Centripetal focusing of gyrotactic phytoplankton in solid-body rotation
Cencini, M; Santamaria, F; Boffetta, G
2015-01-01
A suspension of gyrotactic microalgae Chlamydomonas augustae swimming in a cylindrical water vessel in solid-body rotation is studied. Our experiments show that swimming algae form an aggregate around the axis of rotation, whose intensity increases with the rotation speed. We explain this phenomenon by the centripetal orientation of the swimming direction towards the axis of rotation. This centripetal focusing is contrasted by diffusive fluxes due to stochastic reorientation of the cells. The competition of the two effects lead to a stationary distribution, which we analytically derive from a refined mathematical model of gyrotactic swimmers. The temporal evolution of the cell distribution, obtained via numerical simulations of the stochastic model, is in quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements in the range of parameters explored.
Earth rotation prevents exact solid body rotation of fluids in the laboratory
Boisson, J; Moisy, F; Cortet, P -P
2012-01-01
We report direct evidence of a secondary flow excited by the Earth rotation in a water-filled spherical container spinning at constant rotation rate. This so-called {\\it tilt-over flow} essentially consists in a rotation around an axis which is slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis of the sphere. In the astrophysical context, it corresponds to the flow in the liquid cores of planets forced by precession of the planet rotation axis, and it has been proposed to contribute to the generation of planetary magnetic fields. We detect this weak secondary flow using a particle image velocimetry system mounted in the rotating frame. This secondary flow consists in a weak rotation, thousand times smaller than the sphere rotation, around a horizontal axis which is stationary in the laboratory frame. Its amplitude and orientation are in quantitative agreement with the theory of the tilt-over flow excited by precession. These results show that setting a fluid in a perfect solid body rotation in a laboratory exp...
Measurements of the Solid-body Rotation of Anisotropic Particles in 3D Turbulence
Marcus, Guy G; Kramel, Stefan; Ni, Rui; Voth, Greg A
2014-01-01
We introduce a new method to measure Lagrangian vorticity and the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles in a turbulent fluid flow. We use 3D printing technology to fabricate crosses (two perpendicular rods) and jacks (three mutually perpendicular rods). Time-resolved measurements of their orientation and solid-body rotation rate are obtained from stereoscopic video images of their motion in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids with $R_\\lambda$=$91$. The advected particles have a largest dimension of 6 times the Kolmogorov length, making them a good approximation to anisotropic tracer particles. Crosses rotate like disks and jacks rotate like spheres, so these measurements, combined with previous measurements of tracer rods, allow experimental study of ellipsoids across the full range of aspect ratios. The measured mean square tumbling rate, $\\langle \\dot{p}_i \\dot{p}_i \\rangle$, confirms previous direct numerical simulations that indicate that disks tumble much more rapidly than rods. Measurement...
Measurements of the solid-body rotation of anisotropic particles in 3D turbulence
Marcus, Guy G.; Parsa, Shima; Kramel, Stefan; Ni, Rui; Voth, Greg A.
2014-10-01
We introduce a new method to measure Lagrangian vorticity and the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles in a turbulent fluid flow. We use 3D printing technology to fabricate crosses (two perpendicular rods) and jacks (three mutually perpendicular rods). Time-resolved measurements of their orientation and solid-body rotation rate are obtained from four video images of their motion in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids with {{R}λ } = 91. The advected particles have a largest dimension of 6 times the Kolmogorov length, making them a good approximation to anisotropic tracer particles. Crosses rotate like disks and jacks rotate like spheres, so these measurements, combined with previous measurements of tracer rods, allow experimental study of axisymmetric ellipsoids across the full range of aspect ratios. The measured mean square tumbling rate, , confirms previous direct numerical simulations that indicate that disks tumble much more rapidly than rods. Measurements of the alignment of a unit vector defining the orientation of crosses with the direction of their solid-body rotation rate vector provide the first direct observation of the alignment of anisotropic particles by the velocity gradients in a turbulent flow.
Pashitskii, E. A.
2017-07-01
On the basis of a two-component (two-fluid) hydrodynamic model, it is shown that the probable phenomenon of solar core rotation with a velocity higher than the average velocity of global rotation of the Sun, discovered by the SOHO mission, can be related to fast solid-body rotation of the light hydrogen component of the solar plasma, which is caused by thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium inside the hot dense solar core. Thermonuclear fusion of four protons into a helium nucleus (α-particle) creates a large free specific volume per unit particle due to the large difference between the densities of the solar plasma and nuclear matter. As a result, an efficient volumetric sink of one of the components of the solar substance—hydrogen—forms inside the solar core. Therefore, a steady-state radial proton flux converging to the center should exist inside the Sun, which maintains a constant concentration of hydrogen as it burns out in the solar core. It is demonstrated that such a converging flux of hydrogen plasma with the radial velocity v r ( r) = -β r creates a convective, v r ∂ v φ/∂ r, and a local Coriolis, v r v φ/ r,φ nonlinear hydrodynamic forces in the solar plasma, rotating with the azimuthal velocity v φ. In the absence of dissipation, these forces should cause an exponential growth of the solid-body rotation velocity of the hydrogen component inside the solar core. However, friction between the hydrogen and helium components of the solar plasma due to Coulomb collisions of protons with α-particles results in a steady-state regime of rotation of the hydrogen component in the solar core with an angular velocity substantially exceeding the global rotational velocity of the Sun. It is suggested that the observed differential (liquid-like) rotation of the visible surface of the Sun (photosphere) with the maximum angular velocity at the equator is caused by sold-body rotation of the solar plasma in the radiation zone and strong turbulence in
Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe
Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao
2017-09-01
Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.
A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth
Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel
2012-11-01
Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].
Holder for rotating glass body
Kolleck, Floyd W.
1978-04-04
A device is provided for holding and centering a rotating glass body such as a rod or tube. The device includes a tubular tip holder which may be held in a lathe chuck. The device can utilize a variety of centering tips each adapted for a particular configuration, such as a glass O-ring joint or semi-ball joint.
3 MW solid rotating target design
McManamy, T.; Rennich, M.; Gallmeier, F.; Ferguson, P.; Janney, J.
2010-03-01
A rotating solid target design concept is being developed for potential use at the second SNS target station (STS). A long pulse beam (˜1 ms) at 1.3 GeV and 20 Hz is planned with power levels at or above 1 MW. Since the long pulse may give future opportunities for higher power, this study is looking at 3 MW to compare the performance of a solid rotating target to a mercury target. Unlike the case for stationary solid targets at such powers this study indicates that a rotating solid target, when used with large coupled hydrogen moderators, has neutronic performance equal to or better than that with a mercury target, and the solid target has a greatly increased lifetime. Design studies have investigated water cooled tungsten targets with tantalum cladding approximately 1.2 m in diameter, and 70 mm thick. Operating temperatures are low (plane, top and bottom surface cooling. In case of cooling system failure, the diameter gives enough surface area to remove the decay heat by radiation to the surrounding reflector assemblies while keeping the peak temperatures below approximately 700 °C. This temperature should mitigate potential loss of coolant accidents and subsequent steam, tungsten interaction which has a threshold of approximately 800 °C. Design layouts for the sealing systems and potential target station concepts have been developed.
Frame-Dragging from Charged Rotating Body
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2016-01-01
In the present paper, we have considered the three parameters: mass, charge and rotation to discuss their combined effect on frame dragging for a charged rotating body. If we consider the ray of light which is emitted radially outward from a rotating body then the frame dragging shows a periodic nature with respect to coordinate $\\phi$ (azimuthal angle). It has been found that the value of frame dragging obtains a maximum at, $ \\phi =\\frac{\\pi}{2}$ and a minimum at $ \\phi =\\frac{3 \\pi}{2}$.
Proposed New Test of Equivalence Principle from Rotating Bodies
ZHANG Yuan-Zhong; LUO Jun; NIE Yu-Xin
2000-01-01
We study a new kind of equivalence principle for rotating bodies and propose a test of the equivalence principle by comparing free-fall gravitational accelerations of two gyroscopes or a rotating and a non-rotating extended bodies.
Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras
Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M
2006-08-25
Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.
Stability of rigid body rotation from a bond graph perspective
Breedveld, Peter
2009-01-01
This paper describes the history of the bond graph description of rigid body rotation dynamics and resolves a paradox that resulted from the common Euler Junction Structure (EJS) description of the exterior product in the Newton–Euler equation describing rigid body rotation [D.C. Karnopp, R.C. Rosen
An Analysis of gravitational redshift from rotating body
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2014-01-01
Gravitational redshift is generally calculated without considering the rotation of a body. Neglecting the rotation, the geometry of space time can be described by using the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild geometry. Rotation has great effect on general relativity, which gives new challenges on gravitational redshift. When rotation is taken into consideration spherical symmetry is lost and off diagonal terms appear in the metric. The geometry of space time can be then described by using the solutions of Kerr family. In the present paper we discuss the gravitational redshift for rotating body by using Kerr metric. The numerical calculations has been done under Newtonian approximation of angular momentum. It has been found that the value of gravitational redshift is influenced by the direction of spin of central body and also on the position (latitude) on the central body at which the photon is emitted. The variation of gravitational redshift from equatorial to non - equatorial region has been calculated and ...
Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly
Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang
2016-03-01
In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.
Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly.
Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang
2016-03-01
In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.
Pattern Formation Around Interacting Bodies in Rotating Fluids
Karl B(U)HLER
2006-01-01
The interaction of bodies like spheres and disks in rotating fluids leads to novel flow structures. The primary swirling flow in circumferential direction is superimposed by a secondary motion in the meridional plane. The flow is visualized by introducing ink through a hole in the center of the axes and distributed radially in the central plane between the interacting bodies. The flow structure depends on the shape of the bodies, their geometrical arrangement and the Reynolds number given by the rotational speed. The observed flow structures gave rise to further investigations with PIV-measurements and numerical simulations.
A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites
Peng, Pai
2013-10-01
We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.
Entropy bounds for uncollapsed rotating bodies
Abreu, Gabriel
2010-01-01
Entropy bounds in black hole physics, based on a wide variety of different approaches, have had a long and distinguished history. Recently the current authors have turned attention to uncollapsed systems and obtained a robust entropy bound for uncollapsed static spherically symmetric configurations. In the current article we extend this bound to rotating systems. This extension is less simple than one might at first suppose. Purely classically, (using only classical general relativity and basic thermodynamics), it is possible to show that the entropy of uncollapsed matter inside a region enclosed by a surface of area A is bounded from above by S = max kappa(FIDOs) / (2 pi). Thus, using only classical general relativity, basic thermodynamics, and the Unruh effect, we are able to argue that for uncollapsed matter S <= {1/2} A.
Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids
Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu, E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Conn, Kathleen G. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Rheingold, Arnold L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Rotkina, Lolita [Regional Nanotechnology Facility, Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter, University of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6202 (United States); Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu, E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2013-11-28
We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.
Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies
Gurchenkov, Anatoly A
2013-01-01
This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be
Surana, K. S.; Joy, A. D.; Reddy, J. N.
2017-03-01
This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory in Lagrangian description for solids in which the conservation and the balance laws are derived by incorporating both the internal rotations arising from the Jacobian of deformation and the rotations of Cosserat theories at a material point. In particular, in this non-classical continuum theory, we have (i) the usual displacements ( ±b \\varvec{u}) and (ii) three internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of a triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the Jacobian of deformation (which are completely defined by the skew-symmetric part of the Jacobian of deformation), and (iii) three additional rotations ({}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three degrees of freedom referred to as Cosserat rotations. This gives rise to ±b \\varvec{u} and {}_e ±b \\varvec{{Θ} as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}), often neglected in classical continuum mechanics, exist in all deforming solid continua as these are due to Jacobian of deformation. When the internal rotations {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} are resisted by the deforming matter, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be accounted for in the conservation and the balance laws. The Cosserat rotations {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ} also result in conjugate moment tensor which, together with {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}, may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of the paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws that incorporate aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermoelastic solids. The mathematical model derived here has closure, and the constitutive theories derived using two alternate approaches are in agreement with each other as well as with the condition resulting from the
Distance Measurements between Homonuclear Spins in Rotating Solids
Weintraub, O.; Vega, S.; Hoelger, C.; Limbach, H. H.
The effective Hamiltonian of the "simple excitation for the dephasing of the rotational-echo amplitudes" (SEDRA) experiment has been derived. This experiment enables the determination of the strength of the dipolar interaction of a homonuclear spin pair in a solid, rotating at the magic angle, and thus provides a way to measure internuclear distances. The dipolar decay of the rotational-echo amplitudes of powder samples, generated by a set of π pulses, is measured together with the echo decay that is not influenced by the dipolar interaction. The latter is measured by the transverse-echo SEDRA experiment that refocuses the SEDRA decay. The Floquet theory approach is utilized to evaluate the effective Hamiltonians that describe the behavior of the spin systems. The influence of the chemical-shift anisotropy parameters of the interacting spins on the effective SEDRA Hamiltonian is also discussed. Results of Δ S/ S0 SEDRA experiments on the 15N spin pair in solid 3(5)-methyl-5(3) -phenylpyrazole- 15N 2 are shown and compared with exact calculations. The data suggest a nuclear distance between the nitrogen atoms of 1.385 ± 0.025 Å.
Gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2016-01-01
It is well known fact that gravitational field can alter the space-time structure and gravitational redshift is its one example. Electromagnetic field can also alter the space-time similar to gravitational field. So electromagnetic field can give rise to an additional effect on gravitational redshift. There are many objects in nature, like neutron stars, magnetars etc which have high amount of rotation and magnetic field. In the present paper we will derive the expression of gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field by using the action function of the electromagnetic fields.
Rotating and rolling rigid bodies and the "hairy ball" theorem
Bormashenko, Edward; Kazachkov, Alexander
2017-06-01
Rotating and rolling rigid bodies exemplify a fascinating theorem of topology, jokingly called the "hairy ball" theorem, which demands that any continuous tangent vector field on the sphere has at least one point where the field is zero. We demonstrate via a gedanken experiment how drilling through a rotating ball, thereby converting it into a torus, leads to the elimination of zero-velocity points on the ball surface. Using the same reasoning, zero-velocity points can be removed from the surface of a drilled spinning top. We discuss the location of zero-velocity points on the surfaces of rigid bodies rolling with no slip and with slip. Observations made from different reference frames identify various zero-velocity points. Illustrative experiments visualizing zero-velocity points are presented.
Precession of a Freely Rotating Rigid Body Inelastic Relaxation in the Vicinity of Poles
Efroimsky, M
1999-01-01
When a solid body is freely rotating at an angular velocity ${\\bf \\Omega}$, the ellipsoid of constant angular momentum, in the space $\\Omega_1, \\Omega_2, \\Omega_3$, has poles corresponding to spinning about the minimal-inertia and maximal-inertia axes. The first pole may be considered stable if we neglect the inner dissipation, but becomes unstable if the dissipation is taken into account. This happens because the bodies dissipate energy when they rotate about any axis different from that of the maximal inertia. In the case of an oblate symmetrical body, the angular velocity describes a circular cone about the vector of (conserved) angular momentum. In the course of relaxation, the angle of this cone decreases, so that both the angular velocity and the maximal-inertia axis of the body align along the angular momentum. The generic case of an asymmetric body is far more involved. Even the symmetrical prolate body exhibits a sophisticated behaviour, because an infinitesimally small deviation of the body's shape ...
Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Meijer, Onno G.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Kingma, Idsart; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.
2008-01-01
In walking faster than 3 km/h, transverse pelvic rotation lengthens the step ("pelvic step"). It is often assumed that the thorax then starts to counter rotate to limit total body angular momentum around the vertical. But the relative timing of pelvis and thorax rotation during gait is insufficientl
Plasma Density Measurements on Refuelling by Solid Hydrogen Pellets in a Rotating Plasma
Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, A. H.
1978-01-01
The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma.......The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma....
An intermolecular H-O potential for methyl rotations in solid nitromethane
Rice, Betsy M.; Trevino, S. F.
1991-06-01
A reliable determination of the (H-O) intermolecular potential by which molecules of nitromethane interact with each other is presented. This effort is based upon a very complete body of experimental information which is available on the crystal structure and the rotational properties of the methyl group of the molecule in the solid state. The crystal structure is known in the temperature range of 4-233 K. The rotational properties of the methyl group of the molecule have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering with which the energy levels, including the ground state tunnel splitting, have been measured in both the protonated and deuterated samples. These studies provide a most comprehensive characterization of any such similar molecular crystal. The measured properties are directly related to the intermolecular potential but the inversion of the underlying intermolecular potential from the measured properties has not been straight forward. We describe the application of the principle of maximum entropy in the determination of an intermolecular H-O potential. The resulting potential is of a novel character. At 3.5 GPa x-ray diffraction studies indicate that the equilibrium orientation of the methyl group in crystalline nitromethane is rotated 45° from the position in the low-temperature ambient pressure form. Calculations of the potential energy as a function of methyl group orientation in crystalline nitromethane at a pressure of 3.5 GPa using the intermolecular potential described herein has reproduced this experimental observation.
Elastic and viscoelastic solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders
无
2008-01-01
Analytical solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid long cylinders are developed. Young's modulus and material density of the cylinder are as* sumed to vary exponentially in the radial direction, and Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. A unified governing equation is derived from the equilibrium equations, compat-ibility equation, deformation theory of elasticity and the stress-strain relationship. The governing second-order differential equation is solved in terms of a hypergeometric func-tion for the elastic deformation of rotating functionally graded cylinders. Dependence of stresses in the cylinder on the inhomogeneous parameters, geometry and boundary conditions is examined and discussed. The proposed solution is validated by comparing the results for rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders with the results for rotating homogeneous isotropic cylinders. In addition, a viscoelastic solution to the rotating viscoelastic cylinder is presented, and dependence of stresses in hollow and solid cylinders on the time parameter is examined.
Modeling Rotating Turbulent Flows with the Body Force Potential Model.
Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Perot, Blair
2000-11-01
Like a Reynolds Stress Transport equation model, the turbulent potential model has an explicit Coriolis acceleration term that appears in the model that accounts for rotation effects. In this work the additional secondary effects that system rotation has on the dissipation rate, return-to-isotropy, and fast pressure strain terms are also included in the model. The resulting model is tested in the context of rotating isotropic turbulence, rotating homogeneous shear flow, rotating channel flow, and swirling pipe flow. Many of the model changes are applicable to Reynolds stress transport equation models. All model modifications are frame indifferent.
Shatalov, MY
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Standing waves can exist as stable vibrating patterns in perfect structures such as spherical bodies, and inertial rotation of the body causes precession (Bryan’seffect). However, an imperfection such as light mass anisotropy destroys the standing...
Instabilities on crystal surfaces: The two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model
Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.; Mazzeo, G.
1996-01-01
The free energy of crystal surfaces that can be described by the two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model has been calculated in a mean-field approximation. The system may model ionic crystals with a bcc lattice structure (for instance CsCl). Crossings between steps are energetically favored
Shao, C. G.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Luo, J.; Liu, Z Z
2002-01-01
Owing to Earth's rotation a free-fall body would move in an elliptical orbit rather than along a straight line forward to the center of the Earth. In this paper on the basis of the theory for spin-spin coupling between macroscopic rotating bodies we study violation of the equivalence principle from long-distance free-fall experiments by means of a rotating ball and a non-rotating sell. For the free-fall time of 40 seconds, the difference between the orbits of the two free-fall bodies is of th...
Bound Motion of Bodies and Paticles in the Rotating Systems
Pardy, Miroslav
2007-04-01
The Lagrange theory of particle motion in the noninertial systems is applied to the Foucault pendulum, isosceles triangle pendulum and the general triangle pendulum swinging on the rotating Earth. As an analogue, planet orbiting in the rotating galaxy is considered as the giant galactic gyroscope. The Lorentz equation and the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations are generalized for the rotation system. The knowledge of these equations is inevitable for the construction of LHC where each orbital proton “feels” the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth.
On the motion of rotating bodies in field gravity theory and general relativity
Baryshev, Yu V
2000-01-01
On the basis of Lagrangian formalism of relativistic field theory post-Newtonian equations of motion for a rotating body are derived in the frame of Feynman's quantum field gravity theory (FGT) and compared with corresponding geodesic equations in general relativity (GR). It is shown that in FGT the trajectory of a rotating test body does not depend on a choice of a coordinate system. The equation of translational motion of a gyroscope is applied to description of laboratory experiments with free falling rotating bodies and rotating bodies on a balance scale. Post-Newtonian relativistic effect of periodical modulation of the orbital motion of a rotating body is discussed for the case of planets of the solar system and for binary pulsars PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1259-63. In the case of binary pulsars with known spin orientations this effect gives a possibility to measure radiuses of neutron stars.
Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.
On the invariant motions of rigid body rotation over the fixed point, via Euler angles
Ershkov, Sergey V
2016-01-01
The generalized Euler case (rigid body rotation over the fixed point) is discussed here: - the center of masses of non-symmetric rigid body is assumed to be located at the equatorial plane on axis Oy which is perpendicular to the main principal axis Ox of inertia at the fixed point. Such a case was presented in the rotating coordinate system, in a frame of reference fixed in the rotating body for the case of rotation over the fixed point (at given initial conditions). In our derivation, we have represented the generalized Euler case in the fixed Cartesian coordinate system; so, the motivation of our ansatz is to elegantly transform the proper components of the previously presented solution from one (rotating) coordinate system to another (fixed) Cartesian coordinates. Besides, we have obtained an elegantly analytical case of general type of rotations; also, we have presented it in the fixed Cartesian coordinate system via Euler angles.
Numerical simulation of rotating body movement in medium with various densities
Tenenev, Valentin A.; Korolev, Stanislav A.; Rusyak, Ivan G.
2016-10-01
The paper proposes an approach to calculate the motion of rotating bodies in resisting medium by solving the Kirchhoff equations of motion in a coordinate system moving with the body and in determination of aerodynamic characteristics of the body with a given geometry by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. We present the phase trajectories of the perturbed motion of a rotating projectile in media with different densities: gas and liquid.
Radiation from an accelerating neutral body: The case of rotation
Yarman, Tolga; Arik, Metin; Kholmetskii, Alexander L.
2013-11-01
When an object is bound at rest to an attractional field, its rest mass (owing to the law of energy conservation, including the mass and energy equivalence of the Special Theory of Relativity) must decrease. The mass deficiency coming into play indicates a corresponding rest energy discharge. Thus, bringing an object to a rotational motion means that the energy transferred for this purpose serves to extract just as much rest mass (or similarly "rest energy", were the speed of light in empty space taken to be unity) out of it. Here, it is shown that during angular acceleration, photons of fundamental energy are emitted, while the object is kept on being delivered to a more and more intense rotational accelerational field, being the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating object. This fundamental energy, as seen, does not depend on anything else (such as the mass or charge of the object), and it is in harmony with Bohr's Principle of Correspondence. This means at the same time, that emission will be achieved, as long as the angular velocity keeps on increasing, and will cease right after the object reaches a stationary rotational motion (a constant centrifugal acceleration), but if the object were brought to rotation in vacuum with no friction. By the same token, one can affirm that even the rotation at a macroscopic level is quantized, and can only take on "given angular velocities" (which can only be increased, bit by bit). The rate of emission of photons of concern is, on the other hand, proportional to the angular acceleration of the object, similarly to the derivative of the tangential acceleration with respect to time. It is thus constant for a "constant angular acceleration", although the energy of the emitted photons will increase with increasing , until the rotation reaches a stationary level, after which we expect no emission --let us stress-- if the object is in rotation in vacuum, along with no whatsoever friction (such as the case of a rotating
Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Meijer, Onno G; van Dieën, Jaap H; Kingma, Idsart; Lamoth, Claudine J C
2008-04-01
In walking faster than 3 km/h, transverse pelvic rotation lengthens the step ("pelvic step"). It is often assumed that the thorax then starts to counter rotate to limit total body angular momentum around the vertical. But the relative timing of pelvis and thorax rotation during gait is insufficiently understood. The present study aimed at analysing how transverse pelvis and thorax rotations relate to the movements of the upper leg, and how these patterns contribute to total body angular momentum. Nine healthy male volunteers walked on a treadmill at nine different velocities, ranging from 2.0 km/h to 5.2 km/h. Full body kinematics were recorded. Femur-pelvis, pelvis-thorax, and femur-thorax relative phase were calculated, as well as transverse plane angular momentum of all body segments. The shift in pelvis-thorax coordination from in-phase to out of phase with increasing velocity was found to depend on the pelvis beginning to move in-phase with the femur, while the thorax continued to counter rotate with respect to the femur. Moreover, pelvic and thoracic contributions to total body angular momentum were low (less than 10%), while contributions of the legs and arms were much larger (approximately 90%), suggesting that pelvis-thorax coordination is relatively unimportant to the organisation of total body angular momentum. Taken together, these results may imply that our understanding of the pelvic step need to be changed. Moreover, the alterations in pelvis-thorax relative phase that were reported for different locomotor pathologies may depend on different mechanisms.
Configurational forces and shape of a sessile droplet on a rotating solid substrate
Lubarda Vlado A.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The shape of a uniformly rotating liquid droplet deposited on a solid substrate is determined by an iterative numerical integration of the governing nonlinear differential equation. The differential equation and the boundary conditions are derived by means of the variational analysis which delivers the expressions for the specific configurational force per unit area of the liquid/vapor interface, and the configurational force along the liquid/solid/vapor contact circle. An analytical proof for the orthogonality of the specific configurational force to the surface of the droplet is constructed. The effect of rotation on the droplet’s gyrostatic shape is discussed.
Interaction of a decaying vortex ring with a rotational background flow bounded by a solid wall
Ishii, K.; Liu, C. H.
1987-01-01
The interaction between a vortex ring of finite strength and an axisymmetric rotational background flow bounded by a solid wall is studied by a singular perturbation method. The analysis is carried out by combining a composite solution of a vortex ring and an unsteady Navier-Stokes solution for the background rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, numerical scheme is developed to obtain a Navier-Stokes solution in which the grid and time-step sizes depend solely on the length and velocity scales of the background flow. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the separation of the boundary layer on a solid wall and its interaction with the vortex ring.
COMPUTER SIMULATION OF 3-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMIC ASSEMBLY PROCESS OF MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL BODY
1998-01-01
Focusing on the study of the components of mechanical rotational body,the data structure and algorithm of component model generation are discussed.Some problems in assembly process of 3-dimensional graph of components are studied in great detail.
Measure of Segments which Intersect a Convex Body from Rotational Formulae
Ximo GUAL-ARNAU; Silena HEROLD-GARC´IA
2015-01-01
Classical problems in integral geometry and geometric probability involve the kinematic measure of congruent segments of fixed length within a convex body in R3. We give this measure from rotational formulae; that is, from isotropic plane sections through a fixed point. From this result we also obtain a new rotational formula for the volume of a convex body;which is proved to be equivalent to the wedge formula for the volume.
On the evolution of rotation of a solid under inelastic collisions with a plane
Markeev, A. P.
2013-11-01
The motion of a solid in a homogeneous gravity field under inelastic collisions with an immovable absolutely smooth horizontal plane is considered. The body is a homogeneous ellipsoid of revolution. There exists a motion in which the ellipsoid symmetry axis is directed along a fixed vertical, the ellipsoid itself rotates about this axis at a constant angular velocity, and the ellipsoid bounce height over the plane decreases from impact to impact because of the collisions. We study the motion of the ellipsoid in a small neighborhood of the motion corresponding to this infinite-impact process. The main goal is to compute the angle between the ellipsoid symmetry axis and the vertical at the discrete time instants corresponding to the collisions. The problem is solved in the first (linear) approximation. The analysis is based on the canonical transformation method used earlier in [1] to solve problems with absolutely elastic collisions. There are quite a few studies dealing with infinite-impact processes (e.g., see the monographs [2, 3]). A method for continuous representation of systems with inelastic collisions was proposed in [4] and efficiently used in [3-5] when analyzing specific mechanical systems.
Efficiency of Wave-Driven Rigid Body Rotation Toroidal Confinement
Rax, J -M; Fisch, N J
2016-01-01
The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared to compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.
Liquid-gas-solid flows with lattice Boltzmann: Simulation of floating bodies
Bogner, Simon
2012-01-01
This paper presents a model for the simulation of liquid-gas-solid flows by means of the lattice Boltzmann method. The approach is built upon previous works for the simulation of liquid-solid particle suspensions on the one hand, and on a liquid-gas free surface model on the other. We show how the two approaches can be unified by a novel set of dynamic cell conversion rules. For evaluation, we concentrate on the rotational stability of non-spherical rigid bodies floating on a plane water surface - a classical hydrostatic problem known from naval architecture. We show the consistency of our method in this kind of flows and obtain convergence towards the ideal solution for the measured heeling stability of a floating box.
Dynamic analysis on generalized linear elastic body subjected to large scale rigid rotations
刘占芳; 颜世军; 符志
2013-01-01
The dynamic analysis of a generalized linear elastic body undergoing large rigid rotations is investigated. The generalized linear elastic body is described in kine-matics through translational and rotational deformations, and a modified constitutive relation for the rotational deformation is proposed between the couple stress and the curvature tensor. Thus, the balance equations of momentum and moment are used for the motion equations of the body. The floating frame of reference formulation is applied to the elastic body that conducts rotations about a fixed axis. The motion-deformation coupled model is developed in which three types of inertia forces along with their incre-ments are elucidated. The finite element governing equations for the dynamic analysis of the elastic body under large rotations are subsequently formulated with the aid of the constrained variational principle. A penalty parameter is introduced, and the rotational angles at element nodes are treated as independent variables to meet the requirement of C1 continuity. The elastic body is discretized through the isoparametric element with 8 nodes and 48 degrees-of-freedom. As an example with an application of the motion-deformation coupled model, the dynamic analysis on a rotating cantilever with two spatial layouts relative to the rotational axis is numerically implemented. Dynamic frequencies of the rotating cantilever are presented at prescribed constant spin velocities. The maximal rigid rotational velocity is extended for ensuring the applicability of the linear model. A complete set of dynamical response of the rotating cantilever in the case of spin-up maneuver is examined, it is shown that, under the ultimate rigid rotational velocities less than the maximal rigid rotational velocity, the stress strength may exceed the material strength tolerance even though the displacement and rotational angle responses are both convergent. The influence of the cantilever layouts on their responses and
Heat and water transfer in a rotating drum containing solid substrate particles
Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Weber, F.J.; Briels, Willem J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.
2003-01-01
In previous work we reported on the simulation of mixing behavior of a slowly rotating drum for solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a discrete particle model. In this investigation the discrete particle model is extended with heat and moisture transfer. Heat transfer is implemented in the model via
Fujii, Yuka; Kimura, Jun; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko
2014-09-01
A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in the UV/visible/near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities, interaction with surrounding energetic particles, and distribution of grained materials. Some indications of these processes are provided by the amplitude and wavelength dependence of variation in combinations of the time-averaged spectra. We also estimate the photometric precision needed to detect their spin rotation rates through periodogram analysis. Our survey illustrates realistic possibilities for inferring the detailed properties of solid exoplanets with future direct imaging observations. Key Words: Planetary environments-Planetary geology-Solar System-Extrasolar terrestrial planets.
Spacecraft motion analysis about rapid rotating small body
史雪岩; 崔祜涛; 崔平远; 栾恩杰
2003-01-01
The orbital dynamics equation of a spacecraft around an irregular sphere small body is established based on the small body' s gravitational potential approximated with a tri-axial ellipsoid. According to the Jacobi integral constant, the spacecraft zero-velocity curves in the vicinity of the small body is described and feasible motion region is analyzed. The limited condition and the periapsis radius corresponding to different eccentricity against impact surface are presented. The stability of direct and retrograde equator orbits is analyzed based on the perturbation solutions of mean orbit elements.
Sowmiya, C.; Kothawala, Ali Arshad; Thittai, Arun K.
2016-04-01
During manual palpation of breast masses, the perception of its stiffness and slipperiness are the two commonly used information by the physician. In order to reliably and quantitatively obtain this information several non-invasive elastography techniques have been developed that seek to provide an image of the underlying mechanical properties, mostly stiffness-related. Very few approaches have visualized the "slip" at the lesion-background boundary that only occurs for a loosely-bonded benign lesion. It has been shown that axial-shear strain distribution provides information about underlying slip. One such feature, referred to as "fill-in" was interpreted as a surrogate of the rotation undergone by an asymmetrically-oriented-loosely bonded-benign-lesion under quasi-static compression. However, imaging and direct visualization of the rotation itself has not been addressed yet. In order to accomplish this, the quality of lateral displacement estimation needs to be improved. In this simulation study, we utilize spatial compounding approach and assess the feasibility to obtain good quality rotation elastogram. The angular axial and lateral displacement estimates were obtained at different insonification angles from a phantom containing an elliptical inclusion oriented at 45°, subjected to 1% compression from the top. A multilevel 2D-block matching algorithm was used for displacement tracking and 2D-least square compounding of angular axial and lateral displacement estimates was employed. By varying the maximum steering angle and incremental angle, the improvement in the lateral motion tracking accuracy and its effects on the quality of rotational elastogram were evaluated. Results demonstrate significantly-improved rotation elastogram using this technique.
Shao, C G; Luo, J; Liu, Z Z
2002-01-01
Owing to Earth's rotation a free-fall body would move in an elliptical orbit rather than along a straight line forward to the center of the Earth. In this paper on the basis of the theory for spin-spin coupling between macroscopic rotating bodies we study violation of the equivalence principle from long-distance free-fall experiments by means of a rotating ball and a non-rotating sell. For the free-fall time of 40 seconds, the difference between the orbits of the two free-fall bodies is of the order of 10^{-9}cm which could be detected by a SQUID magnetometer owing to such a magnetometer can be used to measure displacements as small as 10^{-13} centimeters.
SHAO Cheng-Gang; ZHANG Yuan-Zhong; LUAN En-Jie; LUO Jun; LIU Zhong-Zhu
2003-01-01
Owing to Earth's rotation a free-fall body would move in an elliptical orbit rather than along a straight line forward to the center of the Earth. In this paper on the basis of the theory for spin-spin coupling between macroscopic rotating bodies we study violation of the equivalence principle from long-distance free-fall experiments by means of a rotating ball and a non-rotating shell. For the free-fall time of 40 s, the difference between the orbits of the two free-fall bodies is of the order of 10-9 cm which could be detected by an SQUID magnetometer because such a magnetometer can be used to measure displacements as small as 10-13 cm.
Briquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Leroy, B.; de Batz, B.
2016-03-01
Aims: The main-sequence B-type star ζ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods: We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL; Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from ζ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results: ζ Cas exhibits a polar field strength Bpol of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar field observed so far in a massive main-sequence star. Surface differential rotation is ruled out by our observations and the field of ζ Cas is strong enough to enforce rigid internal rotation in the radiative zone according to theory. Thus, the star rotates as a solid body in the envelope. Conclusions: We therefore exclude rotationally induced mixing as the cause of the surface N-enrichment. We discuss that the transport of chemicals from the core to the surface by internal gravity waves is the most plausible explanation for the nitrogen overabundance at the surface of ζ Cas. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France.
Option selection in whole-body rotation movements in gymnastics
Thomas HEINEN
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract When a gymnast performs a somersault, the linear and angular momentum along with a particular control of inertia during the flight phase constrain the possibilities for action. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the human moving system, one could argue that there exist a particular amount of stable coordination states when performing somersaults. The goal of this study was to explore the manifold of movement options and coordination states along with their differentiating parameters for a single somersault in gymnastics based on a simple mathematical model reflecting gymnast’s rotation behavior during the flight phase. Biomechanical parameters determining rotation behavior during a somersault were systematically varied with regard to a particular set of biomechanical constraints defining a successful somersault performance. Batch simulations revealed that from 10229760 simulation cycles only 655346 (approximately 6.41% led to successful somersault performance. A subsequent analysis of the movement option landscape for the optimum angular momentum revealed ten coordination states for a single somersault that could be clearly distinguished based on the simulation parameters. Taken the results together, it becomes apparent that it may be most advisable to perform a single somersault with a larger moment of inertia when achieving the tucked position, a longer duration to achieve the tucked position, a longer duration of staying tucked, and an intermediate moment of inertia during landing. This strategy comprises the largest amount of movement options associated with an upright landing and thus the highest probability of success when performing a single somersault.
Elisa Raffaella Ferrè
Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.
Cao, M; Monson, P A
2009-10-22
We present a study of the phase behavior for models of n-alkanes with chain lengths up to C(21) based on hard sphere united atom models of methyl and methylene groups, with fixed bond lengths and C-C-C bond angles. We extend earlier work on such models of shorter alkanes by allowing for gauche conformations in the chains. We focus particularly on the orientational order about the chain axes in the solid phase near the melting point, and our model shows how the loss of this orientational order leads to the formation of rotator phases. We have made extensive calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the models as well as order parameters for tracking the degree of orientational order around the chain axis. Depending on the chain length and whether the carbon number is even or odd, the model exhibits both a rotator phase and a more orientationally ordered solid phase in addition to the fluid phase. Our results indicate that the transition between the two solid phases is first-order with a small density change. The results are qualitatively similar to those seen experimentally and show that rotator phases can appear in models of alkanes without explicit treatment of attractive forces or explicit treatment of the hydrogen atoms in the chains.
Spontaneous rotation of an ice disk while melting on a solid plate
Dorbolo, S.; Vandewalle, N.; Darbois Texier, B.
2016-12-01
Ice disks were released at the surface of a thermalised aluminium plate. The fusion of the ice creates a lubrication film between the ice disk and the plate. The situation is similar to the Leidenfrost effect reported for a liquid droplet evaporating at the surface of a plate which temperature is above the boiling temperature of the liquid. An analogy is depicted between the Leidenfrost phenomenon and the rapid fusion of a solid at the contact of a hot plate. Similarly to Leidenfrost droplet, we observe that, while the ice disks were melting, the disks were very mobile: translation and rotation. A hole was drilled in the plate and allowed the canalising of the melted liquid. Under these conditions, we discover that the rotation of the ice disk is systematic and persistent. Moreover, the rotation speed increases with the temperature of the plate and with the load put on the ice disk. A model is proposed to explain the spontaneous rotation of the ice disk. We claim that the rotation is due to the viscous drag of the liquid that flows around the ice disk.
Schmutzer, E
2005-01-01
In a previous paper we treated within the framework of our Projective Unified Field Theory (Schmutzer 2004, Schmutzer 2005a) the 2-body system (e.g. earth-moon system) with a rotating central body in a rather abstract manner. Here a concrete model of the transfer of angular momentum from the rotating central body to the orbital motion of the whole 2-body system is presented, where particularly the transfer is caused by the inhomogeneous gravitational force of the moon acting on the oceanic waters of the earth, being modeled by a spherical shell around the solid earth. The theory is numerically tested. Key words: transfer of angular momentum from earth to moon, action of the gravitational force of the moon on the waters of the earth.
Body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian and its application to nuclear spin-rotation tensor.
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2013-04-07
A relativistic molecular Hamiltonian that describes electrons fully relativistically and nuclei quasi-relativistically is proposed and transformed from the laboratory to the body-fixed frame of reference. As a first application of the resulting body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian, the long anticipated relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) tensor is formulated rigorously. A "relativistic mapping" between experimental NSR and NMR is further proposed, which is of great value in establishing high-precision absolute NMR shielding scales.
Lau, Darryl; Shin, Samuel S.; Patel, Rakesh; Park, Paul
2013-01-01
Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. ...
On the rotational equations of motion in rigid body dynamics when using Euler parameters.
Sherif, Karim; Nachbagauer, Karin; Steiner, Wolfgang
Many models of three-dimensional rigid body dynamics employ Euler parameters as rotational coordinates. Since the four Euler parameters are not independent, one has to consider the quaternion constraint in the equations of motion. This is usually done by the Lagrange multiplier technique. In the present paper, various forms of the rotational equations of motion will be derived, and it will be shown that they can be transformed into each other. Special attention is hereby given to the value of the Lagrange multiplier and the complexity of terms representing the inertia forces. Particular attention is also paid to the rotational generalized external force vector, which is not unique when using Euler parameters as rotational coordinates.
Cao Minsong; Lasley, Foster D.; Das, Indra J.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Slessinger, Eric D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Cardenes, Higinia R., E-mail: hcardene@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)
2012-11-01
Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of rotational setup errors in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of liver tumors and to investigate whether translational shifts can compensate for rotation. Methods and Materials: The positioning accuracy in 20 patients with liver malignancies treated with SBRT was reevaluated offline by matching the patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans (n=75) to the planning CT scans and adjusting the 3 rotational angles (pitch, roll, and yaw). Systematic and random setup errors were calculated. The dosimetric changes caused by rotational setup errors were quantified for both simulated and observed patient rotations. Dose distributions recalculated on the rotated CT scans were compared with the original planned doses. Translational corrections were simulated based on manual translational registration of the rotated images to the original CT scans. The correction efficacy was evaluated by comparing the recalculated plans with the original plans. Results: The systematic rotational setup errors were -0.06 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.68 Degree-Sign , -0.29 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.62 Degree-Sign , and -0.24 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.61 Degree-Sign ; the random setup errors were 0.80 Degree-Sign , 1.05 Degree-Sign , and 0.61 Degree-Sign for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Analysis of CBCT images showed that 56.0%, 14.7%, and 1.3% of treated fractions had rotational errors of >1 Degree-Sign , >2 Degree-Sign , and >3 Degree-Sign , respectively, in any one of the rotational axes. Rotational simulations demonstrated that the reduction of gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage was <2% when rotation was <3 Degree-Sign . Recalculated plans using actual patient roll motions showed similar reduction (<2%) in GTV coverage. Translational corrections improved the GTV coverage to within 3% of the original values. For organs at risk (OAR), the dosimetric impact varied case by case. Conclusion: Actual rotational setup errors in SBRT for liver
Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen
2012-01-01
A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...
Barkin, Yu. V.
New unperturbed motions are suggested for the study of the rotational motion of deformable celestial bodies. This motion describes the rotation of an isolated celestial body deformed by its own rotation. By some natural simplifications and by using special forms of canonical variables (similar to Andoyer's variables) the problem is reduced to the classical Euler-Poinsot problem for a rigid body, but with different moments of inertia. The suggested unpertubed motion describes Chandler's pole motion and we shall call it Chandler or Euler-Chandler motion. The development of the unperturbed theory is described in this paper. The solution of the Chandler problem (Andoyer's variables, components of angular velocity of the body's axes, and their direction cosines) is presented in elliptical and - functions, and in the form of Fourier series in the angle-action variables. Similar Fourier series were obtained for products and squares of the diraction cosines. The coefficients of these series are expressed through full elliptical integrals of the first, second and third kinds with modulus which is the defining function of the action variables. It is the principal peculiarity of these series. As an illustration we give a application of this unperturbed theory to the study of the Earth's rotation (the principal properties of the Earth's rotation and perturbations). So, the unperturbed motion describes the following phenomena of the Earth's rotation: Chandler's motion of the pole of the Earth's axis of rotation; the ellipticity of the trajectory of the Earth's pole; the non-uniformity of the pole motion along the elliptical trajectory; the variation with Chandler's period of the modulus of the Earth's angular velocity. Theory of the perturbed rotational motion of the Earth is constructed on the basis of the special forms of equations of the rotation of a deformable body (in angle-action variables and their modifications for the Chandler-Euler problem). For the construction of
Rotordynamic Analysis for a Turbo-Machine with Fluid-Solid Interaction and Rotation Effects
Rui Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The rotordynamics and fluid dynamics of a turbo-machine considering the effect of fluid-solid interaction (FSI are numerically investigated using finite element software ADINA. The iterative method is adopted in computation of coupled fields of displacement and fluid. What distinguishes the present study from previous ones is the use of ADINA's rotational meshes and the FSI interface that separates the rotor surface from its surrounding fluid. The rotor's center orbit and frequency response as well as the transient fluid dynamics are obtained with various axial flow speeds. By including real rotating motion of the rotor, this paper presents a better way to solve complicated rotordynamic problems of turbo-machines that are operated in FSI circumstances.
Time-dependent solution for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed visco-elastic bodies
Hu, Haiyang; van der Wal, Wouter; Vermeersen, Bert
2017-04-01
Many icy satellites or planets contain features which suggest a (past) reorientation of the body, such as the tiger stripes on Enceladus and the heart-shaped Sputnik Planum on Pluto. Most of these icy bodies are tidally locked and this creates a large tidal bulge which is about three times of its centrifugal (equatorial) bulge. To study the reorientation of such rotating tidally deformed body is complicated and most previous studies apply the so-called fluid limit method. The fluid limit approach ignores the viscous response of the body and assumes that it immediately reaches its fluid limit when simulating the reorientation due to a changing load. As a result, this method can only simulate cases when the change in the load is much slower than the dominant viscous modes of the body. For other kinds of load, for instance, a Heaviside load due to an impact which creates an instant relocation of mass, it does not give us a prediction of how the reorientation is accomplished (e.g. How fast? Along which path?). We establish a new method which can give an accurate time-dependent solution for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed bodies. Our method can be applied both semi-analytically or numerically (with finite element method) to include features such as lateral heterogeneity or non-linear material. We also present an extension of our method to simulate the e ffect of a fossil bulge. With our method, we show that reorientation of a tidally deformed body driven by a positive mass anomaly near the poles has a preference for rotating around the tidal axis instead of towards it, contrary to predictions in previous studies. References Hu, H., W. van der Wal and L.L.A. Vermeersen (2017). A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed visco-elastic bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, doi:10.1002/2016JE005114, 2016JE005114. Matsuyama, I. and Nimmo, F. (2007). Rotational stability of tidally deformed planetary bodies. Journal of Geophysical
Effects of asymmetrical stance and movement on body rotation in pushing.
Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S
2015-01-21
Pushing objects in the presence of body asymmetries could increase the risk of back injury. Furthermore, when the object is heavy, it could exacerbate the effects induced by asymmetrical posture. We investigated how the use of asymmetrical posture and/or upper extremity movement affect vertical torque (Tz) and center of pressure (COP) displacement during pushing. Ten healthy volunteers were instructed to push objects of three different weights using two hands (symmetrical hand use) or one hand (asymmetrical hand use) while standing in symmetrical or asymmetrical foot-positions. The peak values of Tz and COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction (COPML) were analyzed. In cases of isolated asymmetry, changes in the Tz were mainly linked with effects of hand-use whereas effects of foot-position dominated changes in the COPML displacement. In cases of a combined asymmetry, the magnitudes of both Tz and COPML were additive when asymmetrical hand-use and foot-position induced the rotation of the lower and upper body in the same direction or subtractive when asymmetries resulted in the rotation of the body segments in the opposite directions. Moreover, larger Tz and COP displacements were seen when pushing the heavy weight. The results point out the importance of using Tz and COPML to describe the isolated or combined effects of asymmetrical upper extremity movement and asymmetrical posture on body rotation during pushing. Furthermore, it suggests that a proper combination of unilateral arm movement and foot placements could help to reduce body rotation even when pushing heavy objects.
Rusten, B; Rathnaweera, S S; Rismyhr, E; Sahu, A K; Ntiako, J
2017-06-01
Fine mesh rotating belt sieves (RBS) offer a very compact solution for removal of particles from wastewater. This paper shows examples from pilot-scale testing of primary treatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and secondary solids separation of biofilm solids from moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Primary treatment using a 350 microns belt showed more than 40% removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and 30% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at sieve rates as high as 160 m³/m²-h. Maximum sieve rate tested was 288 m³/m²-h and maximum particle load was 80 kg TSS/m²-h. When the filter mat on the belt increased from 10 to 55 g TSS/m², the removal efficiency for TSS increased from about 35 to 60%. CEPT is a simple and effective way of increasing the removal efficiency of RBS. Adding about 1 mg/L of cationic polymer and about 2 min of flocculation time, the removal of TSS typically increased from 40-50% without polymer to 60-70% with polymer. Using coagulation and flocculation ahead of the RBS, separation of biofilm solids was successful. Removal efficiencies of 90% TSS, 83% total P and 84% total COD were achieved with a 90 microns belt at a sieve rate of 41 m³/m²-h.
Forced convection of power-law fluids flow over a rotating nonisothermal body
Kim, H. W.; Essemyi, A. J.
1993-10-01
Presented is an analysis of steady laminar flow of power-law fluids past a rotating body with nonisothermal surfaces. A coordinate transformation combined with the Merk-type series expansion is employed to transform the governing momentum equations into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The equations are numerically integrated to obtain the axial and tangential velocity gradients for determining the friction coefficient. For forced convection, a generalized coordinate transformation is used to analyze the temperature field of the power-law flow. Solutions to the transformed energy equations are obtained in the form of universal functions. The heat transfer coefficients in terms of NuRe(sup 1/(n + 1)) are presented for a rotating sphere. The effects of power-law index, rotation sphere, Prandtl number, and the location of step discontinuity in surface temperature on the local Nusselt number are fully investigated and demonstrated.
Rotation-limited growth of three-dimensional body-centered-cubic crystals.
Tarp, Jens M; Mathiesen, Joachim
2015-07-01
According to classical grain growth laws, grain growth is driven by the minimization of surface energy and will continue until a single grain prevails. These laws do not take into account the lattice anisotropy and the details of the microscopic rearrangement of mass between grains. Here we consider coarsening of body-centered-cubic polycrystalline materials in three dimensions using the phase field crystal model. We observe, as a function of the quenching depth, a crossover between a state where grain rotation halts and the growth stagnates and a state where grains coarsen rapidly by coalescence through rotation and alignment of the lattices of neighboring grains. We show that the grain rotation per volume change of a grain follows a power law with an exponent of -1.25. The scaling exponent is consistent with theoretical considerations based on the conservation of dislocations.
Predicting the decay time of solid body electric guitar tones.
Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît
2014-05-01
Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers.
Tidal synchronization of an anelastic multi-layered body: Titan's synchronous rotation
Folonier, Hugo A.; Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio
2017-09-01
Tidal torque drives the rotational and orbital evolution of planet-satellite and star-exoplanet systems. This paper presents one analytical tidal theory for a viscoelastic multi-layered body with an arbitrary number of homogeneous layers. Starting with the static equilibrium figure, modified to include tide and differential rotation, and using the Newtonian creep approach, we find the dynamical equilibrium figure of the deformed body, which allows us to calculate the tidal potential and the forces acting on the tide generating body, as well as the rotation and orbital elements variations. In the particular case of the two-layer model, we study the tidal synchronization when the gravitational coupling and the friction in the interface between the layers is added. For high relaxation factors (low viscosity), the stationary solution of each layer is synchronous with the orbital mean motion (n) when the orbit is circular, but the rotational frequencies increase if the orbital eccentricity increases. This behavior is characteristic in the classical Darwinian theories and in the homogeneous case of the creep tide theory. For low relaxation factors (high viscosity), as in planetary satellites, if friction remains low, each layer can be trapped in different spin-orbit resonances with frequencies n/2,n,3n/2,2n,\\ldots . When the friction increases, attractors with differential rotations are destroyed, surviving only commensurabilities in which core and shell have the same velocity of rotation. We apply the theory to Titan. The main results are: (i) the rotational constraint does not allow us to confirm or reject the existence of a subsurface ocean in Titan; and (ii) the crust-atmosphere exchange of angular momentum can be neglected. Using the rotation estimate based on Cassini's observation (Meriggiola et al. in Icarus 275:183-192, 2016), we limit the possible value of the shell relaxation factor, when a deep subsurface ocean is assumed, to γ _s≲10^{-9} s^{-1} , which
Commins, Patrick; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A
2014-02-21
We describe the synthesis, characterization, photochemical isomerization, and rotational dynamics of a crystalline molecular gyroscope containing an azobenzene bridge (trans-2) that spans from one end of the stator to other, with the intention of exploring its function as a molecular brake. While single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a photochemically inactive dichloromethane solvate was used to confirm the molecular and packing structures of trans-2, a nanocrystalline pseudopolymorph was shown to be photoactive, and it was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy, and variable temperature solid state (2)H NMR before and after photoisomerization. It was shown that the nanocrystalline suspension irradiated with λ = 340 nm reaches a photostationary state with 34% of cis-isomer, as compared to that observed in solution where the corresponding value is 74%. Line shape analysis of solid state (2)H NMR spectra of a phenylene-d4 isotopologue, obtained as a function of temperature, indicated that rotation in crystals of the trans-2 isomer, with a mean activation energy of 4.6 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a pre-exponential factor exp(29.4 ± 1.7), is ten times faster than that of samples containing the cis-2 isomer, which has a higher mean activation energy of 5.1 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a lower pre-exponential factor of exp(27.9 ± 1.3).
Beckmann, Peter A; McGhie, Andrew R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Sloan, Gilbert J; Szewczyk, Steven T
2017-08-24
Using solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation experiments, we have investigated the effects of several solid-solid phase transitions on tert-butyl and methyl group rotation in solid 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene. The goal is to relate the dynamics of the tert-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups to properties of the solid determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). On cooling, the DSC experiments see a first-order, solid-solid phase transition at either 268 or 155 K (but not both) depending on thermal history. The 155 K transition (on cooling) is identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to be one from a monoclinic phase (above 155 K), where the tert-butyl groups are disordered (that is, with a rotational 6-fold intermolecular potential dominating), to a triclinic phase (below 155 K), where the tert-butyl groups are ordered (that is, with a rotational 3-fold intermolecular potential dominating). This transition shows very different DSC scans when both a 4.7 mg polycrystalline sample and a 19 mg powder sample are used. The (1)H spin-lattice relaxation experiments with a much larger 0.7 g sample are very complicated and, depending on thermal history, can show hysteresis effects over many hours and over very large temperature ranges. In the high-temperature monoclinic phase, the tert-butyl groups rotate with NMR activation energies (closely related to rotational barriers) in the 17-23 kJ mol(-1) range, and the constituent methyl groups rotate with NMR activation energies in the 7-12 kJ mol(-1) range. In the low-temperature triclinic phase, the rotations of the tert-butyl groups and their methyl groups in the aromatic plane are quenched (on the NMR time scale). The two out-of-plane methyl groups in the tert-butyl groups are rotating with activation energies in the 5-11 kJ mol(-1) range.
Plotnikov, P. K.
2015-05-01
Experimental studies and their results are described for the translation-rotational motion of rolling bodies subjected to forces and elastic deformations of the contact tribological conjunction regions between such bodies and the bases. Most attention is paid to the motion of such bodies outside the contact surfaces in the regions of preliminary displacements and behind these regions. In several experiments, the processes are recorded and analyzed from the very beginning to the termination of the rolling body finite displacements. All displacement stages exhibit oscillations due to variations in the character of motions of the rolling bodies. In the case where the body is only under the action of its weight, the regions of normal strains symmetric with respect to the axis of the weight action are shown as surface indentations outside the region of direct contact between the base and the rolling body. The photographs of the base nonsymmetric deformations due to the additional action of the tangential force on the rolling body are presented. One can see that the indentation slope in the motion or the force action direction is steeper and the indentation depth and length are smaller than those on the opposite side. This suggests that, on the side where the rolling body surface enters the base, the volumes of their deformations and hence the elastic force are greater than on the opposite side. The graphs are constructed for the variation in the values of preliminary and kinematic (in motion) displacements and the arm of rolling friction force for two motor cars, for a solid steel roller, and for a steel roller with two foam rubber wheels. The graphs show that, quantitatively, the displacement values are by one and more orders of magnitude greater than the values of these arms of force. Qualitatively, the arms of rolling friction force, just as the displacements, are characterized by the presence of proportionality and saturation segments of their characteristics. The
Axial symmetric rotation of a partially immersed body in a liquid with a surfactant layer
Sunil Datta; Nidhi Pandya
2001-08-01
This paper gives a simple integral formula to evaluate the torque on a slowly rotating symmetric body partially immersed in a viscous liquid covered by an adsorbed surface ﬁlm. Besides the results known earlier, new results have also been derived for small values of the surface shear viscosity parameter . It is seen that the effect of in all cases is to increase the torque.
On the polar moment of inertia of a compressible body. [planetary rotational dynamics
Mulholland, J. D.
1980-01-01
The rotational dynamics of a body are governed by the values of its principle moments of inertia. These quantities are not directly observable, but they are related to the harmonic coefficients of the external gravity field and to the density distribution within the body, both of which can be inferred from appropriate observations. It is shown that, for the particular case of a spherical planet whose density varies as a power of the radial distance, the principal moment of inertia has an elegantly simple form. Application of this simplified case to the Jovian planets suggests that the density profiles outside the central core are approximately linear, with the apparent exception of Neptune.
Lau, Darryl; Shin, Samuel S; Patel, Rakesh; Park, Paul
2013-01-01
Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. Application of halo bracing was unsuccessful. The patient subsequently required a C1-C4 posterior spinal fusion. Follow-up computer tomography imaging confirmed fusion and the patient did well clinically thereafter.
Mantises exchange angular momentum between three rotating body parts to jump precisely to targets.
Burrows, Malcolm; Cullen, Darron A; Dorosenko, Marina; Sutton, Gregory P
2015-03-16
Flightless animals have evolved diverse mechanisms to control their movements in air, whether falling with gravity or propelling against it. Many insects jump as a primary mode of locomotion and must therefore precisely control the large torques generated during takeoff. For example, to minimize spin (angular momentum of the body) at takeoff, plant-sucking bugs apply large equal and opposite torques from two propulsive legs [1]. Interacting gear wheels have evolved in some to give precise synchronization of these legs [2, 3]. Once airborne, as a result of either jumping or falling, further adjustments may be needed to control trajectory and orient the body for landing. Tails are used by geckos to control pitch [4, 5] and by Anolis lizards to alter direction [6, 7]. When falling, cats rotate their body [8], while aphids [9] and ants [10, 11] manipulate wind resistance against their legs and thorax. Falling is always downward, but targeted jumping must achieve many possible desired trajectories. We show that when making targeted jumps, juvenile wingless mantises first rotated their abdomen about the thorax to adjust the center of mass and thus regulate spin at takeoff. Once airborne, they then smoothly and sequentially transferred angular momentum in four stages between the jointed abdomen, the two raptorial front legs, and the two propulsive hind legs to produce a controlled jump with a precise landing. Experimentally impairing abdominal movements reduced the overall rotation so that the mantis either failed to grasp the target or crashed into it head first.
Fujii, Yuka; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko
2014-01-01
A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the Terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in UV, visible, and near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities...
A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed viscoelastic bodies
Hu, H.; Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2017-01-01
Existing approaches for simulating the true polar wander (TPW) of a viscoelastic body can be divided into three categories: (i) a linear dynamic approach which uses the linearized Liouville equation (e.g., Wu and Peltier (1984) and Mitrovica et al. (2005)); (ii) a nonlinear dynamic approach which is based on the quasi-fluid approximation (e.g., Sabadini and Peltier (1981), Ricard et al. (1993), and Cambiotti et al. (2011)); and (iii) a long-term limit approach which only considers the fluid limit of a reorientation (e.g., Matsuyama and Nimmo (2007)). Several limitations of these approaches have not been studied: the range for which the linear approach is accurate, the validity of the quasi-fluid approximation, and the dynamic solution for TPW of a tidally deformed rotating body. We establish a numerical procedure which is able to determine the large-angle reorientation of a viscoelastic celestial body that can be both centrifugally and tidally deformed. We show that the linear approach leads to significant errors for loadings near the poles or the equator. Second, we show that slow relaxation modes can have a significant effect on large-angle TPW of Earth or other planets. Finally, we show that reorientation of a tidally deformed body driven by a positive mass anomaly near the poles has a preference for rotating around the tidal axis instead of toward it. At a tidally deformed body which does not have a remnant bulge, positive mass anomalies are more likely to be found near the equator and the plane perpendicular to the tidal axis, while negative mass anomalies tend to be near the great circle that contains the tidal and rotational axes.
Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.
2002-01-01
The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components
SU-E-J-165: Dosimetric Impact of Liver Rotations in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Pinnaduwage, D; Paulsson, A; Sudhyadhom, A; Chen, J; Chang, A; Anwar, M; Gottschalk, A; Yom, S S.; Descovich, M [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Often in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy a single fiducial is implanted near the tumor for image-guided treatment delivery. In such cases, rotational corrections are calculated based on the spine. This study quantifies rotational differences between the spine and liver, and investigates the corresponding dosimetric impact. Methods: Seven patients with 3 intrahepatic fiducials and 4DCT scans were identified. The planning CT was separately co-registered with 4 phases of the 4DCT (0%, 50%, 100% inhale and 50% exhale) by 1) rigid registration of the spine, and 2) point-based registration of the 3 fiducials. Rotation vectors were calculated for each registration. Translational differences in fiducial positions between the 2 registrations methods were investigated. Dosimetric impact due to liver rotations and deformations was assessed using critical structures delineated on the 4DCT phases. For dose comparisons, a single fiducial was translationally aligned following spine alignment to represent what is typically done in the clinic. Results: On average, differences between spine and liver rotations during the 0%, 50%, 100% inhale, and 50% exhale phases were 3.23°, 3.27°, 2.26° and 3.11° (pitch), 3.00°, 2.24°, 3.12° and 1.73° (roll), and 1.57°, 1.98°, 2.09° and 1.36° (yaw), respectively. The maximum difference in rotations was 12°, with differences of >3° seen in 14/28 (pitch), 10/28 (roll), and 6/28 (yaw) cases. Average fiducial displacements of 2.73 (craniocaudal), 1.04 (lateral) and 1.82 mm (vertical) were seen. Evaluating percent dose differences for 5 patients at the peaks of the respiratory cycle, the maximum dose to the duodenum, stomach, bowel and esophagus differed on average by 11.4%, 5.3%, 11.2% and 49.1% between the 2 registration methods. Conclusion: Lack of accounting for liver rotation during treatment might Result in clinically significant dose differences to critical structures. Both rotational and translational deviations
Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies
Favier, B; Baruteau, C; Ogilvie, G I
2014-01-01
We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied in previous papers which this work extends into the nonlinear regime, at moderate Ekman numbers (the ratio of viscous to Coriolis accelerations). By performing high-resolution numerical simulations, using a combination of pseudo-spectral and spectral element methods, we investigate the effects of nonlinearities, which lead to time-dependence of the flow and the corresponding dissipation rate. Angular momentum is deposited non-uniformly, leading to the generation of significant differential rotation in the initially unifor...
Ogilvie, Gordon I
2012-01-01
We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...
Analysis of the wobbling effect in a lens-shaped body rotation
Kim, Minho
2017-03-01
We discuss the wobbling motion in a lens-shaped body rotation, focusing on the frequencies and the amplitude of nutation by filming the rotational motion and wobbling of the body. The friction coefficient of the surface is altered to examine its influence for two lenses with different curvature radii. MATLAB programs are developed to retrieve the Euler angles, which are graphed according to time. It is shown that the lens with a smaller curvature radius exhibits the wobbling effect in all cases, whereas the lens with a larger curvature radius shows such behaviour in limited circumstances. The study confirms that the friction coefficient has a negative linear correlation with the vertical axis declination amplitude with the R-squared value 0.878, showing that friction gives damping and causes smaller axis declination amplitudes. Negative linear correlation also exists with relation to the number of wobbles before the motion stops, where the R-squared value is 0.938, providing further evidence that friction and wobbling cause higher energy dissipation rates. The frequency of the wobbling motion only has a correlation with the curvature radius of the lens, showing no explicit correlation with the friction coefficient, with its R-squared value being 0.077. No losses of contact were observable in this motion. The overall process does not utilize particularly expensive apparatus and will be applicable for senior undergraduate students to experiment on and analyze the motion of a special situation regarding a rigid body that is both spinning and nutating.
Acoustic equations for a gas stream in rigid-body rotation
Garcia-Ybarra, Pedro L.; Marin-Antuña, Jose M.
2017-02-01
The classical topic of wave propagation in a rotating gas is revisited by deducing scalar wave equations for propagation of acoustic and rotational waves through a plug flow of gas in rigid-body rotation with arbitrary intensities of the radial stratification. In the light of these novel equations, wave propagation is analyzed in two different base gas states: isothermal and homentropic. In both cases, previous findings are recovered that assess the validity of the equations and new results are established. In the non-homentropic but isothermal case, the set of governing equations is reduced to two coupled scalar wave equations with space dependent coefficients for the disturbances of density and pressure. Travelling wave solutions with variable amplitude have been obtained in the limit of weak stratification both for inertial waves as for acoustic waves which, in general, propagate on different frequency bands that overlap in the small wavenumber region. Furthermore, the entropy stratification in the base state is stable and compels the propagation of internal waves, leading to hybrid acoustic-inertial-vortical modes. In the homentropic case, the adiabatic relation between pressure and density disturbances allows to reduce further the governing equations to a single fourth-order scalar wave equation. In this case, the sound propagation velocity depends on the distance to the rotation axis and solutions are found by multiple-scale analyses in the form of waves with slowly varying amplitude and wavenumber. The corresponding eikonal equation shows that acoustic rays are refracted towards the rotation axis, propagating and spinning along and around it. In that way, the swirling gas behaves as an axial waveguide trapping inside any acoustic ray propagating in the vortex with large enough azimuthal and/or vertical wavenumber component.
Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen
2012-01-01
A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...... state-space equations where constraints are embedded without explicit use of Lagrange multipliers. The algorithm is developed by forming a finite increment of the Hamiltonian, which defines the proper selection of increments and mean values that leads to conservation of energy and momentum. The accuracy...... and conservation properties are illustrated by examples....
Generalized flyby trajectories around elongated minor celestial bodies as a rotating mass dipole
Xiangyuan Zeng; Baodong Fang; Junfeng Li; Yang Yu
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to understand the com-mon characteristics of the generalized flyby trajectory around natural elongated bodies. Such flyby trajectories provide a short-term mechanism to clear away vicinal objects or temporally capture ejecta into circling orbits. The gravita-tional potential of elongated bodies is described by a unified approximate model, i.e., the rotating mass dipole which is two point masses connected with a constant massless rod. The energy power is used to illustrate the flyby effect in terms of the instantaneous orbital energy. The essential of the single flyby trajectory is studied analytically, and the relationship between the flyby trajectory and its Jacobi integral is also illustrated. Sample trajectories are given to show the varia-tional trend of the energy increment with respect to different orbital periapsides. The distribution of natural ejecting orbits is presented by varying the parameters of the approximate model.
Ultra-relativistic spinning particle and a rotating body in external fields
Deriglazov, Alexei A
2015-01-01
We use the vector model of spinning particle to analyze the influence of spin-field coupling on the particle's trajectory in ultra-relativistic regime. The Lagrangian with minimal spin-gravity interaction yields the equations equivalent to the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon (MPTD) equations of a rotating body. We show that they have unsatisfactory behavior in the ultra-relativistic limit. In particular, three-dimensional acceleration of the particle increases with velocity and becomes infinite in the limit. The reason is that in the equation for trajectory emerges the term which can be thought as an effective metric generated by the minimal spin-gravity coupling. Therefore we examine the non-minimal interaction through the gravimagnetic moment $\\kappa$, and show that the theory with $\\kappa=1$ is free of the problems detected in MPTD-equations. Hence the non-minimally interacting theory seem more promising candidate for description of a relativistic rotating body. The Lagrangian for the particle in an a...
Improved Narrowband Dipolar Recoupling for Homonuclear Distance Measurements in Rotating Solids
Goobes, G.; Vega, S.
2002-02-01
Recovery of the magnetic dipolar interaction between nuclei bearing the same gyromagnetic ratio in rotating solids can be promoted by synchronous rf irradiation. Determination of the dipolar interaction strength can serve as a tool for structural elucidation in polycrystalline powders. Spinning frequency dependent narrow-band (nb) RFDR and SEDRA experiments are utilized as simple techniques for the determination of dipolar interactions between the nuclei in coupled homonuclear spin pairs. The magnetization exchange and coherence dephasing due to a fixed number of rotor-synchronously applied π-pulses is monitored at spinning frequencies in the vicinity of the rotational resonance (R2) conditions. The powder nbRFDR and nbSEDRA decay curves of spin magnetizations and coherences, respectively, as a function of the spinning frequency can be measured and analyzed using simple rate equations providing a quantitative measure of the dipolar coupling. The effects of the phenomenological relaxation parameters in these rate equations are discussed and an improved methodology is suggested for analyzing nbRFDR data for small dipolar couplings. The distance between the labeled nuclei in the 1,3-13C2-hydroxybutyric acid molecule is rederived using existing nbRFDR results and the new simulation procedure. A nbSEDRA experiment has been performed successfully on a powder sample of singly labeled 1-13C-L-leucine measuring the dipolar interaction between the labeled carboxyl carbon and the natural abundant β-carbon. Both narrowband techniques are employed for the determination of the nuclear distances between the side-chain carbons of leucine and its carbonyl carbon in a tripeptide Leu-Gly-Phe that is singly 13C-labeled at the leucine carbonyl carbon position.
Band-selective heteronuclear dipolar recoupling with dual back-to-back pulses in rotating solids
Zhang, Zhengfeng; Chen, Yanke; Yang, Jun
2016-11-01
We propose a robust band-selective heteronuclear 15N-13C recoupling method using dual back-to-back (BABA) pulses (DBP). It contains four 90° pulses in each rotor period and corresponding phase cycling on each channel (13C and 15N). DBP aims at rapid band-selective heteronuclear magnetization transfer between 15N and 13Cα/13C‧, whose efficiency is close to that of the well-known SPECIFIC CP in membrane proteins with relatively short relaxation time in rotating frame (T1ρ). Compared to SPECIFIC CP, DBP is very simple to set up and highly robust to RF variations. Thus, it can reduce the efforts in experimental optimization, especially for low-sensitive samples, and is very suitable for long-time or quantitative experiments. The efficacy of DBP is demonstrated by the E. coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) proteoliposome. We anticipate that DBP would be useful for (segments of) membrane proteins that undergo the μs-ms timescale motions in magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR.
Proton-driven spin diffusion in rotating solids via reversible and irreversible quantum dynamics.
Veshtort, Mikhail; Griffin, Robert G
2011-10-07
Proton-driven spin diffusion (PDSD) experiments in rotating solids have received a great deal of attention as a potential source of distance constraints in large biomolecules. However, the quantitative relationship between the molecular structure and observed spin diffusion has remained obscure due to the lack of an accurate theoretical description of the spin dynamics in these experiments. We start with presenting a detailed relaxation theory of PDSD in rotating solids that provides such a description. The theory applies to both conventional and radio-frequency-assisted PDSD experiments and extends to the non-Markovian regime to include such phenomena as rotational resonance (R(2)). The basic kinetic equation of the theory in the non-Markovian regime has the form of a memory function equation, with the role of the memory function played by the correlation function. The key assumption used in the derivation of this equation expresses the intuitive notion of the irreversible dissipation of coherences in macroscopic systems. Accurate expressions for the correlation functions and for the spin diffusion constants are given. The theory predicts that the spin diffusion constants governing the multi-site PDSD can be approximated by the constants observed in the two-site diffusion. Direct numerical simulations of PDSD dynamics via reversible Liouville-von Neumann equation are presented to support and compliment the theory. Remarkably, an exponential decay of the difference magnetization can be observed in such simulations in systems consisting of only 12 spins. This is a unique example of a real physical system whose typically macroscopic and apparently irreversible behavior can be traced via reversible microscopic dynamics. An accurate value for the spin diffusion constant can be usually obtained through direct simulations of PDSD in systems consisting of two (13)C nuclei and about ten (1)H nuclei from their nearest environment. Spin diffusion constants computed by this
Dallas, S. S.
1977-01-01
The equations of motion for rotating finite bodies are computed in the perfect fluid metric in the extended parametric post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt (1972) and are used to build a model of the solar system consisting of N oblate, homogeneous, stationary, self-gravitating masses of rotating perfect fluid. These equations contain relativistic acceleration terms which are currently observable or may be observable in the future with improved radio and laser ranging techniques.
Dynamics of Solid Body in Magnetic Suspension under Periodic Excitation
A. M. Gouskov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of ferromagnetic body in hybrid magnetic suspension (HMS. The body is supposed to have one degree of freedom and a nonlinear magnetic force dependence on the current and displacement. The magnetic force induced in the HMS is divided into a passive component and an active one. Specifying the law of current variation in the coil allows us to generate nonlinear oscillations under electromagnet action. To provide periodic excitation the appropriate law of the current variation in the electromagnet coil is proposed. The mathematical model includes external periodic step-excitation. The equation of motion is formed. The scales of similarity are highlighted in the system, and the equation of motion is reduced to dimensionless form.The motion dynamics is studied numerically. The relaxation method was used to determine the periodic motions at different values of dimensionless frequency of the electromagnet excitation as well as to estimate the influence of other dimensionless parameters on the system dynamics. The amplitude-frequency curve analysis allows us to come to conclusion that the nature of system nonlinearity is rigid. Adding the external periodic step-excitation leads to the qualitative change in the nature of movement. This points to the occurrence of bifurcation.
Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body
Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur
2016-11-01
While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.
Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body.
Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur
2016-11-02
While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper highlights the use of the finite element technique for analyzing stress and displacement distributions in wheels of automotive vehicles when subject to the conjoint influence of inflation pressure and radial load. The most commonly used considerations in the design of the rotating body are elucidated. A potentially viable technique for finite element modeling of radial wheel, subjected to loading, is highlighted. The extrinsic influence of inflation pressure on performance of the rotating body, that is, the wheel, is rationalized.
Manzo, Valentina; Navarro, Orielle; Honda, Luis; Sánchez, Karen; Inés Toral, M; Richter, Pablo
2013-03-15
The microextraction of crystal violet (CV) from water samples into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using the rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) technique was performed. The extracting device was a small Teflon disk that had an embedded miniature magnetic stirring bar and a PDMS (560 μL) film attached to one side of the disk using double-sided tape. The extraction involves a preconcentration of CV into the PDMS, where the analyte is then directly quantified using solid phase spectrophotometry at 600 nm. Different chemical and extraction device-related variables were studied to achieve the best sensitivity for the determination. The optimum extraction was performed at pH 14 because under this condition, CV is transformed to the neutral and colorless species carbinol, which can be quantitatively transferred to the PDMS phase. Although the colorless species is the chemical form extracted in the PDMS, an intense violet coloration appeared in the phase because the -OH bond in the carbinol molecule is weakened through the formation of hydrogen bonds with the oxygen atoms of the PDMS, allowing the resonance between the three benzene rings to compensate for the charge deficit on the central carbon atom of the molecule. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated in river water samples spiked with 10 and 30 μg L(-1) of CV, yielding a relative standard deviation of 6.2% and 8.4% and a recovery of 98.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The method detection limit was 1.8 μg L(-1) and the limit of quantification was 5.4 μg L(-1), which can be decreased if the sample volume is increased.
Rotational kinematics of a rigid body about a fixed axis: development and analysis of an inventory
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.
2015-07-01
We present the development, administration, and analysis of a focused inventory on the rotational kinematics of a rigid body around a fixed axis. The inventory, which is made up of 13 multiple-choice questions, was developed on the basis of interactions with students and teachers. The systematic and iterative aspects of the construction of the inventory are illustrated. The questions, which were validated, were administered to a set of teachers (N = 25) and two groups of preuniversity students (N = 74 and 905) in India. Students, as well as teachers, exhibited difficulties in applying the operational definition of angular velocity to a rigid body. Many erroneously assumed that an angular acceleration cannot exist without a net torque. Patterns of reasoning resulting in errors were identified and categorized under four broad themes. These include inappropriate extensions of familiar procedural practices, reasoning cued by primitive elements in thought, lack of differentiation between related but distinct concepts, and indiscriminate use of equations. The inventory was also administered to introductory-level students (N = 384) at the University of Washington. Popular distractors to most items were similar to the Indian students.
A QUMOND galactic N-body code I: Poisson solver and rotation curve fitting
Angus, Garry W; Famaey, Benoit; Gentile, Gianfranco; McGaugh, Stacy S; de Blok, W J G
2012-01-01
Here we present a new particle-mesh galactic N-body code that uses the full multigrid algorithm for solving the modified Poisson equation of the Quasi Linear formulation of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (QUMOND). A novel approach for handling the boundary conditions using a refinement strategy is implemented and the accuracy of the code is compared with analytical solutions of Kuzmin disks. We then employ the code to compute the predicted rotation curves for a sample of five spiral galaxies from the THINGS sample. We generated static N-body realisations of the galaxies according to their stellar and gaseous surface densities and allowed their distances, mass-to-light ratios (M/L) and both the stellar and gas scale-heights to vary in order to estimate the best fit parameters. We found that NGC 3621, NGC 3521 and DDO 154 are well fit by MOND using expected values of the distance and M/L. NGC 2403 required a moderately larger $M/L$ than expected and NGC 2903 required a substantially larger value. The surprising re...
Rotation of a ice disc during the melting on a solid plate
Dorbolo, S; Darbois-Texier, B
2016-01-01
Ice discs were released at the surface of a thermalized aluminium plate. The fusion of the ice creates a lubrication film between the ice disc and the plate. The disc becomes very mobile. The situation is isomorphe to the Leidenfrost effect reported for liquid droplet evaporating at the surface of a plate which temperature is over the boiling temperature of the liquid. For the ice discs, we observe that, while the ice discs were melting, they were rotating. The ice disc rotates starts rotating. The rotation speed increases with the temperature of the plate and with the load put on the ice disc. A model is proposed to explain the spontaneous rotation of the ice disc. We claim that the rotation is due to the viscous entrainment of the ice disc by the liquid that flows around the ice disc.
On gyroscopic effects in vibrating and axially rotating solid and annular discs
Joubert, SV
2007-05-01
Full Text Available , such as cylindrical, hemispherical and planar circular disc rotational sensors. The model of a thin circular disc vibrating in its plane and subjected to inertial rotation is considered. The dynamics of the disc gyroscope are considered in terms of linear elasticity...
Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children
Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: The debate about whether energy consumed in liquid form is more obesogenic than energy consumed in solid form remains equivocal. We aimed to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage types on changes in childhood adiposity. METHODS: Our analyses...... included 8-year-old Australian children (n = 158) participating in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. Dietary information was collected using three 24-h recalls at age 9 years. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage...... types on changes in body mass index (BMI) Z-score from ages 8 to 11.5 years (△BMIz8-11.5y ) and percentage body fat (%BF) at age 11.5 years (%BF11.5y ). Substitution models were used to evaluate the effects of substituting other beverage types for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). RESULTS: Liquid energy...
Many-Body Contributions to Cohesive Energy of Highly Compressed Solid 4He
田春玲; 刘福生; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦
2003-01-01
A many-body expansion of cohesive energy of solid 4He is made up to five-body term, and short-range two-,three-, four- and five-body contributions have been computed by using the Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field technique and the same atomic basis set (6311G). At high densities the Hartree-Fock part of two- and four-body contributions are repulsive, whereas the three- and five-body ones are attractive. The four-body term increases as much as 15% repulsion of two-body term, and at the same time the five-body term reduces 4% of two-body repulsion at 2.5 cm 3 /mol. The four- and five-body terms are found to be important to describe short-range interatomic interaction correctly and to compute the cohesive energy accurately in a wide compression range from 2.5to 7.5 cm3/mol.
Distribution of microRNA biomarker candidates in solid tissues and body fluids.
Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas
2016-11-01
Small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are discussed as promising biomarkers for a substantial number of human pathologies. A broad understanding in which solid tissues, cell types or body fluids a microRNA is expressed helps also to understand and to improve the suitability of miRNAs as non- or minimally-invasive disease markers. We recently reported the Human miRNA Tissue Atlas ( http://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/tissueatlas ) containing 105 miRNA profiles of 31 organs from 2 corpses. We subsequently added miRNA profiles measured by others and us using the same array technology as for the first version of the Human miRNA Tissue Atlas. The latter profiles stem from 163 solid organs including lung, prostate and gastric tissue, from 253 whole blood samples and 66 fractioned blood cell isolates, from body fluids including 72 serum samples, 278 plasma samples, 29 urine samples, and 16 saliva samples and from different collection and storage conditions. While most miRNAs are ubiquitous abundant in solid tissues and whole blood, we also identified miRNAs that are rather specific for tissues. Our web-based repository now hosting 982 full miRNomes all of which are measured by the same microarray technology. The knowledge of these variant abundances of miRNAs in solid tissues, in whole blood and in other body fluids is essential to judge the value of miRNAs as biomarker.
Wada, Osamu; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2014-01-01
Body rotation is associated with many activities. The concomitant movement of the center of mass (COM) is essential for effective body rotation. This movement is considered to be influenced by kinematic changes in the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. However, there is no research on the association between COM movement and kinematic changes during body rotation. We aimed to investigate the association between COM movement and the kinematics of the spine, pelvis, and hip joints during body rotation in standing. Twenty-four healthy men were included in the study. COM movement during active body rotation in a standing position was measured. We evaluated pelvic shift and changes in the angles of the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients to analyze the relationship between COM movement and kinematic changes in the spine, pelvis, and hip joints. There were significant correlations between lateral COM movement to the rotational side and pelvic shift to the rotational side, and between posterior COM movement and pelvic shift to the posterior side. In addition, lateral COM movement to the rotational side showed significant and negative correlation with spinal flexion and was significantly and positively correlated with the change in anterior pelvic tilt. Clinicians need to take particular note of both spinal and pelvic motion in the sagittal plane, as well as the pelvic shift, to speculate COM movement during body rotation in standing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Romano, Marcello
2012-01-01
New exact analytic solutions are introduced for the rotational motion of a rigid body having two equal principal moments of inertia and subjected to an external torque which is constant in magnitude. In particular, the solutions are obtained for the following cases: (1) Torque parallel to the symmetry axis and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (2) Torque perpendicular to the symmetry axis and such that the torque is rotating at a constant rate about the symmetry axis, and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (3) Torque and initial angular velocity perpendicular to the symmetry axis, with the torque being fixed with the body. In addition to the solutions for these three forced cases, an original solution is introduced for the case of torque-free motion, which is simpler than the classical solution as regards its derivation and uses the rotation matrix in order to describe the body orientation. This paper builds upon the recently discovered exact solution for the motion of a rigid body with a spherical ellipso...
Metric of a Slow Rotating Body with Quadrupole Moment from the Erez-Rosen Metric
Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Cordero-García, Iván; Ulloa-Esquivel, Oscar
2012-01-01
A metric representing a slow rotating object with quadrupole moment is obtained using the Newman-Janis formalism to include rotation into the weak limit of the Erez-Rosen metric. This metric is intended to tackle relativistic astrometry and gravitational lensing problems in which a quadrupole moment has to be taken into account.
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2013-07-21
The relativistic molecular Hamiltonian written in the body-fixed frame of reference is the basis for high-precision calculations of spectroscopic parameters involving nuclear vibrations and/or rotations. Such a Hamiltonian that describes electrons fully relativistically and nuclei quasi-relativistically is just developed for semi-rigid nonlinear molecules [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. Yet, the formulation should somewhat be revised for linear molecules thanks to some unusual features arising from the redundancy of the rotation around the molecular axis. Nonetheless, the resulting isomorphic Hamiltonian is rather similar to that for nonlinear molecules. Consequently, the relativistic formulation of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) tensor for linear molecules is very much the same as that for nonlinear molecules. So is the relativistic mapping between experimental NSR and NMR.
Rayleigh Waves in a Rotating Orthotropic Micropolar Elastic Solid Half-Space
Baljeet Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A problem on Rayleigh wave in a rotating half-space of an orthotropic micropolar material is considered. The governing equations are solved for surface wave solutions in the half space of the material. These solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at free surface of the half-space to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. For numerical purpose, the frequency equation is approximated. The nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed and shown graphically versus nondimensional frequency and rotation-frequency ratio for both orthotropic micropolar elastic and isotropic micropolar elastic cases. The numerical results show the effects of rotation, orthotropy, and nondimensional frequency on the nondimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.
GONG Yan-Jun; WU Zhen-Sen; WU Jia-Ji
2009-01-01
We present an analytical model of Doppler spectra in backscattering from arbitrary rough convex bodies of revolution rotating around their axes in the global Cartesian coordinate system. This analytical model is applied to analyse Doppler spectra in backscatter from two cones and two cylinders, as well as two ellipsoids of revolution. We numerically analyse the influences of attitude and geometry size of objects on Doppler spectra. The analytical model can give contribution of the surface roughness, attitude and geometry size of convex bodies of revolution to Doppler spectra and may contribute to laser Doppler velocimetry as well as ladar applications.
Richter, Pablo; Cañas, Alejandro; Muñoz, Carlos; Leiva, Claudio; Ahumada, Inés
2011-06-10
A novel and very simple microextraction approach for pre-concentration and direct solid phase spectrophotometric measurement has been developed for the determination of chromogenic analytes. The model analyte to assess this approach was the chromophore malachite green (MG). The analyte was extracted from water samples onto a small rotating disk made of Teflon containing a sorbent phase of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on one of its surfaces. We refer to the extraction procedure as rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE). After extraction, the sorbent phase with the concentrated analyte was separated from the Teflon disk and used directly for MG determination by solid phase spectrophotometry at 624 nm, without the necessity of a desorption step. Chemical and extraction variables such as concentration of sodium sulfate, pH, disk rotational velocity, extraction time, and temperature were studied in order to establish the best conditions for extraction. Under optimum conditions, the extraction of MG was carried out in 18 min and 90 min, for sample volumes of 100mL or 1000 mL, respectively. The detection limit, based on three times the standard deviation of the blank phase (3σ(b)), was 1.4 μg L⁻¹ and the repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), for 20 μg L⁻¹ MG was 8.1%. This study also applied the method to real samples, obtaining quantitative recovery (mean recovery of 99.3%). The PDMS phases could be reused after desorbing the MG into methanol for 3h. Replacement of the PDMS film onto the disk is very easy and low cost.
Dosimetric effect of rotational errors for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy
Park, Jong Min; Lee, Jae Gi; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Jung In; Kim, Hak Jae; Ye, Sung Joon [Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-15
The aim of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric effects on target volume and organs at risk (OARs) due to roll rotational errors in treatment setup of SBRT for lung cancer delivered with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Roll rotational setup errors in lung SBRT significantly influenced the coverage of target volume using VMAT technique. This could be in part compensated by the translational couch correction. However, in spite of the translational correction, the delivered doses to the spinal cord could be more than the calculated doses. Therefore if rotational setup errors exist during lung SBRT using VMAT technique, the rotational correction would rather be considered to prevent over-irradiation of normal tissues than the translational correction.
Bubble motion in a rotating liquid body. [ground based tests for space shuttle experiments
Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.
1982-01-01
The behavior of a single gas bubble inside a rotating liquid-filled sphere has been investigated analytically and experimentally as part of ground-based investigations aimed at aiding in the design and interpretation of Shuttle experiments. In the analysis, a quasi-static description of the motion of a bubble was developed in the limit of small values of the Taylor number. A series of rotation experiments using air bubbles and silicone oils were designed to match the conditions specified in the analysis, i.e., the bubble size, sphere rotation rate, and liquid kinematic viscosity were chosen such that the Taylor number was much less than unity. The analytical description predicts the bubble velocity and its asymptotic location. It is shown that the asymptotic position is removed from the axis of rotation.
Niobium carbide synthesis by solid-gas reaction using a rotating cylinder reactor
Fontes F. A. O.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A rotating cylinder reactor was designed for the synthesis of niobium carbide powders at 1173 K. Niobium carbide, NbC, was prepared by carbothermal reduction starting from commercial niobium pentoxide powders. The reactor was heated using a custom-made, two-part, hinged, electric furnace with programmable temperature control. The design and operational details of the reactor are presented. The longitudinal temperature gradient inside the reactor was determined. Total reaction time was monitored by a gas chromatograph equipped with an FID detector for determination of methane concentrations. The results show that time of reaction depended on rotation speed. NbC was also prepared in a static-bed alumina reactor using the same conditions as in the previous case. The niobium carbide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and compared with commercially available products. Morphological, particle size distribution and surface area analyses were obtained using SEM, LDPS and BET, respectively. Therefore, the present study offers a significant technological contribution to the synthesis of NbC powders in a rotating cylinder reactor.
Niobium carbide synthesis by solid-gas reaction using a rotating cylinder reactor
Fontes, F.A.O.; Gomes, K.K.P.; Oliveira, S.A.; Souza, C.P.; Sousa, J.F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Rio Grande do f Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: franciscofontes@uol.com.br
2004-09-01
A rotating cylinder reactor was designed for the synthesis of niobium carbide powders at 1173 K. Niobium carbide, NbC, was prepared by carbothermal reduction starting from commercial niobium pentoxide powders. The reactor was heated using a custom-made, two-part, hinged, electric furnace with programmable temperature control. The design and operational details of the reactor are presented. The longitudinal temperature gradient inside the reactor was determined. Total reaction time was monitored by a gas chromatograph equipped with an FID detector for determination of methane concentrations. The results show that time of reaction depended on rotation speed. NbC was also prepared in a static-bed alumina reactor using the same conditions as in the previous case. The niobium carbide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and compared with commercially available products. Morphological, particle size distribution and surface area analyses were obtained using SEM, LDPS and BET, respectively. Therefore, the present study offers a significant technological contribution to the synthesis of NbC powders in a rotating cylinder reactor. (author)
Krot, A.
The statistical model of the gravitational interaction of particles has been proposed in [1], [2]. Within the framework of this model bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. In the work [3], which is a continuation of the paper [2], it has been investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression of a spheroidal body close to an unstable equilibrium state. In the paper [4] the equation of motion of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body modeled by means of an ideal liquid has been obtained. It has been derived the equations of hyperbolic type for the gravitational field of a weakly gravitating spheroidal body under observable values of velocities of particles composing it [4]. Using Schwarzschild's and Kerr's metrics, a consistency of the proposed statistical model with the general relativity [5] are shown in this work. This work considers the case of gravitational compression of a spheroidal body with observable values of particles. According to the first approach of this work the field potentials (including the scalar gravitational potential, the potential of centrifugal force and the potential of deformation force along the radial direction) for gravitating spheroidal body with observable velocities of particles are considered. The equations of movement of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body with radial deformation are derived. According to the second approach the distribution function of particles inside weakly rotating spheroidal body is a sum of an isotropic space-homogeneous stationary distribution function and its disturbance under an influence of dynamical gravitational field.The change of initial space-homogeneous stationary distribution function satisfies the Boltzmann kinetic equation. This work shows that if gravitating spheroidal body is rotating uniformly or is being at rest then distribution function of its particles satisfies the Liouville theorem. References: [1] A
Kwon, Kyung [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Qiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yang, Hui [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
2014-09-30
fluid is accelerated from rest by a constant average pressure gradient toward a steady Stokes flow. The simulation results agree well with the theories for the short- and long-time behavior of the drag force. Flows through non-rotational and rotational spheres in simple cubic arrays and random arrays are simulated over the entire range of packing fractions, and both low and moderate particle Reynolds numbers to compare the simulated results with the literature results and develop a new drag force formula, a new lift force formula, and a new torque formula. Random arrays of solid particles in fluids are generated with Monte Carlo procedure and Zinchenko's method to avoid crystallization of solid particles over high solid volume fractions. A new drag force formula was developed with extensive simulated results to be closely applicable to real processes over the entire range of packing fractions and both low and moderate particle Reynolds numbers. The simulation results indicate that the drag force is barely affected by rotational Reynolds numbers. Drag force is basically unchanged as the angle of the rotating axis varies.
Heinen, Thomas
2013-01-01
Athletes exhibit differences in perceptual-cognitive abilities when compared to non-athletes. Recent theoretical developments focus on the role of the athletes’ body in perceptual-cognitive tasks such as mental rotation tasks. It is assumed that the degree to which stimuli in mental rotation tasks can be embodied facilitates the mental rotation process. The implications of this assumption are discussed and ideas for future research are presented.
Mechanical analysis of roof stability under nonlinear compaction of solid backfill body
Li Meng⇑; Zhang Jixiong; Liu Zhan; Zhao Xu; Huang Peng
2016-01-01
Based on the compaction characteristic test and the nonlinear compaction deformation characteristics of backfill material, this paper applies the theory of nonlinear elastic foundation of thin plate to establish a mechanical model of backfill body and roof in solid dense backfill coal mining. This study critically anal-yses the deflection equation of the roof by the energy method, derives the conditions of roof breakage and combined with concrete engineering practice analyses, determines roof movement regularity and stabil-ity in solid dense backfill mining. Analysis of the engineering practice of the 13,120 backfill panel of Pingmei 12# mine shows the theoretical maximum of roof convergence in backfill mining to be 415 mm which is in significant agreement with the measured value. During the advancing process of solid backfill mining at the panel, the maximum tensile stress on the roof is less than its tensile strength which does not satisfy the conditions for roof breakage. Drilling results on the roof and ground pressure monitoring show that the integrity of roof is strong, which is consistent with the theoretical calculations described in this study. The results presented in the study provide a basis for further investigation into strata movement theory in solid dense backfill mining.
Destefino, V J; Reighard, D A; Sugiyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Cotter, L A; Larson, M G; Gandhi, N J; Barman, S M; Yates, B J
2011-06-01
The responses to vestibular stimulation of brain stem neurons that regulate sympathetic outflow and blood flow have been studied extensively in decerebrate preparations, but not in conscious animals. In the present study, we compared the responses of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a principal region of the brain stem involved in the regulation of blood pressure, to whole body rotations of conscious and decerebrate cats. In both preparations, RVLM neurons exhibited similar levels of spontaneous activity (median of ∼17 spikes/s). The firing of about half of the RVLM neurons recorded in decerebrate cats was modulated by rotations; these cells were activated by vertical tilts in a variety of directions, with response characteristics suggesting that their labyrinthine inputs originated in otolith organs. The activity of over one-third of RVLM neurons in decerebrate animals was altered by stimulation of baroreceptors; RVLM units with and without baroreceptor signals had similar responses to rotations. In contrast, only 6% of RVLM neurons studied in conscious cats exhibited cardiac-related activity, and the firing of just 1% of the cells was modulated by rotations. These data suggest that the brain stem circuitry mediating vestibulosympathetic reflexes is highly sensitive to changes in body position in space but that the responses to vestibular stimuli of neurons in the pathway are suppressed by higher brain centers in conscious animals. The findings also raise the possibility that autonomic responses to a variety of inputs, including those from the inner ear, could be gated according to behavioral context and attenuated when they are not necessary.
Sarah B Wallwork
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We wanted to find out whether people who suffer from dizziness take longer than people who do not, to perform a motor imagery task that involves implicit whole body rotation. Our prediction was that people in the ‘dizzy’ group would take longer at a left/right neck rotation judgment task but not a left/right hand judgment task, because actually performing the former, but not the latter, would exacerbate their dizziness. Secondly, we predicted that when dizzy participants responded to neck rotation images, responses would be greatest when images were in the upside-down orientation; an orientation with greatest dizzy-provoking potential. To test this idea, we used a case-control comparison design. One hundred and eighteen participants who suffered from dizziness and 118 age, gender, arm pain and neck pain matched controls took part in the study. Participants undertook two motor imagery tasks; a left/right neck rotation judgment task and a left/right hand judgment task. The tasks were completed using the Recognise program; an on-line reaction time task program. Images of neck rotation were shown in four different orientations; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Participants were asked to respond to each ‘neck’ image identifying it as either ‘right neck rotation’ or a ‘left neck rotation’, or for hands, a right or a left hand. Results showed that participants in the ‘dizzy’ group were slower than controls at both tasks (p= 0.015, but this was not related to task (p= 0.498. Similarly, ‘dizzy’ participants were not proportionally worse at images of different orientations (p= 0.878. Our findings suggest impaired performance in dizzy people, an impairment that may be confined to motor imagery or may extend more generally.
Coherence Transfer in Dipolar-Coupled Homonuclear Spin Systems in Solids Rotating at the Magic Angle
Weintraub, O.; Vega, S.; Hoelger, C.; Limbach, H. H.
Two routes for the exploitation of the t-SEDRA pulse scheme, which induces coherence transfer in dipolar-coupled homonuclear spin systems in rotating samples, are demonstrated and discussed. This sequence is utilized to deduce intramolecular connectivities by creating an initial coherence of one spin only, applying the t-SEDRA sequence, and monitoring the signal enhancement of the coupled spin. Probing the signal amplitude variations of the two spins and comparing them to simulations can also yield molecular distances. Using 2D spectroscopy, t-SEDRA can also be utilized to establish spin correlations. In this case, the t-SEDRA sequence is applied during the mixing time of a 2D dipolar-correlation experiment. These two approaches are demonstrated by performing 15N CPMAS NMR experiments on a 15N-doubly labeled sample of 3(5)-methyl-5(3)-phenylpyrazole.
Oxygen-17 NMR in solids by dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation
Chmelka, B. F.; Mueller, K. T.; Pines, A.; Stebbins, J.; Wu, Y.; Zwanziger, J. W.
1989-05-01
IT is widely lamented that despite its unqualified success with spin-1/2 nuclei such as 13C, 29Si and31P, the popular NMR technique of magic-angle spinning (MAS) has experienced a somewhat restricted applicability among quadrupolar nuclei such as 17O, 23Na and 27A1 (refs 1-3). The resolution in the central (1/2 lrarr-1/2) transition of these non-integer quadrupolar spins under MAS is thought to be limited primarily by second-order quadrupolar broadening. Such effects of second-order spatial anisotropy cannot be eliminated by rotation about a fixed axis or by multiple-pulse techniques4,5. More general mechanisms of sample reorientation (refs 6-8 and A. Samoson and A. Pines, manuscript in preparation) can, however, make high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei feasible. MAS is implemented by spinning a sample about a single axis so that second-rank spherical harmonics (which give rise to first-order broadening through anisotropy of electrical and magnetic interactions) are averaged away. But dynamic-angle-spinning (DAS) and double-rotation (DOR) NMR involve spinning around two axes, averaging away both the second- and fourth-rank spherical harmonics, which are responsible for second-order broadening. Here we present the application of these new techniques to 17O in two minerals, cristobalite (SiO2) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6). This work goes beyond previous results on 23Na (ref. 8) by showing the first experimental results using DAS and by demonstrating the application of DOR to the resolution of distinct oxygen sites in an important class of oxide materials.
Golomer, Eveline; Toussaint, Yann; Bouillette, Arnaud; Keller, Jean
2009-04-01
The link between supporting leg stability and individual trunk strategies used during spontaneous whole-body rotations was studied according to visual and kinesthetic imagery styles for classical dancers and untrained female participants. Shoulders-hip angles in the horizontal plane and supporting leg (SL) displacements were analyzed with three-dimensional kinematic at the beginning and end of the four turns, identified according to their SL (left vs. right) and turn direction (clockwise, CW vs. counterclockwise, CCW). To begin a turn in CCW on left SL, all the participants turned shoulders before hips (-25 degrees angle), pdance training, facilitates the en bloc shoulder-hip coordination to maintain equilibrium.
Controlling Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in solid liner implosions with rotating magnetic fields
Schmit, P. F.; McBride, R. D.; Robertson, G. K.; Velikovich, A. L.
2016-10-01
We report calculations demonstrating that a remarkable reduction in the growth of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) in initially solid, cylindrical metal shells can be achieved by applying a magnetic drive with a tilted, dynamic polarization, forming a solid-liner dynamic screw pinch (SLDSP). Using a self-consistent analytic framework, we demonstrate that MRTI growth factors of the most detrimental modes may be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude relative to conventional z-pinch implosions. One key application of this technique is to enable increasingly stable, higher performance liner implosions to achieve fusion. We weigh the potentially dramatic benefits of the SLDSP against the practical tradeoffs required to achieve the desired drive field history and identify promising target designs for future experimental and computational investigations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Walker, M; Banks, C J; Heaven, S
2009-09-01
A rotating drum mesh filter bioreactor (RDMFBR) with a 100 microm mesh coupled to an anaerobic filter was used for the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMW). Duplicate systems were operated for 72 days at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.5 g VS l(-1) d(-1). Early in the experiment most of the methane was produced in the 2nd stage. This situation gradually reversed as methanogenesis became established in the 1st stage digester, which eventually produced 86-87% of the total system methane. The total methane production was 0.2 l g(-1) VS(added) with 60-62% volatile solids destruction. No fouling was experienced during the experiment at a transmembrane flux rate of 3.5 l m(-2) h(-1). The system proved to be robust and stably adjusted to a shock loading increase to 15 g VS l(-1) d(-1), although this reduced the overall methane production to 0.15 l g(-1) VS(added).
Romano, Marcello
2012-01-01
The exact analytic solution is introduced for the rotational motion of a rigid body having three equal principal moments of inertia and subjected to an external torque vector which is constant for an observer fixed with the body, and to arbitrary initial angular velocity. In the paper a parametrization of the rotation by three complex numbers is used. In particular, the rows of the rotation matrix are seen as elements of the unit sphere and projected, by stereographic projection, onto points on the complex plane. In this representation, the kinematic differential equation reduces to an equation of Riccati type, which is solved through appropriate choices of substitutions, thereby yielding an analytic solution in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions. The rotation matrix is recovered from the three complex rotation variables by inverse stereographic map. The results of a numerical experiment confirming the exactness of the analytic solution are reported. The newly found analytic solution is valid for any...
Second order perturbations of rotating bodies in equilibrium; the exterior vacuum problem
MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A. H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Raul
2005-01-01
We study the exterior vacuum problem for first and second order stationary and axially symmetric perturbations of static bodies. The boundary conditions and their compatibility for the existence of an asymptotically flat exterior solution are discussed.
Tovbin, Yu. K.
2017-08-01
The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).
Sulong, Nurulsaidatulsyida; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.
2013-12-01
In recent years, biopolymers with controllable lifetimes have become increasingly important for many applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedical implants and drug release, forestry, wild life conservation and waste management. Natural oils are considered to be the most important class of renewable sources. They can be obtained from naturally occurring plants, such as sunflower, cotton, linseed and palm oil. In Malaysia, palm oil is an inexpensive and commodity material. Biopolymer produced from palm oil (Bio-VOP) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and readily available from agriculture. For packaging use however, Bio-VOP is not thermoplastic and its granular form is unsuitable for most uses in the plastics industry, mainly due to processing difficulties during extrusion or injection moulding. Thus, research workers have developed several methods to blend Bio-VOP appropriately for industrial uses. In particular, injections moulding processes, graft copolymerisation, and preparation of blends with thermoplastic polymers have been studied to produce solid biodegradable shaped bodies. HDPE was chosen as commercial thermoplastic materials and was added with 10% Bio-VOP for the preparation of solid biodegradable shaped bodies named as HD-VOP. The UV light exposure of HD-VOP at 12 minutes upon gives the highest strength of this material that is 17.6 MPa. The morphological structure of HD-VOP shows dwi structure surface fracture which is brittle and ductile properties.
Two and three-body interatomic dispersion energy contributions to binding in molecules and solids
von Lilienfeld, Anatole; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2010-03-01
Numerical estimates of the leading two and three body dispersion energy terms in van der Waals (vdW) interactions are presented for a broad variety of molecules and solids. The calculations employ London and Axilrod-Teller-Muto expressions damped at short interatomic distances, where the required interatomic dispersion energy coefficients, C6 and C9, are computed from first-principles. The investigated systems include the S22 database of non-covalent interactions, benzene and ice crystals, bilayer graphene, fullerene dimer, a poly peptide (Ala10), an intercalated drug-DNA model (Ellipticine-d(CG)2), 42 DNA base pairs, a protein (DHFR, 2616 atoms), double stranded DNA (1905 atoms), and molecular crystals from a crystal structure blind test. We find that the 2 and 3-body interatomic dispersion energies contribute significantly to binding and cohesive energies, for some systems they can reach up to 50% of experimental estimates of absolute binding. Our results suggest that interatomic 3-body dispersion potentials should be accounted for in atomistic simulations when modeling bulky molecules or condensed phase systems.
Two- and three-body interatomic dispersion energy contributions to binding in molecules and solids
Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2010-06-01
We present numerical estimates of the leading two- and three-body dispersion energy terms in van der Waals interactions for a broad variety of molecules and solids. The calculations are based on London and Axilrod-Teller-Muto expressions where the required interatomic dispersion energy coefficients, C6 and C9, are computed "on the fly" from the electron density. Inter- and intramolecular energy contributions are obtained using the Tang-Toennies (TT) damping function for short interatomic distances. The TT range parameters are equally extracted on the fly from the electron density using their linear relationship to van der Waals radii. This relationship is empiricially determined for all the combinations of He-Xe rare gas dimers, as well as for the He and Ar trimers. The investigated systems include the S22 database of noncovalent interactions, Ar, benzene and ice crystals, bilayer graphene, C60 dimer, a peptide (Ala10), an intercalated drug-DNA model [ellipticine-d(CG)2], 42 DNA base pairs, a protein (DHFR, 2616 atoms), double stranded DNA (1905 atoms), and 12 molecular crystal polymorphs from crystal structure prediction blind test studies. The two- and three-body interatomic dispersion energies are found to contribute significantly to binding and cohesive energies, for bilayer graphene the latter reaches 50% of experimentally derived binding energy. These results suggest that interatomic three-body dispersion potentials should be accounted for in atomistic simulations when modeling bulky molecules or condensed phase systems.
Reconstructing rotations and rigid body motions from exact point correspondences through reflections
Fontijne, D.; Dorst, L.; Dorst, L.; Lasenby, J.
2011-01-01
We describe a new algorithm to reconstruct a rigid body motion from point correspondences. The algorithm works by constructing a series of reflections which align the points with their correspondences one by one. This is naturally and efficiently implemented in the conformal model of geometric algeb
Nath, Gorakh
Similarity solutions are obtained for one-dimensional isothermal and adiabatic unsteady flow behind a strong cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas, which has a variable azimuthal fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity. The experimental studies and astrophysical observations show that the outer atmosphere of the planets rotates due to rotation of the planets. Macroscopic motion with supersonic speed occurs in an interplanetary atmosphere and shock waves are generated. Thus rotation of planets or stars significantly affect the process taking place in their outer layers, therefore question connected with the explosions in rotating gas atmospheres are of definite astrophysical interest. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The shock Mach number is not infinite, but has a finite value. The azimuthal and axial component of the fluid velocity in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws, and the density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. Effects of the variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.
Design of the all solid high-voltage power supply for a gyrotron body
Rao, Yihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Chen, Wenguang, E-mail: 430000485393@usc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Hu, Bo [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Kang, Zihua; Feng, Kun [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Huang, Jiaqi [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • Completed design of all solid-state high-voltage power supply for gyrotron body on HL-2M ECRH. • Consist of 58 PSM modules and one BUCK module, controlled by DSP system. • Fabricated full voltage 35 kV, 200 mA BPS and tested in dummy load. • The BPS can operate in three modes: single pulse mode, multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode. - Abstract: Gyrotron plays an important role in the research of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on Tokomak. The high-frequency switched power supply technology and pulse step modulation (PSM) technology are used in the development of the all solid high-voltage body power supply (BPS) for 1 MW/105 GHz Gyrotron on ECRH system. Firstly, the basic structure of the BPS and its control system are introduced. Secondly, the software control algorithm of voltage stabilization and modulate method are developed. Finally, the design is verified by the experiments. The experimental results of the single pulse mode, the multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode, are shown. The output voltage of the power supply can reach 35 kV and the current at about 200 mA, which are adjustable in the full range. The maximum modulation frequency can reach 1 kHz and the front edge of the pulse can be adjust from 0 to 3 ms and the accuracy of the output voltage is less than 100 V. The results show that the control method is feasible and can be applied to other high power microwave sources.
A. J. Piña-Díaz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The modification in the third-order nonlinear optical behavior exhibited by a titanium dioxide thin solid film with embedded Gold-Platinum nanoparticles was induced by nanosecond optical pulses. A Nd:YAG laser system was employed for the experiments explored by a vectorial two-wave mixing method with the sample in rotation. The nanostructures were prepared by a sol-gel technique. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies and ultraviolet-optical spectroscopy measurements were undertaken. The evolution of the optical transmittance exhibited by the sample in rotation controlled by a servomechanism was observed. Potential applications for developing mechanooptical functions based on third-order optical nonlinearities were contemplated.
Degani, D.
1984-01-01
A numerical algorithm that is second-order accurate in time has been developed for the conjugated problem of a separated, compressible flow field and a conductive solid body. The full two-dimensional time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with the time-dependent energy equation for the solid body and are solved simultaneously. using implicit algorithms. The energy equation for the solid body may include arbitrarily distributed heat sources. The algorithm has been exmined for the case of two-dimensional supersonic compression-corner interaction, with a heat source embedded in the wall in the vicinity of the separation bubble and the attached boundary layer. The effect of the heat source on the flow field is studied for steady and transient cases.
Postmortem distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver.
Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu
2015-01-01
During the latter part of 2014, we experienced an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, was identified and quantitated in solid tissues and in three herbal blend products [Forensic Toxicol (2015) 33:112-121]. At that time, although we suspected that there may be some drug(s) other than 5-fluoro-ADB in the herbal products, all trials to find it/them were unsuccessful. Subsequently, we carefully re-examined the presence of other synthetic cannabinoid(s) in the above herbal blend products using accurate mass spectrometry and found two new compounds, 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA and MAB-CHMINACA (Forensic Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/s 11419-015-0264-y). In the present communication, we report the distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissue specimens collected from the same deceased individual (kept frozen at -80 °C) as described above for demonstration of 5-fluoro-ADB. Unexpectedly, unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be identified and quantitated in whole blood and in pericardial fluid specimens, but it was below the detection limit (0.1 ng/ml) in the urine specimen. A higher concentration of MAB-CHMINACA could be found in all of the nine solid tissues; the highest concentration of MAB-CHMINACA was found in the liver (156 ng/g), followed by the kidney, pancreas and so on. The compounds were detected in all nine solid tissues; their levels were generally higher than those in the whole blood and pericardial fluid. Contrary to expectations, the concentration of MAB-CHMINACA in the adipose tissue was relatively low. Our results show that the victim smoked one of the three herbal blend products containing both MAB-CHMINACA and 5-fluoro-ADB, resulting in the coexistence of both compounds. It should be concluded that 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA synergically exerted their toxicities, leading to death after a short interval. The differences in the distribution of 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA among the cadaver specimens were
Kochemasov, , G. G.
2008-09-01
Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different latitudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable more cheap launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou is better than Baikonur). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a single rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature. But according to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with an opposing tendency also begin to act. At Earth the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls, Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develops where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur. Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers (Fig. 1) as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminished). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault
On unsteady two-phase fluid flow due to eccentric rotation of a disk
A. K. Ghosh
2003-01-01
in a double-disk configuration, a result which is the reverse to that of solid-body rotation. Finally, the results are presented graphically to determine the quantitative response of the particle on the flow.
Chen Liling
2003-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial macrofibers twist as they grow, writhe, supercoil and wind up into plectonemic structures (helical forms the individual filaments of which cannot be taken apart without unwinding that eventually carry loops at both of their ends. Terminal loops rotate about the axis of a fiber's shaft in contrary directions at increasing rate as the shaft elongates. Theory suggests that rotation rates should vary linearly along the length of a fiber ranging from maxima at the loop ends to zero at an intermediate point. Blocking rotation at one end of a fiber should lead to a single gradient: zero at the blocked end to maximum at the free end. We tested this conclusion by measuring directly the rotation at various distances along fiber length from the blocked end. The movement of supercoils over a solid surface was also measured in tethered macrofibers. Results Macrofibers that hung down from a floating wire inserted through a terminal loop grew vertically and produced small plectonemic structures by supercoiling along their length. Using these as markers for shaft rotation we observed a uniform gradient of initial rotation rates with slopes of 25.6°/min. mm. and 36.2°/min. mm. in two different fibers. Measurements of the distal tip rotation in a third fiber as a function of length showed increases proportional to increases in length with constant of proportionality 79.2 rad/mm. Another fiber tethered to the floor grew horizontally with a length-doubling time of 74 min, made contact periodically with the floor and supercoiled repeatedly. The supercoils moved over the floor toward the tether at approximately 0.06 mm/min, 4 times faster than the fiber growth rate. Over a period of 800 minutes the fiber grew to 23 mm in length and was entirely retracted back to the tether by a process involving 29 supercoils. Conclusions The rate at which growing bacterial macrofibers rotated about the axis of the fiber shaft measured at various
Konosevich, B. I.
2014-07-01
The error of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solution of the equations describing the angular motion of the axis of symmetry of rotation of a rigid body (projectile) is estimated. It is established that order of this estimate does not depend on whether the low-frequency oscillations of the axis of symmetry are damped or not
Duran-Matute, M.; Di Nitto, G.; Trieling, R.R.; Kamp, L.P.J.; van Heijst, G.J.F.
2012-01-01
We present an experimental/numerical study of a dipolar flow structure in a shallow layer of electrolyte driven by electromagnetic forcing and subjected to background rotation. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of a non-conservative body force on the range of applicability of the
Duran-Matute, M.; Di Nitto, G.; Trieling, R.R.; Kamp, L.P.J.; van Heijst, G.J.F.
2012-01-01
We present an experimental/numerical study of a dipolar flow structure in a shallow layer of electrolyte driven by electromagnetic forcing and subjected to background rotation. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of a non-conservative body force on the range of applicability of the c
Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States)
2014-05-21
We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.
Springer, Fabian; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Szimtenings, Michael; Kreisler, Peter; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz
2008-11-01
With the introduction of ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences solid polymeric materials might become visible on clinical whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The aim of this study was to characterize solid polymeric materials typically used for instruments in magnetic resonance guided interventions and implants. Relaxation behavior and signal yield were evaluated on a 3-Tesla whole-body MR unit. Nine different commonly used solid polymeric materials were investigated by means of a 3-dimensional (3D) UTE sequence with radial k-space sampling. The investigated polymeric samples with cylindrical shape (length, 150 mm; diameter, 30 mm) were placed in a commercial 8-channel knee coil. For assessment of transverse signal decay (T2*) images with variable echo times (TE) ranging from 0.07 milliseconds to 4.87 milliseconds were recorded. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) was calculated for all MR visible polymers with transverse relaxation times higher than T2* = 300 mus using an adapted method applying variable flip angles. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated at the shortest achievable echo time (TE = 0.07 milliseconds) for standardized sequence parameters. All relaxation times and SNR data are given as arithmetic mean values with standard deviations derived from 5 axially oriented slices placed around the isocenter of the coil and magnet. Six of the 9 investigated solid polymers were visible at TE = 0.07 milliseconds. Visible solid polymers showed markedly different SNR values, ie, polyethylene SNR = 1146 +/- 41, polypropylene SNR = 60 +/- 6. Nearly mono-exponential echo time dependent signal decay was observed: Transverse relaxation times differed from T2*=36 +/- 5 mus for polycarbonate to T2*=792 +/- 7 mus for polyvinylchloride (PVC). Two of the investigated solid polymers were applicable to T1 relaxation time calculation. Polyurethane had a spin-lattice relaxation time of T1 = 172 +/- 1 milliseconds, whereas PVC had T1 = 262 +/- 7 milliseconds
PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE THERMOELASTICLTY OF SOLID BODIES
无
2000-01-01
The thermal behaviour of the solids under elastic deformations is analysed in order to obtain a model which combines the molecular dynamics results with the global thermal behaviour of the solids under elastic t ransformations.The result obtained consists of the introduction of the thermal behaviour in the ParrinelloRahman model,obtaining the thermal molecular dynamic model useful in the analysis of the thermoelastic behaviour of solids.
Fukushima, Toshio
2017-06-01
Reviewed are recently developed methods of the numerical integration of the gravitational field of general two- or three-dimensional bodies with arbitrary shape and mass density distribution: (i) an axisymmetric infinitely-thin disc (Fukushima 2016a, MNRAS, 456, 3702), (ii) a general infinitely-thin plate (Fukushima 2016b, MNRAS, 459, 3825), (iii) a plane-symmetric and axisymmetric ring-like object (Fukushima 2016c, AJ, 152, 35), (iv) an axisymmetric thick disc (Fukushima 2016d, MNRAS, 462, 2138), and (v) a general three-dimensional body (Fukushima 2016e, MNRAS, 463, 1500). The key techniques employed are (a) the split quadrature method using the double exponential rule (Takahashi and Mori, 1973, Numer. Math., 21, 206), (b) the precise and fast computation of complete elliptic integrals (Fukushima 2015, J. Comp. Appl. Math., 282, 71), (c) Ridder's algorithm of numerical differentiaion (Ridder 1982, Adv. Eng. Softw., 4, 75), (d) the recursive computation of the zonal toroidal harmonics, and (e) the integration variable transformation to the local spherical polar coordinates. These devices succesfully regularize the Newton kernel in the integrands so as to provide accurate integral values. For example, the general 3D potential is regularly integrated as Φ (\\vec{x}) = - G \\int_0^∞ ( \\int_{-1}^1 ( \\int_0^{2π} ρ (\\vec{x}+\\vec{q}) dψ ) dγ ) q dq, where \\vec{q} = q (√{1-γ^2} cos ψ, √{1-γ^2} sin ψ, γ), is the relative position vector referred to \\vec{x}, the position vector at which the potential is evaluated. As a result, the new methods can compute the potential and acceleration vector very accurately. In fact, the axisymmetric integration reproduces the Miyamoto-Nagai potential with 14 correct digits. The developed methods are applied to the gravitational field study of galaxies and protoplanetary discs. Among them, the investigation on the rotation curve of M33 supports a disc-like structure of the dark matter with a double-power-law surface
Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Kyriakareli, Artemis; Schieppati, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico
2011-04-01
Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were studied during whole body yaw rotation in the dark at different static head positions. Rotations consisted of four cycles of symmetric sinusoidal and asymmetric oscillations. Self-motion perception was evaluated by measuring the ability of subjects to manually track a static remembered target. VOR was recorded separately and the slow phase eye position (SPEP) was computed. Three different head static yaw deviations (active and passive) relative to the trunk (0°, 45° to right and 45° to left) were examined. Active head deviations had a significant effect during asymmetric oscillation: the movement perception was enhanced when the head was kept turned toward the side of body rotation and decreased in the opposite direction. Conversely, passive head deviations had no effect on movement perception. Further, vibration (100 Hz) of the neck muscles splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus remarkably influenced perceived rotation during asymmetric oscillation. On the other hand, SPEP of VOR was modulated by active head deviation, but was not influenced by neck muscle vibration. Through its effects on motion perception and reflex gain, head position improved gaze stability and enhanced self-motion perception in the direction of the head deviation.
White, D.
1978-01-01
Thermodynamic properties, order-disorder phenomena, optical, electric and magnetic properties of hydrogen-containing molecular solids have been investigated. A summary of the findings of this 6 year research program is presented here. The approach in these studies was (a) thermodynamic and transport studies extending to very low temperatures, (b) pulsed NMR studies for determination of structural parameters important to spin-lattice relaxation, and (c) pulsed laser studies for the investigation of excitations and energy transfer mechanisms in solids. (GHT)
Mostafa, Mostafa E.
2009-04-01
The finite cube elements method (FCEM) is a numerical tool designed for modelling gravity anomalies and estimating structural index (SI) of solid and fractal bodies with defined boundaries, tilted or in normal position and with variable density contrast. In this work, we apply FCEM to modelling magnetic anomalies and estimating SI of bodies with non-uniform magnetization having variable magnitude and direction. In magnetics as in gravity, FCEM allows us to study the spatial distribution of SI of the modelled bodies on contour maps and profiles. We believe that this will impact the forward and inverse modelling of potential field data, especially Euler deconvolution. As far as the author knows, this is the first time that gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as SI, of self similar fractal bodies such as Menger sponges and Sierpinsky triangles are calculated using FCEM. The SI patterns derived from different order sponges and triangles are perfectly overlapped. This is true for bodies having variable property distributions (susceptibility or density contrast) under different field conditions (in case of magnetics) regardless of their orientation and depth of burial. We therefore propose SI as a new universal fractal-order-invariant measure which can be used in addition to the fractal dimensions for formulating potential field theory of fractal objects.
Loretz, Linda; Api, Anne Marie; Barraj, Leila; Burdick, Joel; Davis, De Ann; Dressler, William; Gilberti, Enrico; Jarrett, Gwendolyn; Mann, Steve; Laurie Pan, Y H; Re, Thomas; Renskers, Kevin; Scrafford, Carolyn; Vater, Sally
2006-12-01
Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of the products were cosmetics (spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash) and one product was a cosmetic/over-the-counter drug product (solid antiperspirant). Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at 10 different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of three hundred completed responses per product type. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The geometric mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.33 g and 0.23 g; hairspray, 2.58 g and 1.83 g (aerosol); 3.64 g and 2.66 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.54 g and 0.36 g; shampoo, 11.76 g and 9.56 g; body wash, 11.3g and 9.5 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.61 g and 0.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.53 g and 0.34 g; hairspray, 3.57 g and 2.71 g (aerosol); 5.18 g and 3.74 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.67 g and 0.45 g; shampoo, 12.80 g and 10.75 g; body wash, 14.5 g and 12.9 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.79 g and 0.59 g. The mean number of applications per day for spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and
Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie
2014-12-01
The motion of a rigid body in a uniformly rotating second degree and order gravity field is a good model for the gravitationally coupled orbit-attitude motion of a spacecraft in the close proximity of an asteroid. The relative equilibria of this full dynamics model are investigated using geometric mechanics from a global point of view. Two types of relative equilibria are found based on the equilibrium conditions: one is the Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit of the rigid body is in the equatorial plane of the central body; the other is the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit is parallel to but not in the equatorial plane of central body. The existences of the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian relative equilibria are discussed numerically with respect to the parameters of the gravity field and the rigid body. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling is especially assessed. The existence region of the Lagrangian relative equilibria is given on the plane of the system parameters. Numerical results suggest that the negative C 20 with a small absolute value and a negative C 22 with a large absolute value favor the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling of the rigid body on the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria can be positive or negative, which depends on the harmonics C 20 and C 22, and the angular velocity of the rotation of the gravity field.
Brown, R. S.; Waugh, R. C.
1980-01-01
The results of a re-evaluation of the propellant combustion data obtained using the dual valve approach for measuring velocity-coupling characteristics of solid propellants are presented. Data analysis and testing procedures are described. The velocity response is compared to pressure-coupled response data within the context of thermal wave response theory. This comparison shows important inconsistencies which cast doubt on inferring the velocity response from pressure-coupled response functions.
Briquet, M; Petit, P; Leroy, B; de Batz, B
2016-01-01
Aims. The main-sequence B-type star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods. We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from $\\zeta$ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler Imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results. $\\zeta$ Cas exhibits a polar field strength $B_{\\rm pol}$ of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar fiel...
Dmitriev, Yu. A.; Melnikov, V. D.; Zelenetckii, I. A.; Benetis, N. P.
2016-12-01
Methyl radicals, CH3, were trapped in matrices of solid CO2 and N2O by condensing the methyl along with the matrix constituents from the gas phase. The obtained EPR spectra were analyzed using EasySpin and/ or SimFonia simulation software and ab-initio computed quantum-chemistry parameters. We focus on two distinguished features of the spectra: the temperature-dependent linewidth anisotropy and the origin of the weak satellite doublets. The low-temperature spectral analysis of the satellites was based on the coupled representation of the three proton spins of CH3 and a recently obtained parameterization of the spin Hamiltonian based on one nuclear quartet and two doublets within the D3 group. These features were closely correlated to the state of rotation of the trapped radical.
ANTI-GLITCH INDUCED BY COLLISION OF A SOLID BODY WITH THE MAGNETAR 1E 2259+586
Huang, Y. F.; Geng, J. J., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Also at Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093, China. (China)
2014-02-20
Glitches have been frequently observed in neutron stars. Previously, these glitches have unexceptionally manifested as sudden spin-ups that can be explained as being due to impulsive transfer of angular momentum from the interior superfluid component to the outer solid crust. Alternatively, they may also be due to large-scale crust-cracking events. However, an unprecedented anti-glitch was recently reported for the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which clearly exhibited a sudden spin-down, strongly challenging previous glitch theories. Here we show that the anti-glitch can be well explained by the collision of a small solid body with the magnetar. The intruder has a mass of about 1.1 × 10{sup 21} g. Its orbital angular momentum is assumed to be antiparallel to that of the spinning magnetar, so that the sudden spin-down can be naturally accounted for. The observed hard X-ray burst and decaying softer X-ray emission associated with the anti-glitch can also be reasonably explained. Our study indicates that a completely different type of glitch due to collisions between small bodies and neutron stars should exist and may have already been observed previously. It also hints at a new way of studying capture events by neutron stars: through accurate timing observations of pulsars.
Ito, Norie; Takei, Hidetoshi; Chiba, Susumu; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Fukushima, Kikuro
2016-01-01
Although impaired smooth-pursuit in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known, reports are conflicting on the ability to cancel vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) when the target moves with head, requiring gaze-pursuit. To compare visual tracking performance with or without passive whole-body rotation, we examined eye movements of 10 PD patients and 6 age-matched controls during sinusoidal horizontal smooth-pursuit and passive whole-body rotation (0.3 Hz, ± 10°). Three tasks were tested: smooth-pursuit, VOR cancellation, and VORx1 while subjects fixated an earth-stationary spot during whole-body rotation. Mean ± SD eye velocity gains (eye velocities/stimulus velocities) of PD patients during the 3 tasks were 0.32 ± 0.24 0.25 ± 0.22, 0.85 ± 0.20, whereas those of controls were 0.91 ± 0.06, 0.14 ± 0.07, 0.94 ± 0.05, respectively. Difference was significant between the two subject groups only during smooth-pursuit. Plotting eye-velocity gains of individual subjects during VOR cancellation against those during smooth-pursuit revealed significant negative linear correlation between the two parameters in the controls, but no correlation was found in PD patients. Based on the regression equation of the controls, we estimated expected eye velocity gains of individual subjects during VOR cancellation from their smooth-pursuit gains. Estimated gains of PD patients during VOR cancellation were significantly different from their actual gains, suggesting that different neural mechanisms operate during VOR cancellation in the controls and PD.
Beckmann, Peter A; Rosenberg, Jessie; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Mallory, Clelia W; Mallory, Frank B
2006-03-23
We have observed and modeled the 1H and 19F solid-state nuclear spin relaxation process in polycrystalline 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenanthrene. The relaxation rates for the two spin species were observed from 85 to 300 K at the low NMR frequencies of omega/2pi = 22.5 and 53.0 MHz where CF3 rotation, characterized by a mean time tau between hops, is the only motion on the NMR time scale. All motional time scales (omegatau 1) are observed. The 1H spins are immobile on the NMR time scale but are coupled to the 19F spins via the unlike-spin dipole-dipole interaction. The temperature dependence of the observed relaxation rates (the relaxation is biexponential) shows considerable structure and a thorough analysis of Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory for this coupled spin system is provided. The activation energy for CF3 rotation is 11.5 +/- 0.7 kJ/mol, in excellent agreement with the calculation in a 13-molecule cluster provided in the companion paper where the crystal structure is reported and detailed ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed [Wang, X.; Mallory F. B.; Mallory, C. W; Beckmann, P. A.; Rheingold, A. L.; Francl, M. M J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 3954].
Mananga, Eugene S; Reid, Alicia E; Charpentier, Thibault
2012-02-01
This article describes the use of an alternative expansion scheme called Floquet-Magnus expansion (FME) to study the dynamics of spin system in solid-state NMR. The main tool used to describe the effect of time-dependent interactions in NMR is the average Hamiltonian theory (AHT). However, some NMR experiments, such as sample rotation and pulse crafting, seem to be more conveniently described using the Floquet theory (FT). Here, we present the first report highlighting the basics of the Floquet-Magnus expansion (FME) scheme and hint at its application on recoupling sequences that excite more efficiently double-quantum coherences, namely BABA and C7 radiofrequency pulse sequences. The use of Λ(n)(t) functions available only in the FME scheme, allows the comparison of the efficiency of BABA and C7 sequences.
Solid-state ring laser gyro behaving like its helium-neon counterpart at low rotation rates.
Schwartz, Sylvain; Gutty, François; Feugnet, Gilles; Loil, Eric; Pocholle, Jean-Paul
2009-12-15
Nonlinear couplings induced by crystal diffusion and spatial inhomogeneities of the gain have been suppressed over a broad range of angular velocities in a solid-state ring laser gyro by vibrating the gain crystal at 168 kHz and 0.4 microm along the laser cavity axis. This device behaves in the same way as a typical helium-neon ring laser gyro, with a zone of frequency lock-in (or dead band) resulting from the backscattering of light on the cavity mirrors. Furthermore, it is shown that the level of angular random-walk noise in the presence of mechanical dithering depends only on the quality of the cavity mirrors, as is the case with typical helium-neon ring laser gyros.
DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?
Dana Adamcová
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.
Beckmann, Peter A; Schneider, Evan
2012-02-07
We report (1)H spin-lattice relaxation measurements in polycrystalline 4,4'-dimethoxybiphenyl at temperatures between 80 and 300 K at NMR frequencies of ω(0)/2π = 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz. The data are interpreted in terms of the simplest possible Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield methyl group hopping model. Different solid states are observed at low temperatures. The (1)H spin-lattice relaxation is nonexponential at higher temperatures where a stretched-exponential function fits the data very well, but this approach is phenomenological and not amenable to theoretical interpretation. (We provide a brief literature review of the stretched-exponential function.) The Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield model applies only to the relaxation rate that characterizes the initial (1)H magnetization decay in a high-temperature nonexponential (1)H spin-lattice relaxation measurement. A detailed procedure for determining this initial relaxation rate is described since large systematic errors can result if this is not done carefully.
Fuller, Jim; Storch, Natalia I
2013-01-01
Recent observations have revealed evidence for the global oscillations of Jupiter and Saturn, which can potentially provide a new window into the interior structure of giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we study the non-radial oscillation modes of giant planets containing a solid core. Our calculations include the elastic response of the core and consider a wide range of possible values of the core shear modulus. While the elasticity of the core only slightly changes the frequencies of acoustic modes, which reside mostly in the fluid envelope, it adds two new classes of shear modes that are largely confined to the core. We also calculate the effects of the Coriolis force on the planetary oscillation modes. In addition to changing the mode frequencies, the Coriolis force can cause the shear modes to mix with the f-modes. Such mixing occurs when the frequencies of the shear mode and the f-mode are close to each other, and results in "mixed modes" with similar properties that are slightly split in f...
Litvak, M.L., E-mail: litvak@mx.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Golovin, D.V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Jun, I. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kozyrev, A.S.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Sanin, A.B. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V.N.; Timoshenko, G.N.; Zontikov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2016-06-21
In this paper we present the results of ground tests performed with a flight model and with industry prototypes of passive and active gamma ray spectrometers with the objective of understanding their capability to distinguish the elemental composition of planetary bodies in the solar system. The gamma instrumentation, which was developed for future space missions was used in the measurements at a special ground test facility where a simulant of planetary material was fabricated with a martian-like composition. In this study, a special attention was paid to the gamma lines from activation reaction products generated by a pulsed neutron generator. The instrumentation was able to detect and identify gamma lines attributed to O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe.
Thirioux, Berangere; Jorland, Gerard; Bret, Michel; Tramus, Marie-Helene; Berthoz, Alain
2009-01-01
Researchers have recently reintroduced the own-body in the center of the social interaction theory. From the discovery of the mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex of the monkey's brain, a human "embodied" model of interindividual relationship based on simulation processes has been advanced, according to which we tend to embody…
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.
1974-01-01
The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.
Thirioux, Berangere; Jorland, Gerard; Bret, Michel; Tramus, Marie-Helene; Berthoz, Alain
2009-01-01
Researchers have recently reintroduced the own-body in the center of the social interaction theory. From the discovery of the mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex of the monkey's brain, a human "embodied" model of interindividual relationship based on simulation processes has been advanced, according to which we tend to embody…
Xiaojia Xiang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The collocation method is extended to the special orthogonal group SO(3 with application to optimal attitude control (OAC of a rigid body. A left-invariant rigid-body attitude dynamical model on SO(3 is established. For the left invariance of the attitude configuration equation in body-fixed frame, a geometrically exact numerical method on SO(3, referred to as the geometric collocation method, is proposed by deriving the equivalent Lie algebra equation in so(3 of the left-invariant configuration equation. When compared with the general Gauss pseudo-spectral method, the explicit RKMK, and Lie group variational integrator having the same order and stepsize in numerical tests for evolving a free-floating rigid-body attitude dynamics, the proposed method is higher in accuracy, time performance, and structural conservativeness. In addition, the numerical method is applied to solve a constrained OAC problem on SO(3. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem, in which the equivalent Lie algebra equation is being considered as the defect constraints instead of the configuration equation. The transcription method is coordinate-free and does not need chart switching or special handling of singularities. More importantly, with the numerical advantage of the geometric collocation method, the proposed OAC method may generate satisfying convergence rate.
Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)
1992-06-01
This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).
Rotational Diffusion of Particles in Turbulence
Variano, Evan; Meyer, Colin; Byron, Margaret
2011-11-01
We experimentally compare the rotation of spherical and ellipsoidal particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We find that the particle orientation is well described by a Gaussian diffusion process. This theoretical model would predict that the Lagrangian autocorrelation function for angular velocity is a negative exponential. We measure this Lagrangian autocorrelation function using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) applied to particles whose size is within the inertial subrange of the ambient turbulence. The SPIV resolves 3 velocity components in a nearly 2-dimensional planar volume, which we use as inputs for a nonlinear optimization to quantify the solid body rotation of the particles. This provides us the angular velocity timeseries for individual particles. Through ensemble statistics, we determine the Lagrangian autocorrelation function of angular velocity, from which we can quantify the turbulent rotational diffusivity and its behavior between the extremes of short-term non-Fickian transport and long-term Fickian diffusion.
Rotational diffusion of particles in turbulence
Meyer, Colin R
2013-01-01
Through laboratory measurements, we compare the rotation of spherical and ellipsoidal particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We find that the particles' angular velocity statistics are well described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process. This theoretical model predicts that the Lagrangian autocovariance of particles' angular velocity will decay exponentially. We measure the autocovariance using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) applied to particles whose size is within the inertial subrange of the ambient turbulence. The SPIV resolves the motion of points interior to the particles, from which we calculate the solid body rotation of the particles. This provides us with the angular velocity time series for individual particles. Through ensemble statistics, we determine the autocovariance of angular velocity and confirm that it matches the form predicted by an OU process. We can further use the autocovariance curve to quantify the turbulent rotational diffusivity.
Self-consistent models of quasi-relaxed rotating stellar systems
Varri, A L
2012-01-01
Two new families of self-consistent axisymmetric truncated equilibrium models for the description of quasi-relaxed rotating stellar systems are presented. The first extends the spherical King models to the case of solid-body rotation. The second is characterized by differential rotation, designed to be rigid in the central regions and to vanish in the outer parts, where the energy truncation becomes effective. The models are constructed by solving the nonlinear Poisson equation for the self-consistent mean-field potential. For rigidly rotating configurations, the solutions are obtained by an asymptotic expansion on the rotation strength parameter. The differentially rotating models are constructed by means of an iterative approach based on a Legendre series expansion of the density and the potential. The two classes of models exhibit complementary properties. The rigidly rotating configurations are flattened toward the equatorial plane, with deviations from spherical symmetry that increase with the distance f...
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-11-07
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.
A. Miguel Iznaga Benítez
2000-10-01
Full Text Available El conocimiento de la estructura de datos de los modelos geométricos ha posibilitado el desarrollo de algoritmos parasolucionar problemas complejos. Estos algoritmos han facilitado a su vez, la automatización en las oficinas de diseño através de los medios computacionales.Por tal motivo, se presenta el desarrollo de un algoritmo para la obtención de cortes y secciones en cuerpos geométricospoliédricos, se plantean las etapas fundamentales del algoritmo y a través de un ejercicio se ejemplifica el mismo.Este algoritmo puede ser utilizado en la creación de software que ayuden al proceso docente.Palabras claves: enseñanza, gráfica, separación de sólidos, geometría, dibujo, algoritmo, CAD._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The knowledge of data structure in geometric models has facilitated the development of algorithms to solve complexproblems. These algorithms have facilitated in turn, the automation in the design by computational means. For such reason,is presented the development of an algorithm for the obtaining of sections in polyhedral geometric bodies, the fundamentalstages of the algorithm are stated and illustrated using an example.This algorithm can be use in the software creation that will help to the educational processKey words: section, separation of solids, algorithm, geometric modeling, graphic, CAD. teaching.
Redmond, Kristin J; Robertson, Scott; Lo, Simon S; Soltys, Scott G; Ryu, Samuel; McNutt, Todd; Chao, Samuel T; Yamada, Yoshiya; Ghia, Amol; Chang, Eric L; Sheehan, Jason; Sahgal, Arjun
2017-01-01
To develop consensus contouring guidelines for postoperative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases. Ten spine SBRT specialists representing 10 international centers independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV), spinal cord, and spinal cord planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for 10 representative clinical scenarios in postoperative spine SBRT for metastatic solid tumor malignancies. Contours were imported into the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research. Agreement between physicians was calculated with an expectation minimization algorithm using simultaneous truth and performance level estimation with κ statistics. Target volume definition guidelines were established by finding optimized confidence level consensus contours using histogram agreement analyses. Nine expert radiation oncologists and 1 neurosurgeon completed contours for all 10 cases. The mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.79 (range, 0.71-0.89) and 0.94 (range, 0.90-0.99) for the CTV and 0.79 (range, 0.70-0.95) and 0.92 (range, 0.87-0.99) for the PTV), respectively. Mean κ agreement, which demonstrates the probability that contours agree by chance alone, was 0.58 (range, 0.43-0.70) for CTV and 0.58 (range, 0.37-0.76) for PTV (Ppostoperative SBRT for spinal metastases. These consensus guidelines are subject to clinical validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of solid/solution ratio on apatite formation from CaSiO3 ceramics in simulated body fluid.
Iimori, Yusuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Yasumori, Atsuo; Okada, Kiyoshi
2004-11-01
The effect of the solid/solution (S/S) ratio on apatite formation from CaSiO3 ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. CaSiO3 ceramics with a Ca/Si ratio of 0.91 were prepared by sintering CaSiO3 powder coprecipitated from ethanol solutions of Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O and Si(OC2H5)4 using NH4OH as the precipitant. These ceramics were reacted with SBF at S/S ratios of 1.0, 2.5 and 8.3 mg/ml at 36.5 degrees C for various times. Formation of apatite was observed at all the S/S ratios after soaking for 1 day. The amount and microstructure of the apatite obtained at a S/S ratio of 8.3 mg/ml, however, differed largely from the product formed at the other two S/S ratios. The apatite formed at S/S = 8.3 mg/ml was of smaller particle size, formed in smaller amount and with less preferred orientation of the (001) of apatite crystals compared with those formed at S/S = 1.0 and 2.5 mg/ml. An increase of Ca and decrease of the P components occurred in the soaked SBF at S/S = 8.3 mg/ml, the changes being much more marked than with the other two S/S ratios. These differences in the concentration changes in SBF at different S/S ratios are attributed to the difference in the apatite formation from the CaSiO3 ceramics.
Rotational spectrum of phenylglycinol
Simão, Alcides; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.
2014-11-01
Solid samples of phenylglycinol were vaporized by laser ablation and investigated through rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion using two different techniques: chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrow band molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer, bearing an O-H···N and an N-H···π intramolecular hydrogen bonds, could be successfully identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and 14N nuclear quadruple coupling constants with those predicted theoretically.
EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLOW IN A ROTATING FLUID
S.Asghar; Masood Khan; A.M.Siddiqui; T.Hayat
2002-01-01
An analytical solution is obtained for the flow due to solid-body rotations of an oscillating porous disk and of a fluid at infinity. Neglecting the induced magnetic field, the effects of the transversely applied magnetic field on the flow are studied. Further, the flow confined between two disks is also discussed. It is found that an infinite number of solutions exist for the flow confined between two disks.
Inertial waves in a differentially rotating spherical shell
Baruteau, C
2012-01-01
We investigate the properties of small-amplitude inertial waves propagating in a differentially rotating incompressible fluid contained in a spherical shell. For cylindrical and shellular rotation profiles and in the inviscid limit, inertial waves obey a second-order partial differential equation of mixed type. Two kinds of inertial modes therefore exist, depending on whether the hyperbolic domain where characteristics propagate covers the whole shell or not. The occurrence of these two kinds of inertial modes is examined, and we show that the range of frequencies at which inertial waves may propagate is broader than with solid-body rotation. Using high-resolution calculations based on a spectral method, we show that, as with solid-body rotation, singular modes with thin shear layers following short-period attractors still exist with differential rotation. They exist even in the case of a full sphere. In the limit of vanishing viscosities, the width of the shear layers seems to weakly depend on the global bac...
Di Maso, L [Chicago, IL (United States); Forbang, R Teboh; Zhang, Y; Herman, J; Lee, J [John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To explore the dosimetric consequences of uncorrected rotational setup errors during SBRT for pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing data from ten (n=10) previously treated SBRT pancreas patients. For each original planning CT, we applied rotational transformations to derive additional CT images representative of possible rotational setup errors. This resulted in 6 different sets of rotational combinations, creating a total of 60 CT planning images. The patients’ clinical dosimetric plans were then applied to their corresponding rotated CT images. The 6 rotation sets encompassed a 3, 2 and 1-degree rotation in each rotational direction and a 3-degree in just the pitch, a 3-degree in just the yaw and a 3-degree in just the roll. After the dosimetric plan was applied to the rotated CT images, the resulting plan was then evaluated and compared with the clinical plan for tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: PTV coverage, defined here by V33 throughout all of the patients’ clinical plans, ranged from 92–98%. After an n degree rotation in each rotational direction that range decreased to 68–87%, 85–92%, and 88– 94% for n=3, 2 and 1 respectively. Normal tissue sparing defined here by the proximal stomach V15 throughout all of the patients’ clinical plans ranged from 0–8.9 cc. After an n degree rotation in each rotational direction that range increased to 0–17 cc, 0–12 cc, and 0–10 cc for n=3, 2, and 1 respectively. Conclusion: For pancreatic SBRT, small rotational setup errors in the pitch, yaw and roll direction on average caused under dosage to PTV and over dosage to proximal normal tissue. The 1-degree rotation was on average the least detrimental to the normal tissue and the coverage of the PTV. The 3-degree yaw created on average the lowest increase in volume coverage to normal tissue. This research was sponsored by the AAPM Education Council through the AAPM Education and Research
陈兆勇; 倪国林
2011-01-01
Common method of finite element analysis for garbage truck body using solidworks was introduced. The analytical thinking and the technique of modeling, meshing, load definition and component connection while processing were elaborated.%介绍了运用SolidWorks软件对垃圾车厢体进行有限元分析的一般方法。着重阐述了分析思路以及在分析过程中的建模、网格划分、载荷定义、零件接触等方面的技巧。
Maindl, Thomas I; Speith, Roland; Schäfer, Christoph
2014-01-01
Context. We investigate the effects of including material strength in multi-material planetesimal collisions. Aims. The differences between strengthless material models and including the full elasto-plastic model for solid bodies with brittle failure and fragmentation when treating collisions of asteroid-sized bodies as they occur frequently in early planetary systems are demonstrated. Methods. We study impacts of bodies of Ceres-mass with a solid rock target and an impactor with 30 wt% water content. The initial impact velocities and impact parameters are varied between the escape velocity $v_\\mbox{esc}$ to about 6 $v_\\mbox{esc}$ and from head-on collisions to close fly-bys, respectively. We simulate the collisions using our own SPH code using both strengthless material and the full elasto-plastic material model including brittle failure. Results. The qualitative analysis results in significant differences depending on whether material strength is included or not. This may be an effect of the relatively low-...
束奇
2012-01-01
人体三维模型是利用计算机平台实现人机工程学优化产品设计的基础,本文探讨了基于SolidWorks软件平台创建虚拟人体模型的思路及方法.使用其零件配置功能使得所创建的人体模型无需多次导入就可以实现不同百分位尺寸人体模型的替换,从而使数字化人机工程学优化设计的工作更加快捷有效.%Three-dimensional model of human body is the basis of realizing the optimization product design of man-machine engineering by using computer platform, and this paper discusses the thinking and methods of creating a virtual human model based on SolidWorks software platform. To use its configuration function of parts makes the created human model realize the replacement of different percentage size model of the human body without multiple introduction, and then the work of digital optimization design of man-machine engineering is more fast and effective.
固体火箭发动机自动回转系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Auto-rotation System for Solid Rocket Engine
赵锴; 何敏; 于殿泓; 郑毅
2011-01-01
In the process of high energy X-ray radiography detection, the disadvantages of low control accuracy and difficult radiation-proof for operators exist in manually controlling the rotation of solid rocket engine. Thus, the auto-rotation system based on OMRON CQM1H PLC has been designed. Two operating modes: auto and manual are equipped in this system to implement remote and high accurate automatic rotating function for solid rocket engine. The practice shows that the system features high stability and reliability, ease maintenance, and satisfies the requirements of explosion-proof, safety and high reliability.%在对固体火箭发动机进行高能X射线照相检测的过程中,针对采用人工方式存在回转固体火箭发动机存在控制精度不高、人员辐射防护困难等问题,设计了一种基于OMRON CQM1H PLC的自动回转系统.系统具备手动和自动两种运行模式,实现了固体火箭发动机的远程、高精度和自动化回转控制功能.实际应用表明,系统稳定性好、可靠性高且易于维护,符合检测现场防爆安全和高可靠性的要求.
Tanoue, Kiyonori; Rosewell Shaw, Amanda; Watanabe, Norihiro; Porter, Caroline; Rana, Bhakti; Gottschalk, Stephen; Brenner, Malcolm; Suzuki, Masataka
2017-04-15
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR T cells) produce proinflammatory cytokines that increase expression of T-cell checkpoint signals such as PD-L1, which may inhibit their functionality against solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated in human tumor xenograft models the proinflammatory properties of an oncolytic adenovirus (Onc.Ad) with a helper-dependent Ad (HDAd) that expresses a PD-L1 blocking mini-antibody (mini-body; HDPDL1) as a strategy to enhance CAR T-cell killing. Coadministration of these agents (CAd-VECPDL1) exhibited oncolytic effects with production of PD-L1 mini-body locally at the tumor site. On their own, HDPDL1 exhibited no antitumor effect and CAd-VECPDL1 alone reduced tumors only to volumes comparable to Onc.Ad treatment. However, combining CAd-VECPDL1 with HER2.CAR T cells enhanced antitumor activity compared with treatment with either HER2.CAR T cells alone or HER2.CAR T cells plus Onc.Ad. The benefits of locally produced PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 could not be replicated by infusion of anti-PD-L1 IgG plus HER2.CAR T cells and coadministration of Onc.Ad in an HER2(+) prostate cancer xenograft model. Overall, our data document the superiority of local production of PD-L1 mini-body by CAd-VECPDL1 combined with administration of tumor-directed CAR T cells to control the growth of solid tumors. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2040-51. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
A. Malvandi; Faraz Hedayati; Ganji, D.D.
2015-01-01
The falling and settling of solid particles in gases and liquids is a natural phenomenon happens in many industrial processes. This phenomenon has altered pure forced convection to a combination of heat conduction and heat convection in a flow over a plate. In this paper, the coupling of conduction (inside the plate) and forced convection of a non-homogeneous nanofluid flow (over a flat plate) is investigated, which is classified in conjugate heat transfer problems. Two-component four-equatio...
Rotational motion of Foton M-4
Abrashkin, V. I.; Voronov, K. E.; Piyakov, I. V.; Puzin, Yu. Ya.; Sazonov, V. V.; Semkin, N. D.; Chebukov, S. Yu.
2016-07-01
The actual controlled rotational motion of the Foton M-4 satellite is reconstructed for the mode of single-axis solar orientation. The reconstruction was carried out using data of onboard measurements of vectors of angular velocity and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. The reconstruction method is based on the reconstruction of the kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a solid body. According to the method, measurement data of both types collected at a certain time interval are processed together. Measurements of the angular velocity are interpolated by piecewise-linear functions, which are substituted in kinematic differential equations for a quaternion that defines the transition from the satellite instrument coordinate system to the inertial coordinate system. The obtained equations represent the kinematic model of the satellite rotational motion. A solution of these equations that approximates the actual motion is derived from the condition of the best (in the sense of the least squares method) match between the measurement data of the strength vector of the Earth's magnetic field and its calculated values. The described method makes it possible to reconstruct the actual rotational satellite motion using one solution of kinematic equations over time intervals longer than 10 h. The found reconstructions have been used to calculate the residual microaccelerations.
刘非; 喻国良
2012-01-01
Based on numerical and experimental methods, it is intended to study the deviation characteristics of solid particles moving in rotational flow herein; for which the deviation angles between the movement direction of solid particles and the water flow direction at different moments are found out through solving the motion equation of solid particles with the Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta Method, and then, the experiments on various parameter combinations for various particle sizes, densities and platform revolutions are made on a column rotating platform with uniform speed. The experiment results coincide closely with those from the relevant numerical solution. Finally, a predictor formula with an error about 25% is put forward with the multiple regre-sion method concerned.%本文旨在通过数值和实验方法,研究固体颗粒在旋转水流中发生分离运动的特性；通过4阶龙格—库塔法求解颗粒运动方程,求出不同时刻颗粒运动方向与水流运动方向的分离角度.然后,在一个匀速旋转的圆柱形平台上,对不同颗粒粒径、密度和平台转速,进行了不同参数组合的实验.实验结果与数值解吻合良好.最后,利用多元回归方法,提出了误差在25％左右的预估公式.
Research on the Rotational Inertia of Several Categories of Rigid - Body%对几种刚体转动惯量的研究
周瑞雪
2011-01-01
According to the definition of moment of inertia, this paper counted the rotational inertia of ring, including the thin - rods with both uniform and the non - uniform quality. It analyzed the rotational inertia of the disk, which axis is in different site, and others＂ rotational inertia such as oval- plate, cylinder and sphere as well. This paper also discussed the Hexahedral -rotational -inertia by the projection. It researched the rotational inertia in detail from the theory and computation.%文章根据转动惯量的定义，计算了圆环的转动惯量及质量均匀细棒和质量不均匀细棒的转动惯量；研究了圆盘轴在不同位置时的转动惯量和椭圆盘以及圆柱和球体的转动惯量；采用了投影法研究了六面体的转动惯量。从理论和计算上对刚体的转动惯量进行一个详细的研究。
Wang, H B; Wang, Q; Dong, C; Yuan, L; Xu, F; Sun, L X
2008-03-19
This paper analyzes the characteristics of alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A(6)B(7) characterizes the local structure of AB(2) Laves phases, in an A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr (Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB(2) Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A(6)B(7)-C is constructed by linking A(6)B(7) to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster line alloys (Ti(6)Cr(7))(100-x)V(x) (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V content. The alloys (Ti(6)Cr(7))(95)V(5) and Ti(30)Cr(40)V(30) with bcc solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.
顾国庆; 王开福; 许星
2012-01-01
基于刚体面内微小转动测量在实验力学测量中的必要性和重要性,开展了利用数字图像相关方法(DICM)定量测量转动角度和准确定位转动中心的研究.从理论上分析了刚体面内转动角度与面内位移分量之间的关系,运用计算机仿真散斑图进行数值模拟研究,得到的转动角度和转动中心位置测量误差都在2％以内,模拟结果验证了数字图像相关法进行刚体面内微小转动定量测量的可行性.运用数字图像相关法对刚体面内未知微小转动进行了实测,并与几何光学实验方法所得到的结果进行了比较,两者结果误差为3.1％,符合较好.实验结果表明数字图像相关方法可以作为定量测量刚体面内微小转动的有效方法.%Due to the necessity and importance of the measurement of in-plane micro-rotations of a rigid body in the field of experimental mechanics < an investigation of quantitative measurement of rotation angle and rotation-center location is developed with digital image correlation method (DICM). The relation between the rotation angle and the in-plane displacement components is analyzed through theoretical analysis. The study of numerical simulation is carried out by specklegram produced by computer simulation. The measurement errors of both rotation angle and rotation-center location are within 2%. It shows that digital image correlation method is quite competent for the quantitative measurement of in-plane micro-rotations. The unknown in-plane rotation of a rigid body is practically measured by using digital image correlation method. The obtained rotation angle is compared with the result obtained from the geometrical optics experiment. The relative error is 3. 1%. It shows that they are in good agreement. Experimental results indicate that digital image correlation method can be regarded as an efficient method to measure in-plane micro-rotations of a rigid body quantitatively.
Moes, C.C.M.
2007-01-01
The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and pressure-rel
Amel'kin, N. I.
2009-01-01
The set of steady motions of the system named in the title is represented parametrically via the gyro gimbal rotation angle for an arbitrary position of the gimbal axis. We study the set of steady motions for a system in which the gyro gimbal axis is parallel to a principal plane of inertia as well
Moes, C.C.M.
2007-01-01
The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and
Merryman, H. L.; Smith, L. R.
1974-01-01
One United Technology Center FW-4S solid-propellant rocket motor was fired at an average simulated altitude of 103,000 ft while spinning about its axial centerline at 180 rpm. The objectives of the test program were to determine motor altitude ballistic performance including the measurement of the nonaxial thrust vector and to demonstrate structural integrity of the motor case and nozzle. These objectives are presented and discussed.
Equilibrium rotation of semiliquid exoplanets and satellites
Makarov, Valeri V
2015-01-01
A wide range of exoplanet and exomoon models are characterized by a finite average rigidity and a viscosity much lower than the typical values for terrestrials. Such semiliquid bodies may or may not have rigid crusts with permanent figures. Unlike planets with solid mantles and Earth-like rheology, semiliquid bodies can be captured into stable pseudosynchronous spin resonance, where the average rate of rotation is higher than the synchronous 1:1 resonance. Two basic conditions are derived for capture of planets with a triaxial figure into pseudosynchronous rotation, one related to the characteristic tidal wave number (the product of the tidal frequency by the Maxwell time), and the other to the orbital eccentricity. If a semiliquid object does not satisfy either of the two conditions, it is captured into the synchronous resonance. For nearly axially symmetric bodies, only the first condition is in place, and the other is much relaxed, so they should predominantly be pseudosynchronous. It is also pointed out t...
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics
Riedel, Kerstin; Leppert, Joerg; Haefner, Sabine; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai [Institut fuer Molekulare Biotechnologie, Abteilung Molekulare Biophysik/NMR-Spektroskopie (Germany)], E-mail: raman@imb-jena.de
2004-12-15
The efficacy of RN{sup {nu}}{sub n} symmetry-based adiabatic Zero-Quantum (ZQ) dipolar recoupling schemes for obtaining chemical shift correlation data at moderate magic angle spinning frequencies has been evaluated. RN{sub n}{sup {nu}} sequences generally employ basic inversion elements that correspond to a net 180 deg. rotation about the rotating frame x-axis. It is shown here via numerical simulations and experimental measurements that it is also possible to achieve efficient ZQ dipolar recoupling via RN{sub n}{sup {nu}} schemes employing adiabatic pulses. Such an approach was successfully used for obtaining {sup 1}3C chemical shift correlation spectra of a uniformly labelled sample of (CUG){sub 9}7- a triplet repeat expansion RNA that has been implicated in the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. An analysis of the {sup 1}3C sugar carbon chemical shifts suggests, in agreement with our recent {sup 1}5N MAS-NMR studies, that this RNA adopts an A-helical conformation.
Bulicz, T.R.
1990-04-17
An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.
Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.
2016-10-11
The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.
Transverse mixing of binary solid materials in a rotating kiln%回转窑内二元颗粒物料的径向混合
陈辉; 肖友刚; 赵先琼; 刘颖; 刘义伦
2016-01-01
In order to investigate the effect of particle size difference and density difference on the mixing mechanism of binary granular materials within a rotating kiln, a kinematic model of particles was established using the discrete element method, and the transverse mixing process of granular materials in the rolling regime within the rotating kiln was simulated. The mixing index was defined by contact-number between particles, and the effects of particle volume ratio and density ratio on the mixing index were analyzed using Hong's theory: competition between percolation and condensation. The results show that the percolation mechanism improves with increasing volume ratio σ between particles, but the condensation mechanism improves with increasing density ratioη. Segregation will occur in the radial direction of the rotating kiln no matter percolation or condensation plays the leading role resulting in the decrease of mixing degree. Percolation and condensation can balance each other for some reasonable particle volume and density combinations, where the binary granular materials could get uniformly mixed. There is a power function relationship between particle volume ratio and density ratio when percolation and condensation balance each other.%研究了颗粒尺寸差异和密度差异对二元物料在回转窑内混合的影响. 采用离散单元法建立颗粒物料的运动模型,模拟滚落运动模式下二元物料在回转窑内的径向混合过程;通过颗粒接触数定义混合程度评价指数,结合Hong的渗流与凝聚竞争理论分析颗粒体积比σ和密度比η对二元物料混合程度的影响. 结果表明:增大体积比σ会增强渗流作用,增大密度比η会增强凝聚作用,无论渗流或凝聚占据主导作用,均会导致物料在混合过程中产生径向分离,使混合程度降低;对σ与η进行配置后,可以使渗流与凝聚两种机理彼此平衡,达到物料混合均匀的目的;物料的渗流-凝聚平衡
Wen, Haohua; Semenov, A. A.; Woo, C. H.
2017-09-01
The many-body dynamics of a crystalline solid containing an interstitial solute atom (ISA) is usually interpreted within the one-particle approximation as a random walker hopping among trapping centers at periodic lattice sites. The corresponding mobility and diffusivity can be formulated based on the transition-state theory in the form of the Arrhenius law. Possible issues arising from the many-body nature of the dynamics may need to be understood and resolved both scientifically and technologically. Noting the congruence between the dynamics of the many-body and stochastic systems within the Mori-Zwanzig theory, we analyzed the dynamics of a model particle subjected to a saw-tooth potential in a noisy medium. The ISA mobility is found to be governed by two sources of dissipative friction: that which is produced by the scattering of lattice waves by the moving ISA (phonon wind), and that which is derived from the energy dissipation associated with overcoming the migration barrier screened by lattice waves (i.e., phonon screened). The many-body effect in both cases increases with temperature, so that the first component of the friction is important at high temperatures and the second component is important at low temperatures. A formulation built on this mechanistic structure of the dissipative friction requires the mobility and diffusivity to be expressed not only in terms of the migration enthalpy and entropy, but also of the phonon drag coefficient. As a test, the complex temperature dependence of the mobility and diffusivity of interstitial helium in BCC W obtained from molecular-dynamics simulation is very well reproduced.
李子丰
2013-01-01
在旋转问题中，坐标系的选取至关重要，否则会因角速度测量不准而出现错误。旋转问题一级近似惯性坐标系，应该选取比被绕行物体高一级的天体引力场：（1）一般的旋转问题--固定在地球上的直角坐标系；（2）卫星绕地球旋转问题--日心-地心直角坐标系；（3）地球绕太阳旋转问题--银河系心-日心直角坐标系。在天体物理学中，质量计算不准和旋转角速度测量不准导致黑洞猜想。%Selection of the coordinate system is essential for rotate problem.Otherwise,mistakes may occur due to inaccurate measurement of angular speed. Approximate inertial coordinate system selections for rotate problems should be the gravitational field of a celestial body higher than the object being rotated:(1) the earth fixed Cartesian coordinate system for normal rotation problem;(2) heliocentric-geocentric Cartesian coordinate system for satellites orbiting the earth;(3) the Galaxy Heart-heliocentric Cartesian coordinates for Earth's rotation around the sun.In astrophysics,mass calculation error and angular velocity measurement error lead to a black hole conjecture.
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
Chiu, Ying-Nan
1983-05-01
A new cyclic boundary condition which corresponds to a Möbius strip representation of a one-dimensional crystal is introduced. It is compared with the usual Bloch and Born—von Karman boundary condition which is shown to be a Hückel condition in the sense of LCAO MO treatment of a ring structure. The potential relevance of this Möbius condition to one-dimensional molecular and liquid crystals in which the relative molecular orientation changes during phase transition is alluded to. A comparison of the energies for the twisted and non-twisted form of the linear crystal is derived in the LCAO approximation. The orbital symmetry correlation in the concerted twist of the atomic or molecular orbitals atom! the linear backbone during a rotational polymorphic structural transition is also derived.
Wulff, A.M., E-mail: a.wulff@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Fabel, M. [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Freitag-Wolf, S., E-mail: freitag@medinfo.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Medizinische Informatik und Statistik, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Tepper, M., E-mail: m.tepper@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Knabe, H.M., E-mail: h.knabe@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Schäfer, J.P., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Jansen, O., E-mail: o.jansen@neurorad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Bolte, H., E-mail: hendrik.bolte@ukmuenster.de [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149 Münster (Germany)
2013-10-01
Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future.
A. Malvandi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The falling and settling of solid particles in gases and liquids is a natural phenomenon happens in many industrial processes. This phenomenon has altered pure forced convection to a combination of heat conduction and heat convection in a flow over a plate. In this paper, the coupling of conduction (inside the plate and forced convection of a non-homogeneous nanofluid flow (over a flat plate is investigated, which is classified in conjugate heat transfer problems. Two-component four-equation non-homogeneous equilibrium model for convective transport in nanofluids (mixture of water with particles<100nm has been applied that incorporates the effects of the nanoparticles migration due to the thermophoresis and Brownian motion forces. Employing similarity variables, we have transformed the basic non-dimensional partial differential equations to ordinary differential ones and then solved numerically. Moreover, variation of the heat transfer and concentration rates with thermal resistance of the plate is studied in detail. Setting the lowest dependency of heat transfer rate to the thermal resistance of the plate as a goal, we have shown that for two nanofluids with similar heat transfer characteristics, the one with higher Brownian motion (lower nanoparticle diameter is desired.
Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Rotating and non-Rotating Vortical Flows
Lim, Chjan [RPI
2013-12-18
Three projects were analyzed with the overall aim of developing a computational/analytical model for estimating values of the energy, angular momentum, enstrophy and total variation of fluid height at phase transitions between disordered and self-organized flow states in planetary atmospheres. It is believed that these transitions in equilibrium statistical mechanics models play a role in the construction of large-scale, stable structures including super-rotation in the Venusian atmosphere and the formation of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Exact solutions of the spherical energy-enstrophy models for rotating planetary atmospheres by Kac's method of steepest descent predicted phase transitions to super-rotating solid-body flows at high energy to enstrophy ratio for all planetary spins and to sub-rotating modes if the planetary spin is large enough. These canonical statistical ensembles are well-defined for the long-range energy interactions that arise from 2D fluid flows on compact oriented manifolds such as the surface of the sphere and torus. This is because in Fourier space available through Hodge theory, the energy terms are exactly diagonalizable and hence has zero range, leading to well-defined heat baths.
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Li, Jing; D'Avino, Gabriele; Duchemin, Ivan; Beljonne, David; Blase, Xavier
2016-07-21
We present an original hybrid QM/MM scheme merging the many-body Green's function GW formalism with classical discrete polarizable models and its application to the paradigmatic case of a pentacene crystal. Our calculated transport gap is found to be in excellent agreement with reference periodic bulk GW calculations, together with properly parametrized classical microelectrostatic calculations, and with photoionization measurements at crystal surfaces. More importantly, we prove that the gap is insensitive to the partitioning of pentacene molecules in QM and MM subsystems, as a result of the mutual compensation of quantum and classical polarizabilities, clarifying the relation between polarization energy and delocalization. The proposed hybrid method offers a computationally attractive strategy to compute the full spectrum of charged excitations in complex molecular environments, accounting for both QM and MM contributions to the polarization energy, a crucial requirement in the limit of large QM subsystems.
Herbst, Christian
2010-04-27
The basic aim of the thesis was the development and improvement of homo- and heteronuclear feedback sequences for the generation of correlation spectra of the chemical shift. In a first step the possibility of the acquisition of {sup 13}C-{sup 13} correlation spectra of the chemical shift by means of inversion pulses with low RF power factor was studied. Furthermore it was shown that broad-band phase-modulated inversion and universal rotational pulses can be constructed by means of global optimization procedures like the genetic algorithms under regardment of the available RF field strength. By inversion, universal rotational, and 360 pulses as starting values of the optimization efficient homonuclear CN{sub n}{sup {nu}} and RN{sub n}{sup {nu}} mixing sequences as well as heteronuclear RN{sub n}{sup {nu}{sub s},{nu}{sub k}} feedback sequences were generated. The satisfactory power of the numerically optimized sequences was shown by means of the simulation as well by means of correlation experiments of the chemical shift of L-histidine, L-arginine, and the (CUG){sub 97}-RNA. This thesis deals furthermore with the possibility to acquire simultaneously different signals with several receivers. By means of numerically optimized RN{sub n}{sup {nu}{sub s},{nu}{sub k}} pulse sequences both {sup 15}N-{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N correlation spectra were simultaneously generated. Furthermore it could be shown that the simultaneous acquisition of 3D-{sup 15}N-{sup 13}C-{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N-({sup 1}H)-{sup 1}H correlation spectra is possible. By this in only one measurement process resonance assignments can be met and studies of the global folding performed. A further application of several receivers is the simultaneous acquisition of CHHC, NHHN, NHHC, as well as CHHN spectra. By such experiments it is possible to characterize the hydrogen-bonding pattern and the glycosidic torsion angle {sup {chi}} in RNA. This was demonstrated by means of the (CUG){sub 97
Niemi, Antti H.
2011-02-01
We study the applicability of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework for thin-body problems in structural mechanics. Our numerical approach is based on discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces for the trial functions and approximate, local computation of the corresponding \\'optimal\\' test functions. In the Timoshenko beam problem, the proposed method is shown to provide the best approximation in an energy-type norm which is equivalent to the L2-norm for all the unknowns, uniformly with respect to the thickness parameter. The same formulation remains valid also for the asymptotic Euler-Bernoulli solution. As another one-dimensional model problem we consider the modelling of the so called basic edge effect in shell deformations. In particular, we derive a special norm for the test space which leads to a robust method in terms of the shell thickness. Finally, we demonstrate how a posteriori error estimator arising directly from the discontinuous variational framework can be utilized to generate an optimal hp-mesh for resolving the boundary layer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Gagrani, Rohit; Patra, Nandini; Rajagopalan, P.; Singh, Vipul; Palani, I. A.
2016-09-01
The great effort that the scientific community has put in the last decade in the study of nanoscience and nanotechnology has been leading the research toward the development of new methodologies of nanostructures synthesis. Among them, Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid, PLAL, is gaining an increasing interest thanks to several promising advantages, which include: environmental sustainability, easy experimental set-up (which does not require extreme conditions of the ambient of synthesis), long-lasting stability of the nanoparticles, which are produced completely free of undesired contaminants or dangerous synthesis reactants. In this work, a drop wise flow of deionized water on the periphery of NiTi rotating target was tested as a procedure for the significant production of NiTi nanoparticles. This is a novel technique to improve the ablation efficiency of nanoparticles than the existing techniques of laser ablation. The influence of varying external parameters like laser wavelengths and laser fluences on the size distribution of nanoparticle was investigated. Second harmonic and third harmonics of Nd: YAG nanosecond laser with three different laser fluences of 30 J/cm2, 40 J/cm2 and 50 J/cm2 was used to ablate the nitinol (Ni-55%, Ti-45%) target. The average particle size and redistribution was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the crystalline formation of NiTi nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, where it confirms the alloy formation of NiTi nanoparticles.
Numerical Study on Fixed-Axis Rotation of Rigid Body under Variable Moment Inertia%变转动惯量刚体定轴转动的数值研究
唐军杰; 王爱军; 赵昆; 张鹏
2012-01-01
Given a model of variable moment inertia of rigid body,a numerical method with Matlab has been applied to study the fixed-axis rotation of rigid body under variable moment inertia and constant external torque. Because at the initial stage the changes in variable moment inertia are very small , the movement of rigid body is similar to that when moment inertia is constant. As the changes in moment inertia become greater,the angular velocity of rigid body changes periodically under the impact of elastic restoring forces.%给出一个变转动惯量刚体模型,用数值方法研究了在恒力矩作用下变转动惯量刚体的定轴转动问题.在开始阶段由于转动惯量变化很小,刚体运动与刚体转动惯量不变的情况相似,随着转动惯量变化增大,在弹性恢复力的作用下,刚体角速度呈周期性变化.
Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface
Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin
The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can break...
Motor Processes in Children's Mental Rotation
Frick, Andrea; Daum, Moritz M.; Walser, Simone; Mast, Fred W.
2009-01-01
Previous studies with adult human participants revealed that motor activities can influence mental rotation of body parts and abstract shapes. In this study, we investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement on mental rotation performance from a developmental perspective. Children at the age of 5, 8, and 11 years and adults performed a…
Guenel, M; Mathis, S; Rieutord, M
2015-01-01
Tidally-excited inertial waves in stellar convective regions are a key mechanism for tidal dissipation in stars and therefore the evolution of close-in binary or planetary systems. As a first step, we explore here the impact of latitudinal differential rotation on the properties of free inertial modes and identify the different families of modes. We show that they differ from the case of solid-body rotation. Using an analytical approach as well as numerical calculations, we conclude that critical layers (where the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes) could play a very important role for tidal dissipation.
Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Logadottir, Ashildur;
2012-01-01
Implementation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumours enables setup correction based on tumour position. The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy with daily soft tissue matching to bony anatomy matching and evaluate...
通用三维转动机构测试系统研究与设计%Research and Design of General Three-dimensional Rotating Body Test System
孙弋; 董延杰; 刘涵君
2011-01-01
随着空间科学技术和航天设备的不断发展,对测试系统的自动化程度要求越来越高,通过对航天测试标准和对通用三维转动机构的研究,提出了一种基于LabVIEW和工业控制计算机的可视化空间三维转动机构控制的测试系统方案;该方案采用工业控制计算机作为控制台,用高精度双通道旋变解调模块对双余度步进电机的角度位移信号进行测量,来获取天线转动的位置信息;操作系统平台采用Windows XP,采用NI公司虚拟测试软件LabVIEW进行人机界面的设计,可以直观的对三维转动机构进行位置变化控制和获取各种参数信息,并可以对数据进行分析、报警、存储、查询等操作,以及进行定时转动控制;经测试,该系统能满足要求,且稳定可靠.%As the continuous development of space sciencc and technology and aerospace equipment, the degree of automation of the test system have become increasingly demanding in this field, according to test standards and the general space three-dimensional rotating body research, proposes a three-dimensional rotation of the control of the space program based on LabVIEW and industrial control computer visualization.The program uses industrial control computer as the console, using high-precision dual-channel rotary variable demodulation module redundant pairs of angle stepper motor displacement signal measured to obtain the location information of the rotating antenna.Operating system platform, using Windows XP, uses NIs LabVIEW virtual test software to conduct human-computer interface design, intuitive three-dimensional rotation of the position change institutions to control and access to information on various parameters, and can analyze the data, alarm, storage, queries and other operations, as well as regular rotation control.After testing, the system can meet the requirements,and reliable.
New interpretation of data of the Earth's solid core
Guliyev, H. H.
2017-06-01
The commonly accepted scientific opinions on the inner core as the deformable solid globe are based on the solution of the problem on the distribution of elastic parameters in the inner structures of the Earth. The given solution is obtained within the necessary integral conditions on its self-weight, moment of inertia concerning the axes of rotation and periods of free oscillations of the Earth. It is shown that this solution does not satisfy the mechanics of the deformable solid body with sufficient local conditions following from basic principles concerning the strength, stability and actuality of velocities of propagation of elastic waves. The violation of local conditions shows that the inner core cannot exist in the form of the deformable solid body within the commonly accepted elastic parameters.
Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Catastini, G.; Anselmi, A.; Portigliotti, S.; Lenti, A.; di Giamberardino, P.; Monaco, S.; Ronchini, R.
1999-04-01
Test masses coupled by weak mechanical suspensions are sensitive to differential forces such as the force due to a possible violation of the equivalence principle (EP). If in addition they are put in rapid rotation, the differential signal is modulated at high frequency, which is beneficial for noise reduction. Galileo Galilei (GG) is a proposed space experiment for testing the equivalence principle to 1 part in 0264-9381/16/4/032/img8 based on these concepts. A recent paper by Jafry and Weinberger (1998 Class. Quantum Grav. 15 481-500) claims that GG can only reach 0264-9381/16/4/032/img9. We show that the analysis of this paper is flawed (by several orders of magnitude) because of two misconceptions: one on the physical nature of mechanical damping and the other on active control methods for the stabilization of spinning bodies.
Optical fiber rotation sensing
Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul
1993-01-01
Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t
Volume Measurement in Solid Objects Using Artificial Vision Technique
Cordova-Fraga, T.; Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Bernal, J.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.
2004-09-01
A simple system using artificial vision technique for measuring the volume of solid objects is described. The system is based on the acquisition of an image sequence of the object while it is rotating on an automated mechanism controlled by a PC. Volumes of different objects such as a sphere, a cylinder and also a carrot were measured. The proposed algorithm was developed in environment LabView 6.1. This technique can be very useful when it is applied to measure the human body for evaluating its body composition.
Motor processes in mental rotation
Wexler, Mark; Kosslyn, Stephen; Berthoz, Alain
1997-01-01
Much indirect evidence supports the hypothesis that transformations of mental images are at least in part guided by motor processes, even in the case of images of abstract objects rather than of body parts. For example, rotation may be guided by processes that also prime one to see results of a specific motor action. We directly test the hypothesis by means of a dual-task paradigm in which subjects perform the Cooper-Shepard mental rotation task while executing an unseen motor rotation in a g...
Modeling rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers: rotation axes, bistability, and controllability.
Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry Chien
2014-12-01
Magnetically actuated microswimmers have recently attracted attention due to many possible biomedical applications. In this study we investigate the dynamics of rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers with permanent magnetic dipoles. Our approach uses a boundary element method to calculate a mobility matrix, accurate for arbitrary geometries, which is then used to identify the steady periodically rotating orbits in a co-rotating body-fixed frame. We evaluate the stability of each of these orbits. We map the magnetoviscous behavior as a function of dimensionless Mason number and as a function of the angle that the magnetic field makes with its rotation axis. We describe the wobbling motion of these swimmers by investigating how the rotation axis changes as a function of experimental parameters. We show that for a given magnetic field strength and rotation frequency, swimmers can have more than one stable periodic orbit with different rotation axes. Finally, we demonstrate that one can improve the controllability of these types of microswimmers by adjusting the relative angle between the magnetic field and its axis of rotation.
Dattatreyo Chatterjee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Toxicity of cancer chemotherapy may be affected by nutritional status of patients which is reflected in the body mass index (BMI. We sought to assess whether the adverse drug reaction (ADR profile of platinum-based chemotherapy varies with BMI status. Materials and Methods: Adult patients of either sex, suffering from a solid tumor (lung, head and neck, ovary, gall bladder, stomach, colon and started on platinum-based chemotherapy as initial treatment were included. BMI at chemotherapy commencement was obtained from medical records. Events were recorded and graded as per Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria-patients′ complaints; clinically evident signs and laboratory reports were considered. Frequencies of individual adverse events were compared between low BMI (<18.5 kg/m 2 and satisfactory BMI groups. Similar comparisons were done for events with grades 2 or 3 severities. Results: A total of 50 patients were observed over a 3-month period of whom 17 (34% belonged to the low BMI group. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, anemia, alopecia, tinnitus and paresthesia were the commonly observed ADRs. The frequencies of anemia (P = 0.152 and vomiting (P = 0.140 and severity of grades of nausea (P = 0.066, anemia (P = 0.120 and paresthesia (P = 0.128 showed a higher trend in the low BMI group though differences were not statistically significant. The frequencies of tinnitus (P = 0.021 and paresthesia overall (P = 0.036 were significantly higher in the low BMI group. Conclusion: ADR profile of primary platinum-based chemotherapy appears to be partly influenced by BMI. This suggests the importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients and the need for greater vigilance in those with low BMI.
The rotation of planets hosting atmospheric tides: from Venus to habitable super-earths
Auclair-Desrotour, Pierre; Mathis, Stéphane; Correia, Alexandre
2016-01-01
The competition between the torques induced by solid and thermal tides drives the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets and super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The tidal responses of the atmosphere and telluric core are related to their respective physical properties and strongly depend on the tidal frequency. The resulting torque determines the possible equilibrium states of the planet's spin. We compute here an analytic expression for the total tidal torque exerted on a Venus-like planet. This expression is used to characterize the equilibrium rotation of the body. Close to the star, the solid tide dominates. Far from it, the thermal tide drives the rotational dynamics of the planet. The transition regime corresponds to the habitable zone, where prograde and retrograde equilibrium states appear. We demonstrate the strong impact of the atmospheric properties and of the rheology of the solid part on the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets, highlighting the key role played ...
侯刚; 陈明娟; 戎利民; 陈建庭; 陈昌燕
2011-01-01
Objective To explore the relationship between the physiological rotation of vertebral body and individual development by measuring of rotation angle of normal spine. Methods Pectoral CT data from 150 cases without clinical or radiologic evidence of scoliosis were used to measure vertebral axial rotation from T2 to T12. The data were divided into 3 groups based on different ages: infants (0～3y), juvenile (3～11y) and young(11-16y). The angle, defined between two lines that connected the junction of each lamina and the pedicle of the posterior junction of the two laminae, was firstly bisected by the third line. The angle of axial vertebral rotation was then measured as the angle between the obtained line and the reference sagittal plane. The reference sagittal line was defined as zero degrees rotation. Rotation to the right was defined as a positive angle,to the left as a negative angle. Results The average rotation angle ranged from(-1.24±1.80)° to (1.72±1.01)°in group infants, (-1.38±0.97)° to (1.18±1.36)° in group juvenile, and (-1.52±1.23)° to (2.03±1.22)° in group young. The rotation angle in group juvenile significantly less than that of group infants on T6(P＜0.01 ), and that of group juvenile significantly less than that of group youny on T7 (P=0.03). Conclusions It is revealed that the physiological rotation of vertebral occurred for the nonnal and nonscoliotic spine, and tends to be stable with the age increasing.%目的 研究椎体生理性旋转与个体发育之间的关系.方法 以150例因肺部或纵隔内疾病在我院行胸部CT检查的被证实无脊柱侧凸畸形的患者的CT图像为研究对象.分三个组,各50例,幼儿组年龄为0～3岁,少儿年组为3～11岁,青年组为11～16岁.各组男女比例为1/1.椎体旋转角度的测量采用HO等人提出的角平分线法进行测量.分别对各个年龄组T2～12椎体旋转度进行测量.结果 幼儿组椎体旋转角度为(-1.24±1.80)°～(1.72±1.01)°.少
Using rotating liquid bridges as accelerometers
Montanero, J.M. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica; Cabezas, G.; Acero, J.; Zayas, F.
1999-07-01
Liquid bridges have recently been proposed as fluid accelerometers that could be used to measure very small inertial forces under microgravity conditions [Meseguer et al., microgravity sci. technol. IX/2 (1996)]. The essential idea is to infer the values of such inertial forces from the liquid bridge interface contour, whose shape obviously depends on the values of such forces (apart from the bridge volume and the geometry of the supporting disks). Following a similar procedure, in this paper we explore the use of rotating axisymmetric liquid bridges to measure the residual axial gravity and the rotation rate of the liquid bridge regarded as a solid body. In light off the difficulties involved in performing experiments on Earth, the role of empirical data is played by an accurate numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation. The values of both the axial gravity and angular speed are obtained by fitting the approximate analytical expressions derived in this paper to the numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation. The comparison between the predicted and actual values of the variables of interest shows a satisfactory agreement, supporting the suitability of the procedure. (orig.)
Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn
2013-04-25
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.
Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki
2016-11-01
After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.
Rotational structure in molecular infrared spectra
di Lauro, Carlo
2013-01-01
Recent advances in infrared molecular spectroscopy have resulted in sophisticated theoretical and laboratory methods that are difficult to grasp without a solid understanding of the basic principles and underlying theory of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy. Rotational Structure in Molecular Infrared Spectra fills the gap between these recent, complex topics and the most elementary methods in the field of rotational structure in the infrared spectra of gaseous molecules. There is an increasing need for people with the skills and knowledge to interpret vibration-rotation spectra in ma
The rotational spectrum of tyrosine.
Pérez, Cristóbal; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L
2015-04-23
In this work neutral tyrosine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples, and its most abundant conformers characterized through their rotational spectra. Their identification has been made by comparison between the experimental and ab initio values of the rotational and quadrupole coupling constants. Both conformers are stabilized by an O-H•••N hydrogen bond established within the amino acid skeleton chain and an additional weak N-H•••π hydrogen bond. The observed conformers differ in the orientation of the phenolic -OH group.
Sauret, Alban; Morize, Cyprien; Bars, Michael Le; 10.1017/S0022112010004052
2011-01-01
We study both experimentally and numerically the steady zonal flow generated by longitudinal librations of a spherical rotating container. This study follows the recent weakly nonlinear analysis of Busse (2010), developed in the limit of small libration frequency - rotation rate ratio, and large libration frequency - spin-up time product. Using PIV measurements as well as results from axisymmetric numerical simulations, we confirm quantitatively the main features of Busse's analytical solution: the zonal flow takes the form of a retrograde solid body rotation in the fluid interior, which does not depend on the libration frequency nor on the Ekman number, and which varies as the square of the amplitude of excitation. We also report the presence of an unpredicted prograde flow at the equator near the outer wall.
Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy
Pate, Brooks
2014-06-01
The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De
A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics
Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)
2016-02-15
Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.
Rotation-triggered path instabilities of rising spheres and cylinder
Mathai, Varghese; Zhu, Xiaojue; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2016-11-01
Path-instabilities are a common observation in the dynamics of buoyant particles in flows. However, the factors leading to the onset of oscillatory motion have remained difficult to predict even for simple bodies such as bubbles, spheres and cylinders. In literature, two quantities are considered to control the buoyancy-driven dynamics for isotropic bodies (spheres and cylinders); they are the particle's density relative to the fluid (Γ ≡ρp /ρf) and its Galileo number (Ga). In contrast to this picture, we show that buoyant spheres (as well as cylinders) can exhibit dramatically different modes of vibration and wake-shedding patterns under seemingly identical conditions (Γ and Ga fixed). These effects stem from the simplest of changes in the mass distribution of the particle (hollow to solid sphere), which changes its rotational inertia. We show that rotation can couple with the particle's translational motion and trigger distinctly different wake-induced oscillatory motions. The present findings also provide an explanation for the wide variation that is witnessed in the dynamics of buoyant isotropic bodies.
Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J
2014-04-01
Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand preloads (no load, solid tube, fluid filled tube) while a device imposed a sudden elbow extension. Elbow angle and activity from nine muscles were inputs to a biomechanical model to determine relative contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness, reported as percent of total stiffness. A body orientation by preload interaction was evident for most muscles (Pelbow perturbations, found that forearm muscles contribute marginally and showed that orientation and preload should be considered when evaluating elbow joint stiffness and safety.
Leonhard Euler and the mechanics of rigid bodies
Marquina, J. E.; Marquina, M. L.; Marquina, V.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.
2017-01-01
In this work we present the original ideas and the construction of the rigid bodies theory realised by Leonhard Euler between 1738 and 1775. The number of treatises written by Euler on this subject is enormous, including the most notorious Scientia Navalis (1749), Decouverte d’un noveau principe de mecanique (1752), Du mouvement de rotation des corps solides autour d’un axe variable (1765), Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum (1765) and Nova methodus motu corporum rigidorum determinandi (1776), in which he developed the ideas of the instantaneous rotation axis, the so-called Euler equations and angles, the components of what is now known as the inertia tensor, the principal axes of inertia, and, finally, the generalisation of the translation and rotation movement equations for any system. Euler, the man who ‘put most of mechanics into its modern form’ (Truesdell 1968 Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin: Springer) p 106).
Mixing of a passive scalar by the instability of a differentially rotating axial pinch
Paredes, A; Rüdiger, G
2016-01-01
The mixing of a passive scalar like lithium, beryllium or temperature fluctuations due to the magnetic Tayler instability of a rotating axial pinch is considered. Our study is carried out within a Taylor-Couette setup for two rotation laws: quasi-Kepler and solid-body rotation. The minimum magnetic Prandtl number used is 0.05 while the molecular Schmidt number Sc of the fluid varies between 0.1 and 2. An effective diffusivity coefficient for the mixing is numerically measured by the decay process of a global concentration peak located between the cylinder walls. We find that only models with Sc>0.1 do provide finite eddy diffusivity values. We also find that for quasi-Kepler rotation at a magnetic Mach number Mm~2 the flow transits from the slow-rotation regime to the fast-rotation regime. For fixed Reynolds number the relation between the normalized eddy diffusivity and the Schmidt number of the fluid is always linear so that also a linear relation between the instability-induced diffusivity and the molecula...
Bioreactor rotating wall vessel
2001-01-01
The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.
Bioreactor rotating wall vessel
2001-01-01
The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.
Corotational formulation for 3d solids. An analysis of geometrically nonlinear foam deformation
Kaczmarczyk, Łukasz; Pearce, Chris J
2011-01-01
This paper presents theory for the Lagrange co-rotational (CR) formulation of finite elements in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of 3D structures. In this paper strains are assumed to be small while the magnitude of rotations from the reference configuration is not restricted. A new best fit rotator and consistent spin filter are derived. Lagrange CR formulation is applied with Hybrid Trefftz Stress elements, although presented methodology can be applied to arbitrary problem formulation and discretization technique, f.e. finite volume methods and lattice models, discreet element methods. Efficiency of CR formulation can be utilized in post-buckling stability analysis, damage and fracture mechanics, modelling of dynamic fragmentation of bodies made from quasi-brittle materials, solid fluid interactions and analysis of post-stressed structures, discreet body dynamics.
Xie, Li; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Weliky, David P
2015-01-27
Membrane locations of peptides and proteins are often critical to their functions. Solid-state rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to probe the locations of two peptides via peptide (13)CO to lipid (2)H distance measurements. The peptides are KALP, an α-helical membrane-spanning peptide, and HFP, the β-sheet N-terminal fusion peptide of the HIV gp41 fusion protein that plays an important role in HIV-host cell membrane fusion. Both peptides are shown to have at least two distinct locations within the hydrocarbon core of gel-phase membranes. The multiple locations are attributed to snorkeling of lysine side chains for KALP and to the distribution of antiparallel β-sheet registries for HFP. The relative population of each location is also quantitated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clear experimental support of multiple peptide locations within the membrane hydrocarbon core. These data are for gel-phase membranes, but the approach should work for liquid-ordered membranes containing cholesterol and may be applicable to liquid-disordered membranes with appropriate additional analysis to take into account protein and lipid motion. This paper also describes the methodological development of (13)CO-(2)H REDOR using the lyophilized I4 peptide that is α-helical and (13)CO-labeled at A9 and (2)Hα-labeled at A8. The I4 spins are well-approximated as an ensemble of isolated (13)CO-(2)H spin pairs each separated by 5.0 Å with a 37 Hz dipolar coupling. A pulse sequence with rectangular 100 kHz (2)H π pulses results in rapid and extensive buildup of REDOR (ΔS/S0) with a dephasing time (τ). The buildup is well-fit by a simple exponential function with a rate of 24 Hz and an extent close to 1. These parameter values reflect nonradiative transitions between the (2)H spin states during the dephasing period. Each spin pair spends approximately two-thirds of its time in the (13)CO-(2)H (m = ±1) states and
Rotation Axis Variation Due To Spin Orbit Resonance
Gallavotti, G
1993-01-01
Abstract: rotation axis variation due to spin orbit resonance: conference report; keywords: planetary precession, rigid body, chaos, KAM, Arnold diffusion, averaging, celestial mechanics, classical mechanics, large deviations
Bambi, Cosimo
2013-01-01
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...
Kissin, Yevgeni
2015-01-01
The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...
Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine
Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.
2017-06-01
A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).
Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor
Parks, Kelsey
2009-01-01
Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.
Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor
Parks, Kelsey
2009-01-01
Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this ... gov/pubmed/25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder ...
Inverse cascades in turbulence and the case of rotating flows
Pouquet, A; Rosenberg, D; Mininni, P D; Baerenzung, J
2012-01-01
We first summarize briefly several properties concerning the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, with an emphasis on the inverse cascade of energy to the largest accessible scale of the system. In order to study a similar phenomenon in three-dimensional (3D) turbulence undergoing strong solid-body rotation, we test a previously developed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model against a high-resolution direct numerical simulation of rotating turbulence on a grid of $3072^3$ points. We then describe new numerical results on the inverse energy cascade in rotating flows using this LES model and contrast the case of 2D versus 3D forcing, as well as non-helical forcing (i.e., with weak overall alignment between velocity and vorticity) versus the fully helical Beltrami case, both for deterministic and random forcing. The different scaling of the inverse energy cascade can be attributed to the dimensionality of the forcing, with, in general, either a $k_{\\perp}^{-3}$ or a $k_{\\perp}^{-5/3}$ energy spectrum of slo...
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks
Shu-Xian Chen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks was numerically studied with a two-layer turbulence model and a modified Launder–Sharma low-Reynolds number k-ε model. The dissipation rate decrease caused by solid body rotation was considered in the second model. The comparisons of the effectiveness between these two turbulence models for capturing the critical radius of flow structure transition and reproducing the flow velocity measurements data were presented. For the flow between shrouded disks rotating at the same speed but in opposite senses, that is, the angular velocity ratio of the two disks equals to −1, the Stewartson-type flow structure is found in the cavity. For the flow with one disk rotating more slowly than the other, Stewartson-type flow coexists with Batchelor-type flow, that is, Batchelor-type flow occurs radially outward of the stagnation point where two opposing boundary layer flows meet, and Stewartson-type flow occurs radially inward. The stagnation points near the slower disk move radially outward as the angular velocity ratio decreases toward −1. Theory of rotating fluids with the presence of centrifugal and Coriolis forces stemming from the disk rotation is employed to manifest the flow structure transition mechanisms as the rotation ratio of the disks is varied. The source of the earlier transition to turbulent flow in counter-rotating disk cavity compared with rotor-stator disk cavity is also explained through the research of instability of the flowing free shear layer formed by the counter secondary circulations. With the aid of the numerical results obtained from the two turbulence models, it is found that a more turbulent flow in the core can destroy the Batchelor-type flow and creates a larger Stewartson-type flow region.
Magnetic damping of rotation. [in satellites
Opik, E. J.
1977-01-01
Based on Wilson's (1977) article on the magnetic effects on space vehicles and other celestial bodies, the magnetic damping of rotation is considered. The inadequacy of the interstellar magnetic field in overcoming solar wind shielding and thus influencing the rotation of bodies is described. The ionospheric shielding of the interstellar field is discussed along with the permeability and magnetic damping by the solar or stellar wind. Star formation and angular momentum is discussed and attention is given to the magnetic damping of unshielded small bodies. Calculations of the rate for damping through random particle impact are made. Theories concerning the rotation of asteroids and the origin of meteorites are reviewed. The shielding process of ionospheric plasmas is outlined and the damping effect of the geomagnetic field on the rotation of artificial satellites is evaluated.
Rotating Cavitation Supression Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...
The production of short-lived radionuclides by new non-rotating and rotating Wolf-Rayet model stars
Arnould, M; Meynet, G
2006-01-01
It has been speculated that WR winds may have contaminated the forming solar system, in particular with short-lived radionuclides (half-lives in the approximate 10^5 - 10^8 y range) that are responsible for a class of isotopic anomalies found in some meteoritic materials. We revisit the capability of the WR winds to eject these radionuclides using new models of single non-exploding WR stars with metallicity Z = 0.02. The earlier predictions for non-rotating WR stars are updated, and models for rotating such stars are used for the first time in this context. We find that (1) rotation has no significant influence on the short-lived radionuclide production by neutron capture during the core He-burning phase, and (2) 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 107Pd can be wind-ejected by a variety of WR stars at relative levels that are compatible with the meteoritic analyses for a period of free decay of around 10^5 y between production and incorporation into the forming solar system solid bodies. We confirm the previously published...
The production of short-lived radionuclides by new non-rotating and rotating Wolf-Rayet model stars
Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Meynet, G.
2006-07-01
Context.It has been speculated that WR winds may have contaminated the forming solar system, in particular with short-lived radionuclides (half-lives in the approximate 10^5{-}108 y range) that are responsible for a class of isotopic anomalies found in some meteoritic materials.Aims.We revisit the capability of the WR winds to eject these radionuclides using new models of single non-exploding WR stars with metallicity Z = 0.02.Methods. The earlier predictions for non-rotating WR stars are updated, and models for rotating such stars are used for the first time in this context.Results. We find that (1) rotation has no significant influence on the short-lived radionuclide production by neutron capture during the core He-burning phase, and (2) {}26{Al},{}36{Cl}, {}41{Ca}, and {}107{Pd} can be wind-ejected by a variety of WR stars at relative levels that are compatible with the meteoritic analyses for a period of free decay of around 105 y between production and incorporation into the forming solar system solid bodies.Conclusions.We confirm the previously published conclusions that the winds of WR stars have a radionuclide composition that can meet the necessary condition for them to be a possible contaminating agent of the forming solar system. Still, it remains to be demonstrated from detailed models that this is a sufficient condition for these winds to have provided a level of pollution that is compatible with the observations.
Design of a deployment rotation mechanism for microsatellite
Abdelal, G.F.; Bakr Elhady, A.; Kassab, M.
2009-01-01
Solar array rotation mechanism provides a hinged joint between the solar panel and satellite body, smooth rotation of the solar array into deployed position and its fixation in this position. After unlocking of solar panel (while in orbit), rotation bracket turns towards ready-to-work position under
Design of a deployment rotation mechanism for microsatellite
Abdelal, G.F.; Bakr Elhady, A.; Kassab, M.
2009-01-01
Solar array rotation mechanism provides a hinged joint between the solar panel and satellite body, smooth rotation of the solar array into deployed position and its fixation in this position. After unlocking of solar panel (while in orbit), rotation bracket turns towards ready-to-work position under
Degenerative full thickness rotator cuff tears : Towards optimal management
Lambers Heerspink, Frederik
2016-01-01
The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the body. Besides a wide range of motion it also has to be stable. The rotator cuff is a major stabiliser of the glenohumoral joint. With increasing age rotator cuff tears are common. Successful treatment is described following surgical (rotator cuff
Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...
On the Effects of Multi-body Interactions on the Equation of State of Solid Neon%多体相互作用对固氖物态方程的影响
郑兴荣
2015-01-01
Based on the atomic cluster theory and multi-body expansion method ,this study ,taking ab initio Hartree-Fock self consistent field technique in the atomic distance of 1 .65 ~3 .00Å, calculates and re-searches the effects that the multi-body interactions energy which include two-body,three-body and four-body interactions have on the equation of state of face-centered cubic ( fcc) solid neon.The results are shown that many-body expansion potential was an exchange convergent series , and the even many-body contributions to the cohesive energy were repulsive ,whereas the odd many-body contributions to the cohe-sive energy were attractive .When the atomic distance is R≥2 .60Å, the interaction energy may be well described by two-body interactions .The atomic distance is between 1 .80Å~2 .60Å,the three-body con-tribution in many-body expansion potential should be taken into consideration .Below 1 .80Å, the four-body contributions have to be included .The calculated isotherm is in good agreement with the experimen-tal value in the experimentally studied ranges of pressures (0~208GPa) considering the two-body and three-body potentials,taking into account the four-body potential the pressure has been reached 240GPa. However it can be accurately explain the phenomenon of the present experiment at above 240 Gpa consid-ering the five-body potential .%基于原子团簇理论与多体展开方法，运用从头算自洽场方法计算固氖面心立方结构（ fcc）最邻近原子间距在1．65～3．00Å之间的两体、三体和四体相互作用能及其对物态方程的影响。结果表明：原子势能的多体展开级数是一交错级数，其中偶数体势对原子势的贡献为正，奇数体势对原子势的贡献为负；在R≥2．60Å的区间原子势能的多体展开式只需考虑两体势即可，在1．80≤R＜2．60Å的区间里原子势能的多体展开式需要考虑到三体势的贡献，在R＜1．80Å的区间原子势能的多体
Electron-beam confinement by rotational stabilization in a linear wiggler free electron laser
Friedland, L.; Shefer, R.E. (Science Research Laboratory, Inc., Somerville, MA (USA))
1990-11-15
Finite radius electron-beam transport in a linear wiggler free-electron laser with a guide magnetic field is investigated. The addition of a guide magnetic field improves the beam confinement, but also leads to a detrimental drift in the direction transverse to the wiggler magnetic field. The introduction of a rotational transformation of the wiggler magnetic field is proposed to further improve the beam confinement. It is shown that the transformation results in a stable, uniform, solid body rotation of the beam provided (a) the guide field is larger than the amplitude of the wiggler field, (b) the electron drift velocity is much smaller than the rotation speed of the wiggler field as seen by the beam, and (c) the wiggler field rotates in the direction opposite to the direction of the electron gyromotion in the guide field. Theoretical predictions of the improvement of the radial beam transport with the introduction of the rotation of the wiggler field are confirmed in numerical simulations.
On the coherent rotation of diffuse matter in numerical simulations of clusters of galaxies
Baldi, Anna Silvia; De Petris, Marco; Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Lamagna, Luca; Rasia, Elena
2017-03-01
We present a study on the coherent rotation of the intracluster medium and dark matter components of simulated galaxy clusters extracted from a volume-limited sample of the MUSIC project. The set is re-simulated with three different recipes for the gas physics: (i) non-radiative, (ii) radiative without active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback and (iii) radiative with AGN feedback. Our analysis is based on the 146 most massive clusters identified as relaxed, 57 per cent of the total sample. We classify these objects as rotating and non-rotating according to the gas spin parameter, a quantity that can be related to cluster observations. We find that 4 per cent of the relaxed sample is rotating according to our criterion. By looking at the radial profiles of their specific angular momentum vector, we find that the solid body model is not a suitable description of rotational motions. The radial profiles of the velocity of the dark matter show a prevalence of the random velocity dispersion. Instead, the intracluster medium profiles are characterized by a comparable contribution from the tangential velocity and the dispersion. In general, the dark matter component dominates the dynamics of the clusters, as suggested by the correlation between its angular momentum and the gas one, and by the lack of relevant differences among the three sets of simulations.
Deep MMT Transit Survey of the Open Cluster M37 III: Stellar Rotation at 550 Myr
Hartman, J D; Pinsonneault, M H; Stanek, K Z; Holman, M J; McLeod, B A; Meibom, S; Barranco, J A; Singh-Kalirai, J
2008-01-01
In the course of conducting a deep (14.5 ~~ 0.8 Msun show a tight correlation between period and mass with heavier stars rotating more rapidly. There is a group of 4 stars with P > 15 days that fall well above this relation, which, if real, would present a significant challenge to theories of stellar angular momentum evolution. Below 0.8 Msun the stars continue to follow the period-mass correlation but with a broad tail of rapid rotators that expands to shorter periods with decreasing mass. We combine these results with observations of other open clusters to test the standard theory of lower-main sequence stellar angular momentum evolution. Notably we find that the rotation period of the Sun and the periods of solar mass stars in M37, and the Hyades do not follow the ``Skumanich law'', i.e. they cannot be related by a simple model invoking solid-body rotation with a standard wind angular momentum-loss law. We also find that for late-K through early-M dwarf stars in this cluster r apid rotators tend to be blue...
On the coherent rotation of diffuse matter in numerical simulations of galaxy clusters
Baldi, Anna Silvia; Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Lamagna, Luca; Rasia, Elena
2016-01-01
We analyse the dynamical properties of Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) and dark matter (DM) in galaxy clusters to highlight the presence of coherent motions, in a volume-limited sample extracted from the gas-dynamical simulations of the MUSIC project. We select the most massive haloes and we use three different models to describe the physics of baryons: a non-radiative model, and two models including radiative physics, with and without the AGN feedback. We aim to get a statistics on the contribution from rotational motions to the dynamics of massive clusters, and to possibly characterize them through a suitable model. Our study is focused on the relaxed clusters (57 per cent of our total sample) that we classify as as rotating or non-rotating according to the gas spin parameter, finding that 4 per cent of the relaxed sample is rotating. We study the radial profiles of their specific angular momentum vector, finding that the solid body model is not suitable to describe a rotation. The radial profiles of the tangent...
Rummel, R.
1991-10-01
The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.
Gavagnin, Elena; Mapelli, Michela; Lake, George
2016-09-01
Merging has been proposed to explain multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) where there is a spread in iron abundance (hereafter, iron-complex GCs). By means of N-body simulations, we investigate if merging is consistent with the observations of subpopulations and rotation in iron-complex GCs. The key parameters are the initial mass and density ratios of the progenitors. When densities are similar, the more massive progenitor dominates the central part of the merger remnant and the less massive progenitor forms an extended rotating population. The low-mass progenitor can become the majority population in the central regions of the merger remnant only if its initial density is higher by roughly the mass ratio. To match the radial distribution of multiple populations in two iron-complex GCs (ω Cen and NGC 1851), the less massive progenitor needs to be four times as dense as the larger one. Our merger remnants show solid-body rotation in the inner parts, becoming differential in the outer parts. Rotation velocity V and ellipticity ɛ are in agreement with models for oblate rotators with isotropic dispersion. We discuss several kinematic signatures of a merger with a denser lower mass progenitor that can be tested with future observations.
Gravitational Faraday Rotation of the Earth and Its Possible Test
LIU Lin-Xia; SHAO Cheng-Gang; LUO Jun
2005-01-01
@@ It is shown that the rotation of the polarization plane of rays induced by a rotating body can be accumulated by means of a long baseline optical cavity. Theoretical analysis shows that the presently proposal experimental scheme is possible to test this gravitational Faraday rotation effect on the Earth, especially including how to effectively suppress the dominant part of the Sagnac effect due to the rotation of the Earth with a reasonable experimental configuration.
Dynamic rotation and stretch tensors from a dynamic polar decomposition
Haller, George
2016-01-01
The local rigid-body component of continuum deformation is typically characterized by the rotation tensor, obtained from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. Beyond its well-known merits, the polar rotation tensor also has a lesser known dynamical inconsistency: it does not satisfy the fundamental superposition principle of rigid-body rotations over adjacent time intervals. As a consequence, the polar rotation diverts from the observed mean material rotation of fibers in fluids, and introduces a purely kinematic memory effect into computed material rotation. Here we derive a generalized polar decomposition for linear processes that yields a unique, dynamically consistent rotation component, the dynamic rotation tensor, for the deformation gradient. The left dynamic stretch tensor is objective, and shares the principal strain values and axes with its classic polar counterpart. Unlike its classic polar counterpart, however, the dynamic stretch tensor evolves in time without spin. The dynamic rotation tensor further decomposes into a spatially constant mean rotation tensor and a dynamically consistent relative rotation tensor that is objective for planar deformations. We also obtain simple expressions for dynamic analogues of Cauchy's mean rotation angle that characterize a deforming body objectively.
Shepherd, James J.; Grüneis, Andreas; Booth, George H.; Kresse, Georg; Alavi, Ali
2012-07-01
Using the finite simulation-cell homogeneous electron gas (HEG) as a model, we investigate the convergence of the correlation energy to the complete-basis-set (CBS) limit in methods utilizing plane-wave wave-function expansions. Simple analytic and numerical results from second-order Møller-Plesset theory (MP2) suggest a 1/M decay of the basis-set incompleteness error where M is the number of plane waves used in the calculation, allowing for straightforward extrapolation to the CBS limit. As we shall show, the choice of basis-set truncation when constructing many-electron wave functions is far from obvious, and here we propose several alternatives based on the momentum transfer vector, which greatly improve the rate of convergence. This is demonstrated for a variety of wave-function methods, from MP2 to coupled-cluster doubles theory and the random-phase approximation plus second-order screened exchange. Finite basis-set energies are presented for these methods and compared with exact benchmarks. A transformation can map the orbitals of a general solid state system onto the HEG plane-wave basis and thereby allow application of these methods to more realistic physical problems. We demonstrate this explicitly for solid and molecular lithium hydride.
Rotation and Magnetism of Earth's Inner Core
Glatzmaier; Roberts
1996-12-13
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super- rotation of Earth's solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth's magnetic field.
Hydrogen Pellet-Rotating Plasma Interaction
Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming
1977-01-01
Spectroscopic measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. It was found that the light emitted is specific to the pellet material, and that the velocity of the ablated H-atoms is of the order of l0^4 m/s. The investigation was carried out...
Refinement of the structure of solid nitromethane
Trevino, S. F.; Prince, E.; Hubbard, C. R.
1980-09-01
The complete determination of the crystal structure of solid nitromethane has been obtained from single crystal x-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction data. The structure is orthorhombic, space group P212121 with a=5.1832 Å, b=6.2357 Å, c=8.5181 Å at T=4.2 K, and Z=4. Two models were used to describe the thermal motion of the methyl group, one with anisotropic temperature factors for the hydrogen atoms constrained to correspond to a threefold rotation around the C-N bond, and the other treating the group as a rigid body, with a tortional oscillation about the C-N bond axis.
Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks
Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.
2015-09-01
We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.
郑兴荣; 付云; 付文羽; 李向富; 李继弘
2015-01-01
X射线衍射实验显示固氩是面心立方( fcc)晶格结构,目前对晶体氩的研究只限于两体,三体以及四体相互作用势。本文利用多体展开方法和超分子单、双(三)重激发耦合簇理论(CCSD(T))对固氩fcc晶格结构的三体和四体的几何构型、几何参数、不同体积下所有三体和四体构型的势能以及各构型所占比例等几个方面进行了准确的量子化学计算。结果表明：所有三体构型中对总的三体势能贡献最大的是构型1、构型6、构型12和构型23；三体势及其交换部分和色散部分的计算结果与现有解析经验势在长程部分符合得非常好,但在短程部分有较小差异。所有的四体构形中对总的四体势能贡献最大的是构型1,构型2,构型4,构型5,构型7和构型8；四体势及其交换势部分和色散部分的计算结果尚无解析经验势可比较。利用这些特殊构型的相关数据并结合其它构型,可拟合出更准确的三体经验势函数及其参数,也为拟合四体经验势函数及其参数提供了重要的参考价值。%X-ray diffraction experiments shows that solid argon is a face-centered cubic crystal structure ( fcc structure). At present, crystal argon is studied involving two-, three- and four-body potentials. Using the many-body expansion method and the double cluster with full single and double excitations plus perturbative treatment of triples ( CCSD( T) ) , the properties of fcc structure for solid argon which include geometrical config-uration, geometrical parameters, potential energy of three- and four-body potentials and the proportion of all configurations at different volumes were accurately calculated. It is concluded that the configuration 1 , 6 , 12 and 23 play most important role in all three-body potential configurations. The calculation results of three-body po-tential, exchange potential and dispersion potential are in good agreement with the analytic experience
Shell model for warm rotating nuclei
Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Dossing, T. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others
1996-12-31
Utilizing a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface and volume delta two-body forces, the authors discuss the onset of rotational damping in normal- and super-deformed nuclei. Calculation for a typical normal deformed nucleus {sup 168}Yb indicates that the rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and about 30 rotational bands of various length exists at a given rotational frequency, in overall agreement with experimental findings. It is predicted that the onset of rotational damping changes significantly in different superdeformed nuclei due to the variety of the shell gaps and single-particle orbits associated with the superdeformed mean-field.
Rotating blade vibration analysis using shells
Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.
1981-01-01
Shallow shell theory and the Ritz method are employed to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of turbomachinery blades having both camber and twist, rotating with non-zero angles of attack. Frequencies obtained for different degrees of shallowness and thickness are compared with results available in the literature, obtained from finite element analyses of nonrotating blades. Frequencies are also determined for a rotating blade, showing the effects of changing the (1) angular velocity of rotation, (2) disk radius and (3) angle of attack, as well as the significance of the most important body force terms.
Finite rotation and nonlinear beam kinematics
Hodges, Dewey H.
1987-01-01
Standard means of representing finite rotation in rigid-body kinematics, including orientation angles, Euler parameters, and Rodrigues parameters, are reviewed and compared. General kinematical relations for a beam theory that treats arbitrarily large rotation are then presented. The standard methods of representing finite rotations are applied to these kinematical expressions, and comparison is made among the standard methods and additional methods found in the literature, such as quasi-coordinates and linear combinations of projection angles. The method of Rodrigues parameters is shown to stand out for both its simplicity and generality when applied to beam kinematics, a result that is really missing from the literature.
Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2015-01-01
The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results int...
2016-11-07
Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Regional Neuroblastoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography of oak (Quercus robur L.) bark.
Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Andrensek, Samo; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia
2003-04-04
The versatile novel instrument for rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography was exploited for the investigation of oak bark (Quercus robur L.). The same instrument enabled extraction of the bark, analytical proof of (+)-catechin directly in the crude extract and also its fractionation. Additionally, epimeric flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were separated by analytical ultra-micro rotation planar chromatography on cellulose plates with pure water as developing solvent. A comparison of the extraction of oak bark with 80% aqueous methanol by rotation planar extraction and medium pressure solid-liquid extraction was carried out and both techniques were shown to be suitable for the efficient extraction of oak bark. The raw extracts and fractions on thin-layer chromatography showed many compounds that possessed antioxidant activity after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Rotation planar fractionation of 840 mg of crude oak bark extract on silica gel gave 6.7 mg of pure (+)-catechin in one run.
Rotator cuff repair - slideshow
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...
地质体三维实体建模的数据预处理方法%Data Preprocessing Method for 3D Solid Modeling of Geologic Bodies
孟耀伟; 程菊明; 田胜利
2011-01-01
研究了三维地质体实体建模对地质勘探数据的要求,结合三雏地质体实体建模相关过程和操作,阐述了数据预处理的重要性.提出了数据预处理的数据检查、数据修正和建模辅助3个过程,并对这3个过程中的轮廓线自相交、轮廓线之间相交、任意简单多边形的重心计算算法、三维空间中的辅助标记添加等主要问题和相应解决算法进行了详细论述.实验结果表明,该些方法能够简化建模算法,具有很高的可操作性.%The requirements of data for 3D solid modeling of geologic bodies are analyzed.Combining with the process and manipulation of 3D solid modeling of geologic bodies, the importanee of data preprocessing is expounded.The data preprocessing are divided into three phases that are dats check,data modification and the addition of auxiliary data for modeling, and of which some main problems such as outline intersecting with itself or between the lines, the cg calculation of arbitrary simple polygons and the addition of auxiliary data in three - dimensional space,and corresponding algorithms to solve these problems are discussed detailedly.The experiment results show that the methods can simplify the modeling algorithms and have high maneuverability.
赵碧云; 贺彬; 朱云燕; 袁国林
2001-01-01
Using synchronous monitoring data and TM data of la ndsat 5 , TMimage remote sencing Suspended Solid（SS） water quality model is established by corre lative degree analysis between Suspended Solid concentration and data of differe nt TM bands. The model successfully applied to remote sensing dynamic monitorin g of Suspended Solid in the Dianchi Lake water bodies.%利用滇池1999年4月14日陆地卫星TM数据与准同步全湖面监测资料，对滇池全湖水体总悬浮物含量与不同波段遥感值的关系进行了关联度分析，并据此建立了TM图像遥感总悬浮物水质模型，该模型被成功地应用于滇池水体总悬浮物的遥感动态监测。
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...
Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector
Pina, E.
2011-01-01
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Molecular kinetics of solid and liquid CHCl$_3$
Caballero, Nirvana B; Carignano, Marcelo A; Serra, Pablo
2013-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the molecular kinetics of CHCl$_3$ in a range of temperatures covering the solid and liquid phases. Using nuclear quadrupolar resonance we determine the relaxation times for the molecular rotations in solid at pre-melting conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize the rotational dynamics in the solid and liquid phases and to study the local structure of the liquid in terms of the molecular relative orientations. We find that in the pre-melting regime the molecules rotate about the C-H bond, but the rotations are isotropic in the liquid, even at supercooled conditions.
Shell Model for Warm Rotating Nuclei
Matsuo, M; Vigezzi, E; Broglia, R A; Yoshida, K
1997-01-01
In order to provide a microscopic description of levels and E2 transitions in rapidly rotating nuclei with internal excitation energy up to a few MeV, use is made of a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface delta two-body force. The damping of collective rotational motion is investigated in the case of a typical rare-earth nucleus, namely \\Yb. It is found that rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and the levels which form rotational band structures are thus limited. We predict at a given rotational frequency existence of about 30 rotational bands of various lengths, in overall agreement with the experimental findings. The onset of the rotational damping proceeds quite gradually as a function of the internal excitation energy. The transition region extends up to around 2 MeV above yrast and it is characterized by the presence of scars of discrete rotational bands which extend over few spin values and stand out among the damped transition...
Tectonic rotations and internal structure of Eocene plutons in Chuquicamata, northern Chile
Somoza, R.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Zaffarana, C. B.; Singer, S. E.; Puigdomenech Negre, C. G.; Raposo, M. I. B.; Dilles, J. H.
2015-07-01
A paleomagnetic and AMS study on Eocene plutonic complexes in the Calama area, northern Chile, reveals high-temperature, high-coercivity magnetizations of dominantly thermoremanent origin and magnetic fabrics controlled by magnetite. The paleomagnetic results indicate that ~ 43 Ma plutons underwent clockwise tectonic rotation, whereas adjacent ~ 39 Ma plutons did not undergo discernible rotation. This points to a middle Eocene age for the younger tectonic rotations associated with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern in the Chuquicamata-Calama area. The petrofabric in these rocks formed under conditions ranging from purely magmatic (i.e. before full crystallization) to low-temperature solid-state deformation. AMS and paleomagnetism suggest that the plutonic bodies were formed by progressive amalgamation of subvertical magma sheets spanning multiple magnetic polarity chrons. The parallelism between magmatic and tectonic foliations suggests that regional tectonic stress controlled ascent, emplacement and rock deformation during cooling. In this context, we suggest that magma ascent and emplacement in the upper crust likely exploited Mesozoic structures which were locally reactivated in the Eocene.
Rotation in the Pleiades with K2: II. Multi-Period Stars
Rebull, L M; Bouvier, J; Cody, A M; Hillenbrand, L A; Soderblom, D R; Valenti, J; Barrado, D; Bouy, H; Ciardi, D; Pinsonneault, M; Stassun, K; Micela, G; Aigrain, S; Vrba, F; Somers, G; Gillen, E; Cameron, A Collier
2016-01-01
We use K2 to continue the exploration of the distribution of rotation periods in Pleiades that we began in Paper I. We have discovered complicated multi-period behavior in Pleiades stars using these K2 data, and we have grouped them into categories, which are the focal part of this paper. About 24% of the sample has multiple, real frequencies in the periodogram, sometimes manifesting as obvious beating in the light curves. Those having complex and/or structured periodogram peaks, unresolved multiple periods, and resolved close multiple periods are likely due to spot/spot group evolution and/or latitudinal differential rotation; these largely compose the slowly rotating sequence in $P$ vs.~$(V-K_{\\rm s})_0$ identified in Paper I. The fast sequence in $P$ vs.~$(V-K_{\\rm s})_0$ is dominated by single-period stars; these are likely to be rotating as solid bodies. Paper III continues the discussion, speculating about the origin and evolution of the period distribution in the Pleiades.
An analogy of Taylor's instability criterion in Couette and rotating-magnetic-field-driven flows
Ungarish, Marius
2012-01-01
The classical stability solution of Taylor for the Couette flow between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is used to model the "critical magnetic Taylor number," Tacr, in a flow of a liquid metal driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF) in a cylindrical cavity characterized by the parameter H = height/radius. (The magnetic Taylor number is defined as Ta =σωBo2Ro4/(2ρν2), where σ ,ν, and ρ are the electrical conductivity, kinematic viscosity, and density of the liquid; ω and Bo are the magnetic field frequency and induction; Ro is the radius of the cavity; the cr superscript means "critical") In typical conditions, the RMF flow develops a solid-body-rotating core analogous to the inner rotating cylinder, embedded in a layer in which the swirl decays to zero at the outer wall. Using small-Ekman-number approximations for the core and gap flow, the analogy yields an insightful expression for Tacr. In particular, the model indicates that Tacr depends strongly on the parameter H. Comparisons of the present theoretical results with available realistic data show a good qualitative agreement and plausible quantitative agreement. The model was improved by an empirical adjustment of a coefficient and can be used as simple approximate prediction tool for Tacr in a quite wide range of cylindrical cavity configurations.
Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies
Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.
2012-09-26
The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of
Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim
2013-01-01
Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.
Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard
2013-01-01
to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases......This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...
Lumped model for rotational modes in phononic crystals
Peng, Pai
2012-10-16
We present a lumped model for the rotational modes induced by the rotational motion of individual scatterers in two-dimensional phononic crystals comprised of square arrays of solid cylindrical scatterers in solid hosts. The model provides a physical interpretation of the origin of the rotational modes, reveals the important role played by the rotational motion in determining the band structure, and reproduces the dispersion relations in a certain range. The model increases the possibilities of manipulating wave propagation in phononic crystals. In particular, expressions derived from the model for eigenfrequencies at high symmetry points unambiguously predict the presence of a new type of Dirac-like cone at the Brillouin center, which is found to be the result of accidental degeneracy of the rotational and dipolar modes.
Tides, Rotation Or Anisotropy? Self-consistent Nonspherical Models For Globular Clusters
Varri, Anna L.; Bertin, G.
2011-01-01
Spherical models of quasi-relaxed stellar systems provide a successful zeroth-order description of globular clusters. Yet, the great progress made in recent years in the acquisition of detailed information of the structure of these stellar systems calls for a renewed effort on the side of modeling. In particular, more general analytical models would allow to address the long-standing issue of the physical origin of the deviations from spherical symmetry of the globular clusters, that now can be properly measured. In fact, it remains to be established which is the cause of the observed flattening, among external tides, internal rotation, and pressure anisotropy. In this paper we focus on the first two physical ingredients. We start by briefly describing a recently studied family of triaxial models that incorporate in a self-consistent way the tidal effects of the host galaxy, as a collisionless analogue of the Roche problem (Varri & Bertin ApJ 2009). We then present two new families of axisymmetric models in which the deviations from spherical symmetry are induced by the presence of internal rotation. The first one is an extension of the well-known family of King models to the case of axisymmetric equilibria flattened by solid-body rotation. The second family is characterized by differential rotation, designed to be rigid in the center and to vanish in the outer parts, where the imposed truncation in phase space becomes effective. For possible application to globular clusters, models of interest should be those, in both families, characterized by low values of the rotation strength parameter and quasi-spherical shape. For general interest in stellar dynamics, we show that, for high values of that parameter, the differentially rotating models may exhibit unexpected morphologies, even with a toroidal core.
Choi, B. H.; Poe, R. T.
1977-01-01
A detailed vibrational-rotational (V-R) close-coupling formulation of electron-diatomic-molecule scattering is developed in which the target molecular axis is chosen to be the z-axis and the resulting coupled differential equation is solved in the moving body-fixed frame throughout the entire interaction region. The coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions in the body-fixed frame are given for each parity, and procedures are outlined for evaluating V-R transition cross sections on the basis of the body-fixed transition and reactance matrix elements. Conditions are discussed for obtaining identical results from the space-fixed and body-fixed formulations in the case where a finite truncated basis set is used. The hybrid theory of Chandra and Temkin (1976) is then reformulated, relevant expressions and formulas for the simultaneous V-R transitions of the hybrid theory are obtained in the same forms as those of the V-R close-coupling theory, and distorted-wave Born-approximation expressions for the cross sections of the hybrid theory are presented. A close-coupling approximation that conserves the internuclear axis component of the incident electronic angular momentum (l subscript z-prime) is derived from the V-R close-coupling formulation in the moving body-fixed frame.
Solid state lighting devices and methods with rotary cooling structures
Koplow, Jeffrey P.
2017-03-21
Solid state lighting devices and methods for heat dissipation with rotary cooling structures are described. An example solid state lighting device includes a solid state light source, a rotating heat transfer structure in thermal contact with the solid state light source, and a mounting assembly having a stationary portion. The mounting assembly may be rotatably coupled to the heat transfer structure such that at least a portion of the mounting assembly remains stationary while the heat transfer structure is rotating. Examples of methods for dissipating heat from electrical devices, such as solid state lighting sources are also described. Heat dissipation methods may include providing electrical power to a solid state light source mounted to and in thermal contact with a heat transfer structure, and rotating the heat transfer structure through a surrounding medium.
Manolopoulou, Maria
2016-01-01
We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...
Toward Realistic Dynamics of Rotating Orbital Debris, and Implications for Lightcurve Interpretation
Ojakangas, Gregory W.; Cowardin, H.; Hill, N.
2011-01-01
roughly coincident with the normal to the largest projected cross-sectional area, internal friction is expected to lead to reduced variation of light curve amplitudes at a given phase angle, but a large dependence of the same on phase angle. At a given phase angle, databases are generated which contain reflected intensities for comprehensive sets of equally-likely orientations, represented as unit quaternions. When projected onto three dimensions (S2) and color-coded by intensity, the set is depicted as points within a solid, semi-transparent unit sphere, within which all possible reflected intensities for an object at a given phase angle may be inspected simultaneously. Rotational sequences are represented by trajectories through the sphere. Databases are generated for each of a set of phase angles separately, forming a comprehensive dataset of reflected intensities spanning all object orientations and solar phase angles. Symmetries in the problem suggest that preferred rotation states are likely, defined relative to the object-sun direction in inertial space and relative to the maximum principal axis of inertia in the body coordinate system. Such rotation states may greatly simplify the problem of light curve interpretation by reducing the number of degrees of freedom in the problem.
Quantum Localization in Laser-Driven Molecular Rotation
Averbukh, Ilya
2016-05-01
Recently we predicted that several celebrated solid state quantum localization phenomena - Anderson localization, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. In this talk, I will present these new rotational effects in a gas of linear molecules subject to a moderately long periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A small detuning of the train period from the rotational revival time causes Anderson localization in the angular momentum space above some critical value of J - the Anderson wall. This wall marks an impenetrable border stopping any further rotational excitation. Below the Anderson wall, the rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. I will present the results of the first experimental observation of the laser-induced rotational Bloch oscillations in molecular nitrogen at ambient conditions (Stanford & Weizmann, 2015). We will also discuss the prospects of observing the rotational analogues of the Tamm surface states in a similar experimental setup. Our results offer laser-driven molecular rotation as a new platform for studies on the localization phenomena in quantum transport. These effects are important for many processes involving highly excited rotational states, including coherent optical manipulations in molecular mixtures, and propagation of powerful laser pulses in atmosphere.
THE FLOW IN ROTATING CURVED CIRCULAR PIPE
无
2000-01-01
The combined effects of the system rotation (Coriolis force) and curvature (centrifugal force) on the flow in rotating curved circular pipe with small curvature are examined by perturbation method. A second-order perturbation solution is presented. The secondary flow structure and the primary axial velocity distributions are studied in detail. The loops of the secondary flow are more complex than those in a curved pipe without rotation or a rotating straight pipe. Its numbers depend on the body force ratio F which represents the ratio of the Coriolis to the centrifugal force. The maximum of the axial velocity is pushed to either outer bend or inner bend, which is also determined by F. The results are confirmed by the results of other authors who studied the same problem by different methods.
Halpha rotation curves the soft core question
Marchesini, D; Chincarini, G L; Firmani, C; Conconi, P; Molinari, E; Zacchei, A
2002-01-01
We present good resolution Halpha rotation curves of 6 galaxies: late-type dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies (LSB) for which accurate HI rotation curves are available from the literature. Observations are carried out at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). For LSB F583-1 an innovative dispersing element was used, the Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) with a dispersion of about 0.35 A pxl^{-1}. From our analysis we find good agreement between the Halpha data and the HI observations concluding that the HI data for these galaxies suffer very little from beam smearing. We show that the optical rotation curves of these dark matter dominated galaxies are best fitted by the Burkert profile. In the center of galaxies, where the N-body simulations predict cusp cores and fast rising rotation curves, our data seem to be in better agreement with the presence of soft cores.
Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.
1972-01-01
The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.
Rotational motion control of a spacecraft
Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.
2003-01-01
The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...
Analysis on rotational Doppler Effect based on modal expansion method
Zhou, Hailong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang
2015-01-01
We theoretically investigate the optical rotational Doppler Effect using modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the change of mode index. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler Effect. It can provide theoretical guidance for many related applications, such as detection of rotating bodies, detection of OAM and frequency shift.
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh
2016-05-19
We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under conditions close to the quantum resonance. The quantum resonance effect causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that a disturbance of the quantum resonance, either by the centrifugal distortion of the rotating molecules or a controlled detuning of the pulse train period from the so-called rotational revival time, eventually halts the growth by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum, the Anderson wall. Below the wall, the rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at near-ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.
Numerical simulation on heat transfer inside rotating porous disk subjected to local heat flux
ZHU; XingDan; ZHANG; JingZhou; TAN; XiaoMing
2013-01-01
Numerical simulation was carried out to study the centrifugally-driven flow and heat transfer inside rotating metallic porous disk subjected to local heat flux. The effects of rotational speed, solid thermal conductivity and porosity on heat transfer were analyzed. The thermal transport coefficient, defined as the ratio of local heat flux to maximum temperature difference on the disk, was introduced to evaluate the thermal transport capacity in rotating porous disk. For convenience, the conjugation between convective heat transfer inside the rotating porous disk and convective heat transfer over the rotating disk surface was decoupled in the present study. Firstly, the convective heat transfer over the free rotating disk surface was investigated indi-vidually to determine the heat transfer coefficient over the disk surface to the ambient air. Then the convective heat transfer over a rotating disk surface was treated as the thermal boundary condition for the computation of convective heat transfer in-side rotating porous disk. Under the present research conditions, the results show that the centrifugally-driven flow is enhanced significantly with the increase of rotational speed. Consequently, the maximum temperature on the disk surface is decreased and the temperature distribution tends to be uniform. The thermal transport capacity in rotating porous disk is also enhanced with the increase of solid thermal conductivity or the decrease of solid porosity. In the rotating porous disk, the solid phase heat transfer is clearly the dominant mode of heat transport and the fluid phase makes an incremental contribution to the total heat transfer.
具有筒型结构的回转机械的应力特性分析%Analysis on Stress Characteristics of Rotating Machine with Cylinder Body
刘树英; 韩清凯; 闻邦椿
2001-01-01
The acting loads on mill cylinder body were analyzed. Staticstresses and modals of the cylinder body were calculated by finite element method, stress distributions with of cylinder body, bolt hole, man hole, together with six modes of mill cylinder body were obtained for normal working case and start state. These results may be used to design and improve the mill cylinder body and similar structures.%对磨机筒体上的作用载荷进行了分析,用有限元对筒体进行了静态应力分析和模态分析,得出了正常工作状态和启动状态时筒体、螺栓孔和人孔的应力分布及磨机筒体的前六阶振型,为磨机筒体及同类结构设计和工艺改进提供了理论依据.
Deconstructing Mental Rotation
Larsen, Axel
2014-01-01
A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...... alignment take place during fixations at very high speed....
Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson
1989-01-01
Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...
Faraday rotation measure synthesis
Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG
2005-01-01
We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2) coverag
Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).
He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So
2014-01-14
Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the "dimerized" low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.
Quasi-periodical variations of pulsars spin as mimicry of differential rotation
Kitiashvili, I.; Gusev, A.
2008-09-01
ABSTRACT Observation of pulsars is a powerful source of information for studying the dynamics and internal structure of neutron stars. Known about quasi-periodical fluctuations of the time-of-arrival of radiation(TOA) for some pulsars, which we explain as Chandler wobble, Free core nutation, Free inner core nutation and Inner core wobble in case three layer model. Using hamilton approximation to theory rotation of multilayer celestial bodies we estimate dynamical flattening for different layers for PSR B1828-11. It is known that an innate feature of pulsar radiation is high stability of the time-of-arrival (TOA) of pulses, and therefore the analysis of TOA fluctuations can reflect subtle effects of neutron stars dynamics. TOA variations of pulsars can be interpreted by three reasons: gravitational perturbation of pulsar by planetary bodies, peculiarities of a pulsar interior like Tkachenko oscillations and free precession motion, when axis of rotation do not coincide with vectors of the angular moment of solid crust, liquid outer core and crystal core. The radial velocity of a star is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the Doppler effect in its spectrum. Stars showing a small amplitude variation of the radial velocity can be interpreted as systems having planetary companions. Assuming that the pulsar PSR B1257+12 has a mass of 1:35M¯, the Keplerian orbital radii are 0.9, 1.4 and 2.1 AU and with masses are 3:1M©=sin(i), 10:2M©=sin(i), 4:6M©=sin(i), where i is the orbital inclination [7]. In 2000, Stairs, Lyne and Shemar reported about their discovery of long-term, highly-periodic and correlated variations of pulse shape and the rate of slow-down of the pulsar PSR B182811 with period variations approximately 1000, 500, 250 and 167 days, which may be a result of the spin axis caused by an asymmetry in the shape of the pulsar. The long-periodic precession phenomenon was also detected for a few pulsars: PSR 2217+47, PSR 0531+21, PSR B083345, PSR B182811, PSR B
De Lorenci, V A
1996-01-01
We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.
Uniformly rotating neutron stars
Boshkayev, Kuantay
2016-01-01
In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...
Sliney, Harold E.
1993-01-01
The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.
Precession Relaxation of Viscoelastic Oblate Rotators
Frouard, Julien
2016-01-01
Various perturbations (collisions, close encounters, YORP) destabilise the rotation of a small body, leaving it in a non-principal spin state. Then the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. The ensuing inelastic dissipation reduces the kinetic energy, without influencing the angular momentum. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e., evolution of the spin towards rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the timescales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the past, nutation relaxation has been described by an empirical quality factor introduced to parameterise the dissipation rate and to evade the discussion of the actual rheological parameters and their role in dissipation. This approach is unable to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the nutation angle, because we do not know the quality factor's dependence on the frequency (which is a function of the nutation angle). This leaves open the question of relax...
Pedestrians rotation measurement in bidirectional streams
Feliciani, Claudio
2016-01-01
This study presents an experimental measurement of pedestrians' body rotation in bidirectional streams. A mock-up corridor monitored using a camera placed on azimuthal position is used to study pedestrians' behavior in unidirectional and bidirectional flows. Additionally, a commercial tablet is fixed on the chest of sample pedestrians to examine their body rotation (or yawing) which cannot be obtained using position tracking alone. Angular velocity is recorded and simultaneously stored in a central location using a wireless network, thus allowing the analysis of body movements with a high sampling rate and a limited delay. To investigate the influence of major/minor flow proportion (flow-ratio) on bidirectional streams two different situations were tested: the balanced configuration (with equal flows in both directions) and an unbalanced configuration (with different major and minor flow). Results clearly show that unidirectional flow is more stable compared to the bidirectional case, requiring less time to c...
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in rotating and precessing sheared flows: an asymptotic analysis.
Salhi, A; Lehner, T; Cambon, C
2010-07-01
Linear magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are studied analytically in the case of unbounded inviscid and electrically conducting flows that are submitted to both rotation and precession with shear in an external magnetic field. For given rotation and precession the possible configurations of the shear and of the magnetic field and their interplay are imposed by the "admissibility" condition (i.e., the base flow must be a solution of the magnetohydrodynamic Euler equations): we show that an "admissible" basic magnetic field must align with the basic absolute vorticity. For these flows with elliptical streamlines due to precession we undertake an analytical stability analysis for the corresponding Floquet system, by using an asymptotic expansion into the small parameter ε (ratio of precession to rotation frequencies) by a method first developed in the magnetoelliptical instabilities study by Lebovitz and Zweibel [Astrophys. J. 609, 301 (2004)]10.1086/420972. The present stability analysis is performed into a suitable frame that is obtained by a systematic change of variables guided by symmetry and the existence of invariants of motion. The obtained Floquet system depends on three parameters: ε , η (ratio of the cyclotron frequency to the rotation frequency) and χ=cos α, with α being a characteristic angle which, for circular streamlines, ε=0, identifies with the angle between the wave vector and the axis of the solid body rotation. We look at the various (centrifugal or precessional) resonant couplings between the three present modes: hydrodynamical (inertial), magnetic (Alfvén), and mixed (magnetoinertial) modes by computing analytically to leading order in ε the instabilities by estimating their threshold, growth rate, and maximum growth rate and their bandwidths as functions of ε, η, and χ. We show that the subharmonic "magnetic" mode appears only for η>square root of 5/2 and at large η (>1) the maximal growth rate of both the "hydrodynamic" and
... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...
Advances in Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy for Applied Science
Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Neill, Justin L.
2017-06-01
Advances in chemical sensitivity and robust, solid-state designs for microwave/millimeter-wave instrumentation compel the expansion of molecular rotational spectroscopy as research tool into applied science. It is familiar to consider molecular rotational spectroscopy for air analysis. Those techniques for molecular rotational spectroscopy are included in our presentation of a more broad application space for materials analysis using Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometers. There are potentially transformative advantages for direct gas analysis of complex mixtures, determination of unknown evolved gases with parts per trillion detection limits in solid materials, and unambiguous chiral determination. The introduction of FT-MRR as an alternative detection principle for analytical chemistry has created a ripe research space for the development of new analytical methods and sampling equipment to fully enable FT-MRR. We present the current state of purpose-built FT-MRR instrumentation and the latest application measurements that make use of new sampling methods.
Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics
Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang
2016-08-01
The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.
Mental rotation performance in male soccer players.
Petra Jansen
Full Text Available It is the main goal of this study to investigate the visual-spatial cognition in male soccer players. Forty males (20 soccer players and 20 non-athletes solved a chronometric mental rotation task with both cubed and embodied figures (human figures, body postures. The results confirm previous results that all participants had a lower mental rotation speed for cube figures compared to embodied figures and a higher error rate for cube figures, but only at angular disparities greater than 90°. It is a new finding that soccer-players showed a faster reaction time for embodied stimuli. Because rotation speed did not differ between soccer-players and non-athletes this finding cannot be attributed to the mental rotation process itself but instead to differences in one of the following processes which are involved in a mental rotation task: the encoding process, the maintanence of readiness, or the motor process. The results are discussed against the background of the influence on longterm physical activity on mental rotation and the context of embodied cognition.
Spread of Matter over a Neutron-Star Surface During Disk Accretion: Deceleration of Rapid Rotation
Sunyaev, R A
2011-01-01
The problem of disk accretion onto the surface of a neutron star with a weak magnetic field at a luminosity exceeding several percent of Eddington is reduced to the problem of the braking of a hypersonic flow with a velocity that is 0.4-0.5 of the speed of light above the base of the spreading layer -- a dense atmosphere made up of previously fallen matter. We show that turbulent braking in the Prandtl-Karman model with universally accepted coefficients for terrestrial conditions and laboratory experiments and a ladder of interacting gravity waves in a stratified quasi-exponential atmosphere at standard Richardson numbers lead to a spin-up of the massive zone that extends to the ocean made up of a plasma with degenerate electrons. Turbulent braking in the ocean at the boundary with the outer solid crust reduces the rotation velocity to the solid-body rotation velocity of the star. This situation should lead to strong heating of deep atmospheric layers and to the switch-off of the explosive helium burning mech...
Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.
1986-01-01
Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.
Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1996-11-01
It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.
Rotation-Dependent Catastrophic Disruption of Gravitational Aggregates
Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R
2014-01-01
We carry out a systematic exploration of the effect of pre-impact rotation on the outcomes of low-speed collisions between planetesimals modeled as gravitational aggregates. We use pkdgrav, a cosmology code adapted to collisional problems and recently enhanced with a new soft-sphere collision algorithm that includes more realistic contact forces. A rotating body has lower effective surface gravity than a non-rotating one and therefore might suffer more mass loss as the result of a collision. What is less well understood, however, is whether rotation systematically increases mass loss on average regardless of the impact trajectory. This has important implications for the efficiency of planet formation via planetesimal growth, and also more generally for the determination of the impact energy threshold for catastrophic disruption (leading to the largest remnant retaining 50% of the original mass), as this has generally only been evaluated for non-spinning bodies. We find that for most collision scenarios, rotat...
Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website
Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.
2007-01-01
Introduction Although effects of rotational motions due to earthquakes have long been observed (e. g., Mallet, 1862), nevertheless Richter (1958, p. 213) stated that: 'Perfectly general motion would also involve rotations about three perpendicular axes, and three more instruments for these. Theory indicates, and observation confirms, that such rotations are negligible.' However, Richter provided no references for this claim. Seismology is based primarily on the observation and modeling of three-component translational ground motions. Nevertheless, theoretical seismologists (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980, 2002) have argued for decades that the rotational part of ground motions should also be recorded. It is well known that standard seismometers are quite sensitive to rotations and therefore subject to rotation-induced errors. The paucity of observations of rotational motions is mainly the result of a lack, until recently, of affordable rotational sensors of sufficient resolution. Nevertheless, in the past decade, a number of authors have reported direct observations of rotational motions and rotations inferred from rigid-body rotations in short baseline accelerometer arrays, creating a burgeoning library of rotational data. For example, ring laser gyros in Germany and New Zealand have led to the first significant and consistent observations of rotational motions from distant earthquakes (Igel et al., 2005, 2007). A monograph on Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects was published recently as well by Teisseyre et al. (2006). Measurement of rotational motions has implications for: (1) recovering the complete ground-displacement history from seismometer recordings; (2) further constraining earthquake rupture properties; (3) extracting information about subsurface properties; and (4) providing additional ground motion information to earthquake engineers for seismic design. A special session on Rotational Motions in Seismology was convened by H
Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website
Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.
2007-01-01
Introduction Although effects of rotational motions due to earthquakes have long been observed (e. g., Mallet, 1862), nevertheless Richter (1958, p. 213) stated that: 'Perfectly general motion would also involve rotations about three perpendicular axes, and three more instruments for these. Theory indicates, and observation confirms, that such rotations are negligible.' However, Richter provided no references for this claim. Seismology is based primarily on the observation and modeling of three-component translational ground motions. Nevertheless, theoretical seismologists (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980, 2002) have argued for decades that the rotational part of ground motions should also be recorded. It is well known that standard seismometers are quite sensitive to rotations and therefore subject to rotation-induced errors. The paucity of observations of rotational motions is mainly the result of a lack, until recently, of affordable rotational sensors of sufficient resolution. Nevertheless, in the past decade, a number of authors have reported direct observations of rotational motions and rotations inferred from rigid-body rotations in short baseline accelerometer arrays, creating a burgeoning library of rotational data. For example, ring laser gyros in Germany and New Zealand have led to the first significant and consistent observations of rotational motions from distant earthquakes (Igel et al., 2005, 2007). A monograph on Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects was published recently as well by Teisseyre et al. (2006). Measurement of rotational motions has implications for: (1) recovering the complete ground-displacement history from seismometer recordings; (2) further constraining earthquake rupture properties; (3) extracting information about subsurface properties; and (4) providing additional ground motion information to earthquake engineers for seismic design. A special session on Rotational Motions in Seismology was convened by H
Fitzgerald, Wendy; Chen, Silvia; Walz, Carl; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Margolis, Leonid; Grivel, Jean-Charles
2009-12-01
The immune responses of human lymphoid tissue explants or cells isolated from this tissue were studied quantitatively under normal gravity and microgravity. Microgravity was either modeled by solid body suspension in a rotating, oxygenated culture vessel or was actually achieved on the International Space Station (ISS). Our experiments demonstrate that tissues or cells challenged by recall antigen or by polyclonal activator in modeled microgravity lose all their ability to produce antibodies and cytokines and to increase their metabolic activity. In contrast, if the cells were challenged before being exposed to modeled microgravity suspension culture, they maintained their responses. Similarly, in microgravity in the ISS, lymphoid cells did not respond to antigenic or polyclonal challenge, whereas cells challenged prior to the space flight maintained their antibody and cytokine responses in space. Thus, immune activation of cells of lymphoid tissue is severely blunted both in modeled and true microgravity. This suggests that suspension culture via solid body rotation is sufficient to induce the changes in cellular physiology seen in true microgravity. This phenomenon may reflect immune dysfunction observed in astronauts during space flights. If so, the ex vivo system described above can be used to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction.
陈莉娟; 唐菊; 陶淑芬
2015-01-01
PASCO rotation experimental system used sensor to collect data,and it used computer to processed data. During the experiment error is still large, according to statistics the relative error reaches above 30% in the student experiment, even if teachers aided measurement it is also very difficult to put the error control in the 20 within. The impact factors of accuracy of experimental data was investigated so that determine the scheme of reducing error.%PASCO转动学实验系统利用传感器采集数据并利用计算机处理数据，但实验过程中发现误差仍然很大，据统计学生在实验时相对误差高达30﹪以上，就算在教师辅助测量时也很难把误差控制在20﹪以内。为此，论文主要研究影响实验数据准确性的因素，从而确定出减小实验误差的方案。
... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...
Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation
WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang
2004-01-01
By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.
Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation
WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang
2004-01-01
By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.
Solar rotation gravitational moments
A. Ajabshirizadeh
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Gravitational multipole moments of the Sun are still poorly known. Theoretically, the difficulty is mainly due to the differential rotation for which the velocity rate varies both on the surface and with the depth. From an observational point of view, the multipole moments cannot be directly measured. However, recent progresses have been made proving the existence of a strong radial differential rotation in a thin layer near the solar surface (the leptocline. Applying the theory of rotating stars, we will first compute values of J2 and J4 taking into account the radial gradient of rotation, then we will compare these values with the existing ones, giving a more complete review. We will explain some astrophysical outcomes, mainly on the relativistic Post Newtonian parameters. Finally we will conclude by indicating how space experiments (balloon SDS flights, Golf NG, Beppi-Colombo, Gaia... will be essential to unambiguously determine these parameters.
Gavagnin, Elena; Lake, George
2016-01-01
Merging has been proposed to explain multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) where there is a spread in iron abundance (hereafter, iron-complex GCs). By means of N-body simulations, we investigate if merging is consistent with the observations of sub-populations and rotation in iron-complex GCs. The key parameters are the initial mass and density ratios of the progenitors. When densities are similar, the more massive progenitor dominates the central part of the merger remnant and the less massive progenitor forms an extended rotating population. The low-mass progenitor can become the majority population in the central regions of the merger remnant only if its initial density is higher by roughly the mass ratio. To match the radial distribution of multiple populations in two iron-complex GCs ({\\omega} Cen and NGC 1851), the less massive progenitor needs to be four times as dense as the larger one. Our merger remnants show solid-body rotation in the inner parts, becoming differential in the outer parts....
Electromagnetic rotational actuation.
Hogan, Alexander Lee
2010-08-01
There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.
Earth rotation and geodynamics
Bogusz Janusz; Brzezinski Aleksander; Kosek Wieslaw; Nastula Jolanta
2015-01-01
This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals wit...
Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge
2017-03-01
We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.
Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines
Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.
1978-01-01
This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.
Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator
Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.
Nettelmann, N; Fortney, J J; Redmer, R
2012-01-01
Since the Voyager fly-bys of Uranus and Neptune, improved gravity field data have been derived from long-term observations of the planets' satellite motions, and modified shape and solid-body rotation periods were suggested. A faster rotation period (-40 min) for Uranus and a slower rotation period (+1h20) of Neptune compared to the Voyager data were found to minimize the dynamical heights and wind speeds. We apply the improved gravity data, the modified shape and rotation data, and the physical LM-R equation of state to compute adiabatic three-layer structure models, where rocks are confined to the core, and homogeneous thermal evolution models of Uranus and Neptune. We present the full range of structure models for both the Voyager and the modified shape and rotation data. In contrast to previous studies based solely on the Voyager data or on empirical EOS, we find that Uranus and Neptune may differ to an observationally significant level in their atmospheric heavy element mass fraction Z1 and nondimensiona...
Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric
2016-01-01
Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...
Rotation and flattening of globular clusters
Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.
1985-01-01
Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion
Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.
2011-01-01
The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.
Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.
Matteo eCandidi
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (Vestibular Neuritis – VN- and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV with respect to healthy matched controls (C. We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: i mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and ii mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy
Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M
2015-01-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.
Chiral rotational spectroscopy
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.
2016-09-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.
Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team
2014-11-01
The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.
Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel
1997-01-01
The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...
Rotation of cometary meteoroids
Capek, David
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. The results can serve as initial conditions for further analyses of subsequent evolution of rotation in the interplanetary space. A sophisticated numerical model was applied to meteoroids ejected from 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes were approximated by polyhedrons with several thousands of surface elements, which have been determined by 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples came from three distinct sets with different origin and shape characteristics. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions (diffuse and specular reflection of gas molecules from the surface of meteoroid) and three gas ejection models (leading to very different ejection velocities) were assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population were obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape sele...
On the atmosphere of a moving body
Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan
2010-01-01
We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...
Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy
2013-01-01
of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also...... require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly...... exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum...
Mixed State Geometric Phase from Thomas Rotations
Lévai, Peter
2003-01-01
It is shown that Uhlmann's parallel transport of purifications along a path of mixed states represented by $2\\times 2$ density matrices is just the path ordered product of Thomas rotations. These rotations are invariant under hyperbolic translations inside the Bloch sphere that can be regarded as the Poincar\\'e ball model of hyperbolic geometry. A general expression for the mixed state geometric phase for an {\\it arbitrary} geodesic triangle in terms of the Bures fidelities is derived. The formula gives back the solid angle result well-known from studies of the pure state geometric phase. It is also shown that this mixed state anholonomy can be reinterpreted as the pure state non-Abelian anholonomy of entangled states living in a suitable restriction of the quaternionic Hopf bundle. In this picture Uhlmann's parallel transport is just Pancharatnam transport of quaternionic spinors.
Relativistic superfluid models for rotating neutron stars
Carter, B
2001-01-01
This article starts by providing an introductory overview of the theoretical mechanics of rotating neutron stars as developped to account for the frequency variations, and particularly the discontinuous glitches, observed in pulsars. The theory suggests, and the observations seem to confirm, that an essential role is played by the interaction between the solid crust and inner layers whose superfluid nature allows them to rotate independently. However many significant details remain to be clarified, even in much studied cases such as the Crab and Vela. The second part of this article is more technical, concentrating on just one of the many physical aspects that needs further development, namely the provision of a satisfactorily relativistic (local but not microscopic) treatment of the effects of the neutron superfluidity that is involved.
State reconstruction of molecular spatial rotation
Qin Xiao; Gao Jun-Yi
2012-01-01
We establish a reconstruction approach for the rotational quantum state of linear molecules possessing a magnetic manifold.Our approximate method contains an iteration with generalized matrix inverses,processing the tomographic integral of the time-dependent molecular-axis distribution in a polar angle.As shown in a simulated example for an alignment state,the density matrix is determined in a high fidelity.An analytic tomographic formula is also derived for the symmetric top rotation.The state coherent in the quantun space of both the angular momentum and its magnetic projection can be approximately retrieved from the observable time-resolved solid-angle distribution of the molecular.
Dynamics of granular flows down rotating semi-cylindrical chutes
Shirsath, S.S.; Padding, J.T.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Han, Yongshen; Ge, Wei; Wang, Junwu; Wang, Limin; Liu, Xinhua
2015-01-01
The behavior of spherical particles flowing down a three-dimensional chute, inclined at fixed angle, is commonly simulated by a discrete element method (DEM). DEM is nowadays a standard tool for numerical studies of e.g. gas-solid fluidized beds. We have modified DEM for the simulation of rotating g
Mental rotation and working memory in musicians' dystonia.
Erro, Roberto; Hirschbichler, Stephanie T; Ricciardi, Lucia; Ryterska, Agata; Antelmi, Elena; Ganos, Christos; Cordivari, Carla; Tinazzi, Michele; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P
2016-11-01
Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts. It is unknown whether patients with musicians' dystonia would display similar deficits, reinforcing the concept of shared pathophysiology. Eight patients with musicians' dystonia and eight healthy musicians matched for age, gender and musical education, performed a number of tasks assessing mental rotation of body parts and objects as well as verbal and spatial working memories abilities. There were no differences between patients and healthy musicians as to accuracy and reaction times in any of the tasks. Patients with musicians' dystonia have intact abilities in mentally rotating body parts, suggesting that this disorder relies on a highly selective disruption of movement planning and execution that manifests only upon playing a specific instrument. We further demonstrated that mental rotation of body parts and objects engages, at least partially, different cognitive networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of rotation on a rotating hot-wire sensor
Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1978-01-01
An investigation was conducted to discern the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on a rotating hot-wire. The probe was calibrated in a wind tunnel as well as in a rotating mode. The effect of rotation was found to be negligibly small. A small change in cold resistance (1.5%) was observed in the rotating wire. The rotation seems to have a negligible effect on the fluid mechanics, heat transfer and material characteristics of the wire. This is a significant conclusion in view of the potential application of the hot-wire probe in a rotating passage (such as turbomachinery).
Rasmusson, Allan
2009-01-01
The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest befo...
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Compact rotating cup anemometer
Wellman, J. B.
1968-01-01
Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.
Davies, Paul Charles William; Manogue, C A; Davies, Paul C W; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A
1996-01-01
We derive conditions for rotating particle detectors to respond in a variety of bounded spacetimes and compare the results with the folklore that particle detectors do not respond in the vacuum state appropriate to their motion. Applications involving possible violations of the second law of thermodynamics are briefly addressed.
Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand
Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.
1991-01-01
Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.
Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing
He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin
In previous studies we have found that constant low-speed rotation facilitated the auditory cognitive process and constant velocity rotation background sped up the perception, recognition and assessment process of visual stimuli. In the condition of constant low-speed rotation body is exposed into a new physical state. In this study the variations of human brain's cognitive process under the complex condition of constant low-speed rotation and visual rotation backgrounds with different speed were explored. 14 university students participated in the ex-periment. EEG signals were recorded when they were performing three different cognitive tasks with increasing mental load, that is no response task, selective switch responses task and selec-tive mental arithmetic task. Rotary chair was used to create constant low-speed10/srotation. Four kinds of background were used in this experiment, they were normal black background and constant 30o /s, 45o /s or 60o /s rotating simulated star background. The P1 and N1 compo-nents of brain event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed to detect the early visual cognitive processing changes. It was found that compared with task performed under other backgrounds, the posterior P1 and N1 latencies were shortened under 45o /s rotating background in all kinds of cognitive tasks. In the no response task, compared with task performed under black back-ground, the posterior N1 latencies were delayed under 30o /s rotating background. In the selec-tive switch responses task and selective mental arithmetic task, compared with task performed under other background, the P1 latencies were lengthened under 60o /s rotating background, but the average amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 were increased. It was suggested that under constant 10/s rotation, the facilitated effect of rotating visual background were changed to an inhibited one in 30o /s rotating background. Under vestibular new environment, not all of the rotating backgrounds
Theories of figures of celestial bodies
Jardetzky, Wenceslas S
2005-01-01
Everything in the universe rotates: the meteors, the asteroids, the planets and their satellites, the sun, the stars, the clusters and nebulae, even the galaxies themselves. The problem of the shape of a rotating body is therefore universal in astronomy. Its treatment in this book, which deals with the figures of equilibrium and distortions of rotating bodies, is full and rigorous.Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text was written by a renowned researcher and educator who taught at Columbia University and served for many years as a research associate at the La
Heisenberg Model in a Rotating Magnetic Field
LIN Qiong-Gui
2005-01-01
We study the Heisenberg model under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. By using a time-dependent unitary transformation, the time evolution operator for the Schrodinger equation is obtained, which involves no chronological product. The spin vectors (mean values of the spin operators) are obtained as explicit functions of time in the most general case. A series of cyclic solutions are presented. The nonadiabatic geometric phases of these cyclic solutions are calculated, and are expressed in terms of the solid angle subtended by the closed trace of the total spin vector, as well as in terms of those of the individual spins.
Orbital Mechanics near a Rotating Asteroid
Yu Jiang; Hexi Baoyin
2014-03-01
This study investigates the different novel forms of the dynamical equations of a particle orbiting a rotating asteroid and the effective potential, the Jacobi integral, etc. on different manifolds. Nine new forms of the dynamical equations of a particle orbiting a rotating asteroid are presented, and the classical form of the dynamical equations has also been found. The dynamical equations with the potential and the effective potential in scalar form in the arbitrary body-fixed frame and the special body-fixed frame are presented and discussed. Moreover, the simplified forms of the effective potential and the Jacobi integral have been derived. The dynamical equation in coefficient-matrix form has been derived. Other forms of the dynamical equations near the asteroid are presented and discussed, including the Lagrange form, the Hamilton form, the symplectic form, the Poisson form, the Poisson-bracket form, the cohomology form, and the dynamical equations on Kähler manifold and another complex manifold. Novel forms of the effective potential and the Jacobi integral are also presented. The dynamical equations in scalar form and coefficient-matrix form can aid in the study of the dynamical system, the bifurcation, and the chaotic motion of the orbital dynamics of a particle near a rotating asteroid. The dynamical equations of a particle near a rotating asteroid are presented on several manifolds, including the symplectic manifold, the Poisson manifold, and complex manifolds, which may lead to novel methods of studying the motion of a particle in the potential field of a rotating asteroid.
Yan, Yin-Nan; Kubo, Kazuya; Noro, Shin-ichiro; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takayoshi
2014-01-01
Supramolecular cation salt of adamantane rotator with a dithiolene complex, (fluoroadamantylammonium(+))([18]-crown-6)[Ni(dmit)(2)](-) (1) was synthesized. The fluorine atom of the adamantane unit showed a large thermal factor elongated latitudinally, suggesting molecular rotation in the solid state. Crystal 1 exhibited a large dielectric response by applying an AC field along the a axis.
Beltzer, Abraham I
1988-01-01
Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...
Comparison of far wakes behind a solid disk and a three-blade rotor
Litvinov, I. V.; Naumov, I.V.; Okulov, Valery;
2015-01-01
A comparison of the wakes developed behind an immobile bluff body (solid disk) and a three-blade rotor at different rotational speeds is studied to find a correlation between them. LDA and PIV were applied to study the wakes behind both models in a water flume (Re ≈ 2.3·105). Everywhere in both...... deficit and rms of the velocity in both far wakes for the disk or the rotor shows a rational decay with the same power –2/3. It has good agreement with the analytical formula for the decay of the velocity deficit behind bluff bodies. A limit for using this model restricted by the turbulence level...
Global rotation of mechanical metamaterials induced by their internal deformation
Dudek, K. K.; Gatt, R.; Mizzi, L.; Dudek, M. R.; Attard, D.; Grima, J. N.
2017-09-01
In this work, we propose the concept that a device based on mechanical metamaterials can be used to induce and control its own rotational motion as a result of internal deformations due to the conversion of translational degrees of freedom into rotational ones. The application of a linear force on the structural units of the system may be fine-tuned in order to obtain a desired type of rotation. In particular, we show, how it is possible to maximise the extent of rotation of the system through the alteration of the geometry of the system. We also show how a device based on this concept can be connected to an external body in order to rotate it which result may potentially prove to be very important in the case of applications such as telescopes employed in space.
Dynamics of Rotationally Fissioned Asteroids
Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, D. J.
2010-10-01
We present a model for near-Earth asteroid (NEA) rotational fission that results in the evolution of all observed types of NEA systems: synchronous binaries, asteroid pairs, doubly synchronous binaries, high-e binaries, ternary systems, and contact binaries. The model consists of "rubble pile” asteroid geophysics, the YORP and binary YORP effects, and mutual gravitational interactions. An NEA can be modeled as a ``rubble pile"--a collection of gravitationally bound boulders with a distribution of size scales and very little tensile strength between them. The YORP effect torques a "rubble pile” asteroid until the asteroid reaches its disruption spin limit, and then two collections of boulders will enter into orbit about each other determined by the largest distance between mass centers. This binary system dynamically evolves under the effects of non-spherical gravitational potentials, solar gravitational perturbations, and mutual body tides. The coupling between the spin states and orbit state chaotically drives the system into the observed asteroid classes with mass ratio, q, distinguishing two evolutionary tracks. High mass ratio systems, q>0.2, evolve tidally into doubly synchronous binaries and then continued to be evolved by BYORP. Low mass ratio systems, qfission, creating a chaotic ternary system. We call this new process secondary fission. The resulting triple system may eject one body or, more often, send one into a slow speed impact with the primary. These processes tend to stabilize the initially chaotic binaries to create synchronous binaries. These results emphasize the importance of the initial component size distribution and configuration within the parent body. This work is supported by NASA's PGG and OPR programs through grants: NNX08AL51G and NNX09AU23G.
Modeling and analysis of rotating solids and structures
Krenk, Steen
2011-01-01
It is demonstrated that the inertial terms in the dynamic equations of motion in a moving frame take a simple universal form in terms of the classic mass matrix, when the traditional Lagrangian approach with local velocities as time derivatives of position is replaced by a Hamiltonian approach...
Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors
A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch
2010-02-15
Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.
Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center
Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant
2012-01-01
What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.
Govindarajan Arunachalam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An investigation of unsteady MHD free convective flow and mass transfer during the motion of a viscous incompressible fluid through a porous medium, bounded by an infinite vertical porous surface, in a rotating system is presented. The porous plane surface and the porous medium are assumed to rotate in a solid body rotation. The vertical surface is subjected to uniform constant suction perpendicular to it and the temperature at this surface fluctuates in time about a non-zero constant mean. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained using the perturbation technique. The effects of R (rotation parameter, k0 (permeability parameter, M (Hartmann number and w (frequency parameter on the flow characteristics are discussed. It is observed that the primary velocity component decreases with the increase in either of the rotation parameter R, the permeability parameter k0, or the Hartmann number M. It is also noted that the primary skin friction increases whenever there is an increase in the Grashof number Gr or the modified Grashof number Gm. It is clear that the heat transfer coefficient in terms of the Nusselt number decreases in the case of both air and water when there is an increase in the Hartmann number M. It is observed that the magnitude of the secondary velocity profiles increases whenever there is an increase in either of the Grashof number or the modified Grashof number for mass transfer or the permeability of the porous media. Concentration profiles decreases with an increase in the Schmidt number.
Movement of earth rotation and activities of atmosphere and ocean
无
2001-01-01
The rotation of the earth, including the variation of the rotational rate and polar motion, represents the statement of the earth's overall movement and interactions among the solid earth, atmosphere and ocean on a variety of space-time scales. They make the earth's complex dynamical system under the conservation of angular momentum. The application and development of recent space geodetic tech-niques greatly promote the researches on the interactions between the earth rotation and the activities of atmosphere and ocean. This review will mainly report the progress in researches on the earth rotation and the activities of atmos-phere and ocean as well as the air-sea interaction in the tropics, and prospect the direction for future theoretical investigations.
Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation
Floß, Johannes
2014-01-01
We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under quantum resonance conditions. In a rigid rotor the resonance causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that the centrifugal distortion of rotating molecules eventually halts the growth, by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum -- the Anderson wall. Its position solely depends on the molecular rotational constants and lies in the range of a few tens of hbar. Below the wall, rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.
Anderson wall and BLOCH oscillations in molecular rotation.
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh
2014-07-25
We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under quantum resonance conditions. In a rigid rotor, the resonance causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that the centrifugal distortion of rotating molecules eventually halts the growth, by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum--the Anderson wall. Its position solely depends on the molecular rotational constants and lies in the range of a few tens of ℏ. Below the wall, rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at near-ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.
Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages
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Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission.
Pravec, P; Vokrouhlický, D; Polishook, D; Scheeres, D J; Harris, A W; Galád, A; Vaduvescu, O; Pozo, F; Barr, A; Longa, P; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Pray, D P; Pollock, J; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; Lacluyze, A; Kusnirák, P; Henych, T; Marchis, F; Macomber, B; Jacobson, S A; Krugly, Yu N; Sergeev, A V; Leroy, A
2010-08-26
Pairs of asteroids sharing similar heliocentric orbits, but not bound together, were found recently. Backward integrations of their orbits indicated that they separated gently with low relative velocities, but did not provide additional insight into their formation mechanism. A previously hypothesized rotational fission process may explain their formation-critical predictions are that the mass ratios are less than about 0.2 and, as the mass ratio approaches this upper limit, the spin period of the larger body becomes long. Here we report photometric observations of a sample of asteroid pairs, revealing that the primaries of pairs with mass ratios much less than 0.2 rotate rapidly, near their critical fission frequency. As the mass ratio approaches 0.2, the primary period grows long. This occurs as the total energy of the system approaches zero, requiring the asteroid pair to extract an increasing fraction of energy from the primary's spin in order to escape. We do not find asteroid pairs with mass ratios larger than 0.2. Rotationally fissioned systems beyond this limit have insufficient energy to disrupt. We conclude that asteroid pairs are formed by the rotational fission of a parent asteroid into a proto-binary system, which subsequently disrupts under its own internal system dynamics soon after formation.
S. Wittig
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Cooling of high speed rotating components is a typical situation found in turbomachinery as well as in automobile engines. Accurate knowledge of discharge coefficients and heat transfer of related components is essential for the high performance of the whole engine. This can be achieved by minimized cooling air flows and avoidance of hot spots. In high speed rotating clutches for example aerodynamic investigations improving heat transfer have not been considered in the past. Advanced concepts of modern plate design try to reduce thermal loads by convective cooling methods. Therefore, secondary cooling air flows have to be enhanced by an appropriate design of the rotor stator system with orifices. CFD modelling is used to improve the basic understanding of the flow field in typical geometries used in these systems.
Rasmusson, Allan
2009-01-01
is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region...
Earth rotation and geodynamics
Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta
2015-12-01
This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.
Rotational spectrum of tryptophan
Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2014-05-28
The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.
Rotational Spectrum of Tryptophan
Sanz, M. Eugenia; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.
2014-06-01
The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed using a recently constructed LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer, specifically designed to optimize the detection of heavier molecules at a lower frequency range. Independent analyses of the rotational spectra of individual conformers have conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The experimental values of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been found capital in the discrimination of the conformers. Both observed conformers are stabilized by a O-H\\cdotsN hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N-H\\cdotsπ interaction forming a chain that reinforces the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.
A Translational Polarization Rotator
Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah
2012-01-01
We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.
Costella, J P; Rawlinson, A A; Costella, John P.; Kellar, Bruce H. J. Mc; Rawlinson, Andrew A.
2001-01-01
We review why the Thomas rotation is a crucial facet of special relativity, that is just as fundamental, and just as "unintuitive" and "paradoxical", as such traditional effects as length contraction, time dilation, and the ambiguity of simultaneity. We show how this phenomenon can be quite naturally introduced and investigated in the context of a typical introductory course on special relativity, in a way that is appropriate for, and completely accessible to, undergraduate students. We also demonstrate, in a more advanced section aimed at the graduate student studying the Dirac equation and relativistic quantum field theory, that careful consideration of the Thomas rotation will become vital as modern experiments in particle physics continue to move from unpolarized to polarized cross-sections.
Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.
Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo
2017-07-01
The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.
Properties of Rotating Neutron Star
Shailesh K. Singh
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipticity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be~sim 10-23.
刘洪毓
2000-01-01
“Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.
Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The shape and spin of Neptune's outermost satellite Nereid are still unknown. Ground-based photometry indicates large brightness variations, but different observers report very different lightcurve amplitudes and periods. On the contrary, Voyager 2 images spanning 12 days show no evidence of variations greater than 0.1 mag. The latter suggest either that Nereid is nearly spherical, or that it is rotating slowly. We propose that tides have already despun Nereid's rotation to a period of a few weeks, during the time before the capture of Triton when Nereid was closer to Neptune. Since Nereid reached its present orbit, tides have further despun Nereid to a period on the order of a month. For Nereid's orbital eccentricity of 0.75, tidal evolution ceases when the spin period is still approximately 1/8 of the orbital period. Furthermore, the synchronous resonance becomes quite weak for such high eccentricities, along with other low-order spin orbit commensurabilities. In contrast, high-order resonances become very strong particularly the 6:1, 6.5:1, 7:1, 7.5:1, and 8:1 spin states. If Nereid departs by more than approximately 1% from a sphere, however, these resonances overlap, generating chaos. Our simulations show that Nereid is likely to be in chaotic rotation for any spin period longer than about 2 weeks.
Lee, S.Y.
1990-06-18
The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10{sup {minus}4} will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator.
Leubner, C.
1979-01-01
Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)
Trenkler, G.; Trenkler, D.
2008-01-01
Using the elementary tools of matrix theory, we show that the product of two rotations in the three-dimensional Euclidean space is a rotation again. For this purpose, three types of rotation matrices are identified which are of simple structure. One of them is the identity matrix, and each of the other two types can be uniquely characterized by…
Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA.
Rozitis, Ben; MacLennan, Eric; Emery, Joshua P
2014-08-14
Space missions and ground-based observations have shown that some asteroids are loose collections of rubble rather than solid bodies. The physical behaviour of such 'rubble-pile' asteroids has been traditionally described using only gravitational and frictional forces within a granular material. Cohesive forces in the form of small van der Waals forces between constituent grains have recently been predicted to be important for small rubble piles (ten kilometres across or less), and could potentially explain fast rotation rates in the small-asteroid population. The strongest evidence so far has come from an analysis of the rotational breakup of the main-belt comet P/2013 R3 (ref. 7), although that was indirect and poorly constrained by observations. Here we report that the kilometre-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA (ref. 8) is a rubble pile that is rotating faster than is allowed by gravity and friction. We find that cohesive forces are required to prevent surface mass shedding and structural failure, and that the strengths of the forces are comparable to, though somewhat less than, the forces found between the grains of lunar regolith.
Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow.
Dorbolo, S; Adami, N; Dubois, C; Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Darbois-Texier, B
2016-03-01
We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4 °C for which the water density is maximum. The 4 °C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.
Rotation Profiles of Solar-like Stars with Magnetic Fields
无
2008-01-01
We investigate the rotation profile of solar-like stars with magnetic fields. A diffu-sion coefficient of magnetic angular momentum transport is deduced. Rotating stellar models with different mass incorporating the coefficient are computed to give the rotation profiles. The total angular momentum of a solar model with only hydrodynamic instabilities is about 13 times larger than that of the Sun at the age of the Sun, and this model can not reproduce quasi-solid rotation in the radiative region. However, the solar model with magnetic fields not only can reproduce an almost uniform rotation in the radiative region, but also a total angular momentum that is consistent with the helioseismic result at the 3 σ level at the age of the Sun. The rotation of solar-like stars with magnetic fields is almost uniform in the radiative region, but for models of 1.2-1.5 M⊙, there is an obvious transition region between the convective core and the radiative region, where angular velocity has a sharp radial gradient, which is different from the rotation profile of the Sun and of massive stars with magnetic fields. The change of angular velocity in the transition region increases with increasing age and mass.
Celestial mechanics of elastic bodies II
Beig, Robert; Schmidt, Bernd G
2016-01-01
We construct time independent configurations describing a small elastic body moving in a circular orbit in the Schwarzschild spacetime. These configurations are relativistic versions of Newtonian solutions constructed by two of us (R.B.,B.G.S.). In the process we simplify and sharpen previous results of ours concerning elastic bodies in rigid rotation.
Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs I: Regimes of Internal Rotation
Ghosh, Pranab; Wheeler, J. Craig
2017-01-01
Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SNe Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super-Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly uniform rotation and strongly differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri ≤slant 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a nonmonotonic angular velocity profile and a new differential rotation regime for which the viscosity is high and scales linearly with the shear, σ. Employment of Kelvin–Helmholtz viscosity alone yields differential rotation. Large values of Ri ≫ 1 produce a regime of nearly uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as {σ }3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.
Rotation of cometary meteoroids
Čapek, D.
2014-08-01
Aims: The rotation of meteoroids caused by gas drag during the ejection from a cometary nucleus has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. Methods: The basic dependence of spin rate on ejection velocity and meteoroid size is determined analytically. A sophisticated numerical model is then applied to meteoroids ejected from the 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes are approximated by polyhedrons, which have been determined by a 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples come from three distinct sets with different origins and characteristics, such as surface roughness or angularity. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions and three gas ejection models are assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population are obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape selection. Results: It is proved that the results do not depend on a specific set of shape models and that they are applicable to the (unknown) shapes of real meteoroids. A simple relationship between the median of meteoroid spin frequencies bar{f} (Hz), ejection velocities vej (m s-1), and sizes D (m) is determined. For diffuse reflection of gas molecules from meteoroid's surface it reads as bar{f≃ 2× 10-3 v_ej D-0.88}, and for specular reflection of gas molecules from meteoroid's surface it is bar{f≃ 5× 10-3 v_ej D-0.88}. The distribution of spin frequencies is roughly normal on log scale, and it is relatively wide: a 2σ-interval can be described as (0.1, 10)× bar{f}. Most of the meteoroids are non-principal axis rotators. The median angle between angular momentum vector and spin vector is 12°. About 60% of meteoroids rotate in long-axis mode. The distribution of angular momentum vectors is not random. They are concentrated in the perpendicular direction with respect to the gas
Marcelo Alves Barros
2004-11-01
Full Text Available This work presents an investigation where some alternative conceptions are the origin and the processing of varied interpretations. As for that, it was proposed to high school students the resolution of certain problems that involved rigid bodies in constant rotation. These problems should be analysed within the perspective of the speed concept, which was previously known by the students, but abandoned by the explanations generated by the alternative conceptions.Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação em que algumas concepções alternativas são a origem e o desencadeamento de variadas interpretações. Para isso, foram propostos a alunos do ensino médio a resolução de determinados problemas que envolviam corpos rígidos em rotação constante. Estes problemas deveriam ser analisados dentro da perspectiva do conceito de velocidade, previamente conhecido dos alunos, mas abandonado pelas explicações geradas pelas concepções alternativas.
Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity: Dilation and rotation
M D Sharma
2001-09-01
Perturbations in elastic constants and density distinguish a volume inhomogeneity from its homogeneous surroundings. The equation of motion for the first order scattering is studied in the perturbed medium. The scattered waves are generated by the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity. First order scattering theory is modified to include the source term generating the primary waves. The body force equivalent to the scattering source is presented in a convenient form involving the perturbations in wave velocities and gradient of density perturbation. A procedure is presented to study the scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity, in time domain. The size of inhomogeneity is assumed small as compared to its distance from source and receiver. No restrictions are placed on the positions of source, receiver and inhomogeneity. The dilatation and rotations are calculated for a pulse scattered from an arbitrary point in a spherical volume. The aggregate of the scattered phases from all the points of the inhomogeneity, reaching at a fixed receiver, gives the amount of scattering from the inhomogeneity. The interaction of both P and S waves with inhomogeneity are considered. Dilatation and rotations for scattering are obtained as integral expressions over the solid angle of inhomogeneity. These expressions are computed numerically, for hypothetical models. The effects of source (unit force) orientations, velocity and density perturbations, and size of inhomogeneity, on the scattered phases, are discussed.
Titan's rotation: A 3-dimensional theory
Noyelles, B; Vienne, A
2007-01-01
We study the forced rotation of Titan seen as a rigid body at the equilibrium Cassini state, involving the spin-orbit synchronization. We use both the analytical and the numerical way. We analytically determine the equilibrium positions and the frequencies of the 3 free librations around it, while a numerical integration associated to a frequency analysis give us a more synthetic complete theory, where the free solution is splitted from the forced one. We find a mean obliquity of 2.2 arcmin, and the fundamental frequencies of the free librations of about 2.0977, 167.4883 and 306.3360 years. Moreover, we enlight the main role played by Titan's inclination on its rotation, and we suspect a likely resonance involving Titan's wobble.
Hartle formalism for rotating Newtonian configurations
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Zhami, Bakytzhan
2016-11-01
We apply the Hartle formalism to study equilibrium configurations in the framework of Newtonian gravity. This approach allows one to study in a simple manner the properties of the interior gravitational field in the case of static as well as stationary rotating stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. It is shown that the gravitational equilibrium conditions reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations which can be integrated numerically. We derive all the relevant equations up to the second order in the angular velocity. Moreover, we find explicitly the total mass, the moment of inertia, the quadrupole moment, the polar and equatorial radii, the eccentricity and the gravitational binding energy of the rotating body. We also present the procedure to calculate the gravitational Love number. We test the formalism in the case of white dwarfs and show its compatibility with the known results in the literature.
Instabilities of a rotating helical rod
Park, Yunyoung; Ko, William; Kim, Yongsam; Lim, Sookkyung
2016-11-01
Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus have helical flagellar filament. By rotating a motor, which is located at the bottom end of the flagellar filament embedded in the cell body, CCW or CW, they swim forward or backward. We model a left-handed helix by the Kirchhoff rod theory and use regularized Stokes formulation to study an interaction between the surrounding fluid and the flagellar filament. We perform numerical studies focusing on relations between physical parameters and critical angular frequency of the motor, which separates overwhiring from twirling. We are also interested in the buckling instability of the hook, which is very flexible elastic rod. By measuring buckling angle, which is an angle between rotational axis and helical axis, we observe the effects of physical parameters on buckling of the hook.
Axial thermal rotation of slender rods.
Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa
2011-05-06
Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain's axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.
CISM Course on Rotating Fluids
1992-01-01
The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.
Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs
Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.
2014-01-01
Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...
EFFECT OF DRILLPIPE ROTATION ON BOREHOLE CLEANING FOR EXTENDED REACH WELL
WANG Zhi-ming; GUO Xiao-le; LI Ming; HONG Yu-kui
2009-01-01
Wellbore cleaning is a key technology for the Extended Reach Drilling (ERD). The success of drilling extended reach wells depends directly upon the quality of wellbore cleaning. The rotation of the drillpipe, and hydraulic and rheological parameters, are the key factors for wellbore cleaning. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is applied to simulate solid-liquid two-phase flows in wellbore annulus. The annual flow field with the presence of drillpipe rotation is described through analyzing various rotation conditions. The results indicate that the quasi-spiral flow is the main flow pattern for liquid-solid transport in the horizontal annulus. The influence of rotation on the cuttings transport is also investigated, as the rotation of drillpipe increases the disturbance of liquid to solid in annulus. As a result, the solid flow becomes favorable and the solid volume is reduced. Comparisons with previously published results are also performed to prove the importance of drillpipe rotation in the wellbore clearing for the ERD.
Body contact and body language
Winther, Helle Dagmar
2008-01-01
Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experience of themselve...
Efficient Cartesian-grid-based modeling of rotationally symmetric bodies
Shyroki, Dzmitry
2007-01-01
Axially symmetric waveguides, resonators, and scatterers of arbitrary cross section and anisotropy in the cross section can be modeled rigorously with use of 2-D Cartesian-grid based codes by means of mere redefinition of material permittivity and permeability profiles. The method is illustrated...... by the frequencydomain simulations of resonant modes in a circular-cylinder cavity with perfectly conducting walls, a shielded uniaxial anisotropic dielectric cylinder, and an open dielectric sphere for which, after proper implementation of the perfectly matched layer boundary conditions, the radiation quality factor...
张洪武; 王鲲鹏; 陈震
2009-01-01
基于物质点方法(material point method,MPM)理论框架,提出了处理饱和多孔介质与固体间动力接触问题的新方法.其中饱和多孔介质的动力学响应通过文献[1]中发展的耦合物质点方法进行分析,单相固体的力学行为由传统单相物质点方法进行预测.通过本文提出的接触算法使二者相结合,在保证饱和多孔介质与固体间不存在相互穿透的前提下,允许饱和多孔介质与固体间的相互滑动,以预测整个接触/碰撞系统的动力学响应.同时进行了数值算例计算,通过算例验证了此方法的正确性,展示了此方法有效性.%The strategy for the dynamic contact between saturated porous media and solid bodies is proposed in the frame work of material point method (MPM), where the dynamic responses of saturated porous media and solid bodies are respectively simulated using the coupling MPM and the original MPM. The link between the two kinds of MPMs is the contact algorithm proposed in the current research, in which the slip between saturated porous media and solid bodies is allowed with the assumption that the penetration between saturated porous media and solid bodies is forbidden and follows the Coulomb friction law. The results of numerical calculations demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy which shines a light of modeling the problems of soil-structure interaction in a new and effective way.
Le Doeuff, René
2013-01-01
In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives). General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
Using a notation of corner between edges when graph has a fixed rotation, i.e. cyclical order of edges around vertices, we define combinatorial objects - combinatorial maps as pairs of permutations, one for vertices and one for faces. Further, we define multiplication of these objects, that coincides with the multiplication of permutations. We consider closed under multiplication classes of combinatorial maps that consist of closed classes of combinatorial maps with fixed edges where each such class is defined by a knot. One class among them is special, containing selfconjugate maps.
Macaraeg, M. G.
1986-01-01
For a Spacelab flight, a model experiment of the earth's atmospheric circulation has been proposed. This experiment is known as the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE). In the experiment concentric spheres will rotate as a solid body, while a dielectric fluid is confined in a portion of the gap between the spheres. A zero gravity environment will be required in the context of the simulation of the gravitational body force on the atmosphere. The present study is concerned with the development of pseudospectral/finite difference (PS/FD) model and its subsequent application to physical cases relevant to the AGCE. The model is based on a hybrid scheme involving a pseudospectral latitudinal formulation, and finite difference radial and time discretization. The advantages of the use of the hybrid PS/FD method compared to a pure second-order accurate finite difference (FD) method are discussed, taking into account the higher accuracy and efficiency of the PS/FD method.
TIDALLY DRIVEN DYNAMOS IN A ROTATING SPHERE
Cébron, D.; Hollerbach, R., E-mail: david.cebron@ujf-grenoble.fr, E-mail: r.hollerbach@leeds.ac.uk [Institut für Geophysik, Sonneggstrasse 5, ETH Zürich, Zürich CH-8092 (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, these large-scale fields may also be controlled by tides, as previously suggested for the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. By simulating a small local patch of a rotating fluid, Barker and Lithwick have recently shown that tides can drive small-scale dynamos by exciting a hydrodynamic instability, the so-called elliptical (or tidal) instability. By performing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a rotating spherical fluid body, we investigate if this instability can also drive the observed large-scale magnetic fields. We are thus interested in the dynamo threshold and the generated magnetic field in order to test if such a mechanism is relevant for planets and stars. Rather than solving the problem in a geometry deformed by tides, we consider a spherical fluid body and add a body force to mimic the tidal deformation in the bulk of the fluid. This allows us to use an efficient spectral code to solve the magnetohydrodynamic problem. We first compare the hydrodynamic results with theoretical asymptotic results and numerical results obtained in a truly deformed ellipsoid, which confirms the presence of elliptical instability. We then perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations and investigate the dynamo capability of the flow. Kinematic and self-consistent dynamos are finally simulated, showing that the elliptical instability is capable of generating a dipole-dominated large-scale magnetic field in global simulations of a fluid rotating sphere.
Rotating, hydromagnetic laboratory experiment modelling planetary cores
Kelley, Douglas H.
2009-10-01
This dissertation describes a series of laboratory experiments motivated by planetary cores and the dynamo effect, the mechanism by which the flow of an electrically conductive fluid can give rise to a spontaneous magnetic field. Our experimental apparatus, meant to be a laboratory model of Earth's core, contains liquid sodium between an inner, solid sphere and an outer, spherical shell. The fluid is driven by the differential rotation of these two boundaries, each of which is connected to a motor. Applying an axial, DC magnetic field, we use a collection of Hall probes to measure the magnetic induction that results from interactions between the applied field and the flowing, conductive fluid. We have observed and identified inertial modes, which are bulk oscillations of the fluid restored by the Coriolis force. Over-reflection at a shear layer is one mechanism capable of exciting such modes, and we have developed predictions of both onset boundaries and mode selection from over-reflection theory which are consistent with our observations. Also, motivated by previous experimental devices that used ferromagnetic boundaries to achieve dynamo action, we have studied the effects of a soft iron (ferromagnetic) inner sphere on our apparatus, again finding inertial waves. We also find that all behaviors are more broadband and generally more nonlinear in the presence of a ferromagnetic boundary. Our results with a soft iron inner sphere have implications for other hydromagnetic experiments with ferromagnetic boundaries, and are appropriate for comparison to numerical simulations as well. From our observations we conclude that inertial modes almost certainly occur in planetary cores and will occur in future rotating experiments. In fact, the predominance of inertial modes in our experiments and in other recent work leads to a new paradigm for rotating turbulence, starkly different from turbulence theories based on assumptions of isotropy and homogeneity, starting instead
Soft initial-rotation and HΦ robust constant rotational speed control for rotational MEMS gyro
Ma Gaoyin; Chen Wenyuan; Cui Feng; Zhang Weiping; Wang Liqi
2009-01-01
A novel soft initial-rotation control system and an Hoo robust constant rotational speed controller (RCRSC) for a rotational MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) gyro are presented. The soft initial-rotation control system can prevent the possible tumbling down of the suspended rotor and ensure a smooth and fast initial-rotation process. After the initial-rotation process, in order to maintain the rotational speed accurately constant, the RCRSC is acquired through the mixed sensitivity design approach. Simulation results show that the actuation voltage disturbances from the internal carrier waves in the gyro is reduced by more than 15.3 dB, and the speed fluctuations due to typical external vibrations ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz can also be restricted to 10-3 rad/s order.
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer
2016-11-01
For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.
Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle
2013-01-01
A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...
Rotge, J. R.; Simmons, B. J.; Kroncke, G. T.; Stech, D. J.
1986-05-01
Research efforts were concentrated on passive ring laser rotation sensor technology. Initial efforts were performed on supportive projects, e.g., laser stabilization, followed by a 0.62 sq m passive resonant ring laser gyro (PRRLG), leading to the development of a 60 sq m system mounted on the pneumatically supported isolation test platform (Iso-Pad) at FJSRL. Numerous sub-system tasks and a feasibility 0.62 sq m PRRLG were completed, supporting projections of very high resolution performance by a large 60 sq m PRRLG. The expected performance of the large PRRLG, on the order of 10 to the minus 10th power ERU (earth rate units), would provide an accurate error model applicable to Air Force operational ring laser gyros, a new source of geophysical data, e.g., earth wobble and variations in earth rotation, a proven design concept applicable to Air Force sensor needs as reference to MX instruments tests, and relativity experiments. This report documents the many accomplishments leading to, and the status of the large PRRLG at the date of the PRRLG stop order, November 1985.
Moo-Yeon Lee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We developed and tested a novel rotation scanner for nano resolution and accurate rotary motion about the rotation center. The scanner consists of circular hinges and leaf springs so that the parasitic error at the center of the scanner in the X and Y directions is minimized, and rotation performance is optimized. Each sector of the scanner's system was devised to have nano resolution by minimizing the parasitic errors of the rotation center that arise due to displacements other than rotation. The analytic optimal design results of the proposed scanner were verified using finite element analyses. The piezoelectric actuators were used to attain nano-resolution performances, and a capacitive sensor was used to measure displacement. A feedback controller was used to minimize the rotation errors in the rotation scanner system under practical conditions. Finally, the performance evaluation test results showed that the resonance frequency was 542 Hz, the resolution was 0.09 μrad, and the rotation displacement was 497.2 μrad. Our test results revealed that the rotation scanner exhibited accurate rotation about the center of the scanner and had good nano precision.
Bifurcations of rotating waves in rotating spherical shell convection.
Feudel, F; Tuckerman, L S; Gellert, M; Seehafer, N
2015-11-01
The dynamics and bifurcations of convective waves in rotating and buoyancy-driven spherical Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated numerically. The solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced by means of path-following methods, by varying the Rayleigh number as a control parameter for different rotation rates. The dependence of the azimuthal drift frequency of the RWs on the Ekman and Rayleigh numbers is determined and discussed. The influence of the rotation rate on the generation and stability of secondary branches is demonstrated. Multistability is typical in the parameter range considered.
Visualizing rotations and composition of rotations with the Rodrigues vector
Valdenebro, Angel G.
2016-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that the mathematical treatment of three-dimensional rotations can be simplified, and its geometrical understanding improved, using the Rodrigues vector representation. We present a novel geometrical interpretation of the Rodrigues vector. Based on this interpretation and simple geometrical considerations, we derive the Euler-Rodrigues formula, Cayley’s rotation formula and the composition law for finite rotations. The level of this discussion should be suitable for undergraduate physics or engineering courses where rotations are discussed.
Pouquet, A
2009-01-01
Invariance properties of physical systems govern their behavior: energy conservation in turbulence drives a wide distribution of energy among modes, observed in geophysical or astrophysical flows. In ideal hydrodynamics, the role of helicity conservation (correlation between velocity and its curl, measuring departures from mirror symmetry) remains unclear since it does not alter the energy spectrum. However, with solid body rotation, significant differences emerge between helical and non-helical flows. We first outline several results, like the energy and helicity spectral distribution and the breaking of strict universality for the individual spectra. Using massive numerical simulations, we then show that small-scale structures and their intermittency properties differ according to whether helicity is present or not, in particular with respect to the emergence of Beltrami-core vortices (BCV) that are laminar helical vertical updrafts. These results point to the discovery of a small parameter besides the Ross...
Beck, Sara C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lacy, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Turner, Jean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Greathouse, Thomas [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States); Neff, Susan, E-mail: becksarac@gmail.com [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-05-20
NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 μm [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ∼4 km s{sup –1}: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.
Ghomari, T.; Ayad, R.; Talbi, N.
2007-05-01
This work deals with a non-linear formulation of an axisymmetric hyperelastic solid model for thermoforming and blow-molding processes. It's based on a new kinematic concept labeled SFR (Space Fiber Rotation). The SFR-Axi element model uses a kinematic motion of a space linear fiber in order to obtain more accurate displacement field, without increasing the number of nodes. It improves in a significant way the precision of the linear element Q4 indeed. The corresponding numerical results are comparable and even better, in term of time CPU, with those of the 8-nodes higher order element Q8. A hyperelastic behavior law based on Mooney-Rivlin model has been implemented to allow the model better simulations of forming processes hollow plastic bodies. The numerical results, very promising, are given with considering or not the contact between the polymer.
Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan
2014-01-01
NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.
Quantitative experimental studies of spontaneous rotations of bismuth nanoparticles
Be'Er, Avraham; Kofman, Richard; Phillipp, Fritz; Lereah, Yossi
2006-12-01
A phenomenon of spontaneous rotations of Bi nanoparticles is reported. Fourier transform (FT) analysis of the high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images indicates that the rotations occur by plane after plane gliding rather than a collective movement of the entire particle as a rigid body. The phenomenon rate was studied quantitatively by time resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The origin of the phenomenon as a radiation effect of the high voltage electron beam was excluded by finding the same rates at 200kV and 1250kV electron beams, below and above the threshold for the knock-on process. The dependence of phenomenon rate on the particles’ size was found to be inversely proportional to the particle volume, with a threshold at particle radius of 5nm . The temperature was found to activate both the probability for a particle to be in the rotating state, and the rotation rate.
Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect
Zhou, Hailong; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang
2016-01-01
We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light.
Bubble migration in a rotating, liquid-filled sphere
Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.
1982-01-01
Results and analysis of ground-based experiments performed to aid in designing experiments on the behavior of bubbles in a rotating liquid body on board the Shuttle in free fall are presented. Spherical shells filled with silicone oil containing a small gas bubble were spun and filmed by high speed motion picture photography. The rotation of the shell and the trajectory of the bubble motion were recorded and the film was exposed to a motion analyzer connected to a keypunch. The analyzer measured Cartesian coordinates as well as angle, frame number, and rotation rate. Optical correction equations were employed to determine the apparent bubble trajectory relative to an inertial frame of reference. An analytical model for the bubble motion was defined, yielding predictions of velocity and position at different times. Rotation of the fluid container is concluded to aid in centering the bubbles.
Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect
Zhou, Hailong; Fu, Dongzhi; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light.
Numerical experiments on the oscillations of a rotating, axisymmetric galaxy
Miller, R. H.; Vandervoort, Peter O.; Welty, Daniel E.; Smith, B. F.
1989-01-01
Modes of oscillation in six rotating, axisymmetric N-body systems are studied in a sequence of self-consistent, three-dimensional numerical experiments. The experimental systems are realizations of theoretical models of galaxies which are stellar-dynamical counterparts of uniformly rotating polytropes of index equal to 0.5. The ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the gravitational potential energy ranges from 0.13 to 0.20. The systems oscillate axisymmetrically; the oscillations are interpreted as superpositions of a mode of radial pulsation and a Kelvin-like mode of oscillation. The experimental frequencies of these modes agree very well with theoretical predictions. When these modes are suppressed, the states of the experimental systems are very steady. The systems are dynamically unstable with respect to a toroidal mode when the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the gravitational potential energy exceeds a value lying between 0.16 and 0.17.
Numerical experiments on the oscillations of a rotating, axisymmetric galaxy
Miller, R.H.; Vandervoort, P.O.; Welty, D.E.; Smith, B.F. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA); NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))
1989-07-01
Modes of oscillation in six rotating, axisymmetric N-body systems are studied in a sequence of self-consistent, three-dimensional numerical experiments. The experimental systems are realizations of theoretical models of galaxies which are stellar-dynamical counterparts of uniformly rotating polytropes of index equal to 0.5. The ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the gravitational potential energy ranges from 0.13 to 0.20. The systems oscillate axisymmetrically; the oscillations are interpreted as superpositions of a mode of radial pulsation and a Kelvin-like mode of oscillation. The experimental frequencies of these modes agree very well with theoretical predictions. When these modes are suppressed, the states of the experimental systems are very steady. The systems are dynamically unstable with respect to a toroidal mode when the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the gravitational potential energy exceeds a value lying between 0.16 and 0.17. 19 refs.
Nanoparticles in dilute solution : A numerical study of rotational diffusion
Evensen, Tom Richard
2008-06-15
This thesis is dedicated to Brownian dynamics simulations of rotational diffusion. A rotation dynamics engine has been implemented and tested. This engine will in the future be integrated as a part of a complete Brownian dynamics simulation tool. The special case, when translational motion can be ignored, has thoroughly been studied. Two choices of generalized coordinates describing angular orientation of the particles are used. The Euler angles, which constitute the classical choice, and the Cartesian components of the rotation vector, which was recently introduced as an alternative, are being compared with regards to computational efficiency. Results from both equilibrium and non-equilibrium simulations are presented. The consistency of two new algorithms is demonstrated on systems of free rigid particles with arbitrary surface topographies. The algorithms make use of only the principal values of the rotational mobility tensor, assuming the corresponding principal axes coincide with the body-fixed coordinate system. These three scalars contain all information about the particle surface topography relevant for rotational diffusion. The calculation of the mobility tensor can be performed in a pre-calculation step, which makes the algorithm itself highly efficient. Both choices of generalized coordinates correctly reproduce theoretical predictions, but we have found that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector as generalized coordinates outperform its counterpart using the Euler angles by up to a factor 1000 in extreme cases. The reason for this improvement is that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector is free of singularities. (Author). refs. figs
Electro-mechanical coupling of rotating 3D beams
Stoykov S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A rotating thin-walled beam with piezoelectric element is analysed. The beam is considered to vibrate in space, hence the longitudinal, transverse and torsional deformations are taken into account. The bending deformations of the beam are modelled by assuming Timoshenko's theory. Torsion is included by considering that the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform in longitudinal direction due to warping. The warping function is computed preliminary by the finite element method. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work and discretized in space by the Ritz method. Electro-mechanical coupling is included in the model by considering the internal electrical energy and the electric charge output. The piezo-electric constitutive relations are used in reduced form. The beam is assumed to rotate about a fixed axis with constant speed. The equation of motion is derived in rotating coordinate system, but the influence of the rotation of the coordinate system is taken into account through the inertia forces. Results in time domain are presented for different speeds of rotation and frequencies of vibration. The influence of the speed of rotation and of the frequency of vibration on the electrical output is presented and analysed.
Lynnerup, Niels
2015-01-01
the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...
Mogensen, Kevin
BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...
... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...
JosephDeVeto
2004-01-01
When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal
On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies
Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara
2013-01-01
High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models (bulge
Triaxial rotation in atomic nuclei
CHEN Yong-Shou; GAO Zao-Chun
2009-01-01
The Projected Shell Model has been developed to include the spontaneously broken axial symmetry so that the rapidly rotating triaxial nuclei can be described microscopically. The theory provides an useful tool to gain an insight into how a triaxial nucleus rotates, a fundamental question in nuclear structure. We shall address some current interests that are strongly associated with the triaxial rotation. A feasible method to explore the problem has been suggested.
Bruhns, Otto T
2003-01-01
Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu pation with mechanics made an essential c...
Dumitrescu Anca Laura
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.
Rotations, quaternions, and double groups
Altmann, Simon L
2005-01-01
This self-contained text presents a consistent description of the geometric and quaternionic treatment of rotation operators, employing methods that lead to a rigorous formulation and offering complete solutions to many illustrative problems.Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, the book begins with chapters covering the fundamentals of symmetries, matrices, and groups, and it presents a primer on rotations and rotation matrices. Subsequent chapters explore rotations and angular momentum, tensor bases, the bilinear transformation, projective representations, and the g
Electronic Control Of Slow Rotations
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
1992-01-01
Digital/analog circuit controls both angular position and speed of rotation of motor shaft with high precision. Locks angular position of motor to phase of rotation-command clock signal at binary submultiple of master clock signal. Circuit or modified version used to control precisely position and velocity of robotic manipulator, to control translation mechanism of crystal-growing furnace, to position hands of mechanical clock, or to control angular position and rate of rotation in any of large variety of rotating mechanisms.
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.
Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.
1984-07-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.
Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment
Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten
In stratified waters like those around Denmark there is a close correlation between the biology of the water masses and their structure and currents; this is known as dynamic biologicaloceanography. The currents are particularly strong near the fronts, which can be seen in several places throughout...... the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...
Sporcularda rotator cuff problemleri
Guven, Osman; Guven, Zeynep; Gundes, Hakan; Yalcin, Selim
2004-01-01
Rotator cuff tendinitinin etyolojisinde genellikle birden çok faktörün kombinasyonu görülür. Yüzme, raket sporları ve fırlatma sporlarının özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde giderek yaygınlaşması bu konuya olan ilginin artmasına sebep olmuştur. Eski konseptlerde aktif bir sporcuda tedavinin başarısı genellikle eski atletik seviyesine dönmesi ile ölçülürdü. Son zamanlarda atletik tekniklerin analizi, atroskopik evaluasyon gibi yeni bir Iükse sahip olmamız ve Iiteratürün yeniden gözden geçirilmesi il...
Rotating pigment cells exhibit an intrinsic chirality.
Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kondo, Shigeru
2015-01-01
In multicellular organisms, cell properties, such as shape, size and function are important in morphogenesis and physiological functions. Recently, 'cellular chirality' has attracted attention as a cellular property because it can cause asymmetry in the bodies of animals. In recent in vitro studies, the left-right bias of cellular migration and of autonomous arrangement of cells under some specific culture conditions were discovered. However, it is difficult to identify the molecular mechanism underlying their intrinsic chirality because the left-right bias observed to date is subtle or is manifested in the stable orientation of cells. Here, we report that zebrafish (Danio rerio) melanophores exhibit clear cellular chirality by unidirectional counterclockwise rotational movement under isolated conditions without any special settings. The chirality is intrinsic to melanophores because the direction of the cellular rotation was not affected by the type of extracellular matrix. We further found that the cellular rotation was generated as a counter action of the clockwise movement of actin cytoskeleton. It suggested that the mechanism that directs actin cytoskeleton in the clockwise direction is pivotal for determining cellular chirality.
Regimes of Internal Rotation in Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs
Wheeler, J. Craig; Ghosh, Pranab
2017-01-01
Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SN Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super--Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly-uniform and strongly-differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri > 1 produce a regime of nearly-uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as σ3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.
Unidirectional Rotation of Molecules Measured by the Rotational Doppler Effect
Prior Yehiam
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A pair of linearly polarized pump pulses induce field-free unidirectional molecular rotation, which is detected by a delayed circularly polarized probe. The polarization and spectrum of the probe are modified by the interaction with the molecules, in accordance with the Rotational Doppler Effect.
Angle estimation of simultaneous orthogonal rotations from 3D gyroscope measurements.
Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo
2011-01-01
A 3D gyroscope provides measurements of angular velocities around its three intrinsic orthogonal axes, enabling angular orientation estimation. Because the measured angular velocities represent simultaneous rotations, it is not appropriate to consider them sequentially. Rotations in general are not commutative, and each possible rotation sequence has a different resulting angular orientation. None of these angular orientations is the correct simultaneous rotation result. However, every angular orientation can be represented by a single rotation. This paper presents an analytic derivation of the axis and angle of the single rotation equivalent to three simultaneous rotations around orthogonal axes when the measured angular velocities or their proportions are approximately constant. Based on the resulting expressions, a vector called the simultaneous orthogonal rotations angle (SORA) is defined, with components equal to the angles of three simultaneous rotations around coordinate system axes. The orientation and magnitude of this vector are equal to the equivalent single rotation axis and angle, respectively. As long as the orientation of the actual rotation axis is constant, given the SORA, the angular orientation of a rigid body can be calculated in a single step, thus making it possible to avoid computing the iterative infinitesimal rotation approximation. The performed test measurements confirm the validity of the SORA concept. SORA is simple and well-suited for use in the real-time calculation of angular orientation based on angular velocity measurements derived using a gyroscope. Moreover, because of its demonstrated simplicity, SORA can also be used in general angular orientation notation.
Angle Estimation of Simultaneous Orthogonal Rotations from 3D Gyroscope Measurements
Sara Stančin
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A 3D gyroscope provides measurements of angular velocities around its three intrinsic orthogonal axes, enabling angular orientation estimation. Because the measured angular velocities represent simultaneous rotations, it is not appropriate to consider them sequentially. Rotations in general are not commutative, and each possible rotation sequence has a different resulting angular orientation. None of these angular orientations is the correct simultaneous rotation result. However, every angular orientation can be represented by a single rotation. This paper presents an analytic derivation of the axis and angle of the single rotation equivalent to three simultaneous rotations around orthogonal axes when the measured angular velocities or their proportions are approximately constant. Based on the resulting expressions, a vector called the simultaneous orthogonal rotations angle (SORA is defined, with components equal to the angles of three simultaneous rotations around coordinate system axes. The orientation and magnitude of this vector are equal to the equivalent single rotation axis and angle, respectively. As long as the orientation of the actual rotation axis is constant, given the SORA, the angular orientation of a rigid body can be calculated in a single step, thus making it possible to avoid computing the iterative infinitesimal rotation approximation. The performed test measurements confirm the validity of the SORA concept. SORA is simple and well-suited for use in the real-time calculation of angular orientation based on angular velocity measurements derived using a gyroscope. Moreover, because of its demonstrated simplicity, SORA can also be used in general angular orientation notation.
Solid-surface luminescence analysis
Hurtubise, R.J.
1991-01-01
We have characterized several interactions that are very important in solid-matrix luminescence. With silica gel chromatoplates and filter paper, simple equations were derived for calculating the individual contributions to the percent decrease in luminescence due to either moisture or to a quenching gas. For sodium acetate as a solid matrix and p-aminobenzoate as a model compound, it was concluded that p-aminobenzoate was incorporated into the crystal structure of sodium acetate, and the triplet energy was lost be skeletal vibrations in sodium acetate. Also, with the same system is was shown that p-aminobenzoate did not undergo rotational relaxation, and thus rotational processes did not contribute to the deactivation of the triplet state. Several results were obtained from model compounds adsorbed on filter paper under different temperature and humidity conditions and with a variety of heavy atoms present. Fundamental photophysical equations were used in calculating several basic parameters that revealed information on rate processes and how the absorbed energy was distributed in an adsorbed lumiphor. The most important advancement with filter paper was the development of equations that relate phosphorescence parameters of adsorbed phosphors to the Young's modulus of filter paper. These equations are based on a fundamental theory that relates the hydrogen-bonding network of paper to the modulus of paper.
Development of an automatic rotational orthosis for walking with arm swing.
Fang, Juan; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le
2017-07-01
Interlimb neural coupling is often observed during normal gait and is postulated to be important for gait restoration. In order to provide a testbed for investigation of interlimb neural coupling, we previously developed a rotational orthosis for walking with arm swing (ROWAS). The present study aimed to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a new system, viz. an automatic ROWAS (aROWAS). We developed the mechanical structures of aROWAS in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data from walking at various speeds were used as reference trajectories of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints. The aROWAS prototype was tested in three able-bodied subjects. The prototype could automatically adjust to size and height, and automatically produced adaptable coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported better acceptance in aROWAS than in ROWAS. The aROWAS system was deemed feasible among able-bodied subjects.
马中骐
2000-01-01
A scheme for dealing with the quantum three-body problem is presented to separate the rotational degrees of freedom completely from the internal ones. In this method, the three-body Schrodinger equation is reduced to a system of coupled partial differential equations, depending only upon three internal variables. For arbitrary total orbital angular momentum l and the parity ( - 1)1+ λ (λ = 0 or 1), the number of the equations in this system is l + 1 - λ . By expanding the wavef unction with respect to a complete set of orthonormal basis functions, the system of equations is further reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations.
无
2000-01-01
A scheme for dealing with the quantum three-body problem is presented to separate the rotational degrees of freedom completely from the internal ones. In this method, the three-body Schridinger equation is reduced to a system of coupled partial differential equations, depending only upon three internal variables. For arbitrary total orbital angular momentum l and the parity (-1)l+λ (λ=0 or 1), the number of the equations in this system is l+1-λ. By expanding the wavefunction with respect to a complete set of orthonormal basis functions, the system of equations is further reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations.
Label-acquired magnetorotation for biosensing: An asynchronous rotation assay
Hecht, Ariel, E-mail: hecht@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Kinnunen, Paivo, E-mail: pkkinn@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); McNaughton, Brandon, E-mail: bmcnaugh@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Kopelman, Raoul, E-mail: kopelman@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States)
2011-02-15
This paper presents a novel application of magnetic particles for biosensing, called label-acquired magnetorotation (LAM). This method is based on a combination of the traditional sandwich assay format with the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) method. In label-acquired magnetorotation, an analyte facilitates the binding of a magnetic label bead to a nonmagnetic solid phase sphere, forming a sandwich complex. The sandwich complex is then placed in a rotating magnetic field, where the rotational frequency of the sandwich complex is a function of the amount of analyte attached to the surface of the sphere. Here, we use streptavidin-coated beads and biotin-coated particles as analyte mimics, to be replaced by proteins and other biological targets in future work. We show this sensing method to have a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude.
Rotation and magnetism of Earth`s inner core
Glatzmaier, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roberts, P.H. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-13
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the geodynamo suggest that a super-rotation of Earth`s solid inner core relative to the mantle is maintained by magnetic coupling between the inner core and an eastward thermal wind in the fluid outer core. This mechanism, which is analogous to a synchronous motor, also plays a fundamental role in the generation of Earth`s magnetic field. 18 refs., 6 figs.
Kluger, Nicolas
2010-11-01
Body art has gained tremendously in popularity over the past 20 years, and a substantial number of pregnant women may have tattoos or piercings. In most cases, pregnancy will be uneventful. However, on rare occasions, body art may become an issue or cause complications. Navel and abdominal surface piercing and microdermal implants may cause unsightly stretch marks from gravid distension. Nipple piercing could impair breastfeeding. In emergency situations, oral piercing may interfere with airway management and nasal jewelry can be inhaled or swallowed during orotracheal intubation. Tattoos may become distorted if placed on a distended area or they may cover surgical incision lines. The risk of introducing tattoo pigments during epidural analgesia, with the potential for tumor growth, is currently under debate, although the arguments are highly speculative and without solid basis.
Rotational stabilization of q < 1 modes
Waelbroeck, F.L.; Aydemir, A.Y. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
Analyses of high performance discharges with central safety factor below unity have shown that the ideal Magnetohydrodynamic stability threshold for the n=1 kink mode is often violated with impunity. For TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) supershots, the experimental observations can be explained by diamagnetic stabilization of the reconnecting model provided that the fluid free energy is suitably reduced by trapped particle effects. For the broader profiles typical of other high confinement regimes, however, diamagnetic effects cannot account for the experimental results. Furthermore, there is evidence that the Mercier stability condition can also be violated in some cases. Here, we show that toroidal rotation of the plasma can stabilize the kink mode even in the presence of resistivity in configurations that would otherwise be ideally unstable. Two effects can be distinguished. The first effect consists in a reduction of the ideal driving energy. This can be understood in view of the fact that, to a good approximation, the internal kink is a rigid body displacement combining a tilt of the plasma inside the q = 1 surface with a translation along the tilt axis. In the presence of rotation, this displacement must be accompanied by a precessional motion so as to conserve angular momentum. The kinetic energy of the precessional motion must be extracted from the energy driving the displacement. The second effect of rotation is to resolve the Alfven singularity. This is a consequence of the pressure perturbation caused by the equilibrium variation of the entropy within the flux surfaces. It results in the stabilization of resistive as well as weak ideal instabilities, including Mercier modes. For rotationally stabilized equilibria, it also implies the presence of a neutrally stable mode with frequency of the order of the growth rate of the internal kink.
Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires
Charoenyut Dechwayukul
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.
... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...
Andrew Taylor
seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...
Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum
Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane
2014-05-01
A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This
McWhorter, Alan L.
1989-03-01
The Solid State division of Lexington Lincoln Lab reports on its progress for this quarter. The areas of study are: Time Dye Laser Using Integrated Optics; GaP Microlenses by Mass Transport; A New OMVPE Reactor for Growth of InP and Related Alloys; Microchannel Heat Sinks for Two-Dimensional High Power-Density Diode Laser Arrays; Novel Scalloped-Mirror Diffraction-Coupled Laser Arrays; Three-Mirror Ti:Al2O3 Ring Laser Cavity; Femtosecond TiAl2O3 Injection-Seeded Laser; End-Pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgA11O19 Lasers; Single Frequency Mixing of Frequency Modulated Laser Radiation; Vertical Rotating Disk OMVPE Reactor; New Electron Beam Lithography System; Dry Etching Induced Damage on Vertical Sidewalls of GaAs Channels; Homoepitaxial Semiconducting Diamond; 420 X 420 CCD Frame Transfer Imager; Technique for Monolithically Integrating GaAs/AlGaAs Lasers of Different Wavelengths; Superconducting Thin Films of BiSrCaCuO; and Nb Thin Film Capacitors for Superconductive Circuits.
王芳
2008-01-01
@@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language
Quasilocal rotating conformal Killing horizons
Chatterjee, Ayan
2015-01-01
The formulation of quasi-local conformal Killling horizons(CKH) is extended to include rotation. This necessitates that the horizon be foliated by 2-spheres which may be distorted. Matter degrees of freedom which fall through the horizon is taken to be a real scalar field. We show that these rotating CKHs also admit a first law in differential form.
Rotation of the planet mercury.
Jefferys, W H
1966-04-08
The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.
KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS
Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)
2015-07-10
Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.
Kepler rapidly rotating giant stars
Costa, A D; Bravo, J P; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L das; Leão, I C; de Oliveira, G Pereira; da Silva, R Rodrigues; Roque, S; de Oliveira, L L A; da Silva, D Freire; De Medeiros, J R
2015-01-01
Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of sub-stellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present letter we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points for remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the Sun rotation. These giants are combined with 6 other recently listed in the literature for mid-IR diagnostic based on WISE information, from which a trend for an infrared excess is revealed for at least a half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.
Slowly rotating homogeneous masses revisited
Reina, Borja
2015-01-01
Hartle's model for slowly rotating stars has been extensively used to compute equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating stars to second order in perturbation theory in General Relativity, given a barotropic equation of state (EOS). A recent study based on the modern theory of perturbed matchings show that the model must be amended to accommodate EOS's in which the energy density does not vanish at the surface of the non rotating star. In particular, the expression for the change in mass given in the original model, i.e. a contribution to the mass that arises when the perturbations are chosen so that the pressure of the rotating and non rotating configurations agree, must be modified with an additional term. In this paper, the amended change in mass is calculated for the case of constant density stars.
Bidirectional optical rotation of cells
Jiyi Wu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.
Bidirectional optical rotation of cells
Wu, Jiyi; Zhang, Weina; Li, Juan
2017-08-01
Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.
Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection
Davuluri, Sankar
2016-07-01
In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.
Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements
Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-10-19
Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.
Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories
Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke
2016-01-01
Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.
Rotational evolution of slow-rotators sequence stars
Lanzafame, Alessandro C
2015-01-01
The observed mass-age-rotation relationship in open clusters shows the progressive development of a slow-rotators sequence at masses lower than 1.2 $M_{\\odot}$. After 0.6 Gyr, almost all stars have settled on this sequence. The observed clustering on this sequence suggests that it corresponds to some equilibrium or asymptotic condition that still lacks a complete theoretical interpretation, crucial to our understanding of the stellar angular momentum evolution. We couple a rotational evolution model that takes into account internal differential rotation with classical and new proposals for the wind braking law, and fit models to the data using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method tailored to the case at hand. We explore the extent to which these models are able to reproduce the mass and time dependence of the stellar rotational evolution on the slow-rotators sequence. The description of the early evolution (0.1-0.6 Gyr) of the slow-rotators sequence requires taking into account the transfer of angular momentum f...
Vortex patterns in moderately rotating Bose-condensed gas
Imran, Mohd; Ahsan, M. A. H.
2017-02-01
Using exact diagonalization, we investigate the many-body ground state for regular vortex patterns in a rotating Bose-condensed gas of N spinless particles, confined in a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic trap and interacting repulsively via finite-range Gaussian potential. The N-body Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in given subspaces of quantized total angular momentum L z , to obtain the lowest-energy eigenstate. Further, the internal structure of these eigenstates is analyzed by calculating the corresponding conditional probability distribution. Specifically, the quantum mechanically stable as well as unstable states in a co-rotating frame are examined in the moderately rotating regime corresponding to angular momenta 4N≤slant {L}zimpressed rotation, the patterns of singly quantized vortices are formed, shaping into canonical polygons with a central vortex at the trap center. The internal structure of unstable states reveals the mechanism of entry, nucleation and pattern formation of vortices with structural phase transition, as the condensate goes from one stable vortical state to the other. The stable polygonal vortex patterns having discrete p-fold rotational symmetry with p = 5 and p = 6 are observed. The hexagonal vortex pattern with p = 6 symmetry is a precursor to the triangular vortex lattice of singly quantized vortices in the thermodynamic limit. For unstable states, quantum melting of vortex patterns due to uncertainty in positions of individual vortices, is also briefly discussed.
Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH
2014-01-01
Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.
Magnetostrophic Rotating Magnetoconvection
King, Eric; Aurnou, Jonathan
2016-11-01
Planetary magnetic fields are generated by turbulent convection within their vast interior liquid metal cores. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that local-scale convection naturally settles into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. To date, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a globally magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first turbulent magnetostrophic rotating magnetoconvection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the fluid dynamics saturate in magnetostrophic balance within turbulent liquid metal, planetary cores. The authors thank the NSF Geophysics Program for financial support.
Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Flexible Beam Structures
Nielsen, Martin Bjerre
of rigid bodies and flexible beam structures with emphasis on the rotational motion. The first part deals with motion in a rotating frame of reference. A novel approach where the equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space in terms of local displacements and global velocities is presented...