects in symmetrical cells employing strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte. Several cathode materials were investigated including strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), Strontium and iron doped lanthanum cobaltate (LSCF), LSM-LSGM, and LSCF-LSGM composites. Investigated Anode materials included nickel-gadolinium or lanthanum doped cerium oxide (Ni-GDC, or Ni-LDC) composites. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the symmetrical cells were obtained as a function of temperature, time, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. Based on these studies, the single phase LSM electrode had the highest polarization resistance among the cathode materials. The mixed-conducting LSCF electrode had polarization resistance orders of magnitude lower than that of the LSM-LSGM composite electrodes. Although incorporating LSGM in the LSCF electrode did not reduce the cell polarization resistance significantly, it could reduce the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the LSCF electrodes and LSGM electrolyte. Moreover, the polarization resistance of the LSCF electrode decreased asymptotically as the electrode thickness was increased thus suggesting that the electrode thickness needed not be thicker than this asymptotic limit. On the anode side of the IT-SOFC, Ni reacted with LSGM electrolyte, and lanthanum diffusion occurred from the LSGM electrolyte to the GDC barrier layer, which was between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode. However, LDC served as an effective barrier layer. Ni-LDC (70 v% Ni) anode had the largest polarization resistance, while all other anode materials, i.e. Ni-LDC (50 v% Ni), Ni-GDC (70 v% NO, and Ni-GDC (50 v% Ni), had similar polarization

  18. Composite beryllium-ceramics breeder pin elements for a gas cooled solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Chevreau, G.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.

    1986-06-01

    Helium coolant have main advantages compared to water for solid blankets. But limitations exist too and the development of attractive helium cooled blankets based on breeder pin assemblies has been essentially made possible by the derivation from recent CEA neutronic studies of an optimized composite beryllium/ceramics breeder arrangement. Description of the proposed toroidal blanket layout for Net is made together with the analysis of its main performance. Merits of the considered composite Be/ceramics breeder elements are discussed

  19. Gradiently Polymerized Solid Electrolyte Meets with Micro/Nano-Structured Cathode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Li, Jin-Yi; Shi, Ji-Lei; Xiao, Yao; Shi, Yang; Wen, Rui; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wang, Tai-Shan; Wang, Chun-Ru; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-05-02

    The poor contact between the solid-state electrolyte and cathode materials leads to high interfacial resistance, severely limiting the rate capability of solid Li metal batteries. Herein, an integrative battery design is introduced with a gradiently polymerized solid electrolyte (GPSE), a micro-channel current collector array and nano-sized cathode particles. In-situ formed GPSE encapsulates cathode nanoparticles in the micro-channel with ductile inclusions to lower interfacial impedance, and the stiff surface layer of GPSE toward anode suppresses Li dendrites growth. Li metal batteries based on GPSE and Li-free hydrogenated V2O5 (V2O5-H) cathode exhibit an outstanding high-rate response of up to 5 C (the capacity ratio of 5 C / 1 C is 90.3%) and an ultralow capacity fade rate of 0.07% per cycle over 300 cycles. Other Li-containing cathodes as LiFePO4 and LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 can also operate effectively at 5 C and 2 C rate, respectively. Such an ingenious design may provide new insights into other solid metal batteries through interfacial engineering manipulation at micro and nano level.

  20. Amperometric detector for gas chromatography based on a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinecker, William H; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J; Sandlin, Zechariah D; Cox, James A

    2017-11-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte, a working electrode that protrudes into a gas phase, and reference and counter electrodes that contact the solid electrolyte comprises an amperometric detector for gas chromatography. Under potentiostatic conditions, a current related to the concentration of an analyte in the gas phase is produced by its oxidation at the three-phase boundary among the sol-gel, working electrode, and the gas phase. The sol-gel is processed to contain an electrolyte that also serves as a humidistat to maintain a constant water activity even in the presence the gas chromatographic mobile phase. Response was demonstrated toward a diverse set of analytes, namely hydrogen, 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole. Using flow injection amperometry of hydrogen with He as the carrier gas, 90% of the steady-state current was achieved in < 1s at a flow rate of 20mLmin -1 . A separation of 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole at a 2.2mLmin -1 flow rate was achieved with respective detection limits (k = 3 criterion) of 4, 1, 3, and 70 ppmv when the working electrode potential was 800mV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid state reaction in alumina nanoparticles/LZSA glass-ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montedo, O.K.; Oliveira, A.N. de; Raupp-Pereira, F.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this work is to present results related to solid state reactions on LZSA glass-ceramic composites containing alumina reinforcement nano-particles. A LZSA (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O3) glass-ceramic has been prepared by sintering of powders and characterized. Composites containing 0 to 77 vol.% of alumina nanoparticles (27-43 nm APS, 35 m2.g-1 SSA) and a 16.9Li2O•5.0ZrO2•65.1SiO2•8.6Al2O3 glass-ceramic matrix have been prepared. X-ray diffractometry studies have been performed in order of investigating the solid state reactions occurring in LZSA-based composites. Results of the XRD patterns have been related to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young modulus, and dielectric constant, showing that, in comparison with the glass-ceramic composition, the composites showed a decrease of CTE with the alumina concentration increasing, due to the increasing of beta-spodumeness formation (solid solution of beta-spodumene, Li2O.Al2O3.4-10SiO2). The performance of the glass-ceramic was improved with the alumina nano-particles addition, showing potential of using in the preparation of Low Thermal Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC). (author)

  2. New solid laser: Ceramic laser. From ultra stable laser to ultra high output laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    An epoch-making solid laser is developed. It is ceramic laser, polycrystal, which is produced as same as glass and shows ultra high output. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser crystal and the CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technique realized new ultra high output lasers. Japan has developed various kinds of ceramic lasers, from 10 -2 to 67 x 10 3 w average output, since 1995. These ceramic lasers were studied by gravitational radiation astronomy. The scattering coefficient of ceramic laser is smaller than single crystals. The new fast ignition method is proposed by Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University, Japan. Ultra-intense short pulse laser can inject the required energy to the high-density imploded core plasma within the core disassembling time. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 crystal for laser, ceramic YAG of large caliber for 100 kW, transparent laser ceramic from nano-crystals, crystal grain and boundary layer between grains, the scattering coefficient of single crystal and ceramic, and the derived release cross section of Yb:YAG ceramic are described. (S.Y.)

  3. Weighted-density functional approach for the solid-liquid interfaces in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanova, T.A.; Stekolnikov, A.V.

    1991-09-01

    A weighted-density functional method is proposed to describe the atomic structure of the crystal-melt interface in electrolytes based on a charged-hard-sphere model of salt. The contribution of long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account in the field formulation: the electrostatic field potential is determined from the Poisson equation. The ion density profiles and crystalline order parameter at the crystal-melt interface in the 1:1 symmetric electrolytes are calculated. The structurization of liquid near the solid surface is described. The results are compared to those for the neutral hard sphere system. The impurity distributions of extremely small concentrations are calculated both for the neutral and charged hard sphere systems. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. Thin film galvanic cell with RbAg4I5 solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnaruk, L.I.; Danilov, A.V.; Kulinkovich, V.E.; Aleskovskij, V.B.

    1975-01-01

    In order to decrease the size and weight and to increase the specific capacity and energy of galvanic cells, some solid electrolytes in the form of thin films are proposed. The galvanic cells were prepared by a combined method: the cathodic and anodic materials (Te and Ag) were evaporated under vacuo to cover an electrolyte layer, the latter being obtained by impregnating the porous materials with RbAg 4 I 5 acetonic solution. The most specific charge curves of the galvanic cells at various current densities are given: specific energy of the samples was 0.2 to 0.7 watt-h/kg, their capacity being 0.1 to 0.2 mah. Behaviour of the cells when stored (that of Ag(RbAg 4 I 5 ) interface in particular) was investigated, namely, the effect of the storage time on the capacity and internal resistance of the galvanic cell

  5. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biff, Sergio; Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  6. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  7. Effects of cathode pulse at low frequency on the structure and composition of plasma electrolytic oxidation ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhongping; Xu Yongjun; Jiang Zhaohua; Wang Fuping

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of the cathode pulse under the low working frequency on the structure and the composition of the ceramic coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Ceramic coatings were prepared on Ti alloy by pulsed bi-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation in NaAlO 2 solution. The phase composition, morphology, and element distribution in the coating were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy distribution spectroscopy. The coating was mainly composed of a large amount of Al 2 TiO 5 and a little α-Al 2 O 3 and rutile TiO 2 . Increasing the cathode pulse, the amount of rutile TiO 2 was increased while the amount of Al 2 O 3 was decreased; and decreasing the cathode pulse, the amount of Al 2 O 3 was increased while the amount of rutile TiO 2 was decreased. The thickness of the coatings was increased and then decreased with the increase of the cathode pulse. The grain sizes of Al 2 TiO 5 were increased with the cathode current densities, but changed little with the cathode pulse width. The grain size of α-Al 2 O 3 was decreased with the decrease of the cathode pulse, while the grain size of TiO 2 was increased with the increase of the cathode pulse. The proper cathode pulse was helpful to reduce the roughness and to increase the density of the coatings.

  8. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  9. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mark Ian

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) 10 and LiClO 4 .P(EO) 10 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stable and will limit the applications of the material. A series of samples were prepared from the polymer electrolyte LiT.P(EO) 8 and a range of porous silicas. The silicas were selected to give a wide range of pore size and included Zeolite Y, ZSM5, mesoporous silica and a range of porous glasses. This gave pore sizes from less than one nm to 50 nm. A variety of experiments, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and NMR, showed that the polymer electrolyte entered to pores of the silica. As a result the polymer was amorphous and the room temperature conductivity was enhanced. The high temperature conductivity was not increased above that for the pure electrolyte. The results suggest that this could be employed in applications, however would require higher conducting electrolytes to be of practical benefit. (author)

  10. Yttria-doped zirconia as solid electrolyte for fuel-cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin

    2009-11-27

    7.3-10 mol% yttria-doped zirconia (YDZ) was studied with emphasis on its long-term stability as solid electrolyte. The decomposition of common 8.5YDZ (950 C) was detected by analytical TEM. As second issue, the microstructural and chemical properties of nanocrystalline 7.3YDZ thin films were investigated. Metastable t''-YDZ was found to precipitate in nanoscaled regions in YDZ up to 10 mol% yttria. Furthermore, a revised boundary of the c+t phase field, in which YDZ decomposes, is presented. (orig.)

  11. Yttria-doped zirconia as solid electrolyte for fuel-cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin

    2009-11-27

    7.3-10 mol% yttria-doped zirconia (YDZ) was studied with emphasis on its long-term stability as solid electrolyte. The decomposition of common 8.5YDZ (950 C) was detected by analytical TEM. As second issue, the microstructural and chemical properties of nanocrystalline 7.3YDZ thin films were investigated. Metastable t''-YDZ was found to precipitate in nanoscaled regions in YDZ up to 10 mol% yttria. Furthermore, a revised boundary of the c+t phase field, in which YDZ decomposes, is presented. (orig.)

  12. TAMOAS: In Situ Gasometry in the Atmosphere with Solid Electrolyte Sensors on BEXUS-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronowski, A.; Clemens, R.; Jaster, T.; Kosel, F.; Matyash, I.; Westphal, A.

    2015-09-01

    A student experiment developed for testing gas sensors in the stratosphere is described. The setup consists of a measurement electronic running miniaturized in situ amperiometric gas sensors based on different solid state electrolytes dedicated for oxygen, ozone and atomic oxygen. The experiment took place at Esrange Space Center in October 2014. The setup was attached to the high-altitude balloon BEXUS-19 and reached an altitude of 27 km at night. The primary objective was to test the prototype sensors and to gain data during flight.

  13. Effects of Sublattice Symmetry and Frustration on Ionic Transport in Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinsky, Boris; Akhade, Sneha A.; Hirel, Pierre; Hashibon, Adham; Elsässer, Christian; Mehta, Prateek; Logeat, Alan; Eisele, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We use rigorous group-theoretic techniques and molecular dynamics to investigate the connection between structural symmetry and ionic conductivity in the garnet family of solid Li-ion electrolytes. We identify new ordered phases and order-disorder phase transitions that are relevant for conductivity optimization. Ionic transport in this materials family is controlled by the frustration of the Li sublattice caused by incommensurability with the host structure at noninteger Li concentrations, while ordered phases explain regions of sharply lower conductivity. Disorder is therefore predicted to be optimal for ionic transport in this and other conductor families with strong Li interaction.

  14. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  15. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  16. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  17. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  18. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  19. Porous SiC ceramics fabricated by quick freeze casting and solid state sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiC ceramics with uniform microstructure were fabricated by quick freezing in liquid nitrogen and solid state sintering. Poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA was added as binder and pore morphology controller in this work. The microstructure and mechanical properties of porous SiC ceramics could be controlled by the composition of the aqueous slurries. Both solid content of the slurries and PVA content impacted on the pore structures and mechanical properties of the porous SiC ceramics. The solid content of slurries and PVA content varied from 60 to 67.5 wt% and 2–6 wt%, respectively. Besides, the grain morphology of ceramics was also tailored by changing the sintering temperature from 2050 to 2150 °C. Porous SiC ceramics with an average porosity of 42.72%, flexural strength of 59.28 MPa were obtained at 2150 °C from 67.5 wt% slurries with 2 wt% PVA.

  20. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  1. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  2. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  3. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  4. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A., E-mail: yaser.abu-lebdeh@nrc.gc.ca [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio and Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-18

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}-NPF{sub 6}, (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH{sub 2}−CH{sub 2}−C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF{sub 6}]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10{sup -5} S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10{sup -3} S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  5. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A.

    2015-01-01

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C 4 H 9 ) 4 -NPF 6 , (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH 2 −CH 2 −C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF 6 ]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10 -5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10 -3 S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  6. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  7. Internal shorting and fuel loss of a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell with SDC electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2007-02-10

    A solid oxide fuel cell with Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) electrolyte of 10 {mu}m in thickness and Ni-SDC anode of 15 {mu}m in thickness on a 0.8 mm thick Ni-YSZ cermet substrate was fabricated by tape casting, screen printing and co-firing. A composite cathode, 75 wt.% Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSCo) + 25 wt.% SDC, approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness, was printed on the co-fired half-cell, and sintered at 950 C. The cell showed a high electrochemical performance at temperatures ranging from 500 to 650 C. Peak power density of 545 mW cm{sup -2} at 600 C was obtained. However, the cell exhibited severe internal shorting due to the mixed conductivity of the SDC electrolyte. Both the amount of water collected from the anode outlet and the open circuit voltage (OCV) indicated that the internal shorting current could reach 0.85 A cm{sup -2} or more at 600 C. Zr content inclusions were found at the surface and in the cross-section of the SDC electrolyte, which could be one of the reasons for reduced OCV and oxygen ionic conductivity. Fuel loss due to internal shorting of the thin SDC electrolyte cell becomes a significant concern when it is used in applications requiring high fuel utilization and electrical efficiency. (author)

  8. Study of gadolinia-doped ceria solid electrolyte surface by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) is an important material to be used as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell for intermediate temperature operation. Ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 ) was prepared by conventional solid state synthesis and found to be single phase by room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical states of the surface of the prepared sample were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Though Gd was present in its characteristic chemical state, Ce was found in both Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ states. Presence of Ce 3+ state was ascribed to the differential yield of oxygen atoms in the sputtering process

  9. A mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, D.M.; Verbrugge, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and apply it to (i) investigate factors that limit cell performance and (ii) elucidate the mechanism of species transport in the complex network of gas, liquid, and solid phases of the cell. Calculations of cell polarization behavior compare favorably with existing experimental data. For most practical electrode thicknesses, model results indicate that the volume fraction of the cathode available for gas transport must exceed 20% in order to avoid unacceptably low cell-limiting current densities. It is shown that membrane dehydration can also pose limitations on operating current density; circumvention of this problem by appropriate membrane and electrode design and efficient water-management schemes is discussed. The authors' model results indicate that for a broad range of practical current densities there are no external water requirements because the water produced at the cathode is enough to satisfy the water requirement of the membrane

  10. Evaluation of solid polymer electrolytes for use in conducting polymer/nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor W.; Kim, B. C.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2000-06-01

    The stringent requirements for a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in solid state devices such as batteries or supercapacitors are even more demanding when used in electromechanical actuators. Not only is the SPE expected to exhibit good conductivity, mechanical properties, adhesion and mechanical/electrical stability, but it must also be flexible, maintained good adhesion while flexing, be easily processible and be able to function in air. In this work polyacrylonitrile and Kynar based non-aqueous SPEs and water based polyacrylamide hydrogel ion source/sinks containing various perchlorate salts were tested for their applicability to polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators and supercapacitors. The results indicate that the optimum SPE for both polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators would be a polyacrylonitrile plasticized with propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate containing 1.0M NaClO4. It is also apparent that the same SPE would be the most suitable for supercapacitor applications with these materials.

  11. Ni modified ceramic anodes for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guoliang; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-01-19

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes synthesizing a composition having a perovskite present therein. The method further includes applying the composition on an electrolyte support to form an anode and applying Ni to the composition on the anode.

  12. The Effect of 1-Pentylamine as Solid Electrolyte Interphase Precursor on Lithium Metal Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Markus S.; Koch, Stephan L.; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing of a well-controlled artificial SEI on lithium metal electrodes. • Native SEI-free lithium electrodes. • Lithium electrodes with decreased impedance and overpotential due to artificial SEI. • Process development to remove influence of native SEI. • 1-pentylamine in n-pentane as artificial SEI precursor for lithium metal. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of an artificial primary solid electrolyte interphase on a fresh Li surface, via reaction with 1-pentylamine (PA), is reported, allowing removing the influence of the metal electrode’s prior history. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic cycling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used in order to investigate the effect of PA as solid electrolyte interphase precursor on Li metal. It is shown that pretreating native SEI-free Li metal surfaces with 1 M PA in n-pentane sharply decreases the electrode impedance and overpotential with respect to the treatment with only n-pentane. The treatment with 1 M PA in n-pentane results in surface roughening, but no increase of dendrite formation upon cycling. However, the use of higher PA concentration (5 M) increases impedance and overpotential and leads to dendrite growth.

  13. Atomic scale imaging of structural changes in solid electrolyte lanthanum lithium niobate upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaobing; Fisher, Craig A.J.; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hoshikawa, Keigo; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kohama, Keiichi; Iba, Hideki; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    La (1-x)/3 Li x NbO 3 (LLNbO) is a promising electrolyte material for solid-state lithium-ion batteries because it is stable in contact with Li metal and contains a high concentration of intrinsic Li-ion vacancies. One strategy for improving its ionic conductivity and making it more competitive with other solid-state Li-ion electrolytes is to disorder the Li-ion vacancies by appropriate post-synthesis heat treatment, e.g., annealing. In this study, we examine the effects of annealing on single crystals of LLNbO with Li contents x = 0.07 and 0.13 based on simultaneous atomic resolution high angle annular dark field and annular bright field imaging methods using state-of-the-art aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes. It is found that La modulation within A1 layers of the cation-deficient layered perovskite structure becomes more diffuse after annealing. In addition, some La atoms move to A-site positions and O4 window positions in the nominally vacant A2 layer, while O atom columns in this layer become rumpled in the [001] p direction, indicating that the NbO 6 octahedra are more heavily distorted after annealing. The observed crystal structure differences between as-prepared and annealed single crystals explain the drop in Li-ion conductivities of LLNbO single crystals after heat treatment.

  14. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  15. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  16. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  17. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  19. Study of strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    The chemical states of the surface of the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.85 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ (LSGM 1015) as prepared by solid-state synthesis was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that adventitious carbon did not interact with any of the constituent elements of LSGM 1015. Ga and La were found to exist in trivalent states. But, due to ionic bombardment presence of Mg could not be detected in the electrolyte surface

  20. All-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH4 electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4 in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4 has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport...... number (t+ = 0.96), close to unity, demonstrates a purely cationic conductor. The electrolyte has an excellent stability against lithium metal. The behavior of the batteries is studied by cyclic voltammetry and repeated charge/discharge cycles in galvanostatic conditions. The batteries show very good...

  1. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  2. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  3. Investigation of the Reversible Lithiation of an Oxide Free Aluminum Anode by a LiBH4 Solid State Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Weeks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the aluminum anode can be reversibly lithiated over multiple cycles utilizing a solid-state electrolyte. An initial capacity of 895 mAh/g was observed and is close to the theoretical capacity of aluminum. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell was consistent with the constant current cycling data and showed that the reversible lithiation/delithiation of aluminum occurs at 0.32 V and 0.38 V (vs. Li+/Li respectively. XRD of the aluminum anode in the initial and lithiated state clearly showed the formation of a LiAl (1:1 alloy. SEM-EDS was utilized to examine the morphological changes that occur within the electrode during cycling. This work is the first example of reversible lithiation of aluminum in a solid-state cell and further emphasizes the robust nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. This demonstrates the possibility of utilizing other high capacity anode materials with a LiBH4 based solid electrolyte in all-solid-state batteries.

  4. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li"+/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t_L_i"+) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Adjustment of the ratio of Ca/P in the ceramic coating on Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhongping; Li Liangliang; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ceramic coatings containing Ca and P were prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation technique in NaOH system and Na 2 SiO 3 system, respectively. The phase composition, morphology and the element distribution of the coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was examined by polarizing curve methods in a 0.9% NaCl solution. In NaOH system, there were a large number of micro-holes distributing evenly on the surface of the coating, and the coating was mainly composed of Mg, Al, P and Ca. In Na 2 SiO 3 system, the micro-holes in the coatings were reduced greatly in number and the distribution of the micro-holes was uneven, and the coating was mainly composed of Mg, Al, Si, P and Ca. The ratio of Ca/P in the coating can be controlled by the adjustment of the technique parameters to a certain extent. The adjustment of the concentration of Ca 2+ in the electrolyte was an effective method to change the ratio of Ca/P in the coating in both systems; the reaction time and the working voltage for the adjustment of the ratio of Ca/P in the coating was more suitable for the NaSi 2 O 3 system than the NaOH system. The polarizing curve tests showed the coatings improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy in 0.9% NaCl solution by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  6. Electrical and morphological analysis of chitosan:AgTf solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B., E-mail: shujaadeen78@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimani (Iraq); Abidin, Zul Hazrin Z. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya (CIUM), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-04-01

    Solution cast technique is employed to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films based on chitosan (host polymer) and silver triflate (AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, doping salt) using (1%) acetic acid as a common solvent. The effect of salt concentration on both EP and bulk materials dielectric properties has been analyzed. Physically the original relationship between the bulk dielectric constant and DC conductivity has been interpreted. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values decrease at higher temperatures due to the reduction of silver ions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) indicate the presence of metallic silver particles. The ac conductivity spectra shows three distinct regions and obeys the Jonscher's power law at high frequency regions. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent (s) shows the crossover from CBH model to SP model. - Highlights: • A strong relationship exists between DC conductivity and dielectric constant. • The decrease of ε′ and ε″ is due to the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +} → Ag{sup o}). • The morphological results reveal the formation of silver particles. • The AC conduction models can be applicable for ion conducting polymer electrolytes.

  7. Some laws governing the electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, N.A.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M. Ya.; Khrizolitova, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte (SPE) makes it possible to carry out the process in the absence of a supporting electrolyte. This facilitates the recovery of the desired product, eliminates the inorganic waste products, and allows a small interelectrode distance, and the absence of the accumulation of gases lowers the voltage in the cell. Some laws governing syntheses of SPE were studied in the example cases of the electrochemical reduction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine, the reduction of triacetonamine oxime and triacetonamine azine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- aminopiperidine and the oxidation of isobutanol to isobutyric acid. The electrolysis with an SPE was carried out under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyzer of the filter-press type with forced circulation of the catholyte and anolyte. Low reaction rates are found to be characteristic of all the compounds investigated when the electrolysis is carried out with an SPE.

  8. Hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Ebru Oender [KOSGEB Bursa Business Development Center, Besevler Kucuk Sanayi Sitesi 16149 Nilufer/Bursa (Turkey); Koparal, Ali Savas; Oeguetveren, Uelker Bakir [Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Department of Environmental Engineering, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in an electrochemical reactor. Titanium oxide coated with iridium oxide as anode and carbon fibre with Pt catalyst as cathode were used in the experiments. Effects of applied current density, flow rates and temperature of formic acid solution, concentration of supporting electrolyte and pH of the solution on performance of the process have been investigated. The effect of membrane thickness has also been examined. The results suggest that electrolysis using SPE is a promising method for the treatment of organic pollutants. Hydrogen with purity of 99.999% at ambient temperature by using carbon fibre cathode with Pt catalyst can be produced simultaneously and COD removal efficiency of 95% has been achieved not requiring any chemical addition and temperature increase. Also complete electrochemical oxidation of formic acid at the original pH to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O without production of intermediate has been proved by HPLC analysis. (author)

  9. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Kanou, Jirou; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hosoi, Kei; Miyazawa, Takashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Komada, Norikazu

    2006-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 o C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O 3-δ , Ni-(CeO 2 ) 1-x (SmO 1.5 ) x cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO 3-δ cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 o C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC

  10. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-choume, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Corporate Technology and Development Division, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system. (author)

  11. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan)]. E-mail: inagaki@rdd.kepco.co.jp; Nishiwaki, Futoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Kanou, Jirou [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Yamasaki, Satoru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Miyazawa, Takashi [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Yamada, Masaharu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Komada, Norikazu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 {sup o}C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O{sub 3-{delta}}, Ni-(CeO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(SmO{sub 1.5}) {sub x} cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO{sub 3-{delta}} cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 {sup o}C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC.

  12. Long-term Steam Electrolysis with Electrolyte-Supported Solid Oxide Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, Josef; Brisse, Annabelle; Poepke, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Steam electrolysis over 11000 h with an electrolyte-supported solid oxide cell is discussed. The cell of 45 cm"2 area consists of a scandia/ceria doped zirconia electrolyte (6Sc1CeSZ), CGO diffusion-barrier/adhesion layers, a lanthanum strontium cobaltite ferrite (LSCF) oxygen electrode, and a nickel steam/hydrogen electrode. After initial 2500 h operation with lower current-density magnitude, the current density was set to j = -0.9 A cm"−"2 and the steam conversion rate to 51%. This led to a cell voltage of 1.185 V at 847 °C cell temperature. Average voltage degradation was 7.3 mV/1000 h ( 100% throughout the test (with an external heat source for evaporation). Impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed a degradation almost entirely due to increasing ohmic resistance. The rate of resistance increase was initially faster (up to 40 mΩ cm"2/1000 h) and stabilised after several 1000 h operation. After 9000 h a small (non-ohmic) electrode degradation became detectable (<2 mV/1000 h), superimposed to ohmic degradation. The small electrode degradation is understood as indication for largely reversible (electrolysis cell/fuel cell) behaviour.

  13. Lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase investigation using OsO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Martin; Scheiba, Frieder; Oswald, Steffen; Thomas, Jürgen; Goers, Dietrich; Scherer, Torsten; Klose, Markus; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) staining, commonly used to enhance scattering contrast in electron microscopy of biologic tissue and polymer blends, has been adopted for studies of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries. OsO4 shows a coordinated reaction with components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and lithium dendrites, thereby increasing material contrast for scanning electron microscopy investigations. Utilizing the high affinity of lithium metal to react with osmium tetroxide it was possible to localize even small lithium deposits on graphite electrodes. In spite of their reaction with the OsO4 fume, the lithium dendrite morphology remains almost untouched by the staining procedure, offering information on the dendrite growth process. Correlating the quantity of osmium detected with the amount of residual ("dead") lithium of a discharged electrode, it was possible to obtain a practical measure for lithium plating and stripping efficiencies. EDX mappings allowed for a localization of electrochemically stripped lithium dendrites by their residual stained SEI shells. Cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) of cycled graphite electrodes treated with OsO4, revealed important information about deposition and distribution of metallic lithium and the electrolyte reduction layer across the electrode.

  14. Low temperature electrochemical cells with sodium β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, T. C.; Virkar, Anil V.

    Cells of Daniell-type with copper-zinc electrochemical couples and sodium β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were constructed. The cathode consisted of copper in contact with its ions (Cu/Cu 2+) while zinc in contact with its ions (Zn/Zn 2+) constituted the anode. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 1 M NaBF 4 was used as the liquid electrolyte. The configuration of the cell constructed can be written as follows: Zn(s)/ZnCl 2(DMSO)(0.1 M), NaBF 4(1 M)/BASE/NaBF 4(1 M), CuCl 2(DMSO)(0.1 M)/Cu(s). The cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycles at 100 °C. The BASE discs were found to be stable even after the cell was subjected to several electrochemical charge-discharge cycles. Cells were also constructed using BASE discs with porous BASE surface layers introduced to lower the interfacial resistance. Cells with surface modified BASE exhibited a lower resistance in comparison to those using unmodified BASE. XRD and SEM analyses indicated that no detectable degradation of BASE discs occurred after cell testing. Preliminary cell tests were also conducted with NaCF 3SO 3 in place of NaBF 4.

  15. Low temperature electrochemical cells with sodium {beta}''-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girija, T.C.; Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 122 S. Central Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Cells of Daniell-type with copper-zinc electrochemical couples and sodium {beta}''-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were constructed. The cathode consisted of copper in contact with its ions (Cu/Cu{sup 2+}) while zinc in contact with its ions (Zn/Zn{sup 2+}) constituted the anode. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 1 M NaBF{sub 4} was used as the liquid electrolyte. The configuration of the cell constructed can be written as follows: Zn(s)/ZnCl{sub 2}(DMSO)(0.1 M), NaBF{sub 4}(1 M)/BASE/NaBF{sub 4}(1 M), CuCl{sub 2}(DMSO)(0.1 M)/Cu(s) The cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycles at 100 C. The BASE discs were found to be stable even after the cell was subjected to several electrochemical charge-discharge cycles. Cells were also constructed using BASE discs with porous BASE surface layers introduced to lower the interfacial resistance. Cells with surface modified BASE exhibited a lower resistance in comparison to those using unmodified BASE. XRD and SEM analyses indicated that no detectable degradation of BASE discs occurred after cell testing. Preliminary cell tests were also conducted with NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} in place of NaBF{sub 4}. (author)

  16. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P

    2014-09-24

    A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott-Schottky or Gouy-Chapman-Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  18. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  19. Morphology and conductivity study of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogi, Lugas Dwi, E-mail: ldprayodi@gmail.com; Faisal, Muhamad [Engineering Physics, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology ITS Campus, Sukolilo, Surabaya 6011 (Indonesia); Kartini, Evvy, E-mail: kartini@batan.go.id; Honggowiranto, Wagiyo; Supardi [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The comparison between two different methods of synthesize of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as precursor material for developing lithium ion battery, has been performed. The first method is to synthesize Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction from LiOH and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} which provide facile, abundant available resource, low cost, and low toxicity. The second method is solid state reaction prepared by Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4.} In addition, the possible morphology identification of comparison between two different methods will also be discussed. The composition, morphology, and additional identification phase and another compound of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder products from two different reaction are characterized by SEM, EDS, and EIS. The Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder produced from wet reaction and solid state reaction have an average diameter of 0.834 – 7.81 µm and 2.15 – 17.3 µm, respectively. The density of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction is 2.238 gr/cm{sup 3}, little bit lower than the sample prepared by solid state reaction which density is 2.3560 gr/cm{sup 3}. The EIS measurement result shows that the conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is 1.7 x 10{sup −9} S.cm{sup −1} for wet chemical reaction and 1.8 x 10{sup −10} S.cm{sup −1} for solid state reaction. The conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is not quite different between those two samples even though they were prepared by different method of synthesize.

  20. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  1. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  2. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  3. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  5. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  6. Investigations of a zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor in liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivai, Abu Khalid, E-mail: rivai.abukhalid@jaea.go.j [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Minoru, E-mail: mtakahas@nr.titech.ac.j [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Investigations of a magnesia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor for oxygen control measurement in liquid lead were carried out. The fluid of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reference electrode and a molybdenum wire as a working electrode to detect the output signal of the sensor were used. The Nernst equation was used to estimate the electromotive force (EMF) values theoretically. The temperatures of liquid lead were 500, 550 and 600 deg. C. The results showed that the injection gas temperatures did not affect the detected EMF, the sensor responded well to quick changes of oxygen activity in liquid lead, and the discrepancy between the measured and theoretical EMF of the oxygen sensor output signal was higher at 500 deg. C than at 550 and 600 deg. C.

  7. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral; Florio, Daniel Zanetti de

    2017-01-01

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  8. Toward fast and cost-effective ink-jet printing of solid electrolyte for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, P.-E.; Riou, B.; Lestriez, B.; Guyomard, D.; Brousse, T.; Le Bideau, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ink-jet printing of ionogel for low-cost microbattery is presented. Such an approach allows to provide liquid-like electrolyte performances for all-solid microdevices. Ink-jet printing process is possible thanks to sol precursor of the ionogel. This full silica based ionogels confining ionic liquid are known to be thermal resistant, serving safety and technologies requiring solder reflow. High ionic conductivity and compatibility with porous composite electrodes allow reaching good electrochemical cycling performance: full Li-ion cell with LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 porous composite electrodes shows a surface capacity of 300 μAh cm-2 for more than 100 cycles. Such surface capacities are very competitive as compared to those obtained for microdevices based on expensive PVD processes.

  9. An electroactive conducting polymer actuator based on NBR/RTIL solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a dry-type conducting polymer actuator using nitrile rubber (NBR) as the base material in a solid polymer electrolyte. The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X (where X = BF4-, PF6-, (CF3SO2)2N-), were absorbed into the composite film. The compatibility between the ionic liquids and the NBR polymer was confirmed by DMA. The effect of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator was examined. The displacement increased with increasing anion size of the ionic liquids. The cyclic voltammetry responses and the redox switching dynamics of the actuators were examined in different ionic liquids.

  10. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures. Task 3 report; Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A.; Anderson, R.; Kopitzke, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    This project is an attempt to synthesize and fabricate proton exchange membranes for hydrogen production via water electrolysis that can take advantage of the better kinetic and thermodynamic conditions that exist at higher temperatures. Current PEM technology is limited to the 125--150 C range. Based on previous work evaluating thermohydrolytic stability, some 5 families of polymers were chosen as viable candidates: polyether ketones, polyether sulfones, fluorinated polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenyl quinoxalines. Several of these have been converted into ionomers via sulfonation and fashioned into membranes for evaluation. In particular, the sulfonated polyetheretherketone, or SPEEK, was tested for water uptake, thermo-conductimetric analysis, and performance as the solid electrolyte material in an electrolysis cell. Results comparable to commercial perfluorocarbon sulfonates were obtained.

  11. Slip casting of thoria-10 mole per cent yttria solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1990-01-01

    One end closed thoria-yttria solid electrolyte have been fabricated by the slip casting technique. A systematic study of the influence of the process parameters on the characteristics of the final bodies has been carried out. Slips of ThO 2 -10 mole % Y 2 O 3 were prepared; their fluidity and castability were studied as a function of concentration, pH and particle size. The bodies were sintered at 2000degC and the physical properties like density and microstructure were evaluated. Slip cast bodies of bulk densities around 95% T.D. with relatively inhomogenous but predominantly fine grained structure could be obtained by optimizing the process variables. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  12. A new percolation model for composite solid electrolytes and dispersed ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad Hasyim, Muhammad; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) including conductor/insulator composites known as dispersed ionic conductors (DICs) have motivated the development of novel percolation models that describe their conductivity. Despite the long history, existing models lack in one or more key areas: (1) rigorous foundation for their physical theory, (2) explanation for non-universal conductor-insulator transition, (3) classification of DICs, and (4) extension to frequency-domain. This work describes a frequency-domain effective medium approximation (EMA) of a bond percolation model for CSEs. The EMA is derived entirely from Maxwell’s equations and contains basic microstructure parameters. The model was applied successfully to several composite systems from literature. Simulations and fitting of literature data address these key areas and illustrate the interplay between space charge layer properties and bulk microstructure.

  13. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral, E-mail: shaynnedn@hotmail.com, E-mail: nataliakm@usp.br, E-mail: fntabuti@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiocf@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Florio, Daniel Zanetti de, E-mail: daniel.florio@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  14. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Magnetorheological technology for fabricating tunable solid electrolyte with enhanced conductivity and mechanical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gangrou; Ge, Yu; Ding, Jie; Wang, Caiyun; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Ionogels are a new class of hybrid materials where ionic liquids are immobilized by macromolecular support. The excessive amount of crosslinking polymer enhances the mechanical strength but compromises the conductivity. Here, we report an elastomeric magnetorheological (MR) ionogel with an enhanced conductivity and mechanical strength as well. Following the application of magnetic nanoparticles into an ionic liquid containing minimum cross-linking agent, the formation, thus physical properties, of MR ionogels are co-controlled by simultaneously applied UV light and external magnetic field. The application of MR ionogels as solid electrolytes in supercapacitors is also demonstrated to study electrochemical performance. This work opens a new avenue to synthesize robust ionogels with the desired conductivity and controllable mechanical properties for soft flexible electronic devices. Besides, as a new class of conductive MR elastomers, the proposed MR ionogel also possesses the potential for engineering applications, such as sensors and actuators.

  16. Alkali Influence on Synthesis of Solid Electrolyte Based on Alkali Nitrate-Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustinus Purwamargapratala; Purnama, S.; Purwanto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Research of solid electrolyte based on alumina with addition of alkali materials of barium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate and lithium nitrate has been done. Aluminium hydroxide and alkali nitrate were mixed in mole ratio of 1 : 1 in water media and pyrolyzed at 300 o C for 1 hour Pyrolysis result were then mixed with alumina in mole ratio of 1 : 1, compacted and heated at 600 o C for 3 hours. To characterize the sample, XRD (X-Ray Diffractometers) and LCR meter (impedance, capacitance, and resistance) were used for analysis the phase and conductivity properties. The result showed formation of alkali-aluminate in which Li-base have the highest room temperature conductivity of 3.1290 x 10 -5 S.cm -1 , while Ba-base have the lowest conductivity of 5.7266 x 10 -8 S.cm -1 . (author)

  17. Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-Mendez, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li7La3Zr2O12, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical bar...

  18. A planar, solid-state amperometric sensor for nitrogen dioxide, employing an ionic liquid electrolyte contained in a polymeric matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherná, M.; Opekar, F.; Reiter, Jakub; Stulík, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2012), s. 811-817 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Amperometry * Gas sensor * Solid-state sensor * Planar sensor * Ionic liquid * Solid polymer electrolyte * Gold minigrid electrode * Nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  19. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  20. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-04-07

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI - in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - and TFSI - , respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g - ¹, 40 and 48 kW·kg - ¹, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg - ¹ were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively.

  1. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively. PMID:29642456

  2. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL and ionic liquid (IL. This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI, respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br and (PIL-M-(TFSI solid electrolytes, respectively.

  3. Using Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy To Study In-Operando Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierra, J. X.; Poulsen, H. F.; Jørgensen, P. S.

    Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy is a promising technique to study the structure of materials in nanometer length scale. In combination with x-ray diffraction technique, the microstructure evolution of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia electrolyte based solid oxide cell was studied running at extreme operating...

  4. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  5. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  6. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Reuther, T.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding

  7. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  8. Nanoarchitectonics for Controlling the Number of Dopant Atoms in Solid Electrolyte Nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Unayama, Satomi; Tai, Seishiro; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Waser, Rainer; Aono, Masakazu; Valov, Ilia; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Controlling movements of electrons and holes is the key task in developing today's highly sophisticated information society. As transistors reach their physical limits, the semiconductor industry is seeking the next alternative to sustain its economy and to unfold a new era of human civilization. In this context, a completely new information token, i.e., ions instead of electrons, is promising. The current trend in solid-state nanoionics for applications in energy storage, sensing, and brain-type information processing, requires the ability to control the properties of matter at the ultimate atomic scale. Here, a conceptually novel nanoarchitectonic strategy is proposed for controlling the number of dopant atoms in a solid electrolyte to obtain discrete electrical properties. Using α-Ag 2+ δ S nanodots with a finite number of nonstoichiometry excess dopants as a model system, a theory matched with experiments is presented that reveals the role of physical parameters, namely, the separation between electrochemical energy levels and the cohesive energy, underlying atomic-scale manipulation of dopants in nanodots. This strategy can be applied to different nanoscale materials as their properties strongly depend on the number of doping atoms/ions, and has the potential to create a new paradigm based on controlled single atom/ion transfer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Subcontract Report: Diffusion Mechanisms and Bond Dynamics in Solid Electrolyte Ion-Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevgolis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alvez, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehmedovic, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shea, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Varley, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Adelstein, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    We employ first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and Maximally Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) analysis to explore how halide substitution and nano-phase microstructures affect diffusivity, through the activation energy barrier - Ea and D0, in the solid electrolyte Li3InBr6-xClx. We find that nano-phase microstructures with x=3 (50-50 Br-Cl) mixed composition have a higher diffusivity compared to x=2 and x=3 solid solutions. There is a positive linear relationship between ln(D0.) and Ea, which suggests that for superionic conductivity optimizing both the activation energy and the D0 is important. Bond frustration due to mismatch in crystal geometry and ideal coordination number leads to especially high diffusivity through a high D0 in the x=3 composition.

  10. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells from hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin)/polyaniline gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Tang, Qunwei, E-mail: tangqunwei@hotmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen, Haiyan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xu, Haitao; Qin, Yuancheng [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); He, Benlin, E-mail: blhe@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Zhichao; Jin, Suyue; Chu, Lei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin) [poly(HEMA/GR)] gel with a three-dimensional (3D) framework was successfully fabricated and employed to integrate with polyaniline (PANi). The resultant poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte exhibited interconnective porous structure for holding I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}, giving a similar conduction mechanism and ionic conductivity to that of liquid system but a much enhanced retention of I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox couple. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, cyclic voltammograms as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to evaluate the molecular structure, crystallinity, and the electrochemical behaviors, showing that the combination of PANi with poly(HEMA/GR) caused a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher electrocatalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox reaction in the gel electrolyte. An efficiency of 6.63% was recorded from the quasi-solid-state DSSC assembled with the poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte at 100 mW cm{sup −2}. - Graphical abstract: A poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte is synthesized through in situ polymerization of PANi in 3D framework of poly(HEMA/GR) hydrophobic hydrogel. The recorded ionic conductivity and electrochemical performances are significantly enhanced by integrating with PANi The resultant overall photo-to-electric conversion efficiency is 6.63%. The high ionic conductivity, along with good electrolyte retention ability, reasonable DSSC performance, low cost, simple and scalable synthesis procedure, and competitive cost, promises the electrolyte to find applications in quasi-solid-state DSSCs. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA/GR) was employed to combine with PANi in the 3D framework. • The conductivity and electrochemical performances were enhanced. • The conversion efficiency of the quasi-solid-state DSSC was 6.63%.

  11. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on papers coated with carbon nanotubes and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), regular office papers, and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes. Flexible electrodes were made by coating CNTs on office papers by a drop-dry method. The gel electrolyte was prepared by mixing fumed silica nanopowders with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf 2 ]). This supercapacitor showed high power and energy performance as a solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes was 135 F g −1 at a current density of 2 A g −1 , when considering the mass of active materials only. The maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitors were 164 kW kg −1 and 41 Wh kg −1 , respectively. Interestingly, the solid-state supercapacitor with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors with ionic-liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the supercapacitor showed excellent stability and flexibility. The CNT/paper- and gel-based supercapacitors may hold great potential for low-cost and high-performance flexible energy storage applications. (paper)

  12. Development of Solid Ceramic Dosimeters for the Time-Integrative Passive Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Riza Gabriela; Nam, Go-Un; Eom, In-Yong; Hong, Yong-Seok

    2017-11-07

    Time-integrative passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water can now be accomplished using a solid ceramic dosimeter. A nonporous ceramic, which excludes the permeation of water, allowing only gas-phase diffusion of VOCs into the resin inside the dosimeter, effectively captured the VOCs. The mass accumulation of 11 VOCs linearly increased with time over a wide range of aqueous-phase concentrations (16.9 to 1100 μg L -1 ), and the linearity was dependent upon the Henry's constant (H). The average diffusivity of the VOCs in the solid ceramic was 1.46 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 25 °C, which was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that in air (8.09 × 10 -6 m 2 s -1 ). This value was 60% greater than that in the water-permeable porous ceramic (0.92 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 ), suggesting that its mass accumulation could be more effective than that of porous ceramic dosimeters. The mass accumulation of the VOCs in the solid ceramic dosimeter increased in the presence of salt (≥0.1 M) and with increasing temperature (4 to 40 °C) but varied only slightly with dissolved organic matter concentration. The solid ceramic dosimeter was suitable for the field testing and measurement of time-weighted average concentrations of VOC-contaminated waters.

  13. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  14. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 °C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 °C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system.

  15. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M.; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Discretized model for an interface of covered electrodes. • Two limiting behaviors are capture: double-layer and conductive interfaces. • Additional phenomena are included easily: acid/base equilibrium, ion mobility. • The model provides explanations to observed phenomena that is vaguely explained in the literature. • Implications on electrodes in fuel cells are given and it opens avenues to understand and design such systems. - Abstract: A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott–Schottky or Gouy–Chapman–Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments

  16. Solid electrolytes. Extremely fast charge carriers in garnet-type Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanje, Bernhard; Breuer, Stefan; Uitz, Marlena [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Guenther [Department Chemistry and Physics of Materials, University of Salzburg (Austria); Berendts, Stefan; Lerch, Martin [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Uecker, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.), Berlin (Germany); Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Alistore-ERI European Research Institute, Amiens (France)

    2017-12-15

    The development of all-solid-state electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-ion batteries with solid electrolytes, requires stable, electronically insulating compounds with exceptionally high ionic conductivities. Considering ceramic oxides, garnet-type Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} and derivatives, see Zr-exchanged Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} (LLZTO), have attracted great attention due to its high Li{sup +} ionic conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. Despite numerous studies focussing on conductivities of powder samples, only few use time-domain NMR methods to probe Li ion diffusion parameters in single crystals. Here we report on temperature-variable NMR relaxometry measurements using both laboratory and spin-lock techniques to probe Li jump rates covering a dynamic time window spanning several decades. Both techniques revealed a consistent picture of correlated Li ion jump diffusion in the single crystal; the data perfectly mirror a modified BPP-type relaxation response being based on a Lorentzian-shaped relaxation function. The rates measured could be parameterized with a single set of diffusion parameters. Results from NMR are completely in line with ion transport parameters derived from conductivity spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of solid electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell; Preparacao, caracterizacao e propriedades eletricas de eletrolito solido para celula a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Marco Antonio Coelho; Garcia, Carlos Mario; Matos, Jeferson Hrenechen [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: felsky@latec.org.br, garcia@latec.org.br, jeferson.h@latec.org.br

    2010-04-15

    Solid electrolytes of BaCe{sub 08}Gd{sub O29} were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. X-ray diffraction data shows a single phase with orthorhombic crystalline structure. The densification process was followed by scanning electronic microscopy and apparent density measurements. The apparent density was developed for different temperatures of sintering, reaching > 96% for sintered temperature of 1550 {sup 0}C deg . The electrochemical impedance analysis was development in the temperature of 400-700 deg C, in air atmosphere at 700 deg C a value of 30,6 mS.cm{sup -1} was obtained. The results of conductivity have confirmed the gadolinium doped barium cerate has a great potential for use as solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell, at experimental controlled conditions. (author)

  18. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minyu; Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  19. Electrolyte bi-layering strategy to improve the performance of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri Prakash, B.; Pavitra, R.; Senthil Kumar, S.; Aruna, S. T.

    2018-03-01

    Lowering of operation temperature has become one of the primary goals of solid oxide fuel (SOFC) research as reduced temperature improves the prospects for widespread commercialization of this energy system. Reduced operational temperature also mitigates the issues associated with high temperature SOFCs and paves way not only for the large scale stationary power generation but also makes SOFCs viable for portable and transport applications. However, there are issues with electrolyte and cathode materials at low temperatures, individually as well as in association with other components, which makes the performance of the SOFCs less satisfactory than expected at lowered temperatures. Bi-layering of electrolytes and impregnation of cathodes have emerged as two important strategies to overcome these issues and achieve higher performance at low temperatures. This review article provides the perspective on the strategy of bi-layering of electrolyte to achieve the desired high performance from SOFC at low to intermediate temperatures.

  20. Theory of electroreduction of solid oxide electrolytes. Kinetics and mechanism of the galvanostatic process with blocking cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotin, V.N.; Brainin, M.I.; Lukach, Yu. S.; Pakhnutov, I.A.; Solov'eva, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses dc flow through cells with MO 2 + MeOΓ solid electrolyte (M = Zr, Hf, Ce, or Th; Me = Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, or lanthanides), a blocking cathode, and a reversible anode which leads to departures of the electrolytes from stoichiometry in the direction of oxygen deficiency. A nonlinear differential equation of the diffusion type describes the degree of this departure and the n-type electronic conductivity which is proportional to it, as functions of the coordinate and time. The electrolyte's electronic conductivity increases with time near the cathode, and approaches a limiting value that is proportional to the current being passed. The electronic conductivity falls off exponentially with increasing distance from the cathode; this changes to a linear fall as a function of time

  1. Ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) with nano-sized ceramic fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Prasanth; Zhao Xiaohui; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Manuel, James; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr; Nah, Changwoon [Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-30

    A series of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (NCPEs) comprising nanoparticles of BaTiO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2} were prepared by electrospinning technique. The nano-sized ceramic fillers were incorporated into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HEP)] membranes during the electrospinning process. The resultant porous membranes are good absorbent of the liquid electrolyte and exhibit high electrolyte retention capacity. The presence of the ceramic nanoparticles has positive effect on the mechanical properties of the membranes. The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical stability window of the electrospun P(VdF-HFP)-based polymer are enhanced by the presence of the fillers. The cell Li/LiFePO{sub 4} based on the NCPE containing BaTiO{sub 3} delivers a discharge capacity of 164 mAh/g, which corresponds to 96.5% utilization of the active material. In comparison, the performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells with NCPEs containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} was observed to be lower with respective discharge capacities of 153 and 156 mAh/g. The enhanced performance of the BaTiO{sub 3}-based-NCPE is attributed mainly to its better interaction with the host polymer and compatibility with lithium metal.

  2. TEM analysis and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings on Q235 steel prepared by hybrid method of hot-dipping aluminum and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Science and Research Department, Chinese People' s Armed Police Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Zhang Jingwu [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen Dejiu, E-mail: sdj217@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wu Lailei; Jiang Guirong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li Liang [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was firstly used to analyze the phase composition of the ceramic coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase composition of the ceramic coatings is mainly amorphous phase and crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cross-section micro-hardness of the treated samples was investigated, the hardness of the ceramic coatings is about HV1300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the PEO samples is about 3 times higher than that of the heat treated 45 steel. - Abstract: The hybrid method of PEO and hot-dipping aluminum (HDA) was employed to deposit composite ceramic coatings on the surface of Q235 steel. The composition of the composite coatings was investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The cross-section microstructure and micro-hardness of the treated specimens were investigated and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microscopic hardness meter (MHM), respectively. The wear resistance of the ceramic coatings was investigated by a self-made rubbing wear testing machine. The results indicate that metallurgical bonding can be observed between the ceramic coatings and the steel substrate. There are many micro-pores and micro-cracks, which act as the discharge channels and result of quick and non-uniform cooling of melted sections in the plasma electrolytic oxidation ceramic coatings. The phase composition of the ceramic coatings is mainly composed of amorphous phase and crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. The crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase includes {kappa}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {theta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The grain size of the {kappa}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal is quite non-uniform. The hardness of the ceramic coatings is about HV1300 and 10 times higher than that of the Q235 substrate, which was favorable to the better wear resistance of the ceramic

  3. Transport Properties Of PbI2 Doped Silver Oxysalt Based Amorphous Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrisanjaykumar Jayswal, Manishkumar

    Solid electrolytes are a class of materials that conduct electricity by means of motion of ions like Ag+, Na+, Li +, Cu+, H+, F-, O -2 etc. in solid phase. The host materials include crystalline, polycrystalline, glasses, polymers and composites. Ion conducting glasses are one of the most sought after solid electrolytes that are useful in various electrochemical applications like solid state batteries, gas sensors, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, to name a few. Since the discovery of fast silver ion transport in silver oxyhalide glasses at the end of the 1960s, many glasses showing large ionic conductivity up to 10-4 10-2 S/cm at room temperature have been developed, chiefly silver and copper ion conductors. The silver ion conducting glasses owe their high ionic conductivity mainly to stabilized alpha-AgI. AgI, as we know, undergoes a structural phase transition from wurtzite (beta phase) at room temperature to body centered cubic (alpha phase) structure at temperatures higher than 146 °C. The alpha-AgI possesses approximately six order of higher ionic conductivity than beta-AgI. The high ionic conductivity of alpha-AgI is attributed to its molten sublattice type of structure, which facilitates easy Ag+ ion migration, like a liquid. And hence, several attempts have been made to stabilize it at room temperature in crystalline as well as non-crystalline hosts like oxide and non-oxide glasses. Recently, in order to stabilize AgI in glasses, instead of directly doping it, indirect routes have also been explored. Where, a metal iodide salt along with silver oxide or silver phosphate is taken and an exchange reaction permitted by Hard and Soft, Acid and Base (HSAB) principle occurs between the two and AgI and metal oxide form in the glass forming melt. Work done in the present thesis has been organized in seven chapters as follows: Chapter 1: A review and background information of different solid electrolyte materials and their development is presented. Along

  4. Effect of substrate and cathode parameters on the properties of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D.; Tang, Z.; Burgess, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An axial injection suspension plasma spray system has been used to produce layers of fully stabilized yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ) that could be used as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes. Suspension plasma spraying is a promising technique for the rapid production of coatings with fine microstructures and controlled porosity without requiring a post-deposition heat treatment. This new manufacturing technique to produce SOFC active layers requires the build up of a number of different plasma sprayed SOFC functional layers (cathode, electrolyte and anode) sequentially on top of each other. To understand the influence of the substrate and previouslydeposited coating layers on subsequent coating layer properties, YSZ layers were deposited on top of plasma sprayed composite lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ cathode layers that were first deposited on porous ferritic stainless steel substrates. Three layer half cells consisting of the porous steel substrate, composite cathode, and suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layer were then characterized. A systematic study was performed in order to investigate the effect of parameters such as substrate and cathode layer roughness, substrate surface pore size, and cathode microstructure and thickness on electrolyte deposition efficiency, cathode and electrolyte permeability, and layer microstructure. (orig.)

  5. Truly quasi-solid-state lithium cells utilizing carbonate free polymer electrolytes on engineered LiFePO_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Cíntora-Juárez, Daniel; Pérez-Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, José L.; Ahmad, Shahzada; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonate free truly quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. • Simple and easy up scalable preparation by solvent free thermal curing. • LiFePO_4 cathode engineered by PEDOT:PSS interphase at the current collector. • Direct polymerization over the engineered electrode surface in one pot. • Stable lithium polymer cells operating in a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Stable and safe functioning of a Li-ion battery is the demand of modern generation. Herein, we are demonstrating the application of an in-situ free radical polymerisation process (thermal curing) to fabricate a polymer electrolyte that possesses mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, improved interfacial and ion transport characteristics along with stable cycling at ambient conditions. The polymer electrolyte is obtained by direct polymerization over the electrode surface in one pot starting from a reactive mixture comprising an ethylene oxide-based dimethacrylic oligomer (BDM), dimethyl polyethylene glycol (DPG) and lithium salt. Furthermore, an engineered cathode is used, comprising a LiFePO_4/PEDOT:PSS interface at the current collector that improves the material utilization at high rates and mitigates the corrosive effects of LiTFSI on aluminium current collector. The lithium cell resulting from the newly elaborated multiphase assembly of the composite cathode with the DPG-based carbonate-free polymer electrolyte film exhibits excellent reversibility upon prolonged cycling at ambient as well as elevated temperatures, which is found to be superior compared to previous reports on uncoated electrodes with polymer electrolytes.

  6. In situ electrochemical-mass spectroscopic investigation of solid electrolyte interphase formation on the surface of a carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, Gerald; Zheng, Dong; Smith, Patricia H.; Qu, Deyang

    2013-01-01

    The energy density of an electrochemical capacitor can be significantly improved by utilizing a lithiated negative electrode and a high surface area positive electrode. During lithiation of the negative carbon electrode, the electrolyte reacts with the electrode surface and undergoes decomposition to form a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer that passivates the surface of the carbon electrode from further reactions between Li and the electrolyte. The reduction reactions that the solvent undergoes also form insoluble and gaseous by-products. In this work, those gaseous by-products generated by reductive decomposition of a carbonate-based electrolyte, 1.2 M LiPF 6 in EC/PC/DEC (3:1:4), were analyzed at different stages during the lithiation process of an amorphous carbon electrode. The stages in the generation of gaseous by-products were determined to come as a result of two, 1-electron reduction steps of the cyclic carbonate components of the electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to investigate the two distinct electrochemical processes and the development of the two phases of the SEI structure. This is the first time that the state of an electrochemical cell during the formation of the SEI layer has been systematically correlated with theoretical reaction mechanisms through the use of in situ electrochemical-MS and impedance spectroscopy analyses

  7. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  8. Modification of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyser to ensure tritium compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelhardt, F.; Cristescu, I.; Michling, R.; Welte, S.

    2010-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for the ITER Tritium Plant in order to process tritiated water which is accumulated in various subsystems (e.g. the hall ventilation systems). For the ITER-WDS, the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process with an electrolyser unit as one of the major components is envisaged. An experimental WDS was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) for the investigation of various subsystems of the CECE process in tritium environment. The TLK-WDS consists of an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange column and two Solid Polymer Electrolyte electrolysers, each with a maximum hydrogen output of 1 m 3 /h. The commercially available Hogen40 electrolyser units from Proton Energy Systems are not tritium compatible concerning materials, joints and quality documentation (e.g. necessary certificates). In order to process tritiated water with tritium concentrations up to 370 GBq/kg, tritium compatibility had to be ensured by appropriate modifications. Up to now, the modified system has been operated with tritiated water for 3500 h, the maximum tritium concentration in the electrolysers being 190 GBq/kg. This contribution reports on the necessary modifications of the electrolyser units and the experiences gained thereby. The results are equally important for the ITER-WDS, where the maximum tritium concentration in the feed water of the electrolyser units will be even higher with 11 TBq/kg.

  9. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  10. Performance of solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor in flowing lead bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    A solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor for liquid 45%lead-55%bismuth (Pb-Bi) was developed. The performance of the oxygen sensor in the flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated. The initial performance of the sensor was not reliable, since the reference fluid of the oxygen saturated bismuth in the sensor cell was not compact initially. The electromotive force (EMF) obtained from the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cell was the same as that from the magnesia stabilized zirconia (MSZ) cell in the flowing Pb-Bi. The EMF of the sensor in the flowing Pb-Bi was lower than that in the stagnant Pb-Bi. However, the difference was small. The sensor showed repeatability after the long term interruption and the Pb-Bi drain/charge operation. After the performance tests, the corrosion of the sensor cells were investigated metallurgically. The YSZ cell was eroded around the free surface of the flowing Pb-Bi after 3500 hour-exposure in the flowing Pb-Bi. The MSZ cell showed smooth surface without the erosion. Although the YSZ cell worked more stably than the MSZ cell, the mechanical strength of the YSZ cell is weaker than that of the MSZ cell. (author)

  11. Prediction of battery storage ageing and solid electrolyte interphase property estimation using an electrochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Barai, A.; Uddin, K.; Somerville, L.; McGordon, A.; Marco, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ageing prediction is often complicated due to the interdependency of ageing mechanisms. Research has highlighted that storage ageing is not linear with time. Capacity loss due to storing the battery at constant temperature can shed more light on parametrising the properties of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI); the identification of which, using an electrochemical model, is systematically addressed in this work. A new methodology is proposed where any one of the available storage ageing datasets can be used to find the property of the SEI layer. A sensitivity study is performed with different molecular mass and densities which are key parameters in modelling the thickness of the SEI deposit. The conductivity is adjusted to fine tune the rate of capacity fade to match experimental results. A correlation is fitted for the side reaction variation to capture the storage ageing in the 0%-100% SoC range. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to predict the unknown properties of the SEI layer which is difficult to measure experimentally. The simulation and experimental results show that the storage ageing model shows good accuracy for the cases at 50% and 90% and an acceptable agreement at 20% SoC.

  12. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2013-01-01

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10 −6 S cm −1 when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm −1 , carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm −1 and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm −1 of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF 3 SO 3 salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF 3 SO 3

  13. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, D. [Department of Physics, Amrita Viswha Vidyapeetham, Bangalore, India, E-mail: d-praveen@blr.amrita.edu (India); Damle, Ramakrishna [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. E-mail: ramkrishnadamle@bub.ernet.in (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  14. Electrolytic Production of Ti5Si3/TiC Composites by Solid Oxide Membrane Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Zou, Xingli; Xie, Xueliang; Lu, Changyuan; Chen, Chaoyi; Xu, Qian; Lu, Xionggang

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigated the electrolytic production of Ti5Si3/TiC composites from TiO2/SiO2/C in molten CaCl2. The solid-oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane tube filled with carbon-saturated liquid tin was served as the anode, and the pressed spherical TiO2/SiO2/C pellet was used as the cathode. The electrochemical reduction process was carried out at 1273 K and 3.8 V. The characteristics of the obtained cathode products and the reaction mechanism of the electroreduction process were studied by a series of time-dependent electroreduction experiments. It was found that the electroreduction process generally proceeds through the following steps: TiO2/SiO2/C → Ti2O3, CaTiO3, Ca2SiO4, SiC → Ti5Si3, TiC. The morphology observation and the elemental distribution analysis indicate that the reaction routes for Ti5Si3 and TiC products are independent during the electroreduction process.

  15. Neutron irradiation characteristic tests of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Saito, Junichi; Souzawa, Shizuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Kobiyama, Mamoru.

    1997-03-01

    In the Department of JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the in-situ measuring technique of oxygen potential has been being developed to study the chemical behavior of high burn-up fuel base-irradiated in the Light Water Reactor. In this test for development of the technique, oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by MgO, CaO and Y 2 O 3 , named MSZ, CSZ and YSZ, respectively, were irradiated by neutrons in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAERI and the characteristics of electromotive force of these sensors under and after irradiation were discussed. From the experimental results, the electromotive force of YSZ sample under irradiation decreased with an increase in irradiation fluence within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1 x 10 23 m -2 . The electromotive force of MSZ sensor irradiated with neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) up to 9 x 10 21 m -2 was almost equal to the theoretical value of the electromotive force. It was shown that after irradiation, a decrease in the electromotive force of CSZ sensor was smaller than those of MSZ and YSZ sensors, although the electromotive forces of MSZ, CSZ and YSZ sensors were smaller than the theoretical value. (author)

  16. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  17. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Suriani, E-mail: sue_83@um.edu.my [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube ({alpha}CNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1} upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and {alpha}CNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: > Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. > It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. > Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined {pi}{yields}{pi}* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  18. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm{sup −1}, carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm{sup −1} and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm{sup −1} of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}.

  19. A Flexible Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Long-Life Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Wu; Shi, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Li, Jin-Yi; Li, Cong-Ju; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Rui; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer high elasticity to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM. With the high binding ability and excellent stability of the LiPAA polymer, the smart SEI can significantly reduce the side reactions and improve battery safety markedly. Stable cycling of 700 h is achieved in the LiPAA-Li/LiPAA-Li symmetrical cell. The innovative strategy of self-adapting SEI design is broadly applicable, providing opportunities for use in Li metal anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrical, thermal and structural properties of plasticized waste cooking oil-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaizi, Rahmatina Mohd; Tahir, Syuhada Mohd; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad

    2017-12-01

    Waste cooking oil-based polyol was synthesized using epoxidation and hydroxylation methods. The polyol was combined with 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to produce polyurethane (PU) to be used as polymer host in solid polymer electrolyte. 30 wt% LiClO4 was added as doping salt and two types of plasticizers were used; ethylene carbonate (PU-EC) and polyethylene glycol (PU-PEG). The SPE films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The highest conductivity achieved was 8.4 x 10-8 S cm-1 upon addition of 10 wt% EC. The XRD results showed a decrease of crystalline peaks in PU-EC and the increase in PU-PEG. DSC results revealed that the films; PU, PU-EC and PU-PEG had glass transition temperatures of 159.7, 106.0 and 179.7 °C, respectively. The results showed that the addition of EC increased the amorphous region and the free volume in the SPE structure, thus resulted in higher ionic conductivity.

  1. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Suriani; Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube (αCNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10 -10 to 10 -5 Scm -1 upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and αCNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10 -4 and 10 -3 Scm -1 . The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: → Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. → It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. → Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined π→π* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  2. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, D.; Damle, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO_4)_2, NH_4I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al_2O_3, TiO_2 etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  3. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  4. Phenomenological theory of current-producing processes at the solid oxide electrolyte/gas electrode interface: steady-state polarization of fuel-cell electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murygin, I.V.; Chebotin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The polarization of fuel-cell electrodes (mixtures CO + CO 2 and H 2 + H 2 O) in systems with solid oxide electrolytes is discussed. The theory is based upon a process model where the electrode reaction zone can spread along the line of three-phase contact by diffusion of reaction partners and products across the electrolyte/electrode and electrolyte/gas interface

  5. Sulfur tolerant composite cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus is made containing an exterior electrode bonded to the exterior of a tubular, solid, oxygen ion conducting electrolyte where the electrolyte is also in contact with an interior electrode, said exterior electrode comprising particles of an electronic conductor contacting the electrolyte, where a ceramic metal oxide coating partially surrounds the particles and is bonded to the electrolyte, and where a coating of an ionic-electronic conductive material is attached to the ceramic metal oxide coating and to the exposed portions of the particles.

  6. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnerlich, Markus; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Culver, James N.; Ketchum, Douglas R.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional micro-supercapacitor has been developed using a novel bottom-up assembly method combining genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-1Cys), photolithographically defined micropillars and selective deposition of ruthenium oxide on multi-metallic microelectrodes. The three-dimensional microelectrodes consist of a titanium nitride current collector with two functionalized areas: (1) gold coating on the active electrode area promotes TMV-1Cys adhesion, and (2) sacrificial nickel pads dissolve in ruthenium tetroxide plating solution to produce ruthenium oxide on all electrically connected areas. The microfabricated electrodes are arranged in an interdigitated pattern, and the capacitance per electrode has been measured as high as 203 mF cm-2 with solid Nafion electrolyte. The process integration of bio-templated ruthenium oxide with microfabricated electrodes and solid electrolyte is an important advance towards the energy storage needs of mass produced self-sufficient micro-devices.

  7. Chemical stability of conductive ceramic anodes in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt for electrolytic reduction in pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Woo Shin; Hong, Sun Seok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hur, Jin Mok [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies in solid polymeric electrolyte. Estudos por ressonancia magnetica nuclear em eletrolitos polimericos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, J P; Mattoso, L H.C.; Cavalcante, M G [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica; Gorecki, W; Berthier, C; Armand, M [Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    1990-01-01

    Solid complexes formed between Poly (ethylene oxide) and various alkali metal salts, are generally referred to as polymer electrolytes conductivity and NMR properties were investigated in POE - Li Cl sub(7)O sub(4) and POE - Li BF sub(4) complexes. Our sup(1)H, Li and sup(19)F relaxation study suggest that cation motion is controlled by segmental motions of the polymer chain while the anion have additional mobility associated with BG sub(4) rotation. (author).

  9. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  10. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  11. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Boron Rich Solids Sensors for Biological and Chemical Detection, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor

    CERN Document Server

    Orlovskaya, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: •boron-rich solids: science and technology; •synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids; •microcantileve...

  13. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  14. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-01-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 deg. C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively

  15. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells; Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu 1997 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells. Fuji Electric has demonstrated possibilities of film type cells of predominantly metallic flat plate supporting type of a large-area cell lamination system, and seal-less stack structure. Sanyo Electric has discussed making thinner the composite cell lamination type anode, optimization in sintering temperature, and sealing materials. The Fine Ceramic Center has performed a 1,000-hour test on an La(Sr) MnO{sub 3}-YSZ electrode, in which A-site defect amount was decreased to 0.1-0.02 to stabilize micro-structure air electrodes for an extended period of time. Fujikura has discussed functional materials for high dispersion and slanting in a fuel electrode Ni/YSZ. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has fabricated MgO-based fuel electrodes on a trial basis, and performed internal reformation and power generation tests by using full-size stacks. Murata Manufacturing Company has verified long-term power generation properties and stability of a three-layered co-sintered film of flat plate type. Mitsui Shipbuilding has reached a near final conclusion on the basic structure of gas separator cells. The Central Electric Power Research Institute has completed a conceptual design on a 300-MW class composite power generation system in which SOFC and gas turbines are combined. The Electric Power Development Company has discussed problems in SOFC composite power generation development using coal gasified fuel. (NEDO)

  17. The influence of Ferric ion contamination on the solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunying; Zhang, Linsong; Li, Guangfu; Zhang, Geng; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathode possesses higher tolerance for the Fe 3+ contamination than the anode. • Fe 3+ are mostly reduced to Fe 2+ rather than occur underpotential deposition. • Increased electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to ohmic overpotential. • Voltage lags behind current for minutes in the multi-current-step test. • Poisoned electrolyser is mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h. - Abstract: Fe 3+ is a sort of common metal ion contaminant for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser. In this paper, the effect of Fe 3+ on the performance of SPE water electrolyser has been investigated by both in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The electron probe microanalysis and ultraviolet test results showed that Fe 3+ could migrate from the anode to the cathode and mostly be reduced to Fe 2+ in the cathode rather than occurred underpotential deposition as described in the previous report. The in-situ dynamic contamination test showed that the anode voltage increased sharply as soon as the Fe 3+ was fed into the anode, while the cathode voltage kept constant until the contamination time was over 30 minutes, indicating the higher tolerance of the cathode than the anode for the Fe 3+ contamination. The calculation results based on the electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy test results revealed that the striking increase of the electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to the ohmic overpotential, which was due to the replacement of H + by Fe 3+ in the Nafion resin. Interestingly, the voltage lagged behind the current for several minutes in the multi-current-step test for the contaminated electrolyser, which phenomenon may be used for judging whether the SPE water electrolyser performance degradation is due to the metal ions contamination. Furthermore, recovery strategy has been developed, and it was found that the contaminated electrolyser could be mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h

  18. Solid-state reaction synthesis and aqueous durability of Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Zhang, Kuibao, E-mail: xiaobao320@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Yin, Dan [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hbzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction process using cerium as the surrogate of tetravalence actinide nuclide. The occupancy of Ce in the waste forms was investigated. The aqueous durability of Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramic was examined as well. The results show that zirconolite and pseudobrookite coexisted after being sintered at 1200 °C for 6 h. Meanwhile, perovskite is inevitable generated during the process. CeO{sub 2} can be successfully incorporated into the lattice structure of the zirconolite-rich ceramics. The maximum containing capacity of CeO{sub 2} is up to 14.95 wt% or y = 0.4. The normalized elemental leaching rates of Ce and Ca are fairly constant in low values of 1.2 × 10{sup −6} and 2.3 × 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 28 days. The normalized leaching rate of Fe is also in a low value of 2.9 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 7 days. - Highlights: • Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramic was produced at 1200 °C. • Pseudobrookite-type Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} was employed to incorporate Fe element. • Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} coexisted in the Ce-doped zirconolite-rich waste form after being sintered at 1200 °C for 6 h. • The leaching rate of Ca was relatively higher than that of borosilicate glasses.

  19. Recent advances in solid state NMR and its application to ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    The basic principles of solid state NMR are explained. Four application examples contained amorphous glass, determination of defects of oxide crystal, nano particle and ionic materials. The structure of inorganic glass is measured by 29 Si, 11 B, 31 P and 23 Na NMR and Magic Angle Spinning NMR (MAS-NMR), chemical species near hydrogen by Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) method, and hydrogen by Combined Rotation And Multiple Pulse Spectroscopy (CRAMPS) and MAS-NMR. Hydrous and anhydrous silicate glass with condensed 17 O was measured by 17 O Multi Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQ/MAS). 27 Al in slags was analyzed by 27 Al 5Q-MAS. 89 Y NMR spectrum of YSZ (Yttria Stabilization Zirconia, Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 ) was explained. The ion transfer phenomena in the electrolyte are observed directly by the solid state NMR. (S.Y.)

  20. Formation of nanotubes in poly (vinylidene fluoride): Application as solid polymer electrolyte in DSC fabricated using carbon counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuraaman, B. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Maruthamuthu, P., E-mail: pmaruthu@yahoo.com [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Incorporation of a {pi}-electron donor compound as dopant in poly(vinylidene fluoride) along with redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}) which forms brush like nanotubes. > Investigations about the use of conducting carbon coated FTO as a durable counter electrode and its effects in DSC. > High charge separation and the channelized flow of electrons in the nanotubes in electrolyte favors stable performance. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the incorporation of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) along with the redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}). When ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor, is used to dope PVDF, the polymer composite forms brush-like nanotubes and has been successfully used as a solid polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells. Under the given conditions, the electrolyte composition forms nanotubes while it is doped with ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor. With this new electrolyte, a dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated using N3 dye adsorbed over TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as the photoanode and conducting carbon cement coated FTO as counter electrode.

  1. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  2. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  3. Stable proton-conducting Ca-doped LaNbO4 thin electrolyte-based protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells by in situ screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bin; Wang Songlin; Liu Xingqin; Meng Guangyao

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a simple and cost-effective route to fabricate protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (PCMFCs), a stable proton-conducting La 0.99 Ca 0.01 NbO 4 (LCN) thin electrolyte was fabricated on a porous NiO-La 0.5 Ce 0.5 O 1.75 (NiO-LDC) anode by in situ screen printing. The key part of this process is to directly print well-mixed ink of La 2 O 3 , CaCO 3 and Nb 2 O 5 instead of pre-synthesized LCN ceramic powder on the anode substrate. After sintering at 1400 deg. C for 5 h, the full dense electrolyte membrane in the thickness of 20 μm was obtained. A single cell was assembled with (La 0.8 Sr 0.2 ) 0.9 MnO 3-δ -La 0.5 Ce 0.5 O 1.75 (LSM-LDC) as cathode and tested with humidified hydrogen as fuel and static air as oxidant. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and maximum power density respectively reached 0.98 V and 65 mW cm -2 at 800 deg. C. Interface resistance of cell under open circuit condition was also investigated.

  4. Stable proton-conducting Ca-doped LaNbO{sub 4} thin electrolyte-based protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells by in situ screen printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Bin [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: bin@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Wang Songlin; Liu Xingqin [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China); Meng Guangyao [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: mgym@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-06-10

    In order to develop a simple and cost-effective route to fabricate protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (PCMFCs), a stable proton-conducting La{sub 0.99}Ca{sub 0.01}NbO{sub 4} (LCN) thin electrolyte was fabricated on a porous NiO-La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} (NiO-LDC) anode by in situ screen printing. The key part of this process is to directly print well-mixed ink of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} instead of pre-synthesized LCN ceramic powder on the anode substrate. After sintering at 1400 deg. C for 5 h, the full dense electrolyte membrane in the thickness of 20 {mu}m was obtained. A single cell was assembled with (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.9}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}-La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} (LSM-LDC) as cathode and tested with humidified hydrogen as fuel and static air as oxidant. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and maximum power density respectively reached 0.98 V and 65 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 deg. C. Interface resistance of cell under open circuit condition was also investigated.

  5. Study of inhomogeneous solid adlayers at electrolyte-solid interfaces using differential reflectance spectroscopy. Progress report, July 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, S.O.

    1978-03-01

    Differential reflectance spectroscopy has been used to study interactions at liquid-solid and air-solid interfaces. The aim is to examine a number of properties of adsorbed solid and molecular interlayers formed at such boundaries. Differential optical techniques have not previously been used to a large degree to investigate details of interfacial properties. However, in conjunction with x-ray and electron analysis these approaches are important for examining both electronic structure and adsorption-adhesion mechanics of surface coverings even if these are only a few atomic diameters in thickness. Such layers are induced in experiments by electronic circuitry devised to add or subtract controlled amounts of adlayer through reactions at electrolyte-solid interfaces. The purpose is to supply new information of a basic nature concerning interfacial properties. This can be important since crystal phases of some materials exist only in thin surface coverings. Thus, a connection of this work may well be important to new thin-layer technology. Moreover, an important relation seems well established to problems in solar energy. It is known, for example, that interfacial layers modify gas evolution at some electrolyte-oxide boundaries and thus their study is closely relevant to improvement of some new fuel production schemes

  6. New electrodes for hydrogen/oxygen solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee; Stevens, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique

    1993-12-31

    A new method of preparation of Electrode/Membrane/Electrode (EME) assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) has been developed. The electrodes are deposited directly onto a Nafion electrolyte membrane from a mixture of platinized carbon, Nafion solution, and PTFE by using a spray technique. By this technique, porous electrodes are obtained with an optimized gas/electrolyte/catalyst interface, and electrode/membrane interface.

  7. A novel perspective on the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase on the graphite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jian; Zhang Jian; Su Yuchang; Zhang Xigui; Xia Baojia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how the mechanism of formation of a protective film [the solid electrolyte interphase (or interface) (SEI)] on a graphite electrode for Li-ion batteries was investigated from the novel perspective of precipitation of the final decomposition products that arise from the reduction of a nonaqueous electrolyte solution in contact with the graphite electrode. Within the framework of this new perspective, we can elegantly account for the compositional and structural differences between the basal-plane and edge-plane SEIs and for the origins of the multi-layer structure and the parabolic growth law of the SEIs on both the edge-plane and basal-plane surfaces of the graphite electrode.

  8. Determination of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase Structure Grown on a Silicon Electrode Using a Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Doucet, Mathieu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization Division; Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Research Accelerator Division; Baldwin, J. Kevin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Browning, James F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division

    2017-07-24

    In this work we explore how an electrolyte additive (fluorinated ethylene carbonate – FEC) mediates the thickness and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase formed over a silicon anode in situ as a function of state-of-charge and cycle. We show the FEC condenses on the surface at open circuit voltage then is reduced to C-O containing polymeric species around 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+). The resulting film is about 50 Å thick. Upon lithiation the SEI thickens to 70 Å and becomes more organic-like. With delithiation the SEI thins by 13 Å and becomes more inorganic in nature, consistent with the formation of LiF. This thickening/thinning is reversible with cycling and shows the SEI is a dynamic structure. We compare the SEI chemistry and thickness to 280 Å thick SEI layers produced without FEC and provide a mechanism for SEI formation using FEC additives.

  9. About the Compatibility between High Voltage Spinel Cathode Materials and Solid Oxide Electrolytes as a Function of Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Lincoln; Windmüller, Anna; Tsai, Chih-Long; Richards, William D; Ma, Qianli; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Guillon, Olivier; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-10-12

    The reactivity of mixtures of high voltage spinel cathode materials Li 2 NiMn 3 O 8 , Li 2 FeMn 3 O 8 , and LiCoMnO 4 cosintered with Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 and Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 electrolytes is studied by thermal analysis using X-ray-diffraction and differential thermoanalysis and thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry. The results are compared with predicted decomposition reactions from first-principles calculations. Decomposition of the mixtures begins at 600 °C, significantly lower than the decomposition temperature of any component, especially the electrolytes. For the cathode + Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 mixtures, lithium and oxygen from the electrolyte react with the cathodes to form highly stable Li 2 MnO 3 and then decompose to form stable and often insulating phases such as La 2 Zr 2 O 7 , La 2 O 3 , La 3 TaO 7 , TiO 2 , and LaMnO 3 which are likely to increase the interfacial impedance of a cathode composite. The decomposition reactions are identified with high fidelity by first-principles calculations. For the cathode + Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 mixtures, the Mn tends to oxidize to MnO 2 or Mn 2 O 3 , supplying lithium to the electrolyte for the formation of Li 3 PO 4 and metal phosphates such as AlPO 4 and LiMPO 4 (M = Mn, Ni). The results indicate that high temperature cosintering to form dense cathode composites between spinel cathodes and oxide electrolytes will produce high impedance interfacial products, complicating solid state battery manufacturing.

  10. Solid state electrolyte composites based on complex hydrides and metal doped fullerenes/fulleranes for batteries and electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Jr., Joseph A.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Greenway, Scott D.

    2018-05-01

    A LiBH4--C60 nanocomposite that displays fast lithium ionic conduction in the solid state is provided. The material is a homogenous nanocomposite that contains both LiBH4 and a hydrogenated fullerene species. In the presence of C60, the lithium ion mobility of LiBH4 is significantly enhanced in the as prepared state when compared to pure LiBH4. After the material is annealed the lithium ion mobility is further enhanced. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the material is stable in the presence of metallic lithium electrodes. The material can serve as a solid state electrolyte in a solid-state lithium ion battery.

  11. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  12. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  13. Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kai; Li, Hongdong; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Richeng; Zhao, Haofei; Shen, Xi; Wang, Liying; Song, Yanpeng; Qiu, Dongchao

    2017-02-01

    A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond (DNDs) into samarium doped ceria (SDC) is reported here. 1%wt. DNDs doping SDC (named SDC/ND) can enlarge the electrotyle grain size and change the valence of partial ceria. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current (AC) impedance spectra of internal grains. The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Hence all of them enhance the transportation of oxygen ions in SDC/ND electrolyte and the OCV. Ultimately the power density of SOFC can reach 762 mw cm-2 at 800 °C (twice higher than pure SDC, which is 319 mw cm-2 at 800 °C), and it remains high power density in the intermediate temperature (600-800 °C). It is relatively high for the electrolyte supported (300 μm) cells.

  14. Determination of diffusion coefficients for sulfide ions in solid electrolytes on the basis of BaSm2S4 and CaGd2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlov, I.S.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Medvedeva, O.V.; Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Ananchenko, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Coefficients of self-diffusion and coefficients of diffusion of the sulfur ion in solid electrolytes BaSm 2 S 4 and CaGd 2 S 4 are determined with recourse to methods of conductometry and potentiostatic chronoamperometry. A vacancy mechanism for the defect formation in solid solutions on the basis of barium thiosamarate and calcium thiogadolynate is proposed [ru

  15. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the broadband complex conductivity spectra covering a 0.01 Hz-3 GHz frequency range for plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte embedded with Al2O3 nanoparticle. We have analyzed the conductivity spectra using the random free-energy barrier model (RBM) coupled with electrode polarization contribution in the low frequency region and at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity obtained from the analysis has been analyzed using Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜ 1.93×10-4 S/cm has been obtained for 1 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticle.

  16. Ultrahigh-vacuum in situ electrochemistry with solid polymer electrolyte and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skotheim, T.A.; Florit, M.I.; Melo, A.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A new in situ combined electrochemistry and x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) technique using solid polymer electrolytes has been used to characterize electrically conducting films of polypyrrole perchlorate. The technique allows in situ electrochemical oxidation and reduction (doping and undoping) in ultrahigh vacuum and the simultaneous study of the polymer with XPS as a function of its electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that some anion species interact strongly electrostatically with the nitrogen heteroatoms. We also show conclusively that the electrochemistry of polypyrrole is highly irreversible

  17. Preparation of Ultra-Fine Nickel Manganite Powders and Ceramics by a Solid-State Coordination Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Dao-lai; Wang, Zhongbing; Wang, Zhichun; Yang, Pinghua; Liu, W.; Liu, Wei; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Chen, Chusheng

    2006-01-01

    A solid-state coordination reaction was adopted to prepare negative temperature coefficient ceramics. A mixed oxalate NiMn2(C2O4)3·6H2O, a coordination compound, was synthesized by milling a mixture of nickel acetate, manganese acetate, and oxalic acid for 5 h at room temperature. An ultrafine

  18. Degradation of some ceria electrolytes under hydrogen contact nearby anode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Luiz Fernando Brum

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with thermodynamic analysis of the stability of some ceria electrolytes under contact with hydrogen gas nearby anode in fuel cells. It was considered the following types of ceria-electrolytes: pure ceria, strontium-doped ceria, calcium-doped ceria and calcium-bismuth-doped ceria. The equilibrium Log (pH2O/pH2 vs. T diagrams were constructed for x = 0.1 and 0.01, where x is the fraction of initial ceria converted to Ce2O3 (proportional to the ratio between activities of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the ceria electrolyte, which is proportional to the fraction of electronic conduction in the electrolyte at a given temperature. The predictions of the diagrams are as follows: (a Ce1.9Ca0.1Bi0.8O5.1 and Ce0.9Sr0.1O1.9 are less stable than pure ceria for the whole temperature range (from 0 to 1000 °C; (b Ce0.9Ca0.1O1.9 is more stable than pure ceria below about 650 °C for x = 0.1 and below about 400 °C for x = 0.01; (c at each temperature in the considered range the pressure ratio pH2O(g/pH2(g has to be higher than thermodynamically predicted in order to keep CeO2 stable in the electrolyte contacting hydrogen gas. Thermodynamic predictions are entirely capable of explaining experimental data published on the subject (irreversible cell degradation in the case of SrO-doped ceria; weight loss from doped-ceria electrolyte above 700 °C; oxygen gas release during sintering of ceria.

  19. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  20. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-02-15

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  1. Application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet processed carbon nanotubes to liquid and quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Fei-Hong; Kan, Ken-Yuan; Yu, Ing-Song; Chen, Chieh-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2017-12-01

    We use a dc-pulse nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to calcine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) pastes that are screen-printed on carbon cloth. 30-s APPJ treatment can efficiently oxidize and vaporize the organic binders, thereby forming porous structures. As indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the oxygen content decreases after APPJ treatment owing to the oxidation and vaporization of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and ethanol. Nitrogen doping was introduced to the materials by the nitrogen APPJ. APPJ-calcination improves the wettability of the CNTs printed on carbon cloth, as evidenced by water contact angle measurement. Raman spectroscopy indicates that reactive species of nitrogen APPJ react violently with CNTs in only 30-s APPJ processing time and introduce defects and/or surface functional groups on CNTs. Carbon cloths with calcined CNT layers are used as electrodes for liquid and quasi-solid-state electrolyte supercapacitors. Under a cyclic voltammetry test with a 2 mV/s potential scan rate, the specific capacitance is 73.84 F/g (areal capacitance = 5.89 mF/cm2) with a 2 M KCl electrolyte and 66.47 F/g (areal capacitance = 6.10 mF/cm2) with a H2SO4/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte.

  2. Effects of grain boundaries at the electrolyte/cathode interfaces on oxygen reduction reaction kinetics of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Gi; Koo, Ja Yang; Ahn, Min Woo; Lee, Won Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We systematically investigated the effects of grain boundaries (GBs) at the electrolyte/cathode interface of two conventional electrolyte materials, i.e., yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC). We deposited additional layers by pulsed laser deposition to control the GB density on top of the polycrystalline substrates, obtaining significant improvements in peak power density (two-fold for YSZ and three-fold for GDC). The enhanced performance at high GB density in the additional layer could be ascribed to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies, which are known to be more active sites for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) than grain cores. GDC exhibited a higher enhancement than YSZ, due to the easier formation, and thus higher concentration, of oxygen vacancies for ORR. The strong relation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and the surface exchange characteristics substantiated the role of GBs at electrolyte/cathode interfaces on ORR kinetics, providing new design parameters for highly performing solid oxide fuel cells.

  3. New Insights of Graphite Anode Stability in Rechargeable Batteries: Li-Ion Coordination Structures Prevail over Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-01-04

    Graphite anodes are not stable in most noncarbonate solvents (e.g., ether, sulfoxide, sulfone) upon Li ion intercalation, known as an urgent issue in present Li ions and next-generation Li–S and Li–O2 batteries for storage of Li ions within the anode for safety features. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is commonly believed to be decisive for stabilizing the graphite anode. However, here we find that the solvation structure of the Li ions, determined by the electrolyte composition including lithium salts, solvents, and additives, plays a more dominant role than SEI in graphite anode stability. The Li ion intercalation desired for battery operation competes with the undesired Li+–solvent co-insertion, leading to graphite exfoliation. The increase in organic lithium salt LiN(SO2CF3)2 concentration or, more effectively, the addition of LiNO3 lowers the interaction strength between Li+ and solvents, suppressing the graphite exfoliation caused by Li+–solvent co-insertion. Our findings refresh the knowledge of the well-known SEI for graphite stability in metal ion batteries and also provide new guidelines for electrolyte systems to achieve reliable and safe Li–S full batteries.

  4. New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Minghao; Alvarado, Judith; Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Lu, Bingyu; Bouwer, James; Xu, Wu [Energy; Xiao, Jie [Energy; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy; Liu, Jun [Energy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-11-02

    Lithium metal has been considered as the “holy grail” anode material for rechargeable batteries though the dendritic growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) have crippled its practical use for decades. Its high chemical reactivity and low stability make it difficult to explore the intrinsic chemical and physical properties of the electrochemically deposited lithium (EDLi) and its accompanied solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). To prevent the dendritic growth and enhance the electrochemical reversibility, it is crucial to understand the nano- and meso- structures of EDLi. However, Li metal is very sensitive to beam damage and has low contrast for commonly used characterization techniques such as electron microscopy. Inspired by biological imaging techniques, this work demonstrates the power of cryogenic (cryo)- electron microscopy to reveal the detailed structure of EDLi and the SEI composition at the nano scale while minimizing beam damage during imaging. Surprisingly, the results show that the nucleation dominated EDLi (five minutes at 0.5 mA cm-2) is amorphous while there is some crystalline LiF present in the SEI. The EDLi grown from various electrolytes with different additives exhibits distinctive surface properties. Consequently, these results highlight the importance of the SEI and its relationship with the CE. Our findings not only illustrate the capabilities of cryogenic microscopy for beam (thermal)-sensitive materials, but it yields crucial structural information of the EDLi evolution with and without electrolyte additives.

  5. Application of silver vanadate solid electrolyte mixed with Al2O3 in Ag/I2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Karim bin Arof.

    1993-01-01

    The glassy silver vanadate electrolyte of the composition 70AgI-20Ag20-10V205 was added with Al2O3 in varying percentages to form several physical mixtures that will be used to fabricate several solid stare electrochemical cells in order to study the influence of the dispersoid on the silver vanadate cells internal resistance and lifetime of the silver vanadate cells. The internal resistance of the cells increased on addition of Al2O3 but the cell with the mixture of Al2O3 and electrolyte in the weight ratio 2:3 has the lowest internal resistance. The increase in the internal resistance of the cell is attributed to the insulating nature of Al2O3. Although the internal resistance of the cell increased, it was observed that the time needed for the cell potential to drop to 400 mV at a constant discharge current of 30 uA increase in discharge lifetime was also observed when a second cell of the same mixed electrolyte constituents was discharged at 40 uA current drain. We have attempted to explain the increase in discharge lifetime in terms of the space charge layer developed between the insulator and the ionic conductor which results in a dipole region across which a potential difference is developed. This potential difference is responsible in prolonging the discharge lifetime of the cells

  6. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on silicon due to the reduction of the electrolyte. Given that a good, passivating SEI layer plays such a crucial role in graphite anodes, we have characterized the surface composition and morphology of the SEI formed on the SiNWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have found that the SEI is composed of reduction products similar to that found on graphite electrodes, with Li2CO3 as an important component. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the results were used to determine the optimal cycling parameters for good cycling. The role of the native SiO2 as well as the effect of the surface area of the SiNWs on reactivity with the electrolyte were also addressed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron transfer through solid-electrolyte-interphase layers formed on Si anodes of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, L.; Cristancho, D.; Seminario, J.M.; Martinez de la Hoz, J.M.; Balbuena, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films are formed on the electrode surfaces due to aggregation of products of reduction or oxidation of the electrolyte. These films may grow to thicknesses in the order of 50-100 nm and contain a variety of organic and inorganic products but their structure is not well defined. Although in some cases the films exert a passivating role, this is not always the case, and these phenomena are particularly more complex on Silicon anodes due to swelling and cracking of the electrode during lithiation and delithiation. Since the driving force for SEI growth is electron transfer, it is important to understand how electron transfer may keep occurring through the heterogeneous film once the bare electron surface is covered. Here we introduce a novel approach for studying electron transfer through model films and show preliminary results for the analysis of electron transfer through model composite interfacial systems integrated by electrode/SEI layer/electrolyte. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to identify deposition of SEI components, and a density functional theory/Green's function approach is utilized for characterizing electron transfer. Three degrees of lithiation are modeled for the electrodes, the SEI film is composed by LiF or Li 2 O, and the ethylene carbonate reduction is studied. An applied potential is used as driving force for the leakage current, which is evaluated as a function of the applied potential. Comparative analyses are done for LiF and Li 2 O model SEI layers

  8. Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility

  9. Method of making sulfur tolerant composite cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus is made containing an exterior electorde bonded to the exterior of a tubular, solid, oxygen ion conducting electrolyte where the electrolyte is also in contact with an interior electrode, said exterior electrode comprising particles of an electronic conductor contacting the electrolyte, where a ceramic metal oxide coating partially surrounds the particles and is bonded to the electrolyte, and where a coating of an ionic-electronic conductive material is attached to the ceramic metal oxide coating and to the exposed portions of the particles.

  10. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Ahn, Kwang-Duk [Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2008-01-03

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4-tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  11. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu; Ahn, Kwang-Duk

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4- tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm -2).

  12. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  13. Preparation and characterization of novel solid polymer blend electrolytes based on poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) with various concentrations of lithium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, K., E-mail: kesavanphysics@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Mathew, Chithra M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Rajendran, S., E-mail: sraj54@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Ulaganathan, M. [Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637 553 (Singapore)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for PEO(90 wt%)/PVP(10 wt%)/LiClO{sub 4}(8 wt%) based electrolyte at room temperature. • The structural and functional groups were studied by XRD and FTIR. • Both direct and indirect optical band gap values were evaluated from UV–vis analysis. • The change in viscosity of the polymer electrolytes was studied by photoluminescence spectra. - Abstract: A series of conducting novel solid polymer blend electrolytes (SPE) based on the fixed ratio of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEO/PVP) and various concentrations of salt lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) were prepared by solvent casting technique. Structural and complex formation of the prepared electrolytes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for 8 wt% of LiClO{sub 4} based system at ambient temperature. Thermal stability of the present system was studied by thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Surface morphology of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM). Optical properties like direct and indirect band gaps were investigated by UV–vis analysis. The change in viscosity of the polymer complexes were also identified using photoluminescence emission spectra. PEO(90)/PVP(10)/LiClO{sub 4}(8) has the highest conductivity which is supported by the lowest optical band gap and lowest intensity in photoluminescence spectroscopy near 400–450 nm.

  14. Alkali-Resistant Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Stretchable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Gengchao

    2016-10-05

    Research on stretchable energy-storage devices has been motivated by elastic electronics, and considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of stretchable electrodes. However, stretchable electrolytes, another critical component in stretchable devices, have earned quite little attention, especially the alkali-resistant ones. Here, we reported a novel stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte made of a polyolefin elastomer porous membrane supported potassium hydroxide-potassium polyacrylate (POE@KOH-PAAK). The as-prepared electrolyte shows a negligible plastic deformation even after 1000 stretching cycles at a strain of 150% as well as a high conductivity of 0.14 S cm -1 . It also exhibits excellent alkali resistance, which shows no obvious degradation of the mechanical performance after immersion in 2 M KOH for up to 2 weeks. To demonstrate its good properties, a high-performance stretchable supercapacitor is assembled using a carbon-nanotube-film-supported NiCo 2 O 4 (CNT@NiCo 2 O 4 ) as the cathode and Fe 2 O 3 (CNT@Fe 2 O 3 ) as the anode, proving great application promise of the stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte in stretchable energy-storage devices.

  15. Graphene/activated carbon supercapacitors with sulfonated-polyetheretherketone as solid-state electrolyte and multifunctional binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Chiu, K.-F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsieh, C. Y.; Tsai, C. B.; Chu, B. T. T.

    2014-11-01

    Sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) has been synthesised by sulphonation process and used as the solid-state electrolyte, binder and surfactant for supercapacitors. Reduced graphene dispersed by SPEEK is used as a high-efficiency conducting additive in solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that SPEEK can improve the stability of the reduced graphene dispersion significantly, and therefore, the solid-state supercapacitors show a large decrease in IR drop and charge-transfer resistance (Rct), resulting in a higher rate capability. The solid-state supercapacitors with the activated carbon/reduced graphene/SPEEK/electrode can be operated from 1 to 8 A/g and exhibit capacity retention of 93%. The noteworthy is more than twice higher value for capacity retention by comparison with the solid-state supercapacitors using activated carbon/reduced graphene/PVDF electrode (capacity retention is 36%). The cell of reduced graphene with SPEEK can be cycled over 5000 times at 5 A/g with no capacitance fading.

  16. Investigating the Dendritic Growth during Full Cell Cycling of Garnet Electrolyte in Direct Contact with Li Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguesse, Frederic; Manalastas, William; Buannic, Lucienne; Lopez Del Amo, Juan Miguel; Singh, Gurpreet; Llordés, Anna; Kilner, John

    2017-02-01

    All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology, as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode/electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li-metal anode, LiFePO 4 cathode, and garnet ceramic electrolyte. The addition of a liquid interfacial layer between the cathode and the ceramic electrolyte is found to be a prerequisite to achieve low interfacial resistance and to enable full use of the active material contained in the porous electrode. Reproducible and constant discharge capacities are extracted from the cathode active material during the first 20 cycles, revealing high efficiency of the garnet as electrolyte and the interfaces, but prolonged cycling leads to abrupt cell failure. By using a combination of structural and chemical characterization techniques, such as SEM and solid-state NMR, as well as electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that a sudden impedance drop occurs in the cell due to the formation of metallic Li and its propagation within the ceramic electrolyte. This degradation process is originated at the interface between the Li-metal anode and the ceramic electrolyte layer and leads to electromechanical failure and cell short-circuit. Improvement of the performances is observed when cycling the full cell at 55 °C, as the Li-metal softening favors the interfacial contact. Various degradation mechanisms are proposed to explain this behavior.

  17. Estimation of current constriction losses via 3D tomography reconstructions in electrochemical devices: a case study of a solid oxide cell electrode/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the methodology for accurate estimations of the current constriction resistance in solid state electrochemical devices via 3D tomography reconstructions is developed. The methodology is used to determine the current constriction resistances at the Ni:YSZ anode/YSZ electrolyte...... of the electrolyte thickness. The obtained results on current constriction resistances from numerical calculations on a 3D reconstruction of a Ni:YSZ anode/YSZ electrolyte assembly is compared with existing models with analytical expressions. The comparison shows, that the assumptions of existing models are by far...

  18. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor

    2010-10-21

    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported

  19. An insight into intrinsic interfacial properties between Li metals and Li10GeP2S12 solid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Ju, Jiangwei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Jianjun; Xiao, Ruijuan; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Density functional theory simulations and experimental studies were performed to investigate the interfacial properties, including lithium ion migration kinetics, between lithium metal anode and solid electrolyte Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 (LGPS). The LGPS[001] plane was chosen as the studied surface because the easiest Li + migration pathway is along this direction. The electronic structure of the surface states indicated that the electrochemical stability was reduced at both the PS 4 - and GeS 4 -teminated surfaces. For the interface cases, the equilibrium interfacial structures of lithium metal against the PS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/PS 4 -LGPS) and the GeS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/GeS 4 -LGPS) were revealed based on the structural relaxation and adhesion energy analysis. Solid electrolyte interphases were expected to be formed at both Li/PS 4 -LGPS and Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interfaces, resulting in an unstable state of interface and large interfacial resistance, which was verified by the EIS results of the Li/LGPS/Li cell. In addition, the simulations of the migration kinetics show that the energy barriers for Li + crossing the Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interface were relatively low compared with the Li/PS 4 -LGPS interface. This may contribute to the formation of Ge-rich phases at the Li/LGPS interface, which can tune the interfacial structures to improve the ionic conductivity for future all-solid-state batteries. This work will offer a thorough understanding of the Li/LGPS interface, including local structures, electronic states and Li + diffusion behaviors in all-solid-state batteries.

  20. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan [Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin [Center of Foundation Studies, PuncakAlam Campus, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40430 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  1. All solid-state polymer electrolytes prepared from a hyper-branched graft polymer using atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Mitsuru; Fujino, Yukiko; Koumoto, Taihei; Kitani, Ryousuke; Egashira, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    We propose an all solid-state (liquid free) polymer electrolyte (SPE) prepared from a hyper-branched graft copolymer. The graft copolymer consisting of a poly(methyl methacrylate) main chain and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate side chains was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization changing the average chain distance between side chains, side chain length and branched chain length of the proposed structure of the graft copolymer. The ionic conductivity of the SPEs increases with increasing the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. The ionic conductivity of the SPE prepared from POEM 9 whose POEM content = 51 wt% shows 2 x 10 -5 S/cm at 30 deg. C. The tensile strength of the SPEs decreases with increases the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. These results indicate that a SPE prepared from the hyper-branched graft copolymer has potential to be applied to an all-solid polymer electrolyte

  2. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  3. In situ electron holography of electric potentials inside a solid-state electrolyte: Effect of electric-field leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    In situ electron holography is used to observe changes of electric-potential distributions in an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state electrolyte when different voltages are applied. 2D phase images are simulated by integrating the 3D potential distribution along the electron trajectory through a thin Cu/LiPON/Cu region. Good agreement between experimental and simulated phase distributions is obtained when the influence of the external electric field is taken into account using the 3D boundary-charge method. Based on the precise potential changes, the lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON layer and electric double layers (EDLs) are inferred. The gradients of the phase drops at the interfaces in relation to EDL widths are discussed. - Highlights: • Solid-state electrolyte LiPON has been observed by in situ electron holography. • Observed phase distributions are compared with those simulated numerically. • 3D electric fields around the specimen are taken into account in the simulation. • Electric-potential distributions inside LiPON have been obtained. • The lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON are inferred.

  4. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  5. Effects of cathode pulse at high frequency on structure and composition of Al2TiO5 ceramic coatings on Ti alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhongping; Liu Yunfu; Xu Yongjun; Jiang Zhaohua; Wang Fuping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Al 2 TiO 5 in the coating on Ti alloy by PEO treatment changes with the increase of the cathode pulse, regardless of the amount and the grain size. → The cathode pulse brings about the decrease of γ-Al 2 O 3 and the increase of rutile TiO 2 in the coating. → The appropriate cathode pulse during PEO process is beneficial to reduce residual discharging channels and improve the density of the coating. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of cathode pulse under high working frequency on structure and composition of ceramic coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Ceramic coatings were prepared on Ti alloy by pulsed bi-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation in NaAlO 2 solution. The phase composition, morphology and element distribution in the coating were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy distribution spectroscopy, respectively. The coating was mainly composed of a large amount of Al 2 TiO 5 . As the cathode pulse was increased, the amount and grain size of Al 2 TiO 5 were first increased, and then decreased. γ-Al 2 O 3 in the coating was gradually decreased to nothing with the increase in the cathode pulse whereas rutile TiO 2 began to form in the coating. As opposed to the single-polar anode pulse mode, the cathode pulse reduced the thickness of the coatings. However, as the cathode pulse intensity continued to increase, the coating then became thicker regardless of cathode current density or pulse width. In addition, the residual discharging channels were reduced and the density of the coating was increased with the appropriate increase of the cathode pulse.

  6. Chemical compatibility of alternative perovskite oxide SOFC cathodes with doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostogloudis, G.C.; Ftikos, C. [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Ahmad-Khanlou, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Stoever, D. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems IWV1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports on the investigations of the chemical compatibility between SOFC cathode materials with compositions Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Pr{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} and the electrolyte materials with compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}, and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}. The lanthanum gallate electrolyte with 20 mol.% Sr contained two additional phases, namely, LaSrGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} and LaSrGaO{sub 4}, while that with 10 mol.% Sr was formed in nearly single phase. Two types of experiments were performed: (a) reactivity experiments of powder mixtures and (b) diffusion experiments in cathode/electrolyte double-layer pellets. No reaction products were detected by XRD. High Co diffusion into the electrolyte was identified with SEM/EDX in all diffusion experiments examined. The transition metals diffuse in the order Mnelectrolyte La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} caused the destabilisation and disappearance of the second phases in the interdiffusion zone. In the case of the A-site deficient cathode, the formation of LaSrGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} second phase was identified on the electrolyte side, near the interdiffusion zone.

  7. Synthesis of ceramic BaCe_0_._7Zr_0_,_1Y_0_._2O_3_-_δ electrolyte containing ZnO through the method hidrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.H.A.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cells are promising sources of sustainable energy, once they produce electricity from an electrochemical reaction only with steam water as the product of this reaction. In this paper the synthesis of ceramic electrolyte BaCe_0_._7Zr_0_._1Y_0_._2O_3_-_δ using the hydrogel method which involves using an organic gelatin inexpensive and nontoxic modifying the conventional route of polymeric precursor was performed. It was used different amounts of the sintering additive ZnO to decrease the sintering temperature, typically around 1600 °C, towards a minimum relative density of 95%. The polymeric resin was pyrolyzed at 300 °C, subjected to calcination at 600 °C and sintering at temperatures of 1350, 1400 and 1450 °C for 2 hours. Characterizations were carried out by determination of relative density and apparent porosity and using the techniques of differential thermal analysis and simultaneous thermogravimetric, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.(author)

  8. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times......, respectively, compared to the conventional liquid-electrolyte battery. Through investigations of the conversion reactions of Mg2FeH6, formation of MgH2 as intermediate in the conversion to Mg is discovered the first time. In addition, the effect of mixing procedure for the electrode-electrolyte composite...... on the battery performance is discussed....

  9. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  10. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-12-11

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  11. Measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium with the use of solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Skvor, F.

    1976-01-01

    Doped Y 2 O 3 (CaO or MgO up to 20 mol.%) was studied as a possible electrolyte. La 2 O 3 did not prove advantageous. The proposed version of an analyzer is described and the problems of calibration discussed. The reduction of the chemical gradient and the increase in material purity of the electrolytical tube significantly reduced the difference between the theoretical and experimentally obtained emf value, so that measurements may be carried out under these conditions even without calibration. The dependence of log σsub(T) on partial O 2 pressure is given for doped La and Y oxides at a temperature of 700 degC. (M.K.)

  12. Synthesis of nanopowders of the aluminum-substituted lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte by mechanochemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Eddy M.; Gonçalves, Priscila; Figueiredo, Filipe M.

    2012-07-01

    The room temperature mechanosynthesis of La1-xSrxGa1-y-zMgyAlzO3-δ nanopowders is successfully demonstrated for a broad compositional range (x ≤ 0.1; y ≤ 0.2, z ≤ 0.4) by resorting to a nearly amorphous alumina precursor with enhanced reactivity. It is shown that ceramics with one single phase and free from open porosity can be obtained by sintering these nanopowders at 1350-1450 °C. Microstructural data show that the substitution of Ga by Al hinders densification and decreases the grain size of ceramics. This is explained assuming the segregation of aluminum cations to the grain boundaries as a result of the decrease of the cationic diffusion coefficients.

  13. Aspects of industrial production of solid electrolyte fuel cells (SOFC) by thermal spraying technology; Aspekte industrieller Fertigung von Festelektrolyt-Brennstoffzellen (SOFC) mittels thermischer Beschichtungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckmann, Hannes

    2010-07-01

    The present thesis deals with measures to optimize the large-volume production of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) based on thermal spraying technology. Based on the well-established Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) at DLR the potential of alternative thermal spraying techniques as well as alternative base materials was investigated in order to deposit SOFC-anode, electrolyte and insulating layers. Production costs, reproducibility and long-term stability of the production process as well as the fuel cell performance were major target criteria. Depending on the parameter set applied when using the cost efficient Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS) in combination with Nickel-Graphite as base material a significant improvement of gas permeability and electrical conductivity was achieved in comparison to the VPS sprayed reference anode. The power density of a fuel cell with an APS-Nickel-Graphite anode (184 mW/cm{sup 2}) was slightly better than the performance with a VPS reference anode (159 mW/cm{sup 2}). In comparison to the VPS process, ceramic electrolyte layers of fully stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) with significantly higher gas tightness could be demonstrated when high energy processes such as Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS). Thin-film Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS-Thin-film) and High Velocity Oxy Fuel Spraying (HVOF) were applied. The power density of a fuel cell equipped with an HVOF electrolyte was significantly improved to 234 mW/cm{sup 2} as compared to 187 mW/cm{sup 2} with the VPS sprayed reference cell. Further improvement of the power density was achieved with an LPPS-electrolyte (273 mW/cm{sup 2}). HVOF and VPS sprayed layers of pure Spinel in composite with metallic active braze (equivalent to the sealing between individual layers in the fuel cell stack) could exceed the demanded charge transfer resistance of >1 k{omega}cm{sup 2} at 800 C operating temperature only in few cases. When blended base powder of Spinel and Magnesia in combination with the VPS

  14. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests under...

  15. Study and development of a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R

    1992-10-29

    The hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell appears today as the best candidate to the replacing of the internal combustion engine for automobile traction. This system uses the non explosive electrochemical recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is a clean generator whom only reactive product is water. This thesis shows a theoretical study of this system, the synthesis of different kinds of used electrodes and finally an analysis of water movements in polymer electrolyte by different original technologies. 70 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of Sr- and Mg-substituted LaGaO3 solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Sr and Mg substituted LaGaO 3 is a solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. In this contribution the secondary phases that are evolved during the synthesis of Sr and Mg doped LaGaO 3 are reported. For that purpose, a series of La 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (LSGM) was prepared by solid state synthesis route. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed secondary phases namely La 4 Ga 2 O 9 , LaSrGa 3 O 7 , LaSrGaO 4 along with the parent perovskite LSGM depending upon the amount of dopant. Amount of secondary phases was estimated from the peak positions of room temperature X-ray diffraction. It was observed that for a fixed amount of Mg dopant increasing the amount of Sr content also increased the amount of secondary phases whereas the reverse was found to be true when Sr content was fixed and Mg content was increased. This behaviour was attributed to the increase in solid solubility of Sr in presence of Mg

  17. Thermal history and polymer electrolyte structure: implications for solid-state battery design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neat, R.; Glasse, M.; Linford, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on PEO/LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ polymeric electrolytes using polarising microscopy, SEM/EDX, DSC and complex plane analysis show that thin electrolyte films prepared by slow evaporation from CH/sub 3/CN solution are spherulitic in nature. More than one type of spherulite is present across the composition range and each spherulite type contains both amorphous and crystalline regions. The structural behaviour on heating and cooling is discussed with particular reference to electrolyte films of overall composition PEO/sub 20/:LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/. For these high ratio triflate films, in contrast to similar PEO/LiClO/sub 4/ films, high melting salt-rich regions are unexpectedly present in conjunction with low melting, low salt spherulites. No evidence is found for the presence of pure PEO spherulites, but the low melting spherulites may have a crystalline skeleton of pure PEO. Evidence is presented for the dependence of conductivity on thermal history.

  18. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chen, Po-Yen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    ) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached

  19. Lithiated Nafion as polymer electrolyte for solid-state lithium sulfur batteries using carbon-sulfur composite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Sun, Chunshui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Chong; Guo, Decai; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Due to flexible property and light weight, the lithiated Nafion membrane swollen with PC (PC-Li-Nafion) has been employed as both solid-state electrolyte and separator to fabricate solid-state Li-S cells. The electrochemical measurements of PC-Li-Nafion membrane show that its Li-ion transference number is 0.928, ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 can be achieved at 70 °C and its electrochemical window is 0 ∼ +4.1 V vs. Li+/Li. It is observed that the Li dendrites are suppressed by using PC-Li-Nafion membrane due to its single-ion conducting property. The amounts of Li-Nafion resin binder and conductive carbon in the cathode are optimized as 40% and 10% respectively to make a balance of ionic and electronic conductivities. A thin-layer Li-Nafion resin with a thickness of around 2 μm is fabricated between the cathode and PC-Li-Nafion membrane to improve the interfacial contact and further enhance the specific capacity of the cell. When measured at 70 °C, the Li-S cell delivers a reversible specific capacity of 1072.8 mAh g-1 (S) at 0.05 C and 895 mAh g-1 (S) at 1 C. The capacity retention at 1 C is 89% after 100 cycles. These results suggest that high-performance solid-state Li-S cells can be fabricated with the Li-Nafion polymer electrolyte.

  20. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  1. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  2. The temperature influence against conductivity of solid state electrolyte of (CuI)0,5(β-Al2O3)0,5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, -P; Kartini, -E; Purnama, Safei

    2004-01-01

    The solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 has been prepared by a solid state reaction, by mixing of CuI with β-Al 2 O 3 powders. The mixture was compacted and heated at the temperature 300 o C for 3 hours. The conductivity values of (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 increased with the temperature and frequency. The x ray diffraction peaks of the solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 are dominated by the peaks of CuI than the peaks of β-Al 2 O 3 . The activation energy of the solid electrolyte is relatively stable, with the range from 0.09 eV to 0.13 eV. The conductivities solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 at room temperature and at 300 o C are 1.48 x 10 -5 S/cm and 8.33 x 10 -4 S/cm, respectively

  3. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki; Yamamoto, Osamu

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M n(CF 3SO 3) n] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard® membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard® #3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5×10 -4 S cm -1 at 12 mol% for LiCF 3SO 3, 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1 at 1 mol% for Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2, and 2.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 4 mol% for Zn(CF 3SO 3) 2 system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, Li|LiCF 3SO 3-SPE+Celgard® #3401|(CH 3) 4NI 5+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm 2.

  4. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamamoto, Osamu [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M{sup n}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n}] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard{sup trademark} membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 12 mol% for LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, 1.7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 1 mol% for Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and 2.1 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 4 mol% Zn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, li vertical stroke LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-SPE+Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 vertical stroke (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}NI{sub 5}+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  5. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Li; Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T gel ) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J sc ) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J sc of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T gel is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated

  6. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  7. Glass-ceramic material and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-13

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  8. Robust Pinhole-free Li3N Solid Electrolyte Grown from Molten Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium metal is the ultimate anode choice for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. However, it suffers from inferior electrochemical performance and safety issues due to its high reactivity and the growth of lithium dendrites. It has long been desired to develop a materials coating on Li metal, which is pinhole-free, mechanically robust without fracture during Li metal deposition and stripping, and chemically stable against Li metal and liquid electrolytes, all while maintaining adequate ionic conductivity. However, such an ideal material coating has yet to be found. Here we report a novel synthesis method by reacting clean molten lithium foil directly with pure nitrogen gas to generate instantaneously a pinhole-free and ionically conductive α-Li3N film directly bonded onto Li metal foil. The film consists of highly textured large Li3N grains (tens of μm with (001 crystalline planes parallel to the Li metal surface. The bonding between textured grains is strong, resulting in a mechanically robust film which does not crack even when bent to a 0.8 cm curvature radius and is found to maintain pinhole-free coverage during Li metal deposition and stripping. The measured ionic conductivity is up to 5.2 × 10–4 S cm–1, sufficient for maintaining regular current densities for controllable film thicknesses ranging from 2 to 30 μm. This Li3N coating is chemically stable, isolating the reactive metallic lithium from liquid electrolyte, prevents continuous electrolyte consumption during battery cycling, and promotes dendrite-free uniform lithium plating/stripping underneath. We demonstrated Li|Li4Ti5O12 cells with stable and flat potential profiles for 500 cycles without capacity decay or an increase in potential hysteresis.

  9. Development and testing of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with slurry-coated electrolyte and cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Fonseca, F.C.; Franca, Y.V.; Porfirio, T.C. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, C.P. 11049, Pinheiros, S. Paulo, SP 05422-970 (Brazil); de Florio, D.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, R. Prof. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Berton, M.A.C.; Garcia, C.M. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, DPMA, C.P. 19067, Curitiba, PR 81531-980 (Brazil)

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory setup was designed and put into operation for the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The whole project consisted of the preparation of the component materials: anode, cathode and electrolyte, and the buildup of a hydrogen leaking-free sample chamber with platinum leads and current collectors for measuring the electrochemical properties of single SOFCs. Several anode-supported single SOFCs of the type (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}+NiO) thick anode/(ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin electrolyte/(La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3}+ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin cathode have been prepared and tested at 700 and 800{sup o}C after in situ H{sub 2} anode reduction. The main results show that the slurry-coating method resulted in single-cells with good reproducibility and reasonable performance, suggesting that this method can be considered for fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  10. A review of the features and analyses of the solid electrolyte interphase in Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal; Novak, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a protecting layer formed on the negative electrode of Li-ion batteries as a result of electrolyte decomposition, mainly during the first cycle. Battery performance, irreversible charge 'loss', rate capability, cyclability, exfoliation of graphite and safety are highly dependent on the quality of the SEI. Therefore, understanding the actual nature and composition of SEI is of prime interest. If the chemistry of the SEI formation and the manner in which each component affects battery performance are understood, SEI could be tuned to improve battery performance. In this paper key points related to the nature, formation, and features of the SEI formed on carbon negative electrodes are discussed. SEI has been analyzed by various analytical techniques amongst which FTIR and XPS are most widely used. FTIR and XPS data of SEI and its components as published by many research groups are compiled in tables for getting a global picture of what is known about the SEI. This article shall serve as a handy reference as well as a starting point for research related to SEI.

  11. Development of novel strategies for enhancing the cycle life of lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Allcock, Harry; Engelhard, George; Bomberger, N.; Gao, L.; Olmeijer, D.

    2001-04-30

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (Li/SPE) secondary batteries are under intense development as power sources for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. These batteries offer high specific energy, high energy density, very low self-discharge rates, and flexibility in packaging; however, problems have inhibited their introduction into the marketplace. This report summarizes findings to examine processes that occur with Li/SPE secondary batteries upon cyclic charging/discharging. The report includes a detailed analysis of the impedance measured on the Li/SPE/IC and IC/SPE/IC systems. The SPE was a derivative of methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene (MEEP) with lithium triflate salt as the electrolyte, while the intercalated cathodes (IC) comprised mixtures of manganese dioxide, carbon powder, and MEEP as a binder. Studies on symmetrical Li/SPE/Li laminates show that cycling results in a significant expansion of the structure over the first few tens of cycles; however, no corresponding increase in the impedance was noted. The cycle life of the intercalation cathode was found to be very sensitive to the method of fabrication. Results indicate that the cycle life is due to the failure of the IC, not to the failure of the lithium/SPE interface. A pattern recognition neural network was developed to predict the cycle life of a battery from the charge/discharge characteristics.

  12. In-Situ Observation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Ordered Mesoporous Hard Carbon by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Zhao, Jinkui; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to better understand the electrochemical processes occurring during the cycling of a lithium-ion half-cell containing ordered mesoporous hard carbon using time-resolved in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Utilizing electrolytes containing mixtures of deuterated (2H) and non-deuterated (1H) carbonates, we have addressed the challenging task of monitoring the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. An evolution occurs in the SEI layer during discharge from a composition dominated by a higher scattering length density (SLD) lithium salt, to a lower SLD lithium salt for the ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) mixture employed. By comparing half-cells containing different solvent deuteration levels, we show that it is possible to observe both SEI formation and lithium intercalation occurring concurrently at the low voltage region in which lithium intercalates into the hard carbon. These results demonstrate that SANS can be employed to monitor complicated electrochemical processes occurring in rechargeable batteries, in a manner that simultaneously provides information on the composition and microstructure of the electrode.

  13. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  15. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Mariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Suriani

    2014-01-01

    New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38 × 10−4 Scm−1). The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased. PMID:25133244

  16. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariah Mohd Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE based on poly(ethylene oxide (PEO doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3, dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38×10-4 Scm-1. The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased.

  17. Electrode of solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell; Kobunshi kotai denkaisitsugata denki kagaku seru yo denkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M [Yamanashi, (Japan); Inoue, M [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-12

    The solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell (PEMFC) has such problem that the gas diffusion from the resin surface to the catalyst surface is prevented when the coating thickness of cation exchange resin on the catalyst particle and the number of micropores which conduct the gas flow in the catalyst layer are reduced. Resultingly, a sufficiently large current cannot be taken out of the cell. This invention solves the problem. The catalyst layer of electrode of PEMFC consists of a mixture of the conductive catalyst carrier coated with cation exchange resin and the conductive carrier coated with fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer. Adding the water repellent material to the electrode in this way improves the air-passing porosity. As for the cation exchange resin, perfluorocarbon sulfonate or perfluorocarbon carboxylate can be used. For the fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer, fluorinated polyethylene is preferably used. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-06-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10-4 S cm-1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor.

  19. A novel temperature-gradient Na±β-alumina solid electrolyte based SOx gas sensor without gaseous reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Bleek, C.M. Van den; Schoonman, J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical SOx ps sensor with a tubular Na+-beta"-alumina solid electrolyte has been fabricated and tested under non-isothermal conditions. The temperature difference between the reference and working electrode of the sensor cell is about 100-degrees-C, which causes a serious deviation...... of the experimental EMF response from the value as calculated using the Nernst equation for an isothermal system. The experimental results are Consistent with the theoretical prediction for a non-isothermal system. The response time is usually less then 10 min. SEM and EDX have been employed to investigate the sensor...... material before and after use, confirming the formation of a glassy phase of Na2SO4 by an electrochemical reaction at the interface of the platinum electrodes and Na+-beta"-alumina. According to this new theoretical derivation, the sensor design could be simplified by applying the same SO2 ps at the two...

  20. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Bhattacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12 and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the mobility of individual Li-ions and do not find evidence that supports the proposition of structural Li-ions in LGPS. We find nominal effect of local Ge-P ordering and of Li-concentration change on diffusivity, which not only provides information about the invariance of diffusivity at different conditions of operation, but also ensures that identification of the ground state structure in LGPS having partially occupied Li and Ge/P sublattices should have minimal effect on the diffusion analysis. We computed the dilute Li insertion and extraction voltages for LGPS from ab-initio total energy calculation. The dilute voltages indicate that the material is prone to react by exchanging Li-ions with the electrodes at typical operating range of voltages indicating formation of some interphase at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which necessitates further experimental investigation

  1. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  2. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  3. Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of Al and Ga Cosubstitution in Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Günther; Preishuber-Pflügl, Florian; Cheng, Lei; Miara, Lincoln; Wagner, Reinhard; Welzl, Andreas; Suard, Emmanuelle; Doeff, Marca M; Wilkening, Martin; Fleig, Jürgen; Amthauer, Georg

    2016-04-12

    Several "Beyond Li-Ion Battery" concepts such as all solid-state batteries and hybrid liquid/solid systems envision the use of a solid electrolyte to protect Li-metal anodes. These configurations are very attractive due to the possibility of exceptionally high energy densities and high (dis)charge rates, but they are far from being realized practically due to a number of issues including high interfacial resistance and difficulties associated with fabrication. One of the most promising solid electrolyte systems for these applications is Al or Ga stabilized Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO) based on high ionic conductivities and apparent stability against reduction by Li metal. Nevertheless, the fabrication of dense LLZO membranes with high ionic conductivity and low interfacial resistances remains challenging; it definitely requires a better understanding of the structural and electrochemical properties. In this study, the phase transition from garnet ( Ia 3̅ d , No. 230) to "non-garnet" ( I 4̅3 d , No. 220) space group as a function of composition and the different sintering behavior of Ga and Al stabilized LLZO are identified as important factors in determining the electrochemical properties. The phase transition was located at an Al:Ga substitution ratio of 0.05:0.15 and is accompanied by a significant lowering of the activation energy for Li-ion transport to 0.26 eV. The phase transition combined with microstructural changes concomitant with an increase of the Ga/Al ratio continuously improves the Li-ion conductivity from 2.6 × 10 -4 S cm -1 to 1.2 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , which is close to the calculated maximum for garnet-type materials. The increase in Ga content is also associated with better densification and smaller grains and is accompanied by a change in the area specific resistance (ASR) from 78 to 24 Ω cm 2 , the lowest reported value for LLZO so far. These results illustrate that understanding the structure-properties relationships in this class of materials

  4. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 °C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 °C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 °C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 °C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  5. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 deg. C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 deg. C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO 3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 deg. C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 deg. C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  6. Electro-catalytic conversion of ethanol in solid electrolyte cells for distributed hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, HyungKuk; Giddey, Sarbjit; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Mulder, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol assisted water electrolysis reduces electric energy input by more than 50%. • Partial oxidation of ethanol leads to formation of undesired chemicals. • Degradation occurs due to formation of by-products and poisoning of catalyst. • Better catalyst has the potential to increase ethanol to H_2 conversion efficiency. • A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed - Abstract: The global interest in hydrogen/fuel cell systems for distributed power generation and transport applications is rapidly increasing. Many automotive companies are now bringing their pre-commercial fuel cell vehicles in the market, which will need extensive hydrogen generation, distribution and storage infrastructure for fueling of these vehicles. Electrolytic water splitting coupled to renewable sources offers clean on-site hydrogen generation option. However, the process is energy intensive requiring electric energy >4.2 kWh for the electrolysis stack and >6 kWh for the complete system per m"3 of hydrogen produced. This paper investigates using ethanol as a renewable fuel to assist with water electrolysis process to substantially reduce the energy input. A zero-gap cell consisting of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolytic cells with Pt/C and PtSn/C as anode catalysts were employed. Current densities up to 200 mA cm"−"2 at 70 °C were achieved at less than 0.75 V corresponding to an energy consumption of about 1.62 kWh m"−"3 compared with >4.2 kWh m"−"3 required for conventional water electrolysis. Thus, this approach for hydrogen generation has the potential to substantially reduce the electric energy input to less than 40% with the remaining energy provided by ethanol. However, due to performance degradation over time, the energy consumption increased and partial oxidation of ethanol led to lower conversion efficiency. A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed based on the Faradaic conversion of ethanol and

  7. Y-doped BaZrO3 as a chemically stable electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell using an Y-doped BaZrO3 electrolyte film, which has been demonstrated to be chemically stable, was successfully fabricated for the first time and showed a promising electrolysis performance.

  8. Steam Electrolysis by Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) with Chemically Stable BaZrO3-Based Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    BaZrO3-based material was applied as the electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOECs). Compared with the instability of BaCeO3-based proton-conductors, BaZrO3-based material could be a more promising candidate for proton

  9. In operando studies of ScYSZ electrolyte supported symmetric solid oxide cell by X-ray Diffraction at ESRF, ID06 Beamline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierra, J. X.; Poulsen, H. F.; Jørgensen, P. S.

    Solid Oxide Cells are becoming a promising solution for sustainable and renewable power generation. Scandium doped Yttria Stabilized Zirconia is considered one of the best materials used as electrolyte because of its high ionic conductivity and great mechanical and chemical stability under operat...... evolution at different depths of the cell during operation....

  10. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, E.; Ehsani, M.; Khonakdar, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I 2 as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm −1 , with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type electrolyte

  11. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aram, E. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M., E-mail: m.ehsani@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, H.A. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, D-01067 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I{sub 2} as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm{sup −1}, with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup −2}) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type

  12. Mixed solid device based on conducting polymer composite and polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Silmara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS derived sol-gel porous films have been utilized as template for the electrochemical polymerization of aniline. Polyaniline-silica composites were obtained and the redox behavior and charge/discharge capacities of a lithium polymeric battery using poly (dimethylsiloxane- co-ethylene oxide as gel polymeric electrolyte, were investigated. The composite presented a high initial capacity (140 mA h g-1 and a reversible capacity of 75 mA h g-1 after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The decrease in the specific capacity was attributed to an increase in charge transfer resistance and a decrease in the diffusion coefficient measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Solid polymeric electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell with improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narottam; Kumar, Manish; Patel, K. R.; Roy, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of polymeric electrolyte was investigated over the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell made with Rose Bengal as sensitizer. Further, the selective influence of TiCl4 treatment and pre-sensitizer deoxycholic acid on nc-TiO2 photoanode was determined in terms of improvement in conversion efficiency of the cell. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment was comparatively more than pre-sensitization with de-oxy cholic acid towards improving the efficiency of the cell. The conversion efficiency on TiCl4 treatment was 0.2% whereas on pre-sensitization with deoxy chollic acid it was 0.1%. The combined effect of both TiCl4 treatment & pre-sensitization with deoxycholic acid leads conversion efficiency to 0.33%.

  14. Nanometer-scale mapping of irreversible electrochemical nucleation processes on solid Li-ion electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Arruda, Thomas M.; Tselev, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Lawton, Jamie S.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Butyaev, Oleg; Zayats, Sergey; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical processes associated with changes in structure, connectivity or composition typically proceed via new phase nucleation with subsequent growth of nuclei. Understanding and controlling reactions requires the elucidation and control of nucleation mechanisms. However, factors controlling nucleation kinetics, including the interplay between local mechanical conditions, microstructure and local ionic profile remain inaccessible. Furthermore, the tendency of current probing techniques to interfere with the original microstructure prevents a systematic evaluation of the correlation between the microstructure and local electrochemical reactivity. In this work, the spatial variability of irreversible nucleation processes of Li on a Li-ion conductive glass-ceramics surface is studied with ~30 nm resolution. An increased nucleation rate at the boundaries between the crystalline AlPO4 phase and amorphous matrix is observed and attributed to Li segregation. This study opens a pathway for probing mechanisms at the level of single structural defects and elucidation of electrochemical activities in nanoscale volumes. PMID:23563856

  15. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of doped ceria as a solid electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Stojmenović, M.

    2015-03-11

    The solid solutions of CeO2 with one or more rare-earth oxides among Yb2O3, Sm2O3, and Gd2O3 are synthesized by either modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP) or self-propagating reaction at room temperature (SPRT). The overall mole fraction of rare-earth oxide dopants was x = 0.2. The characterization was committed by XRPD, TEM, BET, and Raman Spectroscopy methods. According to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the obtained products presented the single-phase solid solutions with basic fluorite-type CeO2 structure, regardless on the number and the concentration of dopants. Both XRPD and TEM analysis evidenced the nanometer particle dimensions. The defect model was applied to calculate lattice parameters of single-, co-, and multi-doped solids. The sintering of the sample nanopowders was performed at 1550 °C, in air atmosphere. The sintered samples were characterized by XRPD, SEM, and complex impedance methods. The sintering did not affect the concentration ratios of the constituents. The highest conductivity at 700 °C amounting to 2.14 × 10−2 and 1.92 × 10−2 Ω−1 cm−1 was measured for the sample Ce0.8Sm0.08Gd0.12O2−δ, synthesized by SPRT and MGNP methods, respectively. The corresponding activation energies of conductivity, measured in the temperature range 500–700 °C, amounted to 0.24 and 0.23 eV.

  16. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of doped ceria as a solid electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Stojmenović, M.; Zunic, Milan; Gulicovski, J.; Bajuk-Bogdanović, D.; Holclajtner-Antunović, I.; Dodevski, V.; Mentus, S.

    2015-01-01

    The solid solutions of CeO2 with one or more rare-earth oxides among Yb2O3, Sm2O3, and Gd2O3 are synthesized by either modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP) or self-propagating reaction at room temperature (SPRT). The overall mole fraction of rare-earth oxide dopants was x = 0.2. The characterization was committed by XRPD, TEM, BET, and Raman Spectroscopy methods. According to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the obtained products presented the single-phase solid solutions with basic fluorite-type CeO2 structure, regardless on the number and the concentration of dopants. Both XRPD and TEM analysis evidenced the nanometer particle dimensions. The defect model was applied to calculate lattice parameters of single-, co-, and multi-doped solids. The sintering of the sample nanopowders was performed at 1550 °C, in air atmosphere. The sintered samples were characterized by XRPD, SEM, and complex impedance methods. The sintering did not affect the concentration ratios of the constituents. The highest conductivity at 700 °C amounting to 2.14 × 10−2 and 1.92 × 10−2 Ω−1 cm−1 was measured for the sample Ce0.8Sm0.08Gd0.12O2−δ, synthesized by SPRT and MGNP methods, respectively. The corresponding activation energies of conductivity, measured in the temperature range 500–700 °C, amounted to 0.24 and 0.23 eV.

  17. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Chemical characterization of solid polymer electrolyte membrane surfaces in LiFePO4 half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Peng, Fang; Dunn, William E.; Kyu's Group Team, Dr.

    High temperature (60 °C) capacity retention of succinonitrile plasticized solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in a LiFePO4 half-cell was investigated with or without lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) modification. Various symmetric cells and half-cells were studied under different thermal and electrochemical conditions. At room temperature cycling, the unmodified PEM in the half-cell appeared stable up to 50 cycles tested. Upon cycling at 60 °C, the capacity decays rapidly and concurrently the cell resistance increased. The chemical compositions of the solid PEM surfaces on both cathode and anode sides were analyzed. New IR bands (including those belonged to amide) were discerned on the unmodified PEM surface of the Li electrode side at 60 °C suggestive of side reaction, but no new bands develop during room temperature cycling. To our astonishment, the side reaction was effectively suppressed upon LiBOB addition (0.4 wt%) into the PEM, contributing to increased high temperature capacity retention at 60°C. Plausible mechanisms of capacity fading and improved cycling performance due to LiBOB modification are discussed.

  20. Benchmarking the expected stack manufacturing cost of next generation, intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic fuel cells with solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alexis; Ricote, Sandrine; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent progress in the performance of intermediate temperature (500-600 °C) protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) has demonstrated both fuel flexibility and increasing power density that approach commercial application requirements. These developments may eventually position the technology as a viable alternative to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The PCFCs investigated in this work are based on a BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) thin electrolyte supported by BZY20/Ni porous anodes, and a triple conducting cathode material comprised of BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.1Y0.1O3-δ (BCFZY0.1). These cells are prepared using a low-cost solid-state reactive sintering (SSRS) process, and are capable of power densities of 0.156 W cm-2 at 500 °C operating directly from methane fuel. We develop a manufacturing cost model to estimate the Nth generation production costs of PCFC stack technology using high volume manufacturing processes and compare them to the state-of-the-art in SOFC technology. The low-cost cell manufacturing enabled by the SSRS technique compensates for the lower PCFC power density and the trade-off between operating temperature and efficiency enables the use of lower-cost stainless steel materials. PCFC stack production cost estimates are found to be as much as 27-37% lower at 550 °C than SOFCs operating at 800 °C.