WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid bodies form

  1. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  2. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  3. BODY SHAPE VERSUS BODY FORM: A COMPARISON OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SWAZI CONSUMERS WITH THOSE OF BODY FORMS USED IN APPAREL .... China). Most South African apparel manufactu- rers are using sizing systems ... The issue of body image and ... exercise, it was explained to the participants that.

  4. Construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Whee; Lee, Kang Moo; Koo, Jun Mo; Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Sung Whan; Bae, Sang Min; Cho, Kang Whon; Sung, Suk Jong

    1989-02-01

    The Solid Waste Form Test Facility (SWFTF) is now construction at DAEDUCK in Korea. In SWFTF, the characteristics of solidified waste products as radiological homogeneity, mechanical and thermal property, water resistance and lechability will be tested and evaluated to meet conditions for long-term storage or final disposal of wastes. The construction of solid waste form test facility has been started with finishing its design of a building and equipments in Sep. 1984, and now building construction is completed. Radioactive gas treatment system, extinguishers, cooling and heating system for the facility, electrical equipments, Master/Slave manipulator, power manipulator, lead glass and C.C.T.V. has also been installed. SWFTF will be established in the beginning of 1990's. At this report, radiation shielding door, nondestructive test of the wall, instrumentation system for the utility supply system and cell lighting system are described. (Author)

  5. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  6. Distinct neural mechanisms for body form and body motion discriminations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Peelen, Marius V; Tadin, Duje; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    Actions can be understood based on form cues (e.g., static body posture) as well as motion cues (e.g., gait patterns). A fundamental debate centers on the question of whether the functional and neural mechanisms processing these two types of cues are dissociable. Here, using fMRI, psychophysics, and

  7. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available (NRC) – UBE • Semi-Solid Rheocasting (SSR) – MIT • New Semi-Solid Casting – Hitachi • Sub-liquidus Casting (SLC) –JLH Technologies & THT Presses • Slurry on Demand (SoD) – AEMP 2005 Contech –USA Citation – USA Intermet – USA Stampal - ITALY... Stampal - producing engine brackets for Fiat PUNTO 50000 pcs per month New Rheocasting (NRC) - UBE 2005 Semi-Solid Rheocasting – MIT 2005 Hitachi Process 2005 SLC Process 2005 Advantages and Disadvantages of Rheocasting Advantages Disadvantages...

  8. Exploring the solid-form landscape of pharmaceutical hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Bond, Andrew; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2013-01-01

    To understand the transformation pathways amongst anhydrate/hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen and to highlight the importance of a polymorphic dihydrate within this context.......To understand the transformation pathways amongst anhydrate/hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen and to highlight the importance of a polymorphic dihydrate within this context....

  9. Model of the discrete destruction process of a solid body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, V. V.; Markin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Destruction is considered as a discrete thermomechanical process, in which the deformation of a solid body is achieved by changing the boundary stresses acting on the part of the volume being destroyed with the external load unchanged. On the basis of the proposed concept, a model for adhesive stratification of a composite material is constructed. When adhesive stratification is used, the stress state of one or two boundaries of the adhesive layer changes to zero if the bonds with the joined body are broken. As a result of the stratification, the interaction between the part of the composite, which may include an adhesive layer and the rest of the body stops. When solving the elastoplastic problem of cohesive stratification, the region in which the destruction criterion is achieved is identified. With the help of a repeated solution of the problem of subcritical deformation with the known law of motion of the boundary of the region, the distribution of the load (nodal forces) acting from the region to the body is located. The next step considers the change in the stress–strain state of the body in the process of destruction of the selected area. The elastoplastic problem is solved with a simple unloading of the formed surface of the body and preservation of the external load corresponding to the beginning of the process of destruction.

  10. Impact test for solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.M.; Kelley, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Samples of concretes and glasses being considered for incorporation of radioactive waste sludge were subjected to impact tests to determine the relationship between the energy of the impact and the resulting increase in surface area of the damaged sample. Test results indicate that the increased surface area per unit of energy input for glass waste forms is less by a factor of about three than that for concretes containing 40 wt percent simulated sludge (average values of 9.6 cm 2 /Joule and 24.7 cm 2 /Joule for glass and concrete, respectively)

  11. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael P [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  12. Solid forms for Savannah River Plant radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.M.; Hale, W.H.; Bradley, R.F.; Hull, H.L.; Kelley, J.A.; Stone, J.A.; Thompson, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are being developed to immobilize Savannah River Plant wastes in solid forms such as cement, asphalt, or glass. 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major biological hazards and heat producers in the alkaline wastes produced at SRP. In the conceptual process being studied, 137 Cs removed from alkaline supernates, together with insoluble sludges that contain 90 Sr, will be incorporated into solid forms of high integrity and low volume suitable for storage in a retrievable surface storage facility for about 100 years, and for eventual shipment to an off-site repository. Mineralization of 137 Cs, or its fixation on zeolite prior to incorporation into solid forms, is also being studied. Economic analyses to reduce costs and fault-tree analyses to minimize risks are being conducted. Methods are being studied for removal of sludge from (and final decontamination of) waste tanks

  13. Alternative solid forms for Savannah River Plant defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T.; Smith, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Solid forms and processes were evaluated for immobilization of SRP high-level radioactive waste, which contains bulk chemicals such as hydrous iron and aluminium oxides. Borosilicate glass currently is the best overall choice. High-silica glass, tailored ceramics, and coated ceramics are potentially superior products, but require more difficult processes

  14. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: cimetidine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned

  15. Lunar Fluid Core and Solid-Body Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2-5] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening has been improving [3,5] and now seems significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core.

  16. The construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Koo, Jun Mo; Kim, Jeong Guk; Jung, In Ha

    1990-03-01

    The solid waste form test facility (SWFTF) to test and/or evaluate the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogeniety, mechanical properties, thermal properties, waste resistance and leachability, have been constructed, and some equipments for testing actual waste forms has been purchased; radiocative monitoring system, glove box for the manipulator repair room, and uninteruppted power supply system, et al. Classifications of radioactive wastes, basic requirements and criteria to be considered during waste management were also reviewed. Some of the described items above have been standardized for the purpose of indigenigation. Therefore, safety assurance of waste forms, as well as increase in the range of participating of domestic companies in construction of further nuclear facilities could be obtained as results through constructing this facility. In the furture this facility is going to be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination for extending the life time of some expensive radiological equipments using remote handling techniques. (author)

  17. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  18. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355

  19. Aerodynamics of solid bodies in the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-07-01

    On a centrally condensed solar nebula, the pressure gradient in the gas causes the nebula to rotate more slowly than the free orbital velocity. Drag forces cause the orbits of solid bodies to decay. Their motions have been investigated analytically and numerically for all applicable drag laws. The maximum radial velocity developed is independent of the drag law, and insensitive to the nebular mass. Results are presented for a variety of model nebulae. Radial velocities depend strongly on particle size, reaching values of the order of 10/sup 4/ cm/s for metre-sized objects. Possible consequences include: mixing of solid matter with the solar nebula on short timescales, collisions leading to rapid accumulation of planetesimals, fractionation of bodies by size or density, and production of regions of anomalous composition in the solar nebula.

  20. The construction of solid waste form test and inspection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Jeong Woo; Lee, Jong Youl; Bae, Sang Min

    1988-01-01

    The solid waste form test and inspection facility is a facility to test and inspect the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogenity, mechanical structure, thermal behaviour, water resistance and leachability. Such kinds of characteristics in waste forms are required to meet a certain conditions for long-term storage or for final disposal of wastes. The facility will be used to evaluate safety for the disposal of wastes by test and inspection. At this moment, the efforts to search the most effective management of the radioactive wastes generated from power plants and radioisotope user are being executed by the people related to this field. Therefore, the facility becomes more significant tool because of its guidance of sucessfully converting wastes into forms to give a credit to the safety of waste disposal for managing the radioactive wastes. In addition the overall technical standards for inspecting of waste forms such as the standardized equipment and processes in the facility will be estabilished in the begining of 1990's when the project of waste management will be on the stream. Some of the items of the project have been standardized for the purpose of localization. In future, this facility will be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination apparatus by remote operation techniques. (Author)

  1. Advanced solid elements for sheet metal forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, Vicente; Rossi, Riccardo; Oñate, Eugenio; Flores, Fernando G.

    2016-08-01

    The solid-shells are an attractive kind of element for the simulation of forming processes, due to the fact that any kind of generic 3D constitutive law can be employed without any additional hypothesis. The present work consists in the improvement of a triangular prism solid-shell originally developed by Flores[2, 3]. The solid-shell can be used in the analysis of thin/thick shell, undergoing large deformations. The element is formulated in total Lagrangian formulation, and employs the neighbour (adjacent) elements to perform a local patch to enrich the displacement field. In the original formulation a modified right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor (C) is obtained; in the present work a modified deformation gradient (F) is obtained, which allows to generalise the methodology and allows to employ the Pull-Back and Push-Forwards operations. The element is based in three modifications: (a) a classical assumed strain approach for transverse shear strains (b) an assumed strain approach for the in-plane components using information from neighbour elements and (c) an averaging of the volumetric strain over the element. The objective is to use this type of elements for the simulation of shells avoiding transverse shear locking, improving the membrane behaviour of the in-plane triangle and to handle quasi-incompressible materials or materials with isochoric plastic flow.

  2. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2013-02-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Because of lack of conclusive data about efavirenz's permeability and its failure to comply with the "high solubility" criteria according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), the API can be classified as BCS Class II/IV. In line with the solubility characteristics, the innovator product does not meet the dissolution criteria for a "rapidly dissolving product." Furthermore, product variations containing commonly used excipients or in the manufacturing process have been reported to impact the rate and extent of efavirenz absorption. Despite its wide therapeutic index, subtherapeutic levels of efavirenz can lead to treatment failure and also facilitate the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants. For all these reasons, a biowaiver for IR solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the sole API is not scientifically justified for reformulated or multisource drug products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohin, Igor E; Kulinich, Julia I; Ramenskaya, Galina V; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Groot, D W; Barends, Dirk M; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-02-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing piroxicam in the free acid form are reviewed. Piroxicam solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA), and corresponding dissolution data are taken into consideration. The available data suggest that according to the current biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and all current guidances, piroxicam would be assigned to BCS Class II. The extent of piroxicam absorption seems not to depend on manufacturing conditions or excipients, so the risk of bioinequivalence in terms of area under the curve (AUC) is very low, but the rate of absorption (i.e., BE in terms of Cmax ) can be affected by the formulation. Current in vitro dissolution methods may not always reflect differences in terms of Cmax for BCS Class II weak acids; however, minor differences in absorption rate of piroxicam would not subject the patient to unacceptable risks: as piroxicam products may be taken before or after meals, the rate of absorption cannot be considered crucial to drug action. Therefore, a biowaiver for IR piroxicam solid oral dosage form is considered feasible, provided that (a) the test product contains only excipients, which are also present in IR solid oral drug products containing piroxicam, which have been approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance, those presented in Table 3 of this paper; (b) both the test and comparator drug products dissolve 85% in 30 min or less at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8; and (c) the test product and comparator show dissolution profile similarity in pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. When not all of these conditions can be fulfilled, BE of the products should be established in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the

  4. Nanofibrous solid dosage form of living bacteria prepared by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of electrospinning for biodrug delivery and to develop an electrospinning-based method to produce vaginal drug delivery systems. Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were encapsulated into nanofibers of three different polymers (polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone with two different molar masses. Shelf life of the bacteria could be enhanced by the exclusion of water and by preparing a solid dosage form, which is an advantageous and patient-friendly way of administration. The formulations were stored at –20, 7 and 25°C, respectively. Viability testing showed that the nanofibers can provide long term stability for huge amounts of living bacteria if they are kept at (or below 7°C. Furthermore, all kinds of nanowebs prepared in this work dissolved instantly when they got in contact with water, thus the developed biohybrid nanowebs can provide new potential ways for curing bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Vortex Reconnection or Breakdown Subsequent to Perpendicular Collision With A Solid Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analytically examines the unsteady fluid dynamics of a vortex filament subsequent to a normal collision of the vortex with a solid body. In particular, the breakdown or reconnection phenomena, post-collision, for a vortex filament is studied. The paper does not investigate the collision dynamics process itself. The derived exact solution is based upon the laminar viscous form of the Helmholtz equations.

  6. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  7. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  8. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school

  9. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  10. Development of solid radionuclide waste forms in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    New ways of reworking the wastes require a new classification in terms of the final waste forms. This paper surveys the candidate forms: encapsulation binders, in-place solidification waste forms, glass and ceramic waste forms, mineral waste forms, matrix waste forms, gaseous waste forms (fixation), and canisters and engineered barriers. Participants in the US-high-level waste form development program are listed. Requirements and selection of waste forms are also discussed. 26 references

  11. Dynamics of Solid Body in Magnetic Suspension under Periodic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gouskov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of ferromagnetic body in hybrid magnetic suspension (HMS. The body is supposed to have one degree of freedom and a nonlinear magnetic force dependence on the current and displacement. The magnetic force induced in the HMS is divided into a passive component and an active one. Specifying the law of current variation in the coil allows us to generate nonlinear oscillations under electromagnet action. To provide periodic excitation the appropriate law of the current variation in the electromagnet coil is proposed. The mathematical model includes external periodic step-excitation. The equation of motion is formed. The scales of similarity are highlighted in the system, and the equation of motion is reduced to dimensionless form.The motion dynamics is studied numerically. The relaxation method was used to determine the periodic motions at different values of dimensionless frequency of the electromagnet excitation as well as to estimate the influence of other dimensionless parameters on the system dynamics. The amplitude-frequency curve analysis allows us to come to conclusion that the nature of system nonlinearity is rigid. Adding the external periodic step-excitation leads to the qualitative change in the nature of movement. This points to the occurrence of bifurcation.

  12. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10 3 to 10 6 years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references

  13. Yeast prions form infectious amyloid inclusion bodies in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espargaró Alba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prions were first identified as infectious proteins associated with fatal brain diseases in mammals. However, fungal prions behave as epigenetic regulators that can alter a range of cellular processes. These proteins propagate as self-perpetuating amyloid aggregates being an example of structural inheritance. The best-characterized examples are the Sup35 and Ure2 yeast proteins, corresponding to [PSI+] and [URE3] phenotypes, respectively. Results Here we show that both the prion domain of Sup35 (Sup35-NM and the Ure2 protein (Ure2p form inclusion bodies (IBs displaying amyloid-like properties when expressed in bacteria. These intracellular aggregates template the conformational change and promote the aggregation of homologous, but not heterologous, soluble prionogenic molecules. Moreover, in the case of Sup35-NM, purified IBs are able to induce different [PSI+] phenotypes in yeast, indicating that at least a fraction of the protein embedded in these deposits adopts an infectious prion fold. Conclusions An important feature of prion inheritance is the existence of strains, which are phenotypic variants encoded by different conformations of the same polypeptide. We show here that the proportion of infected yeast cells displaying strong and weak [PSI+] phenotypes depends on the conditions under which the prionogenic aggregates are formed in E. coli, suggesting that bacterial systems might become useful tools to generate prion strain diversity.

  14. New solid state forms of antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu-Goia, C.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Simon, V.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to asses the formation of solid forms between the 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy drug and the anthelmintic piperazine. Two new solid forms of antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine were obtained by liquid assisted ball milling and slurry crystallization methods. The Nsbnd H hydrogen bonding donors and C = O hydrogen bonding acceptors of 5-fluorouracil allow to form co-crystals with other drugs delivering improved properties for medical applications, as proved for other compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Both new solid forms were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD results show that by both methods were successfully synthesized new solid forms of 5-fluorouracil with piperazine. According to FTIR results the form prepared by lichid assisted grinding process was obtained as co-crystal and the other one, prepared by slurry method, resulted as a salt.

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy in the development of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Sandler, Niklas

    2007-02-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has rapidly grown partly due to demands of process analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Furthermore, newest regulatory guidelines have advanced the increase of the use of NIR technologies. The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of measurements makes NIR a powerful tool in characterization of pharmaceutical solids. These benefits among others often make NIR advantageous over traditional analytical methods. However, in addition to NIR, a wide variety of other tools are naturally also available for analysis in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, and those can often be more suitable for a given application. The versatility and rapidness of NIR will ensure its contribution to increased process understanding, better process control and improved quality of drug products. This review concentrates on the use of NIR spectroscopy from a process research perspective and highlights recent applications in the field.

  16. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-23

    Variation in body form among human groups is structured by a blend of natural selection driven by local climatic conditions and random genetic drift. However, attempts to test ecogeographic hypotheses have not distinguished between adaptive traits (i.e., those that evolved as a result of selection) and those that evolved as a correlated response to selection on other traits (i.e., nonadaptive traits), complicating our understanding of the relationship between climate and morphological distinctions among populations. Here, we use evolutionary quantitative methods to test if traits previously identified as supporting ecogeographic hypotheses were actually adaptive by estimating the force of selection on individual traits needed to drive among-group differentiation. Our results show that not all associations between trait means and latitude were caused by selection acting directly on each individual trait. Although radial and tibial length and biiliac and femoral head breadth show signs of responses to directional selection matching ecogeographic hypotheses, the femur was subject to little or no directional selection despite having shorter values by latitude. Additionally, in contradiction to ecogeographic hypotheses, the humerus was under directional selection for longer values by latitude. Responses to directional selection in the tibia and radius induced a nonadaptive correlated response in the humerus that overwhelmed its own trait-specific response to selection. This result emphasizes that mean differences between groups are not good indicators of which traits are adaptations in the absence of information about covariation among characteristics.

  17. Leach rate characterization of solid radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.F.; Barletta, R.E.; Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Leach rates were measured using distilled water on four types of waste forms: spray calcined waste mixed with silica and borosilicate glass and sintered, the same pulverized, the same in a lead matrix, and waste glass containing U. Twenty isotopes ranging from 22 Na to 239 Np were measured using activation analysis. Leach rates were also measured for a variety of matrix materials (Zircaloy, Al, Pb, glass, Pb 3 RE 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 ), using one isotope each. 2 tables

  18. ENROBAGES POLYMERIQUES DE FORMES SOLIDES: CARACTERISATION ET OPTIMISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Muschert , Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous polymer dispersions are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat oral dosage forms and to allow for controlled drug delivery. They offer major advantages compared to organic polymer solutions, such as reduced environmental concerns and toxicity risks. However, care must be taken that the films are stable during long term storage and that decreasing drug release rates due to further polymer particle coalescence are avoided. The idea of this work was to add an appropriate se...

  19. Biopolymer-based thermoplastic mixture for producing solid biodegradable shaped bodies and its photo degradation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Nurulsaidatulsyida; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, biopolymers with controllable lifetimes have become increasingly important for many applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedical implants and drug release, forestry, wild life conservation and waste management. Natural oils are considered to be the most important class of renewable sources. They can be obtained from naturally occurring plants, such as sunflower, cotton, linseed and palm oil. In Malaysia, palm oil is an inexpensive and commodity material. Biopolymer produced from palm oil (Bio-VOP) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and readily available from agriculture. For packaging use however, Bio-VOP is not thermoplastic and its granular form is unsuitable for most uses in the plastics industry, mainly due to processing difficulties during extrusion or injection moulding. Thus, research workers have developed several methods to blend Bio-VOP appropriately for industrial uses. In particular, injections moulding processes, graft copolymerisation, and preparation of blends with thermoplastic polymers have been studied to produce solid biodegradable shaped bodies. HDPE was chosen as commercial thermoplastic materials and was added with 10% Bio-VOP for the preparation of solid biodegradable shaped bodies named as HD-VOP. The UV light exposure of HD-VOP at 12 minutes upon gives the highest strength of this material that is 17.6 MPa. The morphological structure of HD-VOP shows dwi structure surface fracture which is brittle and ductile properties.

  20. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and

  2. Effect of Cold Stress on Fruiting Body Production by Medicinal Basidiomycetes in Submerged and Solid-phase Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Vetchinkina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the medicinal xylotrophic basidiomycetes Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa to produce typical and atypical fruiting bodies with viable basidiospores in submerged and solid-phase culture under stationary conditions in a beer wort-containing medium under cold stress was shown. The examined mushrooms, when not exposed to temperature stress, did not form fruiting bodies. In solid-phase culture in an agarized medium after cold treatment, the basidiome formation period was shortened by 1.5–2 times. Furthermore, the use of a mycelium subjected to temperature stress for inoculation induced and accelerated the formation of fruiting bodies on an industrial wood substrate, which is of great biotechnological importance.

  3. Miniaturized approach for excipient selection during the development of oral solid dosage form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Müllertz, Anette; Cornett, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a miniaturized high-throughput platform to understand the influence of excipients on the performance of oral solid dosage forms during early drug development. Wet massing of binary mixtures of the model drug (sodium naproxen) and representative excipients was followed...... for excipient selection and for early-stage performance testing of active pharmaceutical ingredient intended for oral solid dosage form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:900-908, 2014....

  4. A finite volume procedure for fluid flow, heat transfer and solid-body stress analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jagad, P. I.; Puranik, B. P.; Date, A. W.

    2018-01-01

    A unified cell-centered unstructured mesh finite volume procedure is presented for fluid flow, heat transfer and solid-body stress analysis. An in-house procedure (A. W. Date, Solution of Transport Equations on Unstructured Meshes with Cell

  5. Many-body effects in X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and electronic properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohiki, S.

    1999-01-01

    Photoemission from a solid is evidently a many-body process since the motion of each electron cannot be independent of the motions of other electrons. In this article we review the reported many-body effects in X-ray photoemission such as extra-atomic relaxation energy, charge transfer satellite and energy loss structure which are informative in relation to the characteristics of solids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. The evolution of the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies, Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukov, T.D.; Sotiropoulos, K.; Wielstra, B.M.; Dzukic, G.; Kalezic, M.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) and explored its evolution. From seven morphometric traits, we determined that body size, interlimb distance and head width define the body form. None of the morphometric traits showed a phylogenetic signal.

  7. What women like: influence of motion and form on esthetic body perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCazzato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the distinct contribution of motion and form to the esthetic evaluation of female bodies. Here, we investigated how variations of implied motion and body size interact in the esthetic evaluation of female and male bodies in a sample of young healthy women. Participants provided attractiveness, beauty, and liking ratings for the shape and posture of virtual renderings of human bodies with variable body size and implied motion. The esthetic judgments for both shape and posture of human models were influenced by body size and implied motion, with a preference for thinner and more dynamic stimuli. Implied motion, however, attenuated the impact of extreme body size on the esthetic evaluation of body postures, and body size variations did not affect the preference for more dynamic stimuli. Results show that body form and action cues interact in esthetic perception, but the final esthetic appreciation of human bodies is predicted by a mixture of perceptual and affective evaluative components.

  8. Microstructural effects in drug release by solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2017-11-01

    In recent studies, we have introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms to achieve both immediate drug release and predictable manufacture. Dosage forms ranging from minimally-porous solids to highly porous, open-cell and thin-walled structures were prepared, and the drug release characteristics investigated as the volume fraction of cells and the excipient molecular weight were varied. In the present study, both minimally-porous solid and cellular dosage forms consisting of various weight fractions of Acetaminophen drug and polyethylene glycol (PEG) excipient are prepared and analyzed. Microstructures of the solid forms and the cell walls range from single-phase solid solutions of the excipient and a small amount of drug molecules to two-phase composites of the excipient and tightly packed drug particles. Results of dissolution experiments show that the minimally-porous solid forms disintegrate and release drug by slow surface erosion. The erosion rate decreases as the drug weight fraction is increased. By contrast, the open-cell structures disintegrate rapidly by viscous exfoliation, and the disintegration time is independent of drug weight fraction. Drug release models suggest that the solid forms erode by convective mass transfer of the faster-eroding excipient if the drug volume fraction is small. At larger drug volume fractions, however, the slower-eroding drug particles hinder access of the free-flowing fluid to the excipient, thus slowing down erosion of the composite. Conversely, the disintegration rate of the cellular forms is limited by diffusion of the dissolution fluid into the excipient phase of the thin cell walls. Because the wall thickness is of the order of the drug particle size, and the particles are enveloped by the excipient during melt-processing, the drug particles cannot hinder diffusion through the excipient across the walls. Thus the disintegration time of the cellular forms is mostly unaffected by the volume fraction of drug

  9. Determination of the mechanical properties of solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms by diametral compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-07-25

    At present, the immediate-release solid dosage forms, such as the oral tablets and capsules, are granular solids. They release drug rapidly and have adequate mechanical properties, but their manufacture is fraught with difficulties inherent in processing particulate matter. Such difficulties, however, could be overcome by liquid-based processing. Therefore, we have recently introduced polymeric cellular (i.e., highly porous) dosage forms prepared from a melt process. Experiments have shown that upon immersion in a dissolution medium, the cellular dosage forms with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as excipient and with predominantly open-cell topology disintegrate by exfoliation, thus enabling rapid drug release. If the volume fraction of voids of the open-cell structures is too large, however, their mechanical strength is adversely affected. At present, the common method for determining the tensile strength of brittle, solid dosage forms (such as select granular forms) is the diametral compression test. In this study, the theory of diametral compression is first refined to demonstrate that the relevant mechanical properties of ductile and cellular solids (i.e., the elastic modulus and the yield strength) can also be extracted from this test. Diametral compression experiments are then conducted on PEG-based solid and cellular dosage forms. It is found that the elastic modulus and yield strength of the open-cell structures are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the non-porous solids, but still are substantially greater than the stiffness and strength requirements for handling the dosage forms manually. This work thus demonstrates that melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms that release drug rapidly can be designed and manufactured to have adequate mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  11. Two-body form factors at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Keister, B.D.

    1983-02-01

    The charge form factor of a scalar deuteron at high momentum transfer is examined in a model employing scalar nucleons and mesons. With an eye toward establishing consistency criteria for more realistic calculations, several aspects of the model are examined in detail: the role of nucleon and meson singularities in the one-loop impulse diagram, the role of positive-and negative-energy nucleons, and the relationship to time-ordered perturbation theory. It is found that at large Q 2 (1) the form factor is dominated by a term in which the spectator nucleon is on the mass shell, and (2) the meson singularity structure of the d-n-p vertex function is unimportant in determining the overall high-Q 2 behaviour of the form factor

  12. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  13. Unveiling multiple solid-state transitions in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms using multi-series hyperspectral imaging and different curve resolution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state transitions at the surface of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (SDF) were monitored using multi-series hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with Multivariate Curve Resolution – Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC and PARAFAC2). First, the solid-stat...

  14. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  15. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c

  16. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Thebault, P., E-mail: stefan.lines@bristol.ac.uk [LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-10

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  17. Forming Circumbinary Planets: N-body Simulations of Kepler-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-02-01

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  18. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  19. THE TEACHERS ROLE IN FORMING PROPER BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Being acquainted and well aware of the presence of physical deformation in school population, this study is based on the research of postural deformity of the pupils of the 5th grade of elementary school and determination of dependance of deformations appearance in relation to frequency of remonstration and indication to correct sitting position from proffesors’ perspective. The complete program content is conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools comprising 299 students of the 5th grade. The object was to determine the number of students with kyphotic and lordotic deformity, to determine the presence of deformation in depandance of gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity in depandance of the frequency of proffesors indication to improper sitting. We can notice higher presence of kyphotic deformity at the probationers of male population that it is the case with female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at female population.The highest number of probationers have reported that none of the proffesors warn them about proper sitting. The measures inside the groups sorted by gender qualifi cation, indicate on high percentage of both boys and girls who are not warned on proper sitting. Also, inside the groups of improper body holders, we can notice the most signifi cant kyphotic and lordotic deformity in the category of students who are never warned to sit properly. These indicators report us that is necessary to invest much more work on the education of parents and children as well as school stuff at the preschool and school institutions which would result in reducing the appearence and development of postural deformity at the population who is more liable to transformations of such kind.

  20. Solid-state NMR studies of form I of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei David; Gao, Xudong; Strohmeier, Mark; Wang, Wei; Bai, Shi; Dybowski, Cecil

    2012-03-22

    Solid-state (13)C, (19)F, and (15)N magic angle spinning NMR studies of Form I of atorvastatin calcium are reported, including chemical shift tensors of all resolvable carbon sites and fluorine sites. The complete (13)C and (19)F chemical shift assignments are given based on an extensive analysis of (13)C-(1)H HETCOR and (13)C-(19)F HETCOR results. The solid-state NMR data indicate that the asymmetric unit of this material contains two atorvastatin molecules. A possible structure of Form I of atorvastatin calcium (ATC-I), derived from solid-state NMR data and density functional theory calculations of various structures, is proposed for this important active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).

  1. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  2. Three-body interactions and the elastic constants of hcp solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of hexagonal close packed solid 4He is investigated using variational path integral (VPI) Monte Carlo simulations. The solid's nonzero elastic constants are calculated, at T = 0 K and for a range of molar volumes from 7.88 cm3/mol to 20.78 cm3/mol, from the bulk modulus and the three pure shear constants C0, C66, and C44. Three-body interactions are accounted for using our recently reported perturbative treatment based on the nonadditive three-body potential of Cencek et al. Previous studies have attempted to account for the effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of solid 4He; however, these calculations have treated zero point motions using either the Einstein or Debye approximations, which are insufficient in the molar volume range where solid 4He is characterized as a quantum solid. Our VPI calculations allow for a more accurate treatment of the zero point motions which include atomic correlation. From these calculations, we find that agreement with the experimental bulk modulus is significantly improved when three-body interactions are considered. In addition, three-body interactions result in non-negligible differences in the calculated pure shear constants and nonzero elastic constants, particularly at higher densities, where differences of up to 26.5% are observed when three-body interactions are included. We compare to the available experimental data and find that our results are generally in as good or better agreement with experiment as previous theoretical investigations.

  3. The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampuch, R.; Stobierski, L.; Lis, J.; Bialoskorski, J.; Ermer, E.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro power has been worked out. The method consists in introducing mixture of boron, carbon and silicon and heating in the atmosphere of inert gas to the 1573 K

  4. On-line Technology Information System (OTIS): Solid Waste Management Technology Information Form (SWM TIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriguez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: What is OTIS? OTIS use. Proposed implementation method. Development history of the Solid Waste Management (SWM) Technology Information Form (TIF) and OTIS. Current development state of the SWM TIF and OTIS. Data collection approach. Information categories. Critiques/questions/feedback.

  5. New Insights into Solid Form Stability and Hydrate Formation: o-Phenanthroline HCl and Neocuproine HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E. Braun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The moisture- and temperature dependent stabilities and interrelation pathways of the practically relevant solid forms of o-phenanthroline HCl (1 and neocuproine HCl (2 were investigated using thermal analytical techniques (HSM, DSC and TGA and gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies. The experimental stability data were correlated with the structural changes observed upon dehydration and the pairwise interaction and lattice energies calculated. For 1 the monohydrate was identified as the only stable form under conditions of RH typically found during production and storage, but at RH values >80% deliquescence occurs. The second compound, 2, forms an anhydrate and two different hydrates, mono- (2-Hy1 and trihydrate (2-Hy3. The 2-Hy1 structure was solved from SCXRD data and the anhydrate structure derived from a combination of PXRD and CSP. Depending on the environmental conditions (moisture either 2-Hy1 or 2-Hy3 is the most sable solid form of 2 at RT. The monohydrates 1-Hy1 and 2-Hy1 show a high enthalpic stabilization (≥20 kJ mol−1 relative to the anhydrates. The anhydrates are unstable at ambient conditions and readily transform to the monohydrates even in the presence of traces of moisture. This study demonstrates how the right combination of experiment and theory can unravel the properties and interconversion pathways of solid forms.

  6. Simulation of aerosol flow interaction with a solid body on molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelyushkin, Ivan A.; Stasenko, Albert L.

    2018-05-01

    Physico-mathematical models and numerical algorithm of two-phase flow interaction with a solid body are developed. Results of droplet motion and its impingement upon a rough surface in real gas boundary layer simulation on the molecular level obtained via molecular dynamics technique are presented.

  7. Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Tiggemann, Marika

    2018-01-01

    We examined whether shifting young women's ( N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.

  8. Semi-solid dosage form of clonazepam for rapid oral mucosal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Osamu; Machida, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Hiraku

    2011-07-01

    In order to obtain an alternative to the intravenous (i.v.) dosage form of clonazepam (CZ), an oral droplet formulation of CZ was developed previously; however, the droplet was physically unstable. Therefore, in the present study, it was attempted to develop an easily-handled dosage form, which was more physically stable and allowed rapid drug absorption from oral mucosa. A semi-solid dosage form, composed of polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG), CZ, and oleic acid (OA) at 37/1/2 (w/w) and named PEG/CZ/OA, and a semi-solid dosage form containing PEG and CZ at 39/1 (w/w), called PEG/CZ, were prepared. Their physical stability in air at room temperature and oral mucosal absorption in rats were investigated. The semi-solid dosage forms were much more stable physically than the droplet, that is, no recrystallization of CZ was observed for at least 8 days. The effective concentration for humans and rats (20 ng/mL or more) was achieved within 30 min after buccal administration for both PEG/CZ/OA and PEG/CZ. The plasma concentration increased gradually and less varied at each time point for PEG/CZ/OA. PEG/CZ/OA was found to show more rapid and higher absorption of CZ in buccal administration than in sublingual administration. Buccal administration with the semi-solid dosage PEG/CZ with or without OA was suggested to be a possibly useful novel dosage form as an alternative to i.v. injection.

  9. A quasi-Bohmian approach for a homogeneous spherical solid body based on its geometric structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupaei, Jalaledin Yousefi; Golshani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we express the space of rotation as a Riemannian space and try to generalize the classical equations of motion of a homogeneous spherical solid body in the domain of quantum mechanics. This is done within Bohm's view of quantum mechanics, but we do not use the Schrödinger equation. Instead, we assume that in addition to the classical potential there is an extra potential and try to obtain it. In doing this, we start from a classical picture based on Hamilton-Jacobi formalism and statistical mechanics but we use an interpretation which is different from the classical one. Then, we introduce a proper action and extremize it. This procedure gives us a mathematical identity for the extra potential that limits its form. The classical mechanics is a trivial solution of this method. In the simplest cases where the extra potential is not a constant, a mathematical identity determines it uniquely. In fact the first nontrivial potential, apart from some constant coefficients which are determined by experiment, is the usual Bohmian quantum potential

  10. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  11. Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Fuenmayor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms.

  12. Leachability and thermal properties of ceramic solid forms immobilizing cesium and/or strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, H.; Hirabayashi, T.; Ozawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    Solid forms immobilizing nuclides were prepared from Cs-mordenite and Sr-A zeolite by calcination at 1.200 deg C for 1 h. Cesium and strontium were fixed in the crystal phases of pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 ) and Sr-feldspar (SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ), respectively. The leachability of Cs andSr was rather high in 0.1 M HNO 3 leachant, while the leached percentage was lowered in 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M NaCl and deionized water. The recrystallized phases formed on the surface after leaching in 0.1 M NaOH resulted in the lowering of the leachability of Cs and Sr. The thermal conductivities (κ) of solid forms of Cs-MOR, Sr-A, (Cs,Sr)-A and Al-matrix (calcined Cs-mordenite dispersed in Al metal matrix) were determined to be 0.83-1.00, 0.55-0.64, 0.83-1.01 and 47 W/(m·K), respectively. The central temperature of solid forms with the same diameter was in the order of Sr-A > Cs-MOR > Al-matrix. (author)

  13. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  14. Local laser-strengthening: Customizing the forming behavior of car body steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Jahn, A.; Beyer, E.; Balzani, D.

    2018-05-01

    Future trends in designing lightweight components especially for automotive applications increasingly require complex and delicate structures with highest possible level of capacity [1]. The manufacturing of metallic car body components is primarily realized by deep or stretch drawing. The forming process of especially cold rolled and large-sized components is typically characterized by inhomogeneous stress and strain distributions. As a result, the avoidance of undesirable deep drawing effects like earing and local necking is among the greatest challenges in forming complex car body structures [2]. Hence, a novel local laser-treatment approach with the objective of customizing the forming behavior of car body steel sheets is currently explored.

  15. DEVELOPMENT and TESTING OF A CEMENT-BASED SOLID WASTE FORM USING SYNTHETIC UP-1 GROUNDWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE, G.A.; LOCKREM, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site is investigating the conversion of several liquid waste streams from evaporator operations into solid cement-based waste forms. The cement/waste mixture will be poured into plastic-lined mold boxes. After solidification the bags will be removed from the molds and sealed for land disposal at the Hanford Site. The RJ Lee Group, Inc. Center for Laboratory Sciences (CLS) at Columbia Basin College (CBC) was requested to develop and test a cementitious solids (CS) formulation to solidify evaporated groundwater brine, identified as UP-1, from Basin 43. Laboratory testing of cement/simulant mixtures is required to demonstrate the viability of cement formulations that reduce the overall cost, minimize bleed water and expansion, and provide suitable strength and cure temperature. Technical support provided mixing, testing, and reporting of values for a defined composite solid waste form. In this task, formulations utilizing Basin 43 simulant at varying wt% solids were explored. The initial mixing consisted of making small (∼ 300 g) batches and casting into 500-mL Nalgene(reg s ign) jars. The mixes were cured under adiabatic conditions and checked for bleed water and consistency at recorded time intervals over a 1-week period. After the results from the preliminary mixing, four formulations were selected for further study. The testing documentation included workability, bleed water analysis (volume and pH) after 24 hours, expansivity/shrinkage, compressive strength, and selected Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leach analytes of the resulting solid waste form

  16. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  17. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  18. Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Djurić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms.

  19. Control of microstructure and mechanical properties of laser solid formed Inconel 718 superalloy by electromagnetic stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fencheng; Cheng, Hongmao; Yu, Xiaobin; Yang, Guang; Huang, Chunping; Lin, Xin; Chen, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The coarse columnar grains and special interface in laser solid formed (LSFed) Inconel 718 superalloy workpieces seriously affect their mechanical properties. To improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of LSFed Inconel 718 superalloy, electromagnetic stirring (EMS) was introduced to alter the solidification process of the molten pool during LSF. The results show that EMS could not completely eliminate the epitaxially growing columnar grains, however, the strong convection of liquid metals can effectively influence the solid-liquid interface growing mode. The segregation of alloying elements on the front of solid-liquid interface is inhibited and the degree of constitutional supercooling decreases correspondingly. Comparing the microstructures of samples formed under different process parameters, the size and amount of the γ+Laves eutectic phases formed in interdendritic area decrease along with the increasing magnetic field intensity, resulting in more uniformly distributed alloying elements. The residual stress distribution is proved to be more uniform, which is beneficial to the grain refinement after recrystallilzaiton. Mechanical properties testing results show an improvement of 100 MPa in tensile strength and 22% in elongation was obtained after EMS was used. The high cycle fatigue properties at room temperature was also improved from 4.09 × 104 cycles to 8.21 × 104 cycles for the as-deposited samples, and from 5.45 × 104 cycles to 12.73 × 104 cycles for the heat treated samples respectively.

  20. Applications of Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Dahan, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, polymers have been extensively used as pharmaceutical excipients in drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical polymers evolved from being simply used as gelatin shells comprising capsule to offering great formulation advantages including enabling controlled/slow release and specific targeting of drugs to the site(s) of action (the "magic bullets" concept), hence hold a significant clinical promise. Oral administration of solid dosage forms (e.g., tablets and capsules) is the most common and convenient route of drug administration. When formulating challenging molecules into solid oral dosage forms, polymeric pharmaceutical excipients permit masking undesired physicochemical properties of drugs and consequently, altering their pharmacokinetic profiles to improve the therapeutic effect. As a result, the number of synthetic and natural polymers available commercially as pharmaceutical excipients has increased dramatically, offering potential solutions to various difficulties. For instance, the different polymers may allow increased solubility, swellability, viscosity, biodegradability, advanced coatings, pH dependency, mucodhesion, and inhibition of crystallization. The aim of this article is to provide a wide angle prospect of the different uses of pharmaceutical polymers in solid oral dosage forms. The various types of polymeric excipients are presented, and their distinctive role in oral drug delivery is emphasized. The comprehensive know-how provided in this article may allow scientists to use these polymeric excipients rationally, to fully exploit their different features and potential influence on drug delivery, with the overall aim of making better drug products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  2. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. Four-body interaction energy for compressed solid krypton from quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunling; Wu, Na; Liu, Fusheng; Saxena, Surendra K; Zheng, Xingrong

    2012-07-28

    The importance of the four-body contribution in compressed solid krypton was first evaluated using the many-body expansion method and the coupled cluster theory with full single and double excitations plus perturbative treatment of triples. All different four-atom clusters existing in the first- and second-nearest neighbor shells of face-centered cubic krypton were considered, and both self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock and correlation parts of the four-body interaction were accurately determined from the ambient conditions up to eightfold volume compression. We find that the four-body interaction energy is negative at compression ratio lower than 2, where the dispersive forces play a dominant role. With increasing the compression, the four-body contribution becomes repulsive and significantly cancels the over-softening effects of the three-body potential. The obtained equation of state (EOS) was compared with the experiments and the density-functional theory calculations. It shows that combination of the four-body effects with two- and three-body interactions leads to an excellent agreement with EOS measurements throughout the whole experimental range 0-130 GPa, and extends the prediction to 300 GPa.

  4. A finite volume procedure for fluid flow, heat transfer and solid-body stress analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jagad, P. I.

    2018-04-12

    A unified cell-centered unstructured mesh finite volume procedure is presented for fluid flow, heat transfer and solid-body stress analysis. An in-house procedure (A. W. Date, Solution of Transport Equations on Unstructured Meshes with Cell-Centered Colocated Variables. Part I: Discretization, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 48 (6), 1117-1127, 2005) is extended to include the solid-body stress analysis. The transport terms for a cell-face are evaluated in a structured grid-like manner. The Cartesian gradients at the center of each cell-face are evaluated using the coordinate transformation relations. The accuracy of the procedure is demonstrated by solving several benchmark problems involving different boundary conditions, source terms, and types of loading.

  5. Continuous powder feeding for pharmaceutical solid dosage form manufacture: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshields, Caroline A; Crean, Abina M

    2018-07-01

    There has been a noticeable shift from pharmaceutical batch processing towards a more continuous mode of manufacture for solid oral dosage forms. Continuous solid oral dose processes would not be possible in the absence of a highly accurate feeding system. The performance of feeders defines the content of formulations and is therefore a critical operation in continuous manufacturing of solid dosage forms. It was the purpose of this review to review the role of the initial powder feeding step in a continuous manufacturing process. Different feeding mechanisms are discussed with a particular emphasis on screw controlled loss in weight (LIW) feeding. The importance of understanding the physical properties of the raw materials and its impact on the feeding process is reviewed. Prior knowledge of materials provides an initial indication of how the powders will behave through processing and facilitates in the selection of the most suitable (i) feeder (capacity), (ii) feeding mechanism, and (iii) in the case of screw feeder - screw type. The studies identified in this review focus on the impact of material on powder feeding performance.

  6. Recombination of radiation defects in solid methane: neutron sources and cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, O.; Savchenko, E. V.; Lawson, C. R.; Khyzhniy, I. V.; Jenkins, D. M.; Uyutnov, S. A.; Bludov, M. A.; Haynes, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Physicochemical properties of solid methane exposed to ionizing radiation have attracted significant interest in recent years. Here we present new trends in the study of radiation effects in solid methane. We particularly focus on relaxation phenomena in solid methane pre-irradiated by energetic neutrons and electron beam. We compare experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 10K to 100K with a model based on the assumption that radiolysis defect recombinations happen in two stages, at two different temperatures. In the case of slow heating up of the solid methane sample, irradiated at 10K, the first wave of recombination occurs around 20K with a further second wave taking place between 50 and 60K. We also discuss the role of the recombination mechanisms in “burp” phenomenon discovered by J. Carpenter in the late 1980s. An understanding of these mechanisms is vital for the designing and operation of solid methane moderators used in advanced neutron sources and could also be a possible explanation for the driving forces behind cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies.

  7. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  8. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsäss, Martin A; Souza, Jacqueline de; Silva-Barcellos, Neila M; Bellavinha, Karime R; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Parr, Alan; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Mehta, Mehul U; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a review of literature and experimental data relevant to the possibility of waiving pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies in human volunteers for approval of immediate-release solid oral pharmaceutical forms containing folic acid as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient. For dosage forms containing 5 mg folic acid, the highest dose strength on the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List, the dose/solubility ratio calculated from solubility studies was higher than 250 mL, corresponding to a classification as "not highly soluble." Small, physiological doses of folic acid (≤320 μg) seem to be absorbed completely via active transport, but permeability data for higher doses of 1-5 mg are inconclusive. Following a conservative approach, folic acid is classified as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV compound until more reliable data become available. Commensurate with its solubility characteristics, the results of dissolution studies indicated that none of the folic acid products evaluated showed rapid dissolution in media at pH 1.2 or 4.5. Therefore, according to the current criteria of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, the biowaiver approval procedure cannot be recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing folic acid. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Two Distinct Amorphous Forms of Valsartan by Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, Marcin; Apperley, David C; Aguilar, Juan A; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Pyda, Marek; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2016-01-04

    Valsartan (VAL) is an antihypertensive drug marketed in an amorphous form. Amorphous materials can have different physicochemical properties depending on preparation method, thermal history, etc., but the nature of such materials is difficult to study by diffraction techniques. This study characterizes two different amorphous forms of valsartan (AR and AM) using solid-state NMR (SSNMR) as a primary investigation tool, supported by solution-state NMR, FT-IR, TMDSC, and dissolution tests. The two forms are found to be clearly distinct, with a significantly higher level of structural arrangement in the AR form, as observed in (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H SSNMR. (13)C and (15)N NMR indicates that the fully amorphous material (AM) contains an approximately equal ratio of cis-trans conformers about the amide bond, whereas the AR form exists mainly as one conformer, with minor conformational "defects". (1)H ultrafast MAS NMR shows significant differences in the hydrogen bonding involving the tetrazole and acid hydrogens between the two materials, while (15)N NMR shows that both forms exist as a 1,2,3,4-tetrazole tautomer. NMR relaxation times show subtle differences in local and bulk molecular mobility, which can be connected with the glass transition, the stability of the glassy material, and its response to aging. Counterintuitively the fully amorphous material is found to have a significantly lower dissolution rate than the apparently more ordered AR material.

  10. New applications to computerized tomography: analysis of solid dosage forms produced by pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has been used as a new probe to study solid dosage forms (tablets) produced by pharmaceutical industry. This new approach to study tablet and powder, or granulation, properties used in pharmaceutical industry is very suitable. First because CT can generate information that traditional technologies used in this kind of analysis can not, such as, density distribution of internal structures and tablet dimensions, pore size distribution, particle shape information, and also investigation of official and unofficial (counterfeit) copies of solid dosage forms. Second because CT is a nondestructive technique, allowing the use of tablets or granules in others analysis. In this work we discus how CT can be used to acquire and reconstruct internal microstructure of tablets and granules. CT is a technique that is based on attenuation of X-rays passing through matter. Attenuation depends on the density and atomic number of the material that is scanned. In this work, a micro-CT X-ray scanner (manufactured by the group of Applied Nuclear Physics at University of Sorocaba) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of the tablets and granules for nondestructive analysis. These images showed a non uniform density distribution of material inside some tablets, the morphology of some granules analyzed, the integrity of the liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsule and so on. It could also be observed that the distribution of different constituents presents an osmotic controlled-release dosage form. The present work shows that it is possible to use X-ray microtomography to obtain useful qualitative and quantitative information on the structure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  11. A Novel Disintegration Tester for Solid Dosage Forms Enabling Adjustable Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Rach, Regine; Nawroth, Thomas; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A modified in vitro disintegration test device was designed that enables the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration of solid oral dosage forms. The device represents an improved derivative of the compendial PhEur/USP disintegration test device. By the application of a computerized numerical control, a variety of physiologically relevant moving velocities and profiles can be applied. With the help of computational fluid dynamics, the hydrodynamic and mechanical forces present in the probe chamber were characterized for a variety of device moving speeds. Furthermore, a proof of concept study aimed at the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration times of immediate release tablets. The experiments demonstrated the relevance of hydrodynamics for tablet disintegration, especially in media simulating the fasted state. Disintegration times increased with decreasing moving velocity. A correlation between experimentally determined disintegration times and computational fluid dynamics predicted shear stress on tablet surface was established. In conclusion, the modified disintegration test device is a valuable tool for biorelevant in vitro disintegration testing of solid oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumer Preferences and Perceptions towards the use Colored Oral Solid Dosage Forms in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Rifaat Ibrahim,*, Mohamed Izham M.I & Mahmoud Al-Haddad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aims of this study were to determine consumers’ preferences and perceptions in Baghdad towards the color of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a self–administered questionnaire. A convenient sampling method was adopted to approach the consumers visiting the community pharmacies in Baghdad.The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16 ®. Anon-parametric statistics i.e [Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests] were used to evaluate the association of demographic variables with respondents perceptions toward physical characteristics of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Results: Colored OSDF was preferred by 76.4% of consumers.Significant differences in this preference were found among genders (P=0.029; age (P<0.001; educational level (P=0.001;and monthly income level (0.007. Further, consumers perceived that color of OSDF is related with the therapeutic activity of medicine. Significant differences in this perception were found to be influenced by gender (P=0.016; age group(P<0.001; and educational level (P<0.001.Conclusion: In a conclusion, color was the most preferred characteristic of OSDF by Baghdadi consumers with the perceptions that color is related to therapeutic activity of medicines. Gender, age, educational level, and monthly income are important factors that are associated with the preferences and perceptions toward colored OSDF.

  13. Three-body interactions in liquid and solid hydrogen: Evidence from vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Robert

    2008-03-01

    In the cryogenic low-density liquid and solid phases of H2 and D2, the H2 and D2 molecules retain good rotational and vibrational quantum numbers that characterize their internal degrees of freedom. High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopic experiments provide extremely sensitive probes of these degrees of freedom. We present here fully-first-principles calculations of the infrared and Raman spectra of liquid and solid H2 and D2, calculations that employ a high-quality six-dimensional coupled-cluster H2-H2 potential energy surface and quantum Monte Carlo treatments of the single-molecule translational degrees of freedom. The computed spectra agree very well with experimental results once we include three-body interactions among the molecules, interactions which we also compute using coupled-cluster quantum chemical methods. We predict the vibrational spectra of liquid and solid H2 at several temperatures and densities to provide a framework for interpreting recent experiments designed to search for superfluid behavior in small H2 droplets. We also present preliminary calculations of the spectra of mixed H2/D2 solids that show how positional disorder affects the spectral line shapes in these systems.

  14. A complex of meteorite-forming bodies (the Innisfree - Ridgedale family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestaka, I. S.

    1994-12-01

    For the first time a swarm of meteorite-forming bodies was identified. Yearly this swarm's orbit approaches the Earth's orbit in early February. This swarm contains the Innisfree and Ridgedale fireballs, 9 small meteoric swarms, several asteroids and 12 fireballs photographed by the cameras of the Prairie Network and Canadian Meteorite Observation and Discovery Project. The discovery of this complex, intensive bombardments of the Moon's surface recorded by means of seismographs left on the Moon, the analysis of the time distributions of meteorite falls on the Earth and other established facts confirm the existence of swarms of meteorite-forming bodies which are crossing the Earth's orbit.

  15. Solid state characterization and crystal structure from X-ray powder diffraction of two polymorphic forms of ranitidine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Blaton, Norbert; Van Gyseghem, Elke; Martens, Johan; Van Haele, Gerrit; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN-HCl), a known anti-ulcer drug, is the product of reaction between HCl and ranitidine base (RAN-B). RAN-HCl has been extensively studied; however this is not the case of the RAN-B. The solid state characterization of RAN-B polymorphs has been carried out using different analytical techniques (microscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the attenuated total reflection mode, (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The crystal structures of RAN-B form I and form II have been determined using conventional X-ray powder diffraction in combination with simulated annealing and whole profile pattern matching, and refined using rigid-body Rietveld refinement. RAN-B form I is a monoclinic polymorph with cell parameters: a = 7.317(2), b = 9.021(2), c = 25.098(6) A, beta = 95.690(1) degrees and space group P2(1)/c. The form II is orthorhombic: a = 31.252(4), b = 13.052(2), c = 8.0892(11) A with space group Pbca. In RAN-B polymorphs, the nitro group is involved in a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond responsible for the existence of a Z configuration in the enamine portion of the molecules. A tail to tail packing motif can be denoted via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of RAN-B forms are compared to those of RAN-HCl polymorphs. RAN-B polymorphs are monotropic polymorphic pairs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Graham, Alexandra; Lartey, Paul; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing requirements for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing fluconazole as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. The decision is based on solubility, dissolution, permeability, therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacodynamic properties, and other relevant data. BE/bioavailability (BA) problems and drug-excipients interaction data were also reviewed and taken into consideration. According to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS), fluconazole in polymorphic forms II and III is a BCS class I drug and has a wide therapeutic index. BE of test formulations from many different manufacturers containing different excipients confirmed that the risk of bioinequivalence because of formulation and manufacturing factors is low. It was inferred that risk can be further reduced if in vitro studies are performed according to biowaiver guidelines. Thus, it is concluded that a biowaiver can be recommended for fluconazole IR dosage forms if (a) fluconazole is present as polymorphic form II or III or any other form/mixture showing high solubility, (b) the selection of excipients be limited to those found in IR drug products approved in International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) countries for the same dosage form and used in their usual amounts, and (c) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving throughout the shelf life with similar dissolution profiles at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: bisoprolol fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem A; Shamsher, Areeg A A; Lian, Lai Y; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing bisoprolol as the sole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Bisoprolol is classified as a Class I API according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In addition to the BCS class, its therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, and reported BE/bioavailability problems are taken into consideration. Qualitative compositions of IR tablet dosage forms of bisoprolol with a marketing authorization (MA) in ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) countries are tabulated. It was inferred that these tablets had been demonstrated to be bioequivalent to the innovator product. No reports of failure to meet BE standards have been made in the open literature. On the basis of all these pieces of evidence, a biowaiver can currently be recommended for bisoprolol fumarate IR dosage forms if (1) the test product contains only excipients that are well known, and used in normal amounts, for example, those tabulated for products with MA in ICH countries and (2) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving with similarity of the dissolution profiles demonstrated at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Solid state transformations in consequence of electrospraying--a novel polymorphic form of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maija; Roine, Jorma; Murtomaa, Matti; Mohan Sankaran, R; Santos, Hélder A; Salonen, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify that electrospraying of piroxicam yielded a new polymorphic form of this drug. In the experiments, piroxicam was dissolved in chloroform and the solution was atomised electrostatically. Subsequently, the charged droplets were neutralised and dried. The solid drug particles were collected and analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, high performance liquid chromatography, and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffractogram measured for the electrosprayed piroxicam particles did not match with any of the known piroxicam crystal structures (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre). The variable temperature X-ray diffraction showed that the structure recrystallised completely into piroxicam polymorphic formI during heating. No degradation products or solvate removal was detected by high performance liquid chromatography and thermal analysis. The infrared and Raman spectra of the electrosprayed piroxicam were compared to those of formI, and some notable differences in the peak positions, shapes and intensities were detected. The results indicate that electrospraying leads to piroxicam crystallisation in a currently unknown polymorphic form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-Drug Multicomponent Solid Forms: Cocrystal, Coamorphous and Eutectic of Three Poorly Soluble Antihypertensive Drugs Using Mechanochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Jamshed; Chadha, Renu

    2017-08-01

    The present study deals with the application of mechanochemical approach for the preparation of drug-drug multicomponent solid forms of three poorly soluble antihypertensive drugs (telmisartan, irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide) using atenolol as a coformer. The resultant solid forms comprise of cocrystal (telmisartan-atenolol), coamorphous (irbesartan-atenolol) and eutectic (hydrochlorothiazide-atenolol). The study emphasizes that solid-state transformation of drug molecules into new forms is a result of the change in structural patterns, diminishing of dimers and creating new facile hydrogen bonding network based on structural resemblance. The propensity for heteromeric or homomeric interaction between two different drugs resulted into diverse solid forms (cocrystal/coamorphous/eutectics) and become one of the interesting aspects of this research work. Evaluation of these solid forms revealed an increase in solubility and dissolution leading to better antihypertensive activity in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced animal model. Thus, development of these drug-drug multicomponent solid forms is a promising and viable approach to addressing the issue of poor solubility and could be of considerable interest in dual drug therapy for the treatment of hypertension.

  20. Aesthetic skin branding: a novel form of body art with adverse clinical sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoukian, Raffy; Ukatu, Chidi; Lee, Edward; Hyman, Josh; Sundine, Michael; Kobayashi, Mark; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Branding is a form of body art wherein third-degree burns are inflicted on the skin to produce permanent scars. This method of scarification is a common practice among many indigenous cultures and has become exceedingly common in western societies. As with other forms of body art, branding is not a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder but, rather, a method of self-expression. The process can be performed through the use of electrocautery, laser, chemicals, freezing, and hot metal. Complications arising from the procedure include acute infection, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, allergic reactions, and sequelae arising from third-degree burns. In addition, skin branding has been shown to be associated with substance abuse and high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the following case report and review to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of body art.

  1. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  2. Biowaiver Monograph for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Amoxicillin Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambavita, Dhanusha; Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Mannapperuma, Uthpali; Jayakody, Lal; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing amoxicillin trihydrate are reviewed. Solubility and permeability characteristics according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), therapeutic uses, therapeutic index, excipient interactions, as well as dissolution and BE and bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Solubility and permeability studies indicate that amoxicillin doses up to 875 mg belong to BCS class I, whereas 1000 mg belongs to BCS class II and doses of more than 1000 mg belong to BCS class IV. Considering all aspects, the biowaiver procedure can be recommended for solid oral products of amoxicillin trihydrate immediate-release preparations containing amoxicillin as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient at dose strengths of 875 mg or less, provided (a) only the excipients listed in this monograph are used, and only in their usual amounts, (b) the biowaiver study is performed according to the World Health Organization-, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-, or European Medicines Agency-recommended method using the innovator as the comparator, and (c) results comply with criteria for "very rapidly dissolving" or "similarly rapidly dissolving." Products containing other excipients and those containing more than 875 mg amoxicillin per unit should be subjected to an in vivo BE study. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  3. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-07-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To elucidate the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and dissolution studies were also carried out. The antimalarial proguanil hydrochloride, effective via the parent compound proguanil and the metabolite cycloguanil, is not considered to be a narrow therapeutic index drug. Proguanil hydrochloride salt was shown to be highly soluble according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, and European Medicines Agency guidelines, but data for permeability are inconclusive. Therefore, proguanil hydrochloride is conservatively classified as a BCS class 3 substance. In view of this information and the assessment of risks associated with a false positive decision, a BCS-based biowaiver approval procedure can be recommended for orally administered solid immediate release products containing proguanil hydrochloride, provided well-known excipients are used in usual amounts and provided the in vitro dissolution of the test and reference products is very rapid (85% or more are dissolved in 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8) and is performed according to the current requirements for BCS-based biowaivers. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrete element method (DEM) simulations of stratified sampling during solid dosage form manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Bruno C; Ketterhagen, William R

    2011-10-14

    Discrete element model (DEM) simulations of the discharge of powders from hoppers under gravity were analyzed to provide estimates of dosage form content uniformity during the manufacture of solid dosage forms (tablets and capsules). For a system that exhibits moderate segregation the effects of sample size, number, and location within the batch were determined. The various sampling approaches were compared to current best-practices for sampling described in the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Blend Uniformity Working Group (BUWG) guidelines. Sampling uniformly across the discharge process gave the most accurate results with respect to identifying segregation trends. Sigmoidal sampling (as recommended in the PQRI BUWG guidelines) tended to overestimate potential segregation issues, whereas truncated sampling (common in industrial practice) tended to underestimate them. The size of the sample had a major effect on the absolute potency RSD. The number of sampling locations (10 vs. 20) had very little effect on the trends in the data, and the number of samples analyzed at each location (1 vs. 3 vs. 7) had only a small effect for the sampling conditions examined. The results of this work provide greater understanding of the effect of different sampling approaches on the measured content uniformity of real dosage forms, and can help to guide the choice of appropriate sampling protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of solid oral dosage forms containing soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela R. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones have been extensively used for menopausal symptoms and prevention of hormone-related cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Commercially available forms of isoflavones include supplements, capsules and tablets. However, the non-standardization of soy isoflavones extracts and different dissolution profiles of these solid dosage forms highlight the need of additional studies on the development of well characterized pharmaceutical dosage forms of isoflavones. In this work, immediate release oral tablets of soy isoflavones were obtained and evaluated. Genistein and daidzein, were the main constituents of the dried soy extract. Preparation of the tables was accomplished in a rotary tableting machine following either a dry mixture for direct compression or wet granulation with different excipients. Powder, granules and tablets were evaluated for several parameters, including flow properties, Carr and Hausner indexes, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release profile. Also, a fast and validated HPLC analytical method for both genistein and daidzein was developed. Formulations containing sodium croscarmellose and sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in better flowability as indicated by the flow rate and angle of repose, faster disintegration time and immediate release dissolution profile.

  6. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose Jr.; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  7. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng; Yuan, Dan; Haburcak, Richard; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  8. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng

    2015-10-14

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  9. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Multicomponent chemical imaging of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms with broadband CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, Christopher M; Lee, Young Jong; Camp, Charles H; Liu, Zhen; Heddleston, John; Canfield, Nicole; Rhodes, Timothy A; Hight Walker, Angela R; Marsac, Patrick J; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2013-09-03

    We compare a coherent Raman imaging modality, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) microscopy, with spontaneous Raman microscopy for quantitative and qualitative assessment of multicomponent pharmaceuticals. Indomethacin was used as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and was analyzed in a tabulated solid dosage form, embedded within commonly used excipients. In comparison with wide-field spontaneous Raman chemical imaging, BCARS acquired images 10× faster, at higher spatiochemical resolution and with spectra of much higher SNR, eliminating the need for multivariate methods to identify chemical components. The significant increase in spatiochemical resolution allowed identification of an unanticipated API phase that was missed by the spontaneous wide-field method and bulk Raman spectroscopy. We confirmed the presence of the unanticipated API phase using confocal spontaneous Raman, which provided spatiochemical resolution similar to BCARS but at 100× slower acquisition times.

  11. Diffusion relaxation times of nonequilibrium isolated small bodies and their solid phase ensembles to equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).

  12. Geology and photometric variation of solar system bodies with minor atmospheres: implications for solid exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kimura, Jun; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko

    2014-09-01

    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in the UV/visible/near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities, interaction with surrounding energetic particles, and distribution of grained materials. Some indications of these processes are provided by the amplitude and wavelength dependence of variation in combinations of the time-averaged spectra. We also estimate the photometric precision needed to detect their spin rotation rates through periodogram analysis. Our survey illustrates realistic possibilities for inferring the detailed properties of solid exoplanets with future direct imaging observations. Key Words: Planetary environments-Planetary geology-Solar System-Extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  13. Zr O2-Y2 O3 ceramic bodies forming by slip casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Cristiane A.B. de; Menezes, Fernanda; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Paschoal, Jose Otavio A.

    1996-01-01

    Slip casting technique of 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia powders suspensions has been used for ceramic bodies forming. The powders were produced by coprecipitation process with ammonium hydroxide in the Zirconium Pilot Plant of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Researches, Sao Paulo, SP, (Brazil). Experiments were performed by preparing suspensions of powders with dispersing agents. These suspensions were submitted to milling and casting in plaster molds. After drying and heating at 700 deg C, the obtained specimens were sintered at 1500 deg C for 3 hours. The ceramic bodies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and tested in high temperature conditions. (author)

  14. Characterization of degradation products of amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate under solid state stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara K; Prasad, Bhagwat; Paudel, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the stress degradation studies on amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate. The objective was to characterize the degradation products and postulate mechanism of decomposition of the drug under solid state stress conditions. For that, amorphous form, ...

  15. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen

  16. Design of Solid Form Xenon-124 Target for Producing I-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Kakavand, T.; Shokri Bonab, S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently in Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine Department of NRCAM, at Atomic Energy organization of Iran (AEOI), a system for producing 1-123 via Xe-124 gas target technology, has been constructed and installed. One of the major problems in this system is the highly expensive cost of the enriched Xenon-124 gas. Therefore, saving this gas inside the system is very important. Unfortunately, by accidental rupture of the window foil or bad function of O-rings, the whole Xenon gas will escape from the system immediately. In this paper, by using computer codes; ALICE91, SRIM and doing some calculations we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing I-123 with the above mentioned reactions, but using Xe-124 solid target instead. According to our suggested design, a conical shaped irradiation vessel made of copper with 1 mm thickness, 1 cm outlet diameter, 5 cm length and 12 deg. angle at summit can be fixed inside a liquid nitrogen housing chamber. The Xenon-124 gas will be sent to the inside of this very cold conical trap and eventually deposited on its surface in solid form. Our calculation shows that during bombardment with 17-28 MeV proton energy, the thickness of solidified Xenon layer will remain around .28 mm. Likewise; thermo-dynamical calculation shows that in order to prevent the evaporation of solidified Xenon, the maximum permissible proton beam current for this system should be less than 1.4 μA. According to these working conditions, the production yield of I-123 can be predicted to be around 150 mCi/μAh. (authors)

  17. On electromagnetic forming processes in finitely strained solids: Theory and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. D.; Triantafyllidis, N.

    2009-08-01

    The process of electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high velocity manufacturing technique that uses electromagnetic (Lorentz) body forces to shape sheet metal parts. EMF holds several advantages over conventional forming techniques: speed, repeatability, one-sided tooling, and most importantly considerable ductility increase in several metals. Current modeling techniques for EMF processes are not based on coupled variational principles to simultaneously account for electromagnetic and mechanical effects. Typically, separate solutions to the electromagnetic (Maxwell) and motion (Newton) equations are combined in staggered or lock-step methods, sequentially solving the mechanical and electromagnetic problems. The present work addresses these issues by introducing a fully coupled Lagrangian (reference configuration) least-action variational principle, involving magnetic flux and electric potentials and the displacement field as independent variables. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are Maxwell's and Newton's equations in the reference configuration, which are shown to coincide with their current configuration counterparts obtained independently by a direct approach. The general theory is subsequently simplified for EMF processes by considering the eddy current approximation. Next, an application is presented for axisymmetric EMF problems. It is shown that the proposed variational principle forms the basis of a variational integration numerical scheme that provides an efficient staggered solution algorithm. As an illustration a number of such processes are simulated, inspired by recent experiments of freely expanding uncoated and polyurea-coated aluminum tubes.

  18. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jason J; Polly, P David

    2015-04-02

    Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume a highly regionalized ancestor, but the extent of deregionalization of the primaxial domain (vertebrae, dorsal ribs) of the skeleton in snake-like body forms has never been analysed. Here we combine geometric morphometrics and maximum-likelihood analysis to show that the pre-cloacal primaxial domain of elongate, limb-reduced lizards and snakes is not deregionalized compared with limbed taxa, and that the phylogenetic structure of primaxial morphology in reptiles does not support a loss of regionalization in the evolution of snakes. We demonstrate that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code. Comparison of primaxial osteology in fossil and modern amniotes with Hox gene distributions within Amniota indicates that a functional, sequentially expressed Hox code patterned a subtle morphological gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in stem members of amniote clades and extant lizards, including snakes. The highly regionalized skeletons of extant archosaurs and mammals result from independent evolution in the Hox code and do not represent ancestral conditions for clades with snake-like body forms. The developmental origin of snakes is best explained by decoupling of the primaxial and abaxial domains and by increases in somite number, not by changes in the function of primaxial Hox genes.

  19. Asymptotic form of three-body (dtμ)+ and (ddμ)+ wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Y.; Shimamura, I.; Armour, E.A.G.; Kamimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate a discrepancy between existing literature values for the normalization constant in the asymptotic form of three-body wave functions for (DTμ) + , we report the results of a new calculation of the normalization constants for this system as well as the related system (DDμ) + . These were obtained by fitting to accurate variational wave functions with special care being taken to describe the long-range behavior. (orig.)

  20. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Multiple Pharmaceutical Solid-State Forms and Surface Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Rojalin, Tatu; Antikainen, Osmo; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-11-07

    Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

  1. Calculation of the hyperfine interaction using an effective-operator form of many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garpman, S.; Lindgren, I.; Lindgren, J.; Morrison, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effective-operator form of many-body theory is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the hyperfine structure. Numerical results are given for the 2p, 3p, and 4p excited states of Li and the 3p state of Na. This is the first complete calculation of the hyperfine structure using an effective-operator form of perturbation theory. As in the Brueckner-Goldstone form of many-body theory, the various terms in the perturbation expansion are represented by Feynman diagrams which correspond to basic physical processes. The angular part of the perturbation diagrams are evaluated by taking advantage of the formal analogy between the Feynman diagrams and the angular-momentum diagrams, introduced by Jucys et al. The radial part of the diagrams is calculated by solving one- and two-particle equations for the particular linear combination of excited states that contribute to the Feynman diagrams. In this way all second- and third-order effects are accurately evaluated without explicitly constructing the excited orbitals. For the 2p state of Li our results are in agreement with the calculations of Nesbet and of Hameed and Foley. However, our quadrupole calculation disagrees with the work of Das and co-workers. The many-body results for Li and Na are compared with semiempirical methods for evaluating the quadrupole moment from the hyperfine interaction, and a new quadrupole moment of 23 Na is given

  2. Effect of three-body interactions on the zero-temperature equation of state of HCP solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have pointed to the importance of three-body interactions in high density 4He solids. However the computational cost often makes it unfeasible to incorporate these interactions into the simulation of large systems. We report the implementation and evaluation of a computationally efficient perturbative treatment of three-body interactions in hexagonal close packed solid 4He utilizing the recently developed nonadditive three-body potential of Cencek et al. This study represents the first application of the Cencek three-body potential to condensed phase 4He systems. Ground state energies from quantum Monte Carlo simulations, with either fully incorporated or perturbatively treated three-body interactions, are calculated in systems with molar volumes ranging from 21.3 cm3/mol down to 2.5 cm3/mol. These energies are used to derive the zero-temperature equation of state for comparison against existing experimental and theoretical data. The equations of state derived from both perturbative and fully incorporated three-body interactions are found to be in very good agreement with one another, and reproduce the experimental pressure-volume data with significantly better accuracy than is obtained when only two-body interactions are considered. At molar volumes below approximately 4.0 cm3/mol, neither two-body nor three-body equations of state are able to accurately reproduce the experimental pressure-volume data, suggesting that below this molar volume four-body and higher many-body interactions are becoming important.

  3. One-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

    1989-01-01

    The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plate which emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined by integrating the equations of motion across the thin liquid layer and discretizing the integrated equations using finite difference techniques. The effects of 0-g and solid-body rotation will be discussed. The two cases of interest are plane flow and radial flow. In plane flow, the liquid is considered to be flowing along a channel with no change in the width of the channel, whereas in radial flow the liquid spreads out radially over a disk, so that the area changes along the radius. It is desired to determine the height of the liquid film at any location along the plate of disk, so that the heat transfer from the plate or disk can be found. The possibility that the flow could encounter a hydraulic jump is accounted for.

  4. Design of the all solid high-voltage power supply for a gyrotron body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Chen, Wenguang, E-mail: 430000485393@usc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Hu, Bo [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Kang, Zihua; Feng, Kun [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Huang, Jiaqi [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Completed design of all solid-state high-voltage power supply for gyrotron body on HL-2M ECRH. • Consist of 58 PSM modules and one BUCK module, controlled by DSP system. • Fabricated full voltage 35 kV, 200 mA BPS and tested in dummy load. • The BPS can operate in three modes: single pulse mode, multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode. - Abstract: Gyrotron plays an important role in the research of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on Tokomak. The high-frequency switched power supply technology and pulse step modulation (PSM) technology are used in the development of the all solid high-voltage body power supply (BPS) for 1 MW/105 GHz Gyrotron on ECRH system. Firstly, the basic structure of the BPS and its control system are introduced. Secondly, the software control algorithm of voltage stabilization and modulate method are developed. Finally, the design is verified by the experiments. The experimental results of the single pulse mode, the multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode, are shown. The output voltage of the power supply can reach 35 kV and the current at about 200 mA, which are adjustable in the full range. The maximum modulation frequency can reach 1 kHz and the front edge of the pulse can be adjust from 0 to 3 ms and the accuracy of the output voltage is less than 100 V. The results show that the control method is feasible and can be applied to other high power microwave sources.

  5. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  6. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  7. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, Jennifer B; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Zimmer, Markus

    2012-08-01

    A biowaiver monograph for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is presented. Literature and experimental data indicate that ASA is a highly soluble and highly permeable drug, leading to assignment of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to Class I of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Limited bioequivalence (BE) studies reported in the literature indicate that products that have been tested are bioequivalent. Most of the excipients used in products with a marketing authorization in Europe are not considered to have an impact on gastrointestinal motility or permeability. Furthermore, ASA has a wide therapeutic index. Thus, the risks to the patient that might occur if a nonbioequivalent product were to be incorrectly deemed bioequivalent according to the biowaiver procedure appear to be minimal. As a result, the BCS-based biowaiver procedure can be recommended for approval of new formulations of solid oral dosage forms containing ASA as the only API, including both multisource and reformulated products, under the following conditions: (1) excipients are chosen from those used in ASA products already registered in International Conference on Harmonization and associated countries and (2) the dissolution profiles of the test and the comparator products comply with the BE guidance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Time-Gated Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Determination of Solid-State Forms of Fluorescent Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Pessi, Jenni; Movahedi, Parisa; Koivistoinen, Juha; Kurki, Lauri; Tenhunen, Mari; Yliruusi, Jouko; Juppo, Anne M; Heikkonen, Jukka; Pahikkala, Tapio; Strachan, Clare J

    2018-04-03

    Raman spectroscopy is widely used for quantitative pharmaceutical analysis, but a common obstacle to its use is sample fluorescence masking the Raman signal. Time-gating provides an instrument-based method for rejecting fluorescence through temporal resolution of the spectral signal and allows Raman spectra of fluorescent materials to be obtained. An additional practical advantage is that analysis is possible in ambient lighting. This study assesses the efficacy of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative measurement of fluorescent pharmaceuticals. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy with a 128 × (2) × 4 CMOS SPAD detector was applied for quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures of solid-state forms of the model drug, piroxicam (PRX). Partial least-squares (PLS) regression allowed quantification, with Raman-active time domain selection (based on visual inspection) improving performance. Model performance was further improved by using kernel-based regularized least-squares (RLS) regression with greedy feature selection in which the data use in both the Raman shift and time dimensions was statistically optimized. Overall, time-gated Raman spectroscopy, especially with optimized data analysis in both the spectral and time dimensions, shows potential for sensitive and relatively routine quantitative analysis of photoluminescent pharmaceuticals during drug development and manufacturing.

  9. Approaches for Establishing Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas M; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Cohen, Michael J; Diaz, Dorys A; Mao, Y; Zhang, Limin; Webster, Gregory K; Lin, Yiqing; Hahn, David A; Coutant, Carrie A; Grady, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript represents the perspective of the Dissolution Analytical Working Group of the IQ Consortium. The intent of this manuscript is to highlight the challenges of, and to provide a recommendation on, the development of clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRS) for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. A roadmap toward the development of CRS for IR products containing active ingredients with a non-narrow therapeutic window is discussed, within the context of mechanistic dissolution understanding, supported by in-human pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Two case studies present potential outcomes of following the CRS roadmap and setting dissolution specifications. These cases reveal some benefits and challenges of pursuing CRS with additional PK data, in light of current regulatory positions, including that of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who generally favor this approach, but with the understanding that both industry and regulatory agency perspectives are still evolving in this relatively new field. The CRS roadmap discussed in this manuscript also describes a way to develop clinically relevant dissolution specifications based primarily on dissolution data for batches used in pivotal clinical studies, acknowledging that not all IR product development efforts need to be supported by additional PK studies, albeit with the associated risk of potentially unnecessarily tight manufacturing controls. Recommendations are provided on what stages during the life cycle investment into in vivo studies may be valuable. Finally, the opportunities for CRS within the context of post-approval changes, Modeling and Simulation (M&S), and the application of biowaivers, are briefly discussed.

  10. Porosity measurement of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose; Andreo Filho, Newton; Vinicius Chaud, Marco; Angiolucci, Tatiana; Aranha, Norberto; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is the determination of porosity in tablets by using the gamma-ray transmission technique. Tablet dissolution depends on some inherent characteristics of the manufacturing process, such as compression force, tablet volume, density and porosity, nature of excipients, preparation methods and its physical-chemical properties. Porosity is a measure of empty spaces in a material and can be determined by various techniques. In this paper, we propose the use of a gamma-ray transmission technique to obtain the porosity of experimental formulation of tablets. The results of porosity were compared with those obtained by using conventional methodology (density and mercury intrusion). The experimental setup for gamma-ray transmission consists of a gamma-ray source of 241 Am (photons of 59.6 keV and an activity of 3.7x10 9 Bq), an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators and a standard gamma-ray spectrometry electronics. Our results suggest that the gamma-ray transmission technique is a powerful tool for non-destructive porosity quantification of solid pharmaceutical forms and presents smaller errors than those obtained with conventional methodologies.

  11. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Roger K; Kanfer, Isadore; Löbenberg, Raimar; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Parr, Alan; Shah, Vinod P; Mehta, Mehul; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the marketing authorization of immediate-release, solid oral dosage forms containing enalapril maleate are reviewed. Enalapril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to the active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril as the maleate salt is shown to be highly soluble, but only 60%-70% of an orally administered dose of enalapril is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the enterocytes. Consequently, enalapril maleate is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class III substance. Because in situ conversion of the maleate salt to the sodium salt is sometimes used in production of the finished drug product, not every enalapril maleate-labeled finished product actually contains the maleate salt. Enalapril is not considered to have a narrow therapeutic index. With this background, a biowaiver-based approval procedure for new generic products or after major revisions to existing products is deemed acceptable, provided the in vitro dissolution of both test and reference preparation is very rapid (at least 85% within 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Additionally, the test and reference product must contain the identical active drug ingredient. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Chiral Cylindrical Molecular Complexes: Functional Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Materials Formed by Helicene Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral cylindrical molecular complexes of homo- and hetero-double-helices derived from helicene oligomers self-assemble in solution, providing functional heterogeneous liquid-solid materials. Gels and liotropic liquid crystals are formed by fibril self-assembly in solution; molecular monolayers and fibril films are formed by self-assembly on solid surfaces; gels containing gold nanoparticles emit light; silica nanoparticles aggregate and adsorb double-helices. Notable dynamics appears during self-assembly, including multistep self-assembly, solid surface catalyzed double-helix formation, sigmoidal and stairwise kinetics, molecular recognition of nanoparticles, discontinuous self-assembly, materials clocking, chiral symmetry breaking and homogeneous-heterogeneous transitions. These phenomena are derived from strong intercomplex interactions of chiral cylindrical molecular complexes.

  13. Issues in the validation of CFD modelling of semi-solid metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.J.; Atkinson, H.V.; Kirkwood, D.H.; Liu, T.Y.; Chin, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Modelling of die filling during semi-solid metal processing (thixoforming) places particular demands on the CFD package being used. Not only are the velocities of the metal slurry in the die very high, the viscosity is too. Furthermore, the viscosity changes with shear rate (i.e. with changes in cross sectional area of the region the slurry travels through) and with time, as the injected material is thixotropic. The CFD software therefore requires good free surface tracking, accurate implicit solutions of the flow equations (as the CPU times for explicit solutions at high viscosities are impractical) and a model that adequately describes the slurry thixotropy. Finally, reliable, experimentally determined viscosity data are required. This paper describes the experiments on tin-lead and aluminium alloy slurries using compressive tests and rotating cylinder viscometry, followed by modelling using FLOW-3D. This package is known for its ability to track free surfaces accurately. Compressive tests allow rapid changes in shear rate to be imparted to the slurry, without wall slip, while the simple geometry of the viscometer makes it possible to compare analytical and numerical solutions. It is shown that the implicit viscous solver in its original form can reproduce the general trends found in the compressive and viscometry tests. However, sharp changes in shear rate lead to overestimation of pressure gradients in the slurry, making it difficult to separate these effects from those due to thixotropic breakdown. In order to achieve this separation, it is necessary to implement a more accurate implicit solver, which is currently under development. (author)

  14. How to stabilize cilazapril-containing solid dosage forms? The optimization of a final drug formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Regulska

    2017-03-01

    . It was suggested that in the manufacture of cilazapril-containing solid dosage forms the procedure of wet granulation should be avoided while hygroscopic excipients should be substituted by their non-hygroscopic counterparts.

  15. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  16. Applicability of UV laser-induced solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Eva; Meyer, Hans; Weigel, Diana; Pritzke, Heinz; Posch, Tjorben N; Kler, Pablo A; Schürmann, Klaus; Roscher, Jörg; Huhn, Carolin

    2014-10-01

    High production output of solid pharmaceutical formulations requires fast methods to ensure their quality. Likewise, fast analytical procedures are required in forensic sciences, for example at customs, to substantiate an initial suspicion. We here present the design and the optimization of an instrumental setup for rapid and non-invasive characterization of tablets by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (with a UV-laser (λ ex = 266 nm) as excitation source) in reflection geometry. The setup was first validated with regard to repeatability, bleaching phenomena, and sensitivity. The effect on the spectra by the physical and chemical properties of the samples, e.g. their hardness, homogeneity, chemical composition, and granule grain size of the uncompressed material, using a series of tablets, manufactured in accordance with design of experiments, was investigated. Investigation of tablets with regard to homogeneity, especially, is extremely important in pharmaceutical production processes. We demonstrate that multiplicative scatter correction is an appropriate tool for data preprocessing of fluorescence spectra. Tablets with different physical and chemical characteristics can be discriminated well from their fluorescence spectra by subjecting the results to principal component analysis.

  17. Two appendages homologous between basal bodies and centrioles are formed using distinct Odf2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Tomoki; Watanabe, Shin; Kunimoto, Koshi; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2013-11-11

    Ciliogenesis is regulated by context-dependent cellular cues, including some transduced through appendage-like structures on ciliary basal bodies called transition fibers and basal feet. However, the molecular basis for this regulation is not fully understood. The Odf2 gene product, ODF2/cenexin, is essential for both ciliogenesis and the formation of the distal and subdistal appendages on centrioles, which become basal bodies. We examined the effects of Odf2 deletion constructs on ciliogenesis in Odf2-knockout F9 cells. Electron microscopy revealed that ciliogenesis and transition fiber formation required the ODF2/cenexin fragment containing amino acids (aa) 188-806, whereas basal foot formation required aa 1-59 and 188-806. These sequences also formed distal and subdistal appendages, respectively, indicating that the centriole appendages are molecularly analogous to those on basal bodies. We used the differential formation of appendages by Odf2 deletion constructs to study the incorporation and function of molecules associated with each appendage type. We found that transition fibers and distal appendages were required for ciliogenesis and subdistal appendages stabilized the centrosomal microtubules.

  18. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions for gastric ulcer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsakundee, Nattha; Mahattanadul, Sirima; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2015-08-01

    Novel raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions were developed to prolong the gastric residence time and provide for a controlled release therapy of curcumin to treat gastric ulcers. The solid dispersions of curcumin with Eudragit® EPO were prepared by the solvent evaporation method at various ratios to improve the solubility and the dissolution of curcumin. The optimum weight ratio of 1:5 for curcumin to Eudragit® EPO was used to incorporate into the raft forming systems. The raft forming formulations were composed of curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions, sodium alginate as a gelling polymer and calcium carbonate for generating divalent Ca(2+) ions and carbon dioxide to form a floating raft. All formulations formed a gelled raft in 1min and sustained buoyancy on the 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) surface with a 60-85% release of curcumin within 8h. The curative effect on the acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats was determined. The curcumin raft forming formulations at 40mg/kg once daily showed a superior curative effect on the gastric ulcer in terms of the ulcer index and healing index than the standard antisecretory agent: lansoprazole (1mg/kg, twice daily) and a curcumin suspension (40mg/kg, twice daily). These studies demonstrated that the new raft forming systems containing curcumin solid dispersions are promising carriers for a stomach-specific delivery of poorly soluble lipophilic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Hermens, J.L.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Body residues of compounds with a narcotic mode of action that exceed critical levels result in baseline toxicity in organisms. Previous studies have shown that internal concentrations in organisms also can be estimated by way of passive sampling. In this experiment, solid-phase microextraction

  1. Transforming lipid-based oral drug delivery systems into solid dosage forms: an overview of solid carriers, physicochemical properties, and biopharmaceutical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Angel; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A

    2013-12-01

    The diversity of lipid excipients available commercially has enabled versatile formulation design of lipid-based drug delivery systems for enhancing the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as emulsions, microemulsions, micelles, liposomes, niosomes and various self-emulsifying systems. The transformation of liquid lipid-based systems into solid dosage forms has been investigated for several decades, and has recently become a core subject of pharmaceutical research as solidification is regarded as viable means for stabilising lipid colloidal systems while eliminating stringent processing requirements associated with liquid systems. This review describes the types of pharmaceutical grade excipients (silica nanoparticle/microparticle, polysaccharide, polymer and protein-based materials) used as solid carriers and the current state of knowledge on the liquid-to-solid conversion approaches. Details are primarily focused on the solid-state physicochemical properties and redispersion capacity of various dry lipid-based formulations, and how these relate to the in vitro drug release and solubilisation, lipid carrier digestion and cell permeation performances. Numerous in vivo proof-of-concept studies are presented to highlight the viability of these dry lipid-based formulations. This review is significant in directing future research work in fostering translation of dry lipid-based formulations into clinical applications.

  2. The mechanism of 'solid-body' rotation of superfluid and normal components in the process of separation into layers of the over saturated 3He-4He solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashitskij, Eh.A.; Mal'nev, V.N.; Naryshkin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that unstable hydrodynamic vortices may be formed inside subcritical nuclei of separation in the normal component of the decaying over saturated 3 He- 4 He solution. We consider the mechanism of drag of the superfluid component of the 3 He- 4 He solution by the normal component into the 'solid-body' rotation due to the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov forces in the equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics, resulting in the formation of quantized vortices. An increase in the average density of the quantized vortices may accelerate the process of heterogeneous decomposition of the 3 He- 4 He solution

  3. Three Dimensionally Interlinked, Dense, Solid Form of Single-Walled CNT Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    A 3D networked, dense form of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has been made through isotropic shrinking of a gel-like SWNT-water paste by very slow evaporation. Approximately 35 g of Raw HiPco nanotubes were cleaned by the method of soft baking (250 C for 15 hours in air saturated with water vapor) in a glass beaker followed by leaching with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Typically, one liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the soft-baked voluminous mass in the same large beaker, and allowed to digest at room temperature with stirring overnight. The acid-digested SWNT slurry was filtered through a large porcelain Buchner funnel under atmospheric pressure. The slurry was continuously flushed, while still in the funnel, with a very slow but steady stream of deionized water employing a peristaltic pump. This process, referred to as gwashing, h continued until the filtrate water dripping from the Buchner funnel was clear, colorless, and neutral to a pH paper. This took about 15 liters of water to flow through the slurry over a day. At this point, the water pump was stopped and the SWNT-water slurry was allowed to drain the excess water for about 10 hours. The resulting thick paste of SWNT-neutral water was transferred to a beaker. The beaker was covered with aluminum foil with few holes and allowed to dry very slowly in a hood at room temperature. In about eight weeks, the sample gradually dried isotropically to a cylindrical dense mass referred to as a carbon nanotube block (CNB). There was no carbonaceous matter sticking to any of the glass surface where the SWNT-water paste made contact. The approximate dimensions of the cylindrical SWNT block that weighed 28 g were 1.5 in. (.3.8 cm) in diameter and 1.25 in. (.3.2 cm) in height. The bottom portion of the cylinder that was in contact with the beaker surface was slightly wider, indicating some resistance to shrinking. The cylindrical mass also consisted of several pores. The cylindrical mass was

  4. Theory of the l-state population of Rydberg states formed in ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, J.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    The experimentally observed high-l-state population of ions excited in ion-solid interactions differs sharply from l-state populations produced in ion-atom collisions. We have studied the population dynamics of electronic excitation and transport within the framework of a classical transport theory for O 2+ (2-MeV/u) ions traversing C foils. The resulting delayed-photon-emission intensities are found to be in very good agreement with experiment. Initial phase-space conditions have been obtained from both classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculations and random initial distributions. We find evidence that the very-high-l-state populations produced in ion-solid collisions are the result of a diffusion to high-l states under the influence of multiple scattering in the bulk of the solid

  5. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Experimental comparison of alternative solid forms for Savannah River high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the conclusions of this study are: no waste form has a clear advantage; ceramic forms retain uranium best; high-silica glass retains cesium best; all forms retain rare earths (cerium) well; all forms leach incongruently; leaching increases with temperature; effect of leachant is small; and effect of sludge type is small, with exceptions

  7. Understanding the solid-state forms of fenofibrate - a spectroscopic and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Gordon, Keith C; McGoverin, Cushla M

    2009-01-01

    combined with density functional theory calculations [B3LYP 6-31G(d)], solid-state changes that occur upon recrystallization of amorphous fenofibrate were monitored and described using in situ Raman spectroscopy. A comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra of a fenofibrate monomer and two dimer...

  8. Theoretical approach in optimization of stability of the multicomponent solid waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Mandic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical precipitation of radionuclides and their immobilization into the solid matrix represents an important approach in the radioactive wastewater treatment. Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the system, optimization of this process in terms of its efficacy and safety represents a serious practical problem, even in treatment of the monocomponent nuclear waste. This situation is additionally complicated in the case of the polycomponent nuclear waste because of the synergic effects of interactions between the radioactive components and the solid matrix. Recently, we have proposed a general theoretical approach for optimization of the process of precipitation and immobilization of metal impurities by the solid matrix. One of the main advantages of this approach represents the possibility of treatment of the multicomponent liquid waste, immobilized by the solid matrix. This approach was used here for investigation of the stability of the system hydroxyapatite (HAP) - Pb/Cd, which was selected as a model multicomponent waste system. In this analysis, we have used a structurally dependent term of the cohesive energy as a stability criterion. (author)

  9. Craniomandibular form and body size variation of first generation mouse hybrids: A model for hominin hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kerryn A; Ritzman, Terrence B; Humphreys, Robyn A; Percival, Christopher J; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F 1 ) hybrids. The three parent taxa in our analysis represent lineages that diverged over approximately the same period as the human/Neanderthal/Denisovan lineages and their hybrids are variably successful in the wild. Comparisons of body size, as quantified by long bone measurements, are also presented to determine whether the identified phenotypic effects of hybridization are localized to the cranium or represent overall body size changes. The results indicate that hybrid cranial and mandibular sizes, as well as limb length, exceed that of the parent taxa in all cases. All three F 1 hybrid crosses display similar patterns of size and form variation. These results are generally consistent with earlier studies on primates and other mammals, suggesting that the effects of hybridization may be similar across very different scenarios of hybridization, including different levels of hybrid fitness. This paper serves to supplement previous studies aimed at identifying F 1 hybrids in the fossil record and to introduce further research that will explore hybrid morphologies using mice as a proxy for better understanding hybridization in the hominin fossil record. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-state characterization of paracetamol metastable polymorphs formed in binary mixtures with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Savioli, Alessandra; Bini, Marcella; Capsoni, Doretta; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Bettini, Ruggero; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Sangalli, Maria Edvige; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2003-01-01

    Two metastable polymorphs of paracetamol (forms II and III) were prepared by appropriate thermal methods from binary mixtures containing 10% (w/w) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. By controlling the reheating step, it was possible to address the recrystallization of the drug either into form II or III. Moreover, it was observed that form III transforms either into form II or I depending on the preparation method. The physical characterization of the polymorphs was performed by means of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MFTIR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), both temperature controlled

  11. Solid-state characterization of paracetamol metastable polymorphs formed in binary mixtures with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Savioli, Alessandra; Bini, Marcella; Capsoni, Doretta; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Bettini, Ruggero; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Sangalli, Maria Edvige; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2003-11-28

    Two metastable polymorphs of paracetamol (forms II and III) were prepared by appropriate thermal methods from binary mixtures containing 10% (w/w) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. By controlling the reheating step, it was possible to address the recrystallization of the drug either into form II or III. Moreover, it was observed that form III transforms either into form II or I depending on the preparation method. The physical characterization of the polymorphs was performed by means of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MFTIR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), both temperature controlled.

  12. Quantitative determination of solid-state forms of a pharmaceutical development compound in drug substance and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Tao, Wenle; Morrison, Henry; Chiu, Rick; Jona, Janan; Fang, Jan; Cauchon, Nina

    2008-10-01

    Common analytical techniques including Raman, NIR, and XRD were evaluated for quantitative determination of three solid-state forms (amorphous, Form B and Form C) of a development compound. Raman spectroscopy was selected as the primary analytical technique with sufficient sensitivity to monitor and quantify the neat drug substance alone and in the drug product. A reliable multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method based on the second derivative Raman measurements of the three pure physical forms was developed and validated with 3.5% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for Form B, which was selected as the preferred form for further development. A partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was also used for the multivariate calibration of both the NIR and Raman measurements. The long-term stability of Form B as a neat active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and in a tablet formulation was quantitatively monitored under various stress conditions of temperature and moisture. Moisture, temperature, excipients and compression were found to have significant effects on the phase transition behavior of Form B.

  13. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city.

  14. Improved protocol and data analysis for accelerated shelf-life estimation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Carella, Anthony J; Gumkowski, Michael J; Lukulay, Patrick; MacDonald, Bruce C; Roy, Michael C; Shamblin, Sheri L

    2007-04-01

    To propose and test a new accelerated aging protocol for solid-state, small molecule pharmaceuticals which provides faster predictions for drug substance and drug product shelf-life. The concept of an isoconversion paradigm, where times in different temperature and humidity-controlled stability chambers are set to provide a critical degradant level, is introduced for solid-state pharmaceuticals. Reliable estimates for temperature and relative humidity effects are handled using a humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation, where temperature and relative humidity are assumed to be orthogonal. Imprecision is incorporated into a Monte-Carlo simulation to propagate the variations inherent in the experiment. In early development phases, greater imprecision in predictions is tolerated to allow faster screening with reduced sampling. Early development data are then used to design appropriate test conditions for more reliable later stability estimations. Examples are reported showing that predicted shelf-life values for lower temperatures and different relative humidities are consistent with the measured shelf-life values at those conditions. The new protocols and analyses provide accurate and precise shelf-life estimations in a reduced time from current state of the art.

  15. Modelling the influence of the gas to melt ratio on the fraction solid of the surface in spray formed billets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini

    2006-01-01

    the atomisation stage taking thermal coupling into consideration and the deposition of the droplets at the surface of the billet taking geometrical aspects such as shading into account. The coupling between these two models is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray......In this paper, the relationship between the Gas to Melt Ratio (GMR) and the solid fraction of an evolving billet surface is investigated numerically. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed integrated procedure for modelling the entire spray forming process. This model includes...... is the summation of “local” droplet size distributions along the r-axis of the spray cone. The criterion for a successful process has been a predefined process window characterised by a desired solid fraction range at a certain distance from the atomizer. Inside this process window, the gas and melt flows have...

  16. Analysis tools for precision studies of hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sebastian Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Due to the running coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics one of the pillars of the Standard Model, the strong interactions, is still insufficiently understood at low energies. In order to describe the interactions of hadrons that form in this physical regime, one has to devise methods that are non-perturbative in the strong coupling constant. In particular hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors present a great challenge due to the complex analytic structure ensued by strong final-state interactions. In this thesis we present two approaches to tackle these processes. In the first part we use a modified version of non-relativistic effective field theory to analyze the decay η→3π. This perturbative low-energy expansion is ideally suited to study the effects of ππ rescattering and contributes greatly to the understanding of the slope parameter of the η→3π 0 Dalitz plot, a quantity that is strongly influenced by final-state interactions and has presented a long-standing puzzle for theoretical approaches. In the second part we present dispersion relations as a non-perturbative means to study three-particle decays. Using the example of η'→ηππ we give a detailed introduction to the framework and its numerical implementation. We confront our findings with recent experimental data from the BES-III and VES collaborations and discuss whether the extraction of πη scattering parameters, one of the prime motives to study this decay channel, is feasible in such an approach. A more clear-cut application is given in our study of the decays ω/φ→3π due to the relative simplicity of this decay channel: our results are solely dependent on the ππ P-wave scattering phase shift. We give predictions for the Dalitz plot distributions and compare our findings to very precise data on φ→3π by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. We also predict Dalitz plot parameters that may be determined in future high-precision measurements of ω→3π and

  17. Analysis tools for precision studies of hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sebastian Philipp

    2013-02-14

    Due to the running coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics one of the pillars of the Standard Model, the strong interactions, is still insufficiently understood at low energies. In order to describe the interactions of hadrons that form in this physical regime, one has to devise methods that are non-perturbative in the strong coupling constant. In particular hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors present a great challenge due to the complex analytic structure ensued by strong final-state interactions. In this thesis we present two approaches to tackle these processes. In the first part we use a modified version of non-relativistic effective field theory to analyze the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi}. This perturbative low-energy expansion is ideally suited to study the effects of {pi}{pi} rescattering and contributes greatly to the understanding of the slope parameter of the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} Dalitz plot, a quantity that is strongly influenced by final-state interactions and has presented a long-standing puzzle for theoretical approaches. In the second part we present dispersion relations as a non-perturbative means to study three-particle decays. Using the example of {eta}'{yields}{eta}{pi}{pi} we give a detailed introduction to the framework and its numerical implementation. We confront our findings with recent experimental data from the BES-III and VES collaborations and discuss whether the extraction of {pi}{eta} scattering parameters, one of the prime motives to study this decay channel, is feasible in such an approach. A more clear-cut application is given in our study of the decays {omega}/{phi}{yields}3{pi} due to the relative simplicity of this decay channel: our results are solely dependent on the {pi}{pi} P-wave scattering phase shift. We give predictions for the Dalitz plot distributions and compare our findings to very precise data on {phi}{yields}3{pi} by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. We also predict Dalitz plot

  18. New methodology of preparation support for solid oxide fuel cells using different pore forming agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da P.; Guedes, Bruna C.F.; Silva, Marcos A. da; Carvalho, Luiz F.V. de; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The development of environment-friendly energy sources has been of the most important scientific and technological area. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are very promising alternative for their ability to handle renewable fuels with low emissions and high efficiency. However, this device requires massive improvement before commercial application. This work studies the pore formation in the cell anode and cathode with NaHCO{sub 3} or citric acid, comparing to graphite. The three agents make pore with similar features, but the use of NaHCO{sub 3} and citric acid considerably improves the adhesion of the electrode-electrolyte interface, critical characteristic for good cell efficiency. The prepared anode-electrolyte-cathode structure was studied by SEM technique. The SOFC prepared using citric acid was tested with gaseous ethanol, natural gas and hydrogen. For all these three fuels the SOFC shows virtually no overpotential, indicating the good ionic conductance of the electrodes-electrolyte interface.. (author)

  19. Wave-free floating body forms for a shallow sea area; Senkaiiki no naminashi futai keijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y; Nariai, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In column footing or semi-submergible type marine structures, a vertical wave force vanishes at a specific period of waves. This phenomenon is called wave-free characteristics. This wave-free characteristics make it possible to design marine structures superior in oscillation performance in waves. Since Bessho`s wave-free theory is useful only for an infinite water depth, this paper studied the wave-free theory for a shallow sea area. On a wave-free singularity and required floating body form, 2-D and 3-D axisymmetric floating body forms were determined, and vertical wave force characteristics of the obtained body forms were calculated and verified experimentally. Since the source term of the wave-free singularity was weaker in a shallow sea area than an infinite deep water area, resulting in the narrow width of the obtained wave-free body forms in a shallow sea area. The wave-free theory for a shallow sea area was verified by both numerical calculation based on a singularity distribution method and model experiment for these floating body forms. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  1. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  3. TUNING IN TO FISH SWIMMING WAVES - BODY FORM, SWIMMING MODE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARDLE, CS; VIDELER, JJ; ALTRINGHAM, JD

    Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail, These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water, The coupling between both waves

  4. Sodium lauryl sulfate - a biocide for controlling acidity development in bulk commercially formed solid elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J. B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-04-01

    Acidification of bulk elemental sulfur caused by Thiobacillus species which consume elemental sulfur by converting it into oxidized sulfur forms, was studied. Contributory factors, such as length of time in transit or in storage, warm temperatures, the presence of air and moisture, particle size and form of sulfur, and the presence of sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, were reviewed. Laboratory experiments with adding sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a known biocide, to sulfur inoculated with Thiobacillus, proved to be an efficient method for controlling acidity development. At the concentration required for effectiveness SLS did not interfere with purity specifications, had negligible effect on moisture, and appeared to be compatible with current dust suppression application practices. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Electrochromism of solid films of blue form of lutetium phthalocyanine complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V I; Konstantinov, A P; Luk' yanets, E A; Shelepin, I V

    1986-12-01

    Results of spectral-electrochemical study on electrochromic films of blue form of tret-butyl-substituted lutetium diphthalocyanine deposited on the surface of an electrode contacting with electrolyte aqueous solution are presented. In the 0.2-1.15 V potential range sweep of the electrode potential is followed by reversible change of the film colour in the following succession: blue reversible green reversible red. Electrochromic properties of the film confirm the corresponding spectral transitions from the initial state to monoelectron-oxidized and further on to the product of two-electron oxidation. Under potential sweeping towards the anode in the 1.4 V range and irreversible wave arises; potential achievement of this wave brings about complete change in the form of j, E-curves. The consequent electrode processes are followed by change in the film colour green - red that is associated witn mechanical fracture of the film.

  6. Amorphous is not always better—A dissolution study on solid state forms of carbamazepine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Linda G.; Skautrup, Frederik B.; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-01-01

    state forms of carbamazepine, crystalline or amorphous drug, with or without either polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and glass solutions of the drug with both polymers (2:1, 4:1 and 10:1 (w/w) drug-to-polymer ratio) were tested with respect to their dissolution behaviour...... in a biorelevant gastric medium (for 30 min) and subsequently in intestinal conditions (for 2 h). Carbamazepine form III in the absence of polymer dissolved to a drug concentration of 540 μg/ml, but the concentration decreased after around 70 min due to precipitation of the dihydrate form, and reached 436 μg....../ml after 2.5 h dissolution testing. The presence of PVP led to a similar dissolution profile with a slightly earlier onset of decrease in drug concentration, while in the presence of HPMC no decline in dissolved drug concentration was observed. Surprisingly, amorphous carbamazepine did not result in any...

  7. Formulation and process considerations affecting the stability of solid dosage forms formulated with methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petereit, H U; Weisbrod, W

    1999-01-01

    General considerations concerning the stability of coated dosage forms are discussed, in order to avoid predictable interactions which may cause long-term stability problems. As polymers themselves maintain a high chemical stability and a low reactivity, instability phenomena mainly have to be explained by interactions of low molecular weight substances or physical changes. Possible interactions of functional groups can be predicted easily and insulating subcoates are proper countermeasures. Impurities, remaining in the polymeric material from the manufacturing process, may accelerate the hydrolysis of sensitive drugs. Instabilities of coated dosage forms are mainly based on physical interactions, caused by improper formulations of coating suspensions (i.e. plasticizers or pigments) or the film coating process. Residual moisture or solvents, probably enclosed in the core and migrating over time, may increase the permeability of coatings, due to plasticizing effects. The functionality of coatings from aqueous dispersions is linked to coalescence of latex particles. Thus any incomplete film formation, caused by too high or too low coating temperatures, may result in high permeable coatings. During storage, preferably under stress conditions this process will continue and thus change the release profile. Therefore bed temperatures of 10-20 degrees C above MFT must ensure the formation of homogeneous polymer layers during the coating process. Stability test procedures and packaging materials also need to be adapted to the physicochemical properties of the dosage form, in order to get meaningful results in stability tests.

  8. Alternative Manufacturing Concepts for Solid Oral Dosage Forms From Drug Nanosuspensions Using Fluid Dispensing and Forced Drying Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies for solid oral dosage forms with a continuous adjustability of the manufactured dose strength are of interest for applications in personalized medicine. This study explored the feasibility of using microvalve technology for the manufacturing of different solid oral dosage form concepts. Hard gelatin capsules filled with excipients, placebo tablets, and polymer films, placed in hard gelatin capsules after drying, were considered as substrates. For each concept, a basic understanding of relevant formulation parameters and their impact on dissolution behavior has been established. Suitable matrix formers, present either on the substrate or directly in the drug nanosuspension, proved to be essential to prevent nanoparticle agglomeration of the drug nanoparticles and to ensure a fast dissolution behavior. Furthermore, convection and radiation drying methods were investigated for the fast drying of drug nanosuspensions dispensed onto polymer films, which were then placed in hard gelatin capsules. Changes in morphology and in drug and matrix former distribution were observed for increasing drying intensity. However, even fast drying times below 1 min could be realized, while maintaining the nanoparticulate drug structure and a good dissolution behavior. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel solid dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid with improved functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh C; Sarvaiya, Krishnakant G

    2007-08-24

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop a novel dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid to minimize degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium and to modulate the release of rifampicin in the stomach and isoniazid in the intestine. Gastroretentive tablets of rifampicin (150 mg) were prepared by the wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, calcium carbonate, and polyethylene glycol 4000. The granules and tablets of rifampicin were characterized. Hard gelatin capsules (size 4) containing a compacted mass of isoniazid (150 mg) and dicalcium phosphate (75 mg) were enteric coated. Two tablets of rifampicin and 1 capsule (size 4) of isoniazid were put into a hard gelatin capsule (size 00). The in vitro drug release and in vitro drug degradation studies were performed. Rifampicin was released over 4 hours by zero-order kinetics from the novel dosage form. More than 90% of isoniazid was released in alkaline medium in 30 minutes. The results of dissolution studies with the US Pharmacopeia XXIII method revealed that a substantial amount of rifampicin was degraded from the immediate release capsule containing rifampicin and isoniazid powder owing to drug accumulation in the dissolution vessel and also to the presence of isoniazid. The degradation of rifampicin to 3-formyl rifampicin SV (3FRSV) was arrested (3.6%-4.8% degradation of rifampicin at 4 hours) because of the minimization of physical contact between the 2 drugs and controlled release of rifampicin in acidic medium in the modified Rossett-Rice apparatus. This study concludes that the problem of rifampicin degradation can be alleviated to a certain extent by this novel dosage form.

  10. Mechanism of forming interfacial intermetallic compounds at interface for solid state diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, P.; Liu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of brittle intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of diffusion bonds is the main cause which leads to poor bond strength. Therefore, it is very important to study and establish the formation and growth model of intermetallic compounds at the interfaces for the control process of diffusion bonding. In this paper, according to the diffusion kinetics and the thermodynamics, the principle of formation of intermetallic compounds at interfaces in the multi-component diffusion couple, the flux-energy principle, is put forward. In the light of diffusion theory, the formation capacity of the phase at the interfaces is determined by specific properties of the composition in the diffusion couple and the composition ratio of the formed phase is in agreement with the diffusion flux. In accordance with the flux-energy principle, the microstructure of the Ni/TC4 interface is Ni/TiNi 3 /TiNi/Ti 2 Ni/TC4, the microstructure of the TC4/00Cr18Ni9Ti interface is 00Cr18Ni9Ti/TiFe 2 /TiFe/Ti 2 Fe/TC4, and the microstructure of the TiAl/40Cr interface is 40Cr/TiC/Ti 3 Al + FeAl + FeAl 2 /TiAl. Multi-intermetallic compounds with the equivalent flux-energy can be formed at the interfaces at the same time

  11. Three-body interactions in sociophysics and their role in coalition forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Samaniego-Steta, F.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    2007-06-01

    An study of the effects of three-body interactions in the process of coalition formation is presented. In particular, we modify a spin glass model of bimodal propensities and also a Potts model in order to include a particular three-body Hamiltonian that reproduces the main features of the required interactions. The model can be used to study conflicts, political struggles, political parties, social networks, wars and organizational structures. As an application, we analyze a simplified model of the Iraq war.

  12. Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowar, M.S.; Eldarawany, A.A.; Habeeb, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B 1 +G 1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 μg B 1 plus 22 μg G 1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

  13. Method of generating magnetoactive plasma for forming thin surface layers on solid substrates and equipment therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, L.; Loncar, G.; Musil, J.; Zacek, F.

    1979-01-01

    The invention essentially consists in the use of the axially symmetrical high-frequency magnetized plasma column for thin layer formation. The plasma is generated using a cylindrical microwave slow-down structure in the outer magnetic field. Plasma particles density and temperature and their radial distribution are adjusted by changing the intensity of the magnetic field and of high-frequency power. The plasma may be generated from any gases in a pressure range of 10 -3 to 10 2 Pa. In an oxygen plasma, e.g., it is thus possible to form layers of 200 nm in thickness in 60 mins at an input high-frequency power of 100 to 300 W. (J.U.)

  14. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladergroen, Marco R.; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE) including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI) source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC) separations. PMID:25692071

  15. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller [Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Adamcová; Magdalena Vaverková

    2016-01-01

    In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba) plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retard...

  17. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► No research has been done to examine effect of electron beam irradiation on leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash. ► Electron beam irradiation on fly ash had significant effect on heavy metal leaching. ► Leaching potential of heavy metals in fly ash differed among metal species tested (Pb, Zn, Cu). ► Metal forms in the ash were analyzed to explain the difference. ► The difference could be explained by metal form change. - Abstract: Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3 mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of

  18. A combined morphometric analysis of foot form and its association with sex, stature, and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of footprints is a classic means for orthopedic diagnosis. In forensics and physical anthropology, it is commonly used for the estimation of stature and body mass. We studied individual variation and sexual dimorphism of foot dimensions and footprint shape by a combination of classic foot measurements and geometric morphometric methods. Left and right feet of 134 healthy adult males and females were scanned twice with a 3D optical laser scanner, and stature as well as body mass were recorded. Foot length and width were measured on the 3D scans. The 2D footprints were extracted as the plantar-most 2 mm of the 3D scans and measured with 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Both foot size and footprint shape are sexually dimorphic and relate to stature and body mass. While dimorphism in foot length largely results from dimorphism in stature, dimorphism in footprint shape partly owes to the dimorphism in BMI. Stature could be estimated well based on foot length (R(2)  = 0.76), whereas body mass was more closely related to foot width (R(2)  = 0.62). Sex could be estimated correctly for 95% of the individuals based on a combination of foot width and length. Geometric morphometrics proved to be an effective tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape. However, for the estimation of stature, body mass, and sex, shape variables did not considerably improve estimates based on foot length and width. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An unusual pattern of tattooing in the form of body designing: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Gangadhar Phad

    2016-12-01

    In the present case the patient was brought to our hospital for eliciting consumption of alcohol and any other injuries over the body. The person examined had decorated his left arm and forearm by fine designs by a blue ball point pen. He also had multiple fresh incised cuts on the forearms and wrist. Such a presentation with a somewhat risk taking, masochistic behavior and the chronic nature of drawing designs over the body by a ball point pen was very rare and not noted as per best of our knowledge.

  20. Whole-body MRI in comparison to skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases in patients with solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, N.; Altehoefer, C.; Winterer, J.; Schaefer, O.; Bley, T.A.; Langer, M.; Kelly, T.; Moser, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as a new and rapid examination technique with skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases from solid tumors. In 129 patients with solid malignant tumors, WB-MRI was performed for individual comparison with skeletal scintigraphy. Examinations were performed with the innovative AngioSURF trademark rolling table with integrated phased array surface coil and coronary TIRM sequences for different body regions. The results for WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy were concordant in 81% of the cases, whereby both procedures excluded skeletal metastases in 43%. WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy demonstrated skeletal metastases in 38% of the cases, whereby WB-MRI provided more comprehensive findings in 45%. In 12% of the cases, skeletal scintigraphy was superior to WB-MRI and in 19% the findings were discordant, whereby WB-MRI detected skeletal metastases in 15 cases which had not been found on skeletal scintigraphy. In nine cases, skeletal scintigraphy was positive when the WB-MRI was negative. In 60% of the cases, WB-MRI evidenced tumor-associated findings. WB-MRI represents a promising new staging technique for detection of skeletal metastases, which is more sensitive in many cases than skeletal scintigraphy in detecting and assessing the extent of skeletal metastases - and tumor-associated findings that are relevant for treatment strategy. (orig.) [de

  1. A Method Based on Semi-Solid Forming for Eliminating Coarse Dendrites and Shrinkage Porosity of H13 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method called forging solidifying metal (FSM, which is applied for eliminating coarse dendrites and shrinkage porosity defects of ferrous alloys was proposed based on semi-solid forming technology (SSF. To verify its feasibility, the effects of liquid fraction (FL on the microstructure of the deformed H13 steel were investigated experimentally. The coarse dendrites structure still existed and cracks appeared when the 0.1/s 50% FSM method was carried out at ~20% FL. What is significantly different from that is, the elimination of the coarse dendrites structure and shrinkage porosity defects became more significant, when this method was conducted at the end of solidification (FL < 10%. The microstructure of H13 steel was significantly refined and also became dense in such condition.

  2. Case Report: Mucus plug in bronchus mimicking a bronchial solid foreign body obstruction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Devkota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial foreign body obstruction is common in all clinical settings. Obstruction of the airway due to foreign bodies and foreign body aspiration are major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity, which are a big challenge to manage. Occasionally, bronchial obstruction may be due to mucus plugs or other endogenous factors. Here we describe a case of bronchial obstruction caused by mucus plug formation that was managed conservatively in a one-year old boy. The patient was suffering from a cough and noisy breathing for 2 days prior to coming to our hospital, when he experienced sudden onset of difficulty in breathing and a severe cough. At the time of presentation his vital sign readings were:- HR 186 bpm, RR 46/min, BP 78/40 MmHg, temp 36.9°C and SPO2 68%. He was given oxygen immediately and nebulization was started. Chest CT scan was performed that suggested the presence of a right bronchial foreign body with right sided obstructive emphysema. The patient was stable with oxygenation and nebulization with ipratropium bromide, albuterol, normal saline and budesonide before the CT scan. Therefore, we conclude that symptoms resembling foreign body obstruction are not always aspirated or inhaled, and sometimes secreted sputum forms a plug, which mimics the symptoms of foreign body obstruction.

  3. Limb amputations in fixed dystonia: a form of body integrity identity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Schrag, Arnette; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Thompson, Philip D; Bhatia, Kailash

    2011-07-01

    Fixed dystonia is a disabling disorder mainly affecting young women who develop fixed abnormal limb postures and pain after apparently minor peripheral injury. There is continued debate regarding its pathophysiology and management. We report 5 cases of fixed dystonia in patients who sought amputation of the affected limb. We place these cases in the context of previous reports of patients with healthy limbs and patients with chronic regional pain syndrome who have sought amputation. Our cases, combined with recent data regarding disorders of mental rotation in patients with fixed dystonia, as well as previous data regarding body integrity identity disorder and amputations sought by patients with chronic regional pain syndrome, raise the possibility that patients with fixed dystonia might have a deficit in body schema that predisposes them to developing fixed dystonia and drives some to seek amputation. The outcome of amputation in fixed dystonia is invariably unfavorable. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. The Missions of National Commissions: Mapping the Forms and Functions of Bioethics Advisory Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald; Schwartz, Jason L

    The findings, conclusions, and recommendations of national ethics commissions (NECs) have received considerable attention throughout the 40-year history of these groups in the United States and worldwide. However, the procedures or types of argument by which these bodies arrive at their decisions have received far less scrutiny. This paper explores how the diversity of ethical principles, concepts, or theories is featured in publications or decisions of these bodies, with particular emphasis on the need for NECs to be inclusive of pluralist positions that typically exist in contemporary democracies. The discussion is centered on the extent to which NECs may focus on providing focal frameworks, primarily framing the ethical issues at stake, or normative frameworks, additionally providing transparent justifications for any conclusions and recommendations that are made. The structure allows for assessments of the relative merits and drawbacks of different approaches in both theory and practice.

  5. Simultaneous in vivo visualization and localization of solid oral dosage forms in the rat gastrointestinal tract by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, V; Rosenberg, J; Seega, J; Lehr, C M

    1997-08-01

    Bioavailability of orally administered drugs is much influenced by the behavior, performance and fate of the dosage form within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, MRI in vivo methods that allow for the simultaneous visualization of solid oral dosage forms and anatomical structures of the GI tract have been investigated. Oral contrast agents containing Gd-DTPA were used to depict the lumen of the digestive organs. Solid oral dosage forms were visualized in a rat model by a 1H-MRI double contrast technique (magnetite-labelled microtablets) and a combination of 1H- and 19F-MRI (fluorine-labelled minicapsules). Simultaneous visualization of solid oral dosage forms and the GI environment in the rat was possible using MRI. Microtablets could reproducibly be monitored in the rat stomach and in the intestines using a 1H-MRI double contrast technique. Fluorine-labelled minicapsules were detectable in the rat stomach by a combination of 1H- and 19F-MRI in vivo. The in vivo 1H-MRI double contrast technique described allows solid oral dosage forms in the rat GI tract to be depicted. Solid dosage forms can easily be labelled by incorporating trace amounts of non-toxic iron oxide (magnetite) particles. 1H-MRI is a promising tool for observing such pharmaceutical dosage forms in humans. Combined 1H- and 19F-MRI offer a means of unambiguously localizing solid oral dosage forms in more distal parts of the GI tract. Studies correlating MRI examinations with drug plasma levels could provide valuable information for the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  7. Relativistic instant-form approach to the structure of two-body composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, A.F.; Troitsky, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to the electroweak properties of two-particle composite systems is developed. The approach is based on the use of the instant form of relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics. The main feature of this approach is the method of construction of the matrix element of the electroweak current operator. The electroweak current matrix element satisfies the relativistic covariance conditions and in the case of the electromagnetic current also the conservation law automatically. The properties of the system as well as the approximations are formulated in terms of form factors. The approach makes it possible to formulate relativistic impulse approximation in such a way that the Lorentz covariance of the current is ensured. In the electromagnetic case the current conservation law is also ensured. Our approach gives good results for the pion electromagnetic form factor in the whole range of momentum transfers available for experiments at present time, as well as for the lepton decay constant of pions

  8. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal Analysis by Structural Characterization as a Method for Assessing Heterogeneity in Complex Solid Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Reading, Mike; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-11-03

    Characterizing inter- and intrasample heterogeneity of solid and semisolid pharmaceutical products is important both for rational design of dosage forms and subsequent quality control during manufacture; however, most pharmaceutical products are multicomponent formulations that are challenging in this regard. Thermal analysis, in particular differential scanning calorimetry, is commonly used to obtain structural information, such as degree of crystallinity, or identify the presence of a particular polymorph, but the results are an average over the whole sample; it cannot directly provide information about the spatial distribution of phases. This study demonstrates the use of a new thermo-optical technique, thermal analysis by structural characterization (TASC), that can provide spatially resolved information on thermal transitions by applying a novel algorithm to images acquired by hot stage microscopy. We determined that TASC can be a low cost, relatively rapid method of characterizing heterogeneity and other aspects of structure. In the examples studied, it was found that high heating rates enabled screening times of 3-5 min per sample. In addition, this study demonstrated the higher sensitivity of TASC for detecting the metastable form of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This preliminary work suggests that TASC will be a worthwhile additional tool for characterizing a broad range of materials.

  10. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Solid Tumor Based on Body's Intrinsic Antitumor Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haifeng

    2018-05-22

    The accumulation of mutated somatic cells due to the incompetency of body's immune system may lead to tumor onset. Therefore, enhancing the ability of the system to eliminate such cells should be the core of tumor therapy. The intrinsic antitumor immunity is triggered by tumor-specific antigens (TSA) or TSA-sensitized dendritic cells (DC). Once initiated, specific anti-tumor antibodies are produced and tumor-specific killer immune cells, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), NK cells, and macrophages, are raised or induced. Several strategies may enhance antitumor action of immune system, such as supplying tumor-targeted antibody, activating T cells, enhancing the activity and tumor recognition of NK cells, promoting tumor-targeted phagocytosis of macrophages, and eliminating the immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and Treg cells. Apart from the immune system, the removal of tumor burden still needs to be assisted by drugs, surgery or radiation. And the body's internal environment and tumor microenvironment should be improved to recover immune cell function and prevent tumor growth. Multiple microenvironment modulatory therapies may be applied, including addressing hypoxia and oxidative stress, correcting metabolic disorders, and controlling chronic inflammation. Finally, to cure tumor and prevent tumor recurrence, repairing or supporting therapy that consist of tissue repair and nutritional supplement should be applied properly. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. New metastable form of glibenclamide prepared by redispersion from ternary solid dispersions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnopkoon, Thanu; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2016-01-01

    Modification of polymorphic forms of poorly water-soluble drugs is one way to achieve the desirable properties. In this study, glibenclamide (GBM) particles with different polymorphic forms, including a new metastable form, were obtained from redispersion of ternary solid dispersion systems. The ternary solid dispersion systems, consisting of GBM, polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), were prepared by solvent evaporation method and subsequently redispersed in deionized water. The precipitated drug particles were then collected at a given time period. The drug particles with different polymorphic forms could be achieved depending on the polymer/surfactant ratio. Amorphous drug nanoparticles could be obtained by using a high polymer/surfactant ratio, whereas two different crystalline forms were obtained from the systems containing low polymer/surfactant ratios. Interestingly, a new metastable form IV of GBM with improved dissolution behavior could be obtained from the system of GBM:PVP-K30:SLS with the weight ratio of 2:2:4. This new polymorphic form IV of GBM was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and solid state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The molecular arrangement of the new polymorphic form IV of GBM was proposed. The GBM particles with polymorphic form IV also showed an improved dissolution behavior. In addition, it was found that the formation of the new polymorphic form IV of GBM by this process was reproducible.

  12. Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L

    2014-01-01

    intake (1 MJ day(-1) ) was more closely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.23, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 2.31%, P = 0.01) than solid energy intake (△BMIz8-11.5y: β = 0.12, P = 0.01 and %BF11.5y : β = 0.80%, P = 0.07). SSB consumption (100 g day(-1) ) was directly associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β...... = 0.08, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 0.92%, P = 0.004),whereas diet drinks (100 g day(-1) ) were inversely associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.18, P = 0.02). Substitution of 100 g of SSB by 100 g of water or diet drink, but not other beverages, was inversely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y and %BF11.......5y (P water can have long-term beneficial effects on childhood adiposity....

  13. Asymptotic form of the charge exchange cross section in the three body rearrangement collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1975-01-01

    A three body general rearrangement collision is considered where the initial and final bound states are described by the hydrogen-like wave functions. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of quantum number, the reduced mass, and the nuclear charge of the final state. It is shown that for the low lying levels, the reciprocal of n cubed scaling law at all incident energies is only approximately satisfied. The case of the symmetric collisions is considered and it is shown that for high n and high incident energy, E, the cross section behaves as the reciprocal of E cubed. Zeros and minima in the differential cross sections in the limit of high n for protons on atomic hydrogen and positrons on atomic hydrogen are given.

  14. Generation of forming limit bands for ultra-high-strength steels in car body structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Hamid Reza; Sarkar, Sayantan; Italiano, Francesco; Bach, Aleksandar; Wulfinghoff, Stephan; Reese, Stefanie

    2018-05-01

    The application of ultra-high-strength steels in safety-related automotive components has led to higher safety levels as well as weight reduction. Nevertheless, this class of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) show material scatter due to its manufacturing processes. To address this problem in advance, it is of significance not only to model the failure of the sheet metal but also to specify a band for the necking regime. The former is described by a forming limit curve (FLC), whereas a forming limit band (FLB) introduces the upper and lower bounds for the permissible strains. The objective of the present work is to generate a robust prediction of the strain-based failure of the sheet metal during a car crash. The FLCs are generated numerically applying a modified Marciniak-Kuczynski (MK) model, where the existence of an angled groove is mandatory. This assures to obtain the maximum admissible strain. In addition, a zero extension angle is utilized for the left hand side of the FLC (tension-compression). The material scatter is captured in experiments and applied in the hardening relations. Necking strains are recorded experimentally by a digital image correlation based system (ARAMIS). Later, they are fit into the FLC based on an inhomogeneity parameter fi from the MK model. In order to generate a theoretical FLB, first a statistical approach is exploited to take the experimental data into consideration. Eventually, the forming limit band distinguishes between safe, necking and failed regions.

  15. One-Body Potential Theory of Molecules and Solids Modified Semiempirically for Electron Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2010-08-01

    The study of Cordero, March and Alonso (CMA) for four spherical atoms, Be,Ne,Mg and Ar, semiempirically fine-tunes the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground-state electron density by inserting the experimentally determined ionization potentials. The present Letter, first of all, relates this approach to the very recent work of Bartlett 'towards an exact correlated orbital theory for electrons'. Both methods relax the requirement of standard DFT that a one-body potential shall generate the exact ground-state density, though both work with high quality approximations. Unlike DFT, the CMA theory uses a modified HF non-local potential. It is finally stressed that this potential generates also an idempotent Dirac density matrix. The CMA approach is thereby demonstrated to relate, albeit approximately, to the DFT exchange-correlation potential. (author)

  16. Isolation and characterization of three distinct forms of lipases from Candida rugosa produced in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct forms (Lip A, Lip B and Lip C of extra-cellular lipases (EC- 3.1.1.3, produced by Candida rugosa in solid state fermentation (SSF were purified and characterised. SSF was carried out in glass columns using coconut oil cake and wheat bran. The enzyme was purified from the aqueous extract of fermented matter by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ultra-filtration and gel filtration using Sephadex-200 to a 43-fold purification and 64.35-mg/ml specific activity. SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed three distinct bands, indicating the existence of three iso-forms, Lip A, Lip B and Lip C with apparent molecular weight about 64,000, 62,000 and 60,000 Da, respectively. All the three iso-forms were optimally active at 35-40ºC and pH 7-8. They showed marked differences in their Km values with different saturated and unsaturated triacyl glycerols. Ag++ and Hg++ strongly inhibited enzyme activity of all the iso-forms, Mn++ has no effect and Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced the activity. EDTA also strongly inhibited the enzyme activities of iso-forms. However, activities of all the three lipases were completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, pefabloc and partially by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the purification and characterisation of C. rugosa lipase iso-forms from solid cultures. These lipase iso-forms with diverse characteristics produced in solid cultures may find potential application in biomedical field.Três formas distintas (Lip A, Lip B e Lip C de lipases extracelulares (EC- 3,1,1,3, produzidas por Candida rugosa em fermentação no estado sólido (SSF foram purificadas e caracterizadas. A fermentação foi realizada em colunas de vidro usando como substrato bolo de óleo de coco e o farelo de trigo. O enzima obtida no extrato aquoso do material fermentado foi precipitada com do sulfato de do amônio, dialisada , ultra

  17. An explanation of forms of planetary orbits and estimation of angular shift of the Mercury' perihelion using the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    This work develops a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to calculate the orbits of planets and explore forms of planetary orbits with regard to the Alfvén oscillating force [1] in the Solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The statistical theory of formation of gravitating spheroidal bodies has been proposed in [2]-[5]. Starting the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula, this theory solves the problem of gravitational condensation of a gas-dust protoplanetary cloud with a view to planetary formation in its own gravitational field [3] as well as derives a new law of the Solar system planetary distances which generalizes the wellknown laws [2], [3]. This work also explains an origin of the Alfvén oscillating force modifying forms of planetary orbits within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [5]. Due to the Alfvén oscillating force moving solid bodies in a distant zone of a rotating spheroidal body have elliptic trajectories. It means that orbits for the enough remote planets from the Sun in Solar system are described by ellipses with focus in the origin of coordinates and with small eccentricities. The nearby planet to Sun named Mercury has more complex trajectory. Namely, in case of Mercury the angular displacement of a Newtonian ellipse is observed during its one rotation on an orbit, i.e. a regular (century) shift of the perihelion of Mercury' orbit occurs. According to the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [2]-[5] under the usage of laws of celestial mechanics in conformity to cosmogonic bodies (especially, to stars) it is necessary to take into account an extended substance called a stellar corona. In this connection the stellar corona can be described by means of model of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body [5]. Moreover, the parameter of gravitational compression α of a spheroidal body (describing the Sun, in particular) has been

  18. Asymptotic form of the charge-exchange cross section in three-body rearrangement collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1975-01-01

    A three-body general-type rearrangement collision is considered in which the initial and final bound states are described by hydrogen-like wave functions. It is shown that the charge-exchange amplitude in the first Born approximation can be expanded at all incident energies in terms of the inverse powers of the principal quantum number (n). By expanding the exchange amplitude in this way, it is demonstrated conclusively that the cross section for capture into the s, p, and d states as well as for the sum over all the angular-momentum states is proportional to 1/n-cubed plus terms proportional to higher inverse odd powers of n. It is found that the low-lying levels cannot be scaled to the 1/n-cubed law irrespective of the value of the incident energy except in the case of capture into the s states in accordance with the Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers approximation. Zeros and minima in the differential cross sections are given in the limit of high principal quantum number for electron capture by protons from atomic hydrogen and for positronium formation by proton-atomic hydrogen collisions.

  19. A Fully Nonlinear, Dynamically Consistent Numerical Model for Solid-Body Ship Motion. I. Ship Motion with Fixed Heading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.

  20. Fractionated half body irradiation for palliation of multiple symptomatic bone metastases from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-06-01

    This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).

  1. Studies of Se-75 labelled bile acid analogue absorption in different forms of gastrointestinal diseases using a whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Sattler, E.L.; Rinkenberger, C.; Bodenmueller, D.; Grebe, S.K.G.; Mueller, K.D.; Mueller, H.; Faengewisch, G.L.; Heckers, H.; Steckenmesser, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is possible to detect disturbances of bile acid absorption using a whole body counter after administration of Se-75 labelled bile acid analogues. We scrutinized the benefit of a modification of the test method. We investigated 77 patients with different forms of a gastrointestinal disease. After application of Se 75 homotaurocholic acid we measured patient-activity up to 7 days later including whole-body profile scans in the first 6 h. The fractional retention after 7 days was between 20 and 67%. In cases of impaired absorption it was below 12%. Patients with liver diseases and afer cholecystectomy (without bile acid resorption disturbance) showed normal values. Patients with Crohn's disease of the ileum or with intestinal ileas by-pass or with colestyramine treatment or with disturbance of vitamin B12-absorption or with cystic fibrosis showed a disturbance of bile acid absorption. The normal whole-body half-life was more than 2.8 days. The 24 and 72 h values were 62 and 31% in cases with normal absorption. Smaller values are signs of bile acid malabsorption. Impulse rates measured with the whole body counter are of an order of magnitude that allows to reduce the usually administered dose of 37 kBq to 9.25 kBq. This is an efficient method to detect disturbances of bile acid absorption. The usually adminstered activity of 37 kBq can be reduced to 9.25 kBq. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by high-power laser solid forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.M.; Lin, X.; Fu, X.; Tan, H.; Chen, J.; Huang, W.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using a high-power laser solid forming (LSF) additive manufacturing. The results show that the post-fabricated heat-treated microstructure consists of coarse columnar prior-β grains (630–1000 μm wide) and α-laths (5–9 μm) under different scanning velocities (900 and 1500 mm/min), which caused large elongation (∼18%) superior to the conventional laser additive manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The deformation behavior of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated using in situ tensile test scanning electron microscopy. The results show that shear-bands appeared along the α/β interface and slip-bands occurred within the α-laths, which lead to cracks decaying in a zigzag-pattern in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy with basket-weave microstructure. These results demonstrate that the small columnar prior-β grains and fine basket-weave microstructure exhibiting more α/β interfaces and α-laths can disperse the load and resist the deformation in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V components. In addition, a modified microstructure selection map of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was established, which can reasonably predict the microstructure evolution and relative grain size in the LSF process.

  3. Electron transfer through solid-electrolyte-interphase layers formed on Si anodes of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, L.; Cristancho, D.; Seminario, J.M.; Martinez de la Hoz, J.M.; Balbuena, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films are formed on the electrode surfaces due to aggregation of products of reduction or oxidation of the electrolyte. These films may grow to thicknesses in the order of 50-100 nm and contain a variety of organic and inorganic products but their structure is not well defined. Although in some cases the films exert a passivating role, this is not always the case, and these phenomena are particularly more complex on Silicon anodes due to swelling and cracking of the electrode during lithiation and delithiation. Since the driving force for SEI growth is electron transfer, it is important to understand how electron transfer may keep occurring through the heterogeneous film once the bare electron surface is covered. Here we introduce a novel approach for studying electron transfer through model films and show preliminary results for the analysis of electron transfer through model composite interfacial systems integrated by electrode/SEI layer/electrolyte. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to identify deposition of SEI components, and a density functional theory/Green's function approach is utilized for characterizing electron transfer. Three degrees of lithiation are modeled for the electrodes, the SEI film is composed by LiF or Li 2 O, and the ethylene carbonate reduction is studied. An applied potential is used as driving force for the leakage current, which is evaluated as a function of the applied potential. Comparative analyses are done for LiF and Li 2 O model SEI layers

  4. Zein as a Pharmaceutical Excipient in Oral Solid Dosage Forms: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Alberto; Bisharat, Lorina; AlKhatib, Hatim S; Cespi, Marco

    2018-05-07

    Zein is the main storage protein of corn and it has several industrial applications. Mainly in the last 10-15 years, zein has emerged as a potential pharmaceutical excipient with unique features. Zein is a natural, biocompatible and biodegradable material produced from renewable sources. It is insoluble, yet due to its amphiphilic nature, it has self-assembling properties, which have been exploited for the formation of micromicroparticle and nanoparticle and films. Moreover, zein can hydrate so it has been used in swellable matrices for controlled drug release. Other pharmaceutical applications of zein in oral drug delivery include its incorporation in solid dispersions of poorly soluble drugs and in colonic drug delivery systems. This review describes the features of zein significant for its use as a pharmaceutical excipient for oral drug delivery, and it summaries the literature relevant to macroscopic zein-based oral dosage forms, i.e. tablets, capsules, beads and powders. Particular attention is paid to the most novel formulations and applications of zein. Moreover, gaps of knowledge as well as possible venues for future investigations on zein are highlighted.

  5. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM IN DIET ON LIVER FUNCTION AND BODY WEIGHT OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stanko Kanački

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main biological role of selenium is performed via enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and includes the participation in the defense mechanism of the cell membrane from the peroxide damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of added selenium in foods in varying amounts and from various sources (organic and inorganic selenium. The experiment was conducted on the broilers, and the following parameters were monitored: body weight, total serum protein and the activity of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. The study demonstrated that organically-bound selenium had the most pronounced protective property, while both forms of selenium did not significantly affect the growth and concentration of the total serum protein. Therefore, this research suggests economic benefits of organic selenium in the diet of broiler chickens. Key words: selenium, body weight, liver function, broiler chickens

  6. Evaluation of Blended Wing-Body Combinations with Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up to 3.50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.

    1960-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of the experimental and theoretical evaluation of the effects of wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of blended wing-body combinations. The present report compares previously tested straight-edged delta and arrow models which have leading-edge sweeps of 59.04 and 70-82 deg., respectively, with related models which have plan forms with curved leading and trailing edges designed to result in the same average sweeps in each case. All the models were symmetrical, without camber, and were generally similar having the same span, length, and aspect ratios. The wing sections had an average value of maximum thickness ratio of about 4 percent of the local wing chords in a streamwise direction. The wing sections were computed by varying their shapes along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The models were tested with transition fixed at Reynolds numbers of roughly 4,000,000 to 9,000,000, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. The characteristic effect of the wing curvature of the delta and arrow models was an increase at subsonic and transonic speeds in the lift-curve slopes which was partially reflected in increased maximum lift-drag ratios. Curved edges were not evaluated on a diamond plan form because a preliminary investigation indicated that the curvature considered would increase the supersonic zero-lift wave drag. However, after the test program was completed, a suitable modification for the diamond plan form was discovered. The analysis presented in the appendix indicates that large reductions in the zero-lift wave drag would be obtained at supersonic Mach numbers if the leading- and trailing-edge sweeps are made to differ by indenting the trailing edge and extending the root of the leading edge.

  7. An Analysis of the Role and Responsibilities of Chairs of Further Education College and Sixth-Form College Governing Bodies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ron; James, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article reports research into the role and responsibilities of the chairs of governing bodies of further education colleges and sixth-form colleges in England. Further education colleges and sixth-form colleges represent a significant part of post-16 educational provision in England. Every college in the sector has a governing body, which has…

  8. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  9. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control

  10. Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomer, Laura; Liewald, Mathias; Riedmüller, Kim Rouven

    2018-05-01

    Metal-ceramic Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) belong to a special subcategory of composite materials and reveal enhanced properties compared to conventional composite materials. Currently, IPC are produced by infiltration of a ceramic open-pore body with liquid metal applying high pressure and I or high temperature to avoid residual porosity. However, these IPC are not able to gain their complete potential, because of structural damages and interface reactions occurring during the manufacturing process. Compared to this, the manufacturing of IPC using the semi-solid forming technology offers great perspectives due to relative low processing temperatures and reduced mechanical pressure. In this context, this paper is focusing on numerical investigations conducted by using the FLOW-3D software for gaining a deeper understanding of the infiltration of open-pore bodies with semi-solid materials. For flow simulation analysis, a geometric model and different porous media drag models have been used. They have been adjusted and compared to get a precise description of the infiltration process. Based on these fundamental numerical investigations, this paper also shows numerical investigations that were used for basically designing a semi-solid forming tool. Thereby, the development of the flow front and the pressure during the infiltration represent the basis of the evaluation. The use of an open and closed tool cavity combined with various geometries of the upper die shows different results relating to these evaluation arguments. Furthermore, different overflows were designed and its effects on the pressure at the end of the infiltration process were investigated. Thus, this paper provides a general guideline for a tool design for manufacturing of metal-ceramic IPC using semi-solid forming.

  11. Solid state diffusion in zirconium-copper and zirconium-nickel systems. Study of the intermetallic compounds formed; Diffusion a l'etat solide dans les systemes zirconium-cuivre et zirconium-nickel. Etude des composes intermetalliques formes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meny, L; Champigny, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Solid state diffusion has been provoked in pure Zr-Cu and Zr-Ni metal couples. The tests were carried out in the following experimental conditions : the samples were maintained at a mechanical pressure of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}; annealing was carried out in a secondary vacuum during 100 and 500 hours, at temperatures of between 650 C and 900 C. In all cases, a diffusion zone made up of several parallel layers was formed. The various intermetallic compounds have been studied by metallography (optical microscopy and micro-hardness) X-ray diffraction and micro-analysis with an electronic probe. In the Zr-Cu system, six compounds have been determined, Zr{sub 2}Cu, ZrCu, Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, ZrCu{sub 4} and ZrCu{sub 5}. These results confirm a recent publication mentioning for the first time the existence of ZrCu{sub 5} and demonstrating the formulae ZrCu{sub 3} and ZrCu{sub 4}. In a similar manner, we have found six compounds, stable at room temperature, in the Zr-Ni system: these are Zr{sub 2}Ni, ZrNi, Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi{sub 3}, ZrNi{sub 4} and ZrNi{sub 5}; the results of American workers are confirmed for four of these compounds; however we identify as ZrNi{sub 3} and ZrNi{sub 4} the compounds for which they proposed the formulae Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 5} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}. A comparison of these results suggests that the two systems ZrCu and ZrNi have the same type of equilibrium diagrams. (authors) [French] Des diffusions a l'etat solide ont ete effectuees entre les couples de metaux purs Zr-Cu et Zr-Ni. Les essais ont eu lieu dans les conditions experimentales suivantes: les echantillons ont ete maintenus par une pression mecanique de 3O kg/cm{sup 2}; les recuits ont ete effectues sous vide secondaire pendant des temps de 100 et 500 heures, a des temperatures comprises entre 650 C et 900 C. Dans tous les cas, il y a eu formation d'une zone de diffusion formee de plusieurs couches paralleles. Les differents composes intermetalliques ont ete etudies par metallographie

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF BODY POSTURE IN THE SAGITTAL PLANE AND FITNESS OF FIRST-FORM PUPILS FROM RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Żukowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find correlations between characteristics of body posture in the sagittal plane and fitness and endurance of first-form children from rural areas. Material: an analysis of more than 30 sources of scientific and educational literature. Results: the study involved 209 children, including 102 girls and 107 boys. They were children who lived in the country since they were born. To assess particular characteristics of body posture, the children were studied by means of the measuring equipment using the projection Moiré system. Motor skills were estimated using selected EUROFIT physical fitness tests (sitting forward bend, standing broad jump, handgrip, sit-and-reach, bent arm hang and 10 x 5 m shuttle run. The level of physical endurance was evaluated with the Harvard Step Test modified by Montoye. Conclusions: the conducted research reveals statistically significant correlations between the characteristics of body posture in the sagittal plane and selected EUROFIT physical fitness tests and physical endurance of the children involved in the study.

  13. Why Is There an Abrupt Transition from Solid Rock to Low Crystallinity Magma in Drilled Magma Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.; Lavallée, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a preliminary evaluation, from basic principles of heat and mass transfer, on the unexpectedly abrupt transition from cuttings of solid rock to fragments of crystal poor glass during drilling into magma bodies. Our analysis is based on conditions determined and inferred for the 2009 IDDP-1 well in Krafla Caldera, which entered apparently liquidus rhyolite magma at about 900oC at a depth of 2104 m. Simple conduction would predict some 30 m of crystallization and partial crystallization since the latest time the magma could have been intruded, approximately 30 years prior to discovery by drilling. Option 1: The expected crystallization of magma has occurred but interstitial melt remains. The pressure difference between lithostatic load of about 50 MPa on the mush and 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure in the well causes pore melt to flow from the permeable mush into the borehole, where it becomes the source of the quenched melt chips. To be viable, this mechanism must work over the time frame of a day. Option 2: The expected crystallization is occurring, but high Rayleigh number thermal convection in the magma chamber continuously displaces crystallizing roof magma by liquidus magma from the interior of the body. To be viable, this mechanism must result in overturning magma in the chamber on a time scale that is much shorter than that of crystallization. Option 3: Flow-induced crystal migration away from zones of high shear created during drilling into magma may preferentially produce low-crystal-content melt at the boundary of the borehole, which is then sampled.

  14. On sharp vorticity gradients in elongating baroclinic eddies and their stabilization with a solid-body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutyrin, Georgi G.

    2016-06-01

    Wide compensated vortices are not able to remain circular in idealized two-layer models unless the ocean depth is assumed to be unrealistically large. Small perturbations on both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies grow slower if a middle layer with uniform potential vorticity (PV) is added, owing to a weakening of the vertical coupling between the upper and lower layers and a reduction of the PV gradient in the deep layer. Numerical simulations show that the nonlinear development of the most unstable elliptical mode causes self-elongation of the upper vortex core and splitting of the deep PV anomaly into two corotating parts. The emerging tripolar flow pattern in the lower layer results in self-intensification of the fluid rotation in the water column around the vortex center. Further vortex evolution depends on the model parameters and initial conditions, which limits predictability owing to multiple equilibrium attractors existing in the dynamical system. The vortex core strips thin filaments, which roll up into submesoscale vortices to result in substantial mixing at the vortex periphery. Stirring and damping of vorticity by bottom friction are found to be essential for subsequent vortex stabilization. The development of sharp PV gradients leads to nearly solid-body rotation inside the vortex core and formation of transport barriers at the vortex periphery. These processes have important implications for understanding the longevity of real-ocean eddies.

  15. Procedimiento de corte en cuerpos sólidos poliédricos // Section procedure in solid polyhedral bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miguel Iznaga Benítez

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la estructura de datos de los modelos geométricos ha posibilitado el desarrollo de algoritmos parasolucionar problemas complejos. Estos algoritmos han facilitado a su vez, la automatización en las oficinas de diseño através de los medios computacionales.Por tal motivo, se presenta el desarrollo de un algoritmo para la obtención de cortes y secciones en cuerpos geométricospoliédricos, se plantean las etapas fundamentales del algoritmo y a través de un ejercicio se ejemplifica el mismo.Este algoritmo puede ser utilizado en la creación de software que ayuden al proceso docente.Palabras claves: enseñanza, gráfica, separación de sólidos, geometría, dibujo, algoritmo, CAD._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The knowledge of data structure in geometric models has facilitated the development of algorithms to solve complexproblems. These algorithms have facilitated in turn, the automation in the design by computational means. For such reason,is presented the development of an algorithm for the obtaining of sections in polyhedral geometric bodies, the fundamentalstages of the algorithm are stated and illustrated using an example.This algorithm can be use in the software creation that will help to the educational processKey words: section, separation of solids, algorithm, geometric modeling, graphic, CAD. teaching.

  16. A two-dimensional finite element method for analysis of solid body contact problems in fuel rod mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, K.L.

    1988-06-01

    Two computer codes for the analysis of fuel rod behavior have been developed. Fuel rod mechanics is treated by a two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite element method. The program KONTAKT is used for detailed examinations on fuel rod sections, whereas the second program METHOD2D allows instationary calculations of whole fuel rods. The mechanical contact of fuel and cladding during heating of the fuel rod is very important for it's integrity. Both computer codes use a Newton-Raphson iteration for the solution of the nonlinear solid body contact problem. A constitutive equation is applied for the dependency of contact pressure on normal approach of the surfaces which are assumed to be rough. If friction is present on the contacting surfaces, Coulomb's friction law is used. Code validation is done by comparison with known analytical solutions for special problems. Results of the contact algorithm for an elastic ball pressing against a rigid surface are confronted with Hertzian theory. Influences of fuel-pellet geometry as well as influences of discretisation of displacements and stresses of a single fuel pellet are studied. Contact of fuel and cladding is calculated for a fuel rod section with two fuel pellets. The influence of friction forces between fuel and cladding on their axial expansion is demonstrated. By calculation of deformations and temperatures during an instationary fuel rod experiment of the CABRI-series the feasibility of two-dimensional finite element analysis of whole fuel rods is shown. (orig.) [de

  17. Microstructure of Semi-Solid Billets Produced by Electromagnetic Stirring and Behavior of Primary Particles during the Indirect Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An A356 alloy semi-solid billet was fabricated using electromagnetic stirring. After inserting the semi-solid billet into an indirect die, a thin plate of 1.2 mm thickness was fabricated by applying compression. The microstructure of the semi-solid billets fabricated in various stirring conditions (solid fraction and stirring force were analyzed. The deformation and behavior of the primary α-Al particles were analyzed for various parameters (solid fraction, die friction, compression rate, and compression pressure. In the stirred billets, a globular structure was dominant, while a dendrite structure was dominant in the unstirred billets. As the solid fraction decreased and the stirring current increased, the equivalent diameter and roundness of the primary α-Al particles decreased. The primary α-Al particle sizes were reduced as the compressing velocity increased, while a greater number of particles could move as the compressing pressure increased. As the path over which the motion occurred became smoother, the fluidity of the particles improved. Under compression, bonded primary α-Al particles became separated into individual particles again, as the bonds were broken. As wearing caused by friction and collisions between the particles during this motion occurred, the particle sizes were reduced, and the particle shapes become increasingly spheroid.

  18. Growth behavior of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, Takahiro, E-mail: t-kozawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, 2–5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO{sub 3} precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated a new strategy towards achieving morphology control without the use of additives during conventional solid-state reactions by exploiting water vapor-induced particle growth. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is proposed. • Water vapor-induced particle growth is exploited in solid-state reactions. • The microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is investigated. • The shape, size and microstructure can be controlled by solid-state reactions.

  19. Growth behavior of LiMn2O4 particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn 2 O 4 particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn 2 O 4 is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO 3 precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn 2 O 4 spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated a new strategy towards achieving morphology control without the use of additives during conventional solid-state reactions by exploiting water vapor-induced particle growth. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 particles is proposed. • Water vapor-induced particle growth is exploited in solid-state reactions. • The microstructural evolution of LiMn 2 O 4 particles is investigated. • The shape, size and microstructure can be controlled by solid-state reactions.

  20. Comparing Results of SPH/N-body Impact Simulations Using Both Solid and Rubble-pile Target Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Bottke, W. F.; Enke, B. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Asphaug, E.; Richardson, D. C.

    2006-09-01

    We have been investigating the properties of satellites and the morphology of size-frequency distributions (SFDs) resulting from a suite of 160 SPH/N-body simulations of impacts into 100-km diameter parent asteroids (Durda et al. 2004, Icarus 170, 243-257; Durda et al. 2006, Icarus, in press). These simulations have produced many valuable insights into the outcomes of cratering and disruptive impacts but were limited to monolithic basalt targets. As a natural consequence of collisional evolution, however, many asteroids have undergone a series of battering impacts that likely have left their interiors substantially fractured, if not completely rubblized. In light of this, we have re-mapped the matrix of simulations using rubble-pile target objects. We constructed the rubble-pile targets by filling the interior of the 100-km diameter spherical shell (the target envelope) with randomly sized solid spheres in mutual contact. We then assigned full damage (which reduces tensile and shear stresses to zero) to SPH particles in the contacts between the components; the remaining volume is void space. The internal spherical components have a power-law distribution of sizes simulating fragments of a pre-shattered parent object. First-look analysis of the rubble-pile results indicate some general similarities to the simulations with the monolithic targets (e.g., similar trends in the number of small, gravitationally bound satellite systems as a function of impact conditions) and some significant differences (e.g., size of largest remnants and smaller debris affecting size frequency distributions of resulting families). We will report details of a more thorough analysis and the implications for collisional models of the main asteroid belt. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant number AST0407045.

  1. Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Postoperative Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Solid Tumor Malignancies to the Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmond, Kristin J.; Robertson, Scott; Lo, Simon S.; Soltys, Scott G.; Ryu, Samuel; McNutt, Todd; Chao, Samuel T.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Ghia, Amol; Chang, Eric L.; Sheehan, Jason; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To develop consensus contouring guidelines for postoperative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases. Methods and Materials: Ten spine SBRT specialists representing 10 international centers independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV), spinal cord, and spinal cord planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for 10 representative clinical scenarios in postoperative spine SBRT for metastatic solid tumor malignancies. Contours were imported into the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research. Agreement between physicians was calculated with an expectation minimization algorithm using simultaneous truth and performance level estimation with κ statistics. Target volume definition guidelines were established by finding optimized confidence level consensus contours using histogram agreement analyses. Results: Nine expert radiation oncologists and 1 neurosurgeon completed contours for all 10 cases. The mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.79 (range, 0.71-0.89) and 0.94 (range, 0.90-0.99) for the CTV and 0.79 (range, 0.70-0.95) and 0.92 (range, 0.87-0.99) for the PTV), respectively. Mean κ agreement, which demonstrates the probability that contours agree by chance alone, was 0.58 (range, 0.43-0.70) for CTV and 0.58 (range, 0.37-0.76) for PTV (P<.001 for all cases). Optimized consensus contours were established for all patients with 80% confidence interval. Recommendations for CTV include treatment of the entire preoperative extent of bony and epidural disease, plus immediately adjacent bony anatomic compartments at risk of microscopic disease extension. In particular, a “donut-shaped” CTV was consistently applied in cases of preoperative circumferential epidural extension, regardless of extent of residual epidural extension. Otherwise more conformal anatomic-based CTVs were determined and described. Spinal instrumentation was consistently excluded from the CTV. Conclusions: We provide

  2. From lizard body form to serpentiform morphology: The atlas-axis complex in African cordyliformes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerňanský, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The comparative vertebral morphology of the atlas-axis complex in cordyliforms, xantusiid and several skinks is studied here. These lizards are particularly interesting because of their different ecological adaptations and anti-predation strategies, where conformation ranges from the lizard-like body to a snake-like body. This transition to serpentiform morphology shows several evolutionary patterns in the atlas-axis complex: 1) the zygapophyseal articulations are lost in the early stage of the transition. In contrast to mammals, the atlas is more or less locked to the axis in lepidosaurs, but the absence of zygapophyseal articulation releases this locking for rotation. However despite its serpentiform morphology, Chamaesaura is different, in possessing this articulation; 2) the first intercentrum of Chamaesaura and Tetradactylus africanus (serpentiform grass-swimmers) is fully curved anteriorly, underlying the occipital condyle. While this limits ventral skull rotation beyond a certain angle, it locks the skull, which is a crucial adaptation for a sit-and-wait position in grassland habitats that needs to keep the head stabilized; and 3) in Acontias, most of the atlas articular surface with the occipital condyle is formed by the lateral aspect of the articulation area relative to the area located in the dorsal region of the slightly reduced intercentrum. A similar state occurs in amphisbaenians, most likely reflecting a fossorial lifestyle of the limbless lizards. Although Chamaesaura and Tetradactylus live sympatrically in grasslands, Chamaesaura differs in several ways in atlas-axis complex: for example, aforementioned presence of the atlas-axis zygapophyseal articulation, and long posterodorsal processes. Its occipital condyle protrudes further posteriorly, placing the atlas-axis complex further from the endocranium than in Tetradactylus. Hence, adaptation in the same niche, even among sister clades, can lead to different atlas-axis morphology due to different

  3. TDP-43 inclusion bodies formed in bacteria are structurally amorphous, non-amyloid and inherently toxic to neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Capitini

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ubiquitin-positive, tau- and α-synuclein-negative intracellular inclusions of TDP-43 in the central nervous system represents the major hallmark correlated to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Such inclusions have variably been described as amorphous aggregates or more structured deposits having an amyloid structure. Following the observations that bacterial inclusion bodies generally consist of amyloid aggregates, we have overexpressed full-length TDP-43 and C-terminal TDP-43 in E. coli, purified the resulting full-length and C-terminal TDP-43 containing inclusion bodies (FL and Ct TDP-43 IBs and subjected them to biophysical analyses to assess their structure/morphology. We show that both FL and Ct TDP-43 aggregates contained in the bacterial IBs do not bind amyloid dyes such as thioflavin T and Congo red, possess a disordered secondary structure, as inferred using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies, and are susceptible to proteinase K digestion, thus possessing none of the hallmarks for amyloid. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed an irregular structure for both types of TDP-43 IBs and confirmed the absence of amyloid-like species after proteinase K treatment. Cell biology experiments showed that FL TDP-43 IBs were able to impair the viability of cultured neuroblastoma cells when added to their extracellular medium and, more markedly, when transfected into their cytosol, where they are at least in part ubiquitinated and phosphorylated. These data reveal an inherently high propensity of TDP-43 to form amorphous aggregates, which possess, however, an inherently high ability to cause cell dysfunction. This indicates that a gain of toxic function caused by TDP-43 deposits is effective in TDP-43 pathologies, in addition to possible loss of function mechanisms originating from the cellular mistrafficking of the protein.

  4. Study on the design and manufacturing requirements of container for low level radioactive solid waste form KRR decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. R.; Park, S. K.; Jung, K. H.; Jung, W. S.; Jung, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The ISO container with its capacity of 4m 3 was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of atomic energy act. manufacturing and test standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests, it was verified that the container was safe

  5. Solid-state NMR study of stereocomplexes formed by enantiomeric star-shaped PEG-PLA copolymers in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calucci, Lucia; Forte, Claudia; Buwalda, S.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state NMR was applied to samples obtained by freeze-drying hydrogels of 1:1 (PEG65-NHCO-PLLA13)8/(PEG65-NHCO-PDLA13)8 or (PEG65-NHCO-PDLA13)8 only star block copolymers (where PEG, PLLA, and PDLA stand for poly(ethylene glycol), poly(l-lactide), and poly(d-lactide), respectively) in order to

  6. Forming a three-dimensional porous organic network via solid-state explosion of organic single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Dongbin; Mahmood, Javeed; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jin; Park, Noejung; Lah, Myoung Soo; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-11-17

    Solid-state reaction of organic molecules holds a considerable advantage over liquid-phase processes in the manufacturing industry. However, the research progress in exploring this benefit is largely staggering, which leaves few liquid-phase systems to work with. Here, we show a synthetic protocol for the formation of a three-dimensional porous organic network via solid-state explosion of organic single crystals. The explosive reaction is realized by the Bergman reaction (cycloaromatization) of three enediyne groups on 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexaethynyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene. The origin of the explosion is systematically studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, along with high-speed camera and density functional theory calculations. The results suggest that the solid-state explosion is triggered by an abrupt change in lattice energy induced by release of primer molecules in the 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexaethynyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene crystal lattice.

  7. Characterization of Synthesized and Commercial Forms of Magnesium Stearate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Sean P; Nethercott, Matthew J; Mays, Christopher J; Winquist, Nickolas T; Arthur, Donia; Calahan, Julie L; Sethi, Manish; Pardue, Daniel S; Kim, Junghyun; Amidon, Gregory; Munson, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium stearate is the salt of a complex mixture of fatty acids, with the majority being stearate and palmitate. It has multiple crystalline forms and, potentially, an amorphous form. Magnesium stearate is used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry as a powder lubricant, and typically is added at low levels (∼1%) during the manufacturing process and blended for a relatively short time (∼5 min). Proper levels and mixing times are needed, as too short a mixing time or too small a quantity will result in improper lubrication, and too much can negatively impact dissolution rates. The complex mixture of multiple fatty acids and crystalline forms in magnesium stearate leads to variability between commercial sources, and switching between sources can impact both the amount of lubricant and mixing time needed for proper lubrication. In order to better understand the complex nature of magnesium stearate, a variety of analytical techniques were used to characterize both synthesized and commercial magnesium stearate samples. The results show that correlation among differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and other techniques provides a unique insight into the forms of magnesium stearate. Finally, the ability to monitor form changes of magnesium stearate in an intact tablet using solid-state NMR spectroscopy is shown. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorders: prevalence, forms, functions, and body image correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, Jos H; Cañabate, Montse

    2018-04-12

    More than one third of patients with eating disorders report NSSI. Moreover, negative attitudes and feelings toward the body, body dissatisfaction, and body image disturbances have been linked to NSSI in community and clinical samples. However, there is a lack of studies exploring NSSI frequency and functions and the specific relationship between multidimensional body image dimensions and NSSI in eating disorder patients. First, we explored the frequency, types, and functions of NSSI in a sample of 226 Spanish female participants with eating disorders (ED). Second, we explored differences in NSSI and body image depending on the ED restrictive-purgative subtype; and third, we explored differences in body dissatisfaction, body image orientation, and body investment in eating disorder patients without NSSI (n = 144), with NSSI in their lifetime (n = 19), and (b) with NSSI in the previous year (n = 63). Of the overall sample, 37.1% (n = 89) had a history of self-injury during their lifetime, and 27.1% (n = 65) had self-injured in the previous year. Among the types of ongoing NSSI, the most frequent were banging (64.6%) and cutting (56.9%). Restrictive vs purgative patients differed on NSSI lifetime, Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Body Protection and Feelings and Attitudes toward the Body. Moreover, significant differences were found on Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Positive Feelings and Attitudes towards the Body, Body Protection, and Comfort with physical contact, between participants without a history of self-injury and both NSSI groups. Body dissatisfaction and body investment have been found to be variables related to NSSI. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of working on body image in ED patients to reduce the frequency of NSSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and Clinical Activity of Pembrolizumab and Multisite Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Jason J; Lemons, Jeffrey M; Karrison, Theodore G; Pitroda, Sean P; Melotek, James M; Zha, Yuanyuan; Al-Hallaq, Hania A; Arina, Ainhoa; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Janisch, Linda; Chang, Paul; Patel, Jyoti D; Fleming, Gini F; Moroney, John; Sharma, Manish R; White, Julia R; Ratain, Mark J; Gajewski, Thomas F; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Chmura, Steven J

    2018-02-13

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may stimulate innate and adaptive immunity to augment immunotherapy response. Multisite SBRT is an emerging paradigm for treating metastatic disease. Anti-PD-1-treatment outcomes may be improved with lower disease burden. In this context, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the safety of pembrolizumab with multisite SBRT in patients with metastatic solid tumors. Patients and Methods Patients progressing on standard treatment received SBRT to two to four metastases. Not all metastases were targeted, and metastases > 65 mL were partially irradiated. SBRT dosing varied by site and ranged from 30 to 50 Gy in three to five fractions with predefined dose de-escalation if excess dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Pembrolizumab was initiated within 7 days after completion of SBRT. Pre- and post-SBRT biopsy specimens were analyzed in a subset of patients to quantify interferon-γ-induced gene expression. Results A total of 79 patients were enrolled; three patients did not receive any treatment and three patients only received SBRT. Patients included in the analysis were treated with SBRT and at least one cycle of pembrolizumab. Most (94.5%) of patients received SBRT to two metastases. Median follow-up for toxicity was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 3.3 to 8.1 months). Six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities with no radiation dose reductions. In the 68 patients with imaging follow-up, the overall objective response rate was 13.2%. Median overall survival was 9.6 months (95% CI, 6.5 months to undetermined) and median progression-free survival was 3.1 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 3.4 months). Expression of interferon-γ-associated genes from post-SBRT tumor biopsy specimens significantly correlated with nonirradiated tumor response. Conclusion Multisite SBRT followed by pembrolizumab was well tolerated with acceptable toxicity. Additional studies exploring the clinical benefit and predictive biomarkers of combined

  10. Enhancement of in-vitro drug dissolution of ketoconazole for its optimal in-vivo absorption using Nanoparticles and Solid Dispersion forms of the drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mohammed Irfan

    Ketoconazole is one of the most widely prescribed oral antifungal drugs for the systemic treatment of various fungal infections. However, due its hydrophobic nature and poor solubility profiles in the gastro-intestinal fluids, variations in its bioavailability have been documented. Therefore, to enhance its dissolution in the biological fluids, this study was initiated to develop and evaluate Nanoparticles and Solid Dispersion forms of the drug. Nanoparticles of ketoconazole were developed by Wet Bead Milling technique using PVP-10k as the stabilizing material at a weight ratio of (2:1). Solid dispersion powder was prepared by Hot Melt method using PEG-8000 at a weight ratio of (1:2). A commercial product containing 200mg of ketoconazole tablet and pure drug powder were used as the control for comparison purposes. The dissolution studies were carried out in SGF, SIF, USP; and SIF with 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate using the USP-II method for a 2 hours period. Physical characterizations were carried out using SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR studies. Wet Bead Milling method yielded nanoparticles in the particles size range of (100-300nm.). First all samples were evaluated for their in-vitro dissolution in SGF at pH=1.2. After 15 minutes, the amounts of drug dissolved were observed to be 27% from both the pure powder and commercial tablet (control), 29% from solid dispersion and 100% from the Nanoparticles dosage form. This supports the fact that Nanoparticles had a strong influence on the dissolution rate of the drug and exhibited much faster dissolution of ketoconazole. When the same formulations were studied in the SIF, USP medium, the control formulation gave 3%, solid dispersion 8% and Nanoparticles 8% drug dissolution after 2 hours period. This could be because the weakly basic ketoconazole drug remained un-dissociated in the alkaline medium. Since this medium was unable to clearly distinguish the dissolution profiles from different formulation of the drug, the SIF solution

  11. Solid state NMR sequential resonance assignments and conformational analysis of the 2x10.4 kDa dimeric form of the Bacillus subtilis protein Crh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckmann, Anja [Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines, C.N.R.S UMR 5086 (France)], E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr; Lange, Adam [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Solid-state NMR (Germany); Galinier, Anne [Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie, C.N.R.S UPR 9043 (France); Luca, Sorin [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Solid-state NMR (Germany); Giraud, Nicolas; Juy, Michel [Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines, C.N.R.S UMR 5086 (France); Heise, Henrike [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Solid-state NMR (Germany); Montserret, Roland; Penin, Francois [Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines, C.N.R.S UMR 5086 (France); Baldus, Marc [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Solid-state NMR (Germany)], E-mail: maba@mpibpc.mpg.de

    2003-12-15

    Solid state NMR sample preparation and resonance assignments of the U-[{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N] 2x10.4 kDa dimeric form of the regulatory protein Crh in microcrystalline, PEG precipitated form are presented. Intra- and interresidue correlations using dipolar polarization transfer methods led to nearly complete sequential assignments of the protein, and to 88% of all {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C chemical shifts. For several residues, the resonance assignments differ significantly from those reported for the monomeric form analyzed by solution state NMR. Dihedral angles obtained from a TALOS-based statistical analysis suggest that the microcrystalline arrangement of Crh must be similar to the domain-swapped dimeric structure of a single crystal form recently solved using X-ray crystallography. For a limited number of protein residues, a remarkable doubling of the observed NMR resonances is observed indicative of local static or dynamic conformational disorder. Our study reports resonance assignments for the largest protein investigated by solid state NMR so far and describes the conformational dimeric variant of Crh with previously unknown chemical shifts.

  12. Significance of excipients to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid dosage forms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Manoj Kumar; Dhanaraj, Sangeetha

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays most of the drug substances are coming into the innovation pipeline with poor water solubility. Here, the influence of excipients will play a significant role to improve the dissolution of poorly aqueous soluble compounds. The drug substance needs to be dissolved in gastric fluids to get the better absorption and bioavailability of an orally administered drug. Dissolution is the rate-controlling stage for drugs which controls the rate and degree of absorption. Usually, poorly soluble oral administrated drugs show a slower dissolution rate, inconsistent and incomplete absorption which can lead to lower bioavailability. The low aqueous solubility of BCS class II and IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery process. Several technologies have been used in an attempt to progress the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug compounds which include solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, micronization, solvent evaporation, co-precipitation, ordered mixing, liquid-solid compacts, solvent deposition inclusion complexation, and steam aided granulation. In fact, most of the technologies require excipient as a carrier which plays a significant role in improving the bioavailability using Hypromellose acetate succinate, Cyclodextrin, Povidone, Copovidone, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Crospovidone, Starch, Dimethylacetamide, Polyethylene glycol, Sodium lauryl sulfate, Polysorbate, Poloxamer. Mesoporous silica and so on. This review deliberates about the excipients significance on bioavailability enhancement of drug products in a single platform along with pragmatically proved applications so that user can able to select the right excipients as per the molecule.

  13. Experimental research and numerical optimisation of multi-point sheet metal forming implementation using a solid elastic cushion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolipov, A. A.; Elghawail, A.; Shushing, S.; Pham, D.; Essa, K.

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing demand for flexible manufacturing techniques that meet the rapid changes in customer needs. A finite element analysis numerical optimisation technique was used to optimise the multi-point sheet forming process. Multi-point forming (MPF) is a flexible sheet metal forming technique where the same tool can be readily changed to produce different parts. The process suffers from some geometrical defects such as wrinkling and dimpling, which have been found to be the cause of the major surface quality problems. This study investigated the influence of parameters such as the elastic cushion hardness, blank holder force, coefficient of friction, cushion thickness and radius of curvature, on the quality of parts formed in a flexible multi-point stamping die. For those reasons, in this investigation, a multipoint forming stamping process using a blank holder was carried out in order to study the effects of the wrinkling, dimpling, thickness variation and forming force. The aim was to determine the optimum values of these parameters. Finite element modelling (FEM) was employed to simulate the multi-point forming of hemispherical shapes. Using the response surface method, the effects of process parameters on wrinkling, maximum deviation from the target shape and thickness variation were investigated. The results show that elastic cushion with proper thickness and polyurethane with the hardness of Shore A90. It has also been found that the application of lubrication cans improve the shape accuracy of the formed workpiece. These final results were compared with the numerical simulation results of the multi-point forming for hemispherical shapes using a blank-holder and it was found that using cushion hardness realistic to reduce wrinkling and maximum deviation.

  14. Effects of solid fission products forming dissolved oxide (Nd) and metallic precipitate (Ru) on the thermal conductivity of uranium base oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hun; Rhee, Young-Woo; Kang, Ki-Won; Kim, Keon-Sik; Song, Kun-Woo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solid fission products on the thermal conductivity of uranium base oxide nuclear fuel were experimentally investigated. Neodymium (Nd) and ruthenium (Ru) were added to represent the physical states of solid fission products such as 'dissolved oxide' and 'metallic precipitate', respectively. Thermal conductivity was determined on the basis of the thermal diffusivity, density and specific heat values. The effects of the additives on the thermal conductivity were quantified in the form of the thermal resistivity equation - the reciprocal of the phonon conduction equation - which was determined from the measured data. It is concluded that the thermal conductivity of the irradiated nuclear fuel is affected by both the 'dissolved oxide' and the 'metallic precipitate', however, the effects are in the opposite direction and the 'dissolved oxide' influences the thermal conductivity more significantly than that of the 'metallic precipitate'

  15. Dispersing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at high solids loading - applied to protein forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckfeldt, O.; Palmqvist, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Poeydemenge, F. [ENSCI, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersing of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder (UBE SN-E10) at high solids loading in aqueous media was investigated. The powder was used in the as-received (raw) state, after thermal (calcinations) and/or mechanical pre-treatments (ball milling{yields}freeze granulation{yields}freeze-drying). Slips were prepared using pH adjustment with NH{sub 4}OH or an addition of Tiron (low-M{sub w} sulphonic acid). Zeta potential measurements of diluted systems and rheological evaluations of concentrated suspensions were conducted. The effect of adding whey protein concentrate (WPC) was also studied. Zeta potential measurements showed a clear decrease in pH{sub iep} by calcination, whereas Tiron slightly increased the pH{sub iep} of calcined powder and decreased the pH{sub iep} of the as-received powder. Rheological data showed that pH adjustment to 10 was more efficient in stabilising the as-received powder than the calcined powder. pH adjustment was also considered to be the most important effect of adding small amounts of Tiron (0.08 wt%). However, for calcined powder, Tiron was shown to be equally efficient as pH adjustment. Pre-milling followed by freeze granulation/freeze-drying resulted in de-agglomerated powders with improved ability to rapidly disperse and, hence, extend the possibility of achieving extreme solids loadings. When approaching the practical limits in solids loading of these pre-milled powders, slips with 49.5 vol% of as-received and 46.6 vol% of calcined powders displayed clear shear thickening behaviour. However, addition of WPC (12 wt% based on water) significantly decreased the degree of shear thickening although the viscosity at lower shear rates increased. The gelling of WPC was distinct and rapid in suspensions with the two pre-milled powders, as-received stabilised at pH 10 and calcined stabilised with Tiron. (orig.)

  16. Lead-germanium ohmic contact on to gallium arsenide formed by the solid phase epitaxy of germanium: A microstructure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Fabian

    2000-12-01

    Driven by the remarkable growth in the telecommunication market, the demand for more complex GaAs circuitry continued to increase in the last decade. As a result, the GaAs industry is faced with new challenges in its efforts to fabricate devices with smaller dimensions that would permit higher integration levels. One of the limiting factors is the ohmic contact metallurgy of the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET), which, during annealing, induces a high degree of lateral diffusion into the substrate. Because of its limited reaction with the substrate, the Pd-Ge contact seems to be the most promising candidate to be used in the next generation of MESFET's. The Pd-Ge system belongs to a new class of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, part of an alloying strategy developed only recently, which relies on solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and solid phase regrowth to "un-pin" the Fermi level at the surface of the compound semiconductor. However, implementing this alloy into an integrated process flow proved to be difficult due to our incomplete understanding of the microstructure evolution during annealing and its implications on the electrical properties of the contact. The microstructure evolution and the corresponding solid state reactions that take place during annealing of the Pd-Ge thin films on to GaAs were studied in connection with their effects on the electrical properties of the ohmic contact. The phase transformations sequence, transition temperatures and activation energies were determined by combining differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for thermal analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructure identification. In-situ TEM annealing experiments on the Pd/Ge/Pd/GaAs ohmic contact system have permitted real time determination of the evolution of contact microstructure. The kinetics of the solid state reactions, which occur during ohmic contact formation, were determined by measuring the grain growth rates

  17. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  18. A facile route to form self-carried redox-responsive vorinostat nanodrug for effective solid tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han LQ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leiqiang Han, Tianqi Wang, Jingliang Wu, Xiaolan Yin, Hao Fang, Na Zhang School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Ji’nan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Small molecule-based nanodrugs with nanoparticles (NPs that are mainly composed of small molecules, have been considered as a promising candidate for a next-generation nanodrug, owing to their unique properties. Vorinostat (SAHA is a canonical US Food and Drug Administration-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the lack of efficacy against solid tumors hinders its progress in clinical use. Herein, a novel nanodrug of SAHA was developed based on disulfide-linked prodrug SAHA-S-S-VE. SAHA-S-S-VE could self-assemble into 148 nm NPs by disulfide-induced mechanisms, which were validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Under reduced conditions, the redox-responsive behavior of SAHA-S-S-VE was investigated, and the HDAC inhibition results verified the efficient release of free SAHA. With a biocompatible d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS functionalization, the SAHA-S-S-VE/TPGS NPs exhibited low critical aggregation concentration of 4.5 µM and outstanding stability in vitro with drug-loading capacity of 24%. In vitro biological assessment indicated that SAHA-S-S-VE/TPGS NPs had significant anticancer activity against HepG2. Further in vivo evaluation demonstrated that the resulting NPs could be accumulated in the tumor region and inhibit the tumor growth effectively. This approach, which turned SAHA into a self-assembled redox-responsive nanodrug, provided a new channel for the use of HDAC inhibitor in solid tumor therapy. Keywords: SAHA, HDAC, small molecule, nanoparticles, self-assemble, disulfide bond

  19. Low-temperature solid-state FTIR study of glycine, sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine: observation of neutral forms of simple α-amino acids in the solid state

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Fausto, R.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral forms of glycine and their N-methylated derivatives, sarcosine (N-methylglycine) and N,N-dimethylglycine were, for the first time, observed in the solid state pure compounds. The substances were sublimated under high vacuum, quickly deposited onto a cold CsI substrate at 9 K and examined using FTIR spectroscopy within the temperature range 9–300 K. For all the compounds studied, the spectra obtained at 9 K after deposition revealed the presence of both the neutral and zwitterionic ami...

  20. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S. [Academic Medical Center (AMC), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  1. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S.

    2018-01-01

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l' Observatoire de Paris et de l' Universite de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320 (United States); Chehrouri, M. [Permanent address: LEPC Universite de Saida, BP138, ENSAR, 20002 Saida (Algeria); Fillion, J.-H., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Permanent address: LPMAA, UMR 7092, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-11-20

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H{sub 2} can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H{sub 2} newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D{sub 2}, consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H{sub 2} formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H.; Vidali, G.; Chehrouri, M.; Fillion, J.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H 2 can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H 2 newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H 2 and D 2 formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D 2 , consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H 2 formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  4. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin solid films formed by nanoleafs or micron/submicron cauliflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Rocha, Jorge; Velarde-Escobar, Oscar; Yee-Rendón, Cristo; Atondo-Rubio, Gelacio; Millan-Almaraz, Roberto; Camarillo-García, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of ZnO formed by nano and microstructures with hexagonal crystal phase were successfully synthesized by using pyrolysis technique. At first glance the films resulted divided in 7 zones that were morphologically analyzed and showed the presence of three types of particles: nano-leafs, single microparticles, and particles formed by the addition of microparticles, “clusters”. The largest and therefore the main zone was formed by nanoleafs. Studies on morphology, structure and optical properties of these nanoleafs were obtained and correlated too. The knowledge acquired from these studies allowed the synthesis of nanostructured films entirely formed by nanoleafs with a width of 25 nm and a length 200 nm long regardless of the roughness of the substrate. Energy gap of 3.26 eV was invariant to changes in synthesis parameters. The studies on optical properties of nanoleafs and micro-cauliflower give an energy diagram that account for the location of the energy states introduced by native crystalline defects into the energy band gap and their radiative electronic transitions.

  5. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin solid films formed by nanoleafs or micron/submicron cauliflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo-Rocha, Jorge [Laboratorio de Síntesis de Materiales-Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas – Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, CP. 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Velarde-Escobar, Oscar; Yee-Rendón, Cristo; Atondo-Rubio, Gelacio [Laboratorio de Óptica-Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas – Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, CP. 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Millan-Almaraz, Roberto [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas – Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, CP. 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Camarillo-García, Enrique [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 20-364, Álvaro Obregón 01000, DF, México (Mexico); and others

    2017-05-15

    Thin films of ZnO formed by nano and microstructures with hexagonal crystal phase were successfully synthesized by using pyrolysis technique. At first glance the films resulted divided in 7 zones that were morphologically analyzed and showed the presence of three types of particles: nano-leafs, single microparticles, and particles formed by the addition of microparticles, “clusters”. The largest and therefore the main zone was formed by nanoleafs. Studies on morphology, structure and optical properties of these nanoleafs were obtained and correlated too. The knowledge acquired from these studies allowed the synthesis of nanostructured films entirely formed by nanoleafs with a width of 25 nm and a length 200 nm long regardless of the roughness of the substrate. Energy gap of 3.26 eV was invariant to changes in synthesis parameters. The studies on optical properties of nanoleafs and micro-cauliflower give an energy diagram that account for the location of the energy states introduced by native crystalline defects into the energy band gap and their radiative electronic transitions.

  6. Clinical X-ray characteristics of some forms of hematogenous vertebral body osteomyelitis in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Clinico-roentgenological changes in dynamics are studied in 72 children and adolescents with a limited hematogenous vertebrae body osteomyelitis. The clinico-roentgenologic examination lasted from 1 to 15 years. Such a durable examination permitted to trace the development, regularities and remote results of the disease. The increase in vertebrae body height (lengthening) which is considered a pathognomonic sign of tuberculous spondylitis is described for the first time. Unlike tuberculosis, hematogenous spondylitis brings about the body lengthening of both ajacent nonaffected and affected vertebrae in the case of their surface or limited focal injury. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  7. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  8. Simple and Inexpensive Methods Development for Determination of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride from Its Solid Dosage Forms by Visible Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghubabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive and cost effective visible spectrophotometric methods (M1 and M2 have been developed for the determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride from bulk and tablet dosage forms. The method M1 is based on the formation of green colored coordination complex by the drug with cobalt thiocyanate which is quantitatively extractable into nitro benzene with an absorption maximum of 626.4 nm. The method M2 involves internal salt formation of aconitic anhydride, dehydration product of citric acid [CIA] with acetic anhydride [Ac2O] to form colored chromogen with an absorption maximum of 561.2 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the concentration range of 10-50 µg/mL and 8-24 µg/mL for method M1 and M2 respectively. The proposed methods are applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically compared with those obtained by the reference method and validated by recovery studies. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods are applied successfully for the estimation of the venlafaxine hydrochloride in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms.

  9. Crystal Structures, Thermal Analysis, and Dissolution Behavior of New Solid Forms of the Antiviral Drug Arbidol with Dicarboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex N. Manin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salts of the antiviral drug arbidol (umifenovir (Arb with maleate (Mlc and fumarate (Fum anions have been obtained, and their crystal structures have been described. The crystal structure of arbidol maleate has been redetermined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 180K. A new arbidol cocrystal in zwitterion form with succinic acid (Suc has also been found and characterized. The arbidol zwitterion was not previously seen in any of the drug crystal forms, and the [Arb + Suc] cocrystal seems to be the first found instance. Analysis of the conformational preferences of the arbidol molecule in the crystal structures has shown that it adopts two types of conformations, namely “open” and “closed” ones. Thermal stability of the arbidol salts and cocrystal have been analyzed by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric, and mass-spectrometry analysis. The dissolution study of the arbidol salts and cocrystal performed in aqueous buffer solutions with pH 1.2 and 6.8 has shown that both the salts and the cocrystal dissolve incongruently to form an arbidol hydrochloride monohydrate at pH 1.2 and an arbidol base at pH 6.8, respectively. The cocrystal reaches the highest solubility level in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 solutions.

  10. Investigation of the uranium-molybdenum diffusion in body centered {gamma} solid solutions; Etude de la diffusion uranium-molybdene dans la solution solide {gamma} cubique centree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y; Mairy, C; Bouchet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Philibert, J [IRSID, 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1958-07-01

    The body centered {gamma} phase uranium-molybdenum intermetallic diffusion has been studied by different technical methods: micrography, electronic microanalyser, microhardness. The values of several numbers of penetration coefficients are given, and their physical significations has been discussed. The diffusion coefficients, the frequency factor and activation energies has been determined for each concentration. After determination of the Kirkendall effect in this system, we calculated the intrinsic diffusion coefficient of uranium and molybdenum. (author) [French] La dilution intermetallique uranium-molybdene, en phase {gamma} cubique centree, a ete etudiee au moyen de differentes techniques: micrographie, microsonde electronique, microdurete. Les valeurs d'un certain nombre de coefficients de penetration sont donnees et leur signification physique discutee. Les coefficients de diffusion, les facteurs de frequence et les energies d'activation ont ete determines pour chaque concentration. Apres avoir mis en evidence un effet Kirkendall dans ce systeme, on a calcule les coefficients de diffusion intrinseques de l'uranium et du molybdene. (auteur)

  11. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Rabeprazole Sodium and Itopride Hydrochloride in Solid Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, rapid and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic procedure is developed for simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in solid dosage form. The mobile phase used was a combination of acetonitrile: buffer (35:65 v/v and the pH was adjusted to 7.0 ± 0.1 by addition of triethylamine. The detection of the capsule dosage form was carried out at 266 nm and a flow rate employed was 1 mL/min. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2 to 16 μg/mL of rabeprazole sodium and 5 to 55 μg/mL of itopride hydrochloride with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992 and 0.9996 respectively. The results of the analysis were validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method.

  12. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  13. Solid state solvation effect and reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold value of glass forming DCM derivative in PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV 1063 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, 14/24 Azenes Street, Riga LV 1048 (Latvia)

    2015-02-15

    Molecule crystallization is one of the limitations for obtaining high-gain organic laser systems. One of the examples is well known red laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2 wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) matrix. Further increase of the DCM dye concentration makes the system less efficient as its threshold value increases. It is due to large intermolecular interaction, which induces photoluminescence quenching. Compounds with reduced intermolecular interaction could be prospective in organic laser systems due to higher possible doping. In this work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of modified DCM molecule in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups were attached to the donor part of DCM. These groups increase intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to the previously studied. In addition, amplified spontaneous emission maximum could be tuned within 15 nm by changing concentration from 0.1 wt% to 10 wt% DWK-1 in PMMA matrix due to solid state solvation effect. - Highlights: • Bulky groups attached to DCM dye reduce photoluminescence quenching. • Amplified spontaneous emission is in red spectral region. • Amplified spontaneous emission spectra were tuned by 15 nm. • Amplified spontaneous emission threshold value was reduced by one order of magnitude.

  14. Discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin method with optimal test functions for thin-body problems in solid mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.; Bramwell, Jamie A.; Demkowicz, Leszek F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the applicability of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework for thin-body problems in structural mechanics. Our numerical approach is based on discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces for the trial

  15. Solvable light-front model of the electromagnetic form factor of the relativistic two-body bound state in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Sawicki, M.

    1989-01-01

    Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics

  16. Solid phase epitaxy on N-type polysilicon films formed by aluminium induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuezuen, O., E-mail: Ozge.Tuzun@iness.c-strasbourg.f [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Slaoui, A.; Roques, S.; Focsa, A. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Jomard, F.; Ballutaud, D. [GEMaC-UMR 8635 CNRS, 1 place Aristide Briand, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2009-10-01

    In this work, undoped amorphous silicon layers were deposited on n-type AIC seed films and then annealed at different temperatures for epitaxial growth. The epitaxy was carried out using halogen lamps (rapid thermal process or RTP) or a tube conventional furnace (CTP). We investigated the morphology of the resulting 2 {mu}m thick epi-layers by means of optical microscopy. An average grain size of about 40 {mu}m is formed after 90 s annealing at 1000 {sup o}C in RTP. The stress and degree of crystallinity of the epi-layers were studied by micro-Raman Spectroscopy and UV-visible spectrometer as a function of annealing time. The presence of compressive stress is observed from the peak position which shifts from 520.0 cm{sup -1} to 521.0 cm{sup -1} and 522.3 cm{sup -1} after CTP annealing for 10 min and 90 min, respectively. It is shown that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) varies from 9.8 cm{sup -1} to 15.6 cm{sup -1}, and the magnitude of stress is changing from 325 MPa to 650 MPa. Finally, the highest crystallinity is achieved after annealing at 1000 {sup o}C for 90 min in a tube furnace exhibiting a crystalline fraction of 81.5%. X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the preferential orientation of the poly-Si thin films formed by SPE technique on n{sup +} type AIC layer. The preferential orientation is <100> for all annealing times at 1000 {sup o}C.

  17. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    stress increases the frequency of chromosomal lesions that are transmitted to daughter cells. Throughout G1, these lesions are sequestered in nuclear compartments marked by p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and other chromatin-associated genome caretakers. We show that the number of such 53BP1 nuclear bodies...... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...... bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these compartments against erosion. Together, these data indicate that restoration of DNA or chromatin integrity at loci prone to replication problems requires mitotic transmission to the next cell generations....

  18. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  19. Adsorption of Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies and EPM5 Water on Solid Surface: Density Functional Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2003), s. 1171-1181 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : adsorption * primitive models * pseudo-hard body Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2003

  20. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  1. An evaluation of quasi-Newton methods for application to FSI problems involving free surface flow and solid body contact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the respective outward pointing normals along Γs and Γf if the solid and fluid interfaces are non-matching, Γs 6= Γf . In this paper, the fluid operator F is solved using OpenFOAM where Calculix is used for the structural analysis. The interface load and motion... differ only on the basis of how information from multiple time steps are retained. 4 Test Problems The test problems in the sections to follow have been performed using OpenFOAM [1] for the fluid domain and Calculix [22] for the structural domain...

  2. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M.; Aza, A.H. de; Turrillas, X.; Sobrados, I.; Sanz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Partially deuterated Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) y (OH) 12-4y -Al(OH) 3 mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 (C 3 A), Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 (C 12 A 7 ) and CaAl 2 O 4 (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by 29 Si and 27 Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 and Al(OH) 3 phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of 27 Al NMR signals, the Al(OH) 3 /Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3-x (OH) 4x , was followed by 27 Al and 29 Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of 27 Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH) 6 and Al(OSi)(OH) 5 environments. The 29 Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From 29 Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl 2 O 4 -microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca 3 Al 2.0±0.2 (SiO 4 ) 0.9±0.2 (OH) 1.8 crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres

  3. Development of clinical dosage forms for a poorly water-soluble drug II: formulation and characterization of a novel solid microemulsion preconcentrate system for oral delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hynes, Sara R; Haefele, Thomas F; Pudipeddi, Madhu; Royce, Alan E; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2009-05-01

    The solution of a poorly water-soluble drug in a liquid lipid-surfactant mixture, which served as a microemulsion preconcentrate, was converted into a solid form by incorporating it in a solid polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix. The solid microemulsion preconcentrates thus formed consisted of Capmul PG8 (propylene glycol monocaprylate) as oil, Cremophor EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil) as surfactant, and hydrophilic polymer PEG 3350 as solid matrix. The drug (aqueous solubility: 0.17 microg/mL at pH 1-8 and 25 degrees C) was dissolved in a melt of the mixture at 65-70 degrees C and then the hot solution was filled into hard gelatin capsules; the liquid gradually solidified upon cooling below 55 degrees C. The solid system was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and the dispersion testing in water. It was confirmed that a solid microemulsion preconcentrate is a two-phase system, where clusters of crystalline PEG 3350 formed the solid structure (m.p. 55-60 degrees C) and the liquid microemulsion preconcentrate dispersed in between PEG 3350 crystals as a separate phase. The drug remained dissolved in the liquid phase. In vitro release testing showed that the preconcentrate dispersed readily in water forming a microemulsion with the drug dissolved in the oil particles (PEG 3350 did not interfere with the process of self-microemulsification.

  4. Properties of solid electrolyte interphase formed by prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone on graphite anode of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Benzhen; Liu, Yanlin; Yang, Liang; Li, Weishan; Hu, Shejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • SEI formed by PES on NG was characterized with charge/discharge test, SEM, FTIR, and XPS. • NG in PC-based electrolyte can be well protected using PES. • Sulfur-containing species is the main component of the SEI formed by PES. • Preferable reduction of PES results in the formation of protective SEI on NG. -- Abstract: The physical and chemical properties of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed by prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) on graphite anode in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte for lithium ion battery were investigated by charge–discharge test, scanning electron spectroscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the charge–discharge performance of the cell LiCoO 2 /natural graphite (NG) using PC-based electrolyte containing 3 wt% PES is superior to that containing 6 wt% propane sultone (PS), an SEI formation additive that has the similar molecular structure to PES but is reduced not as easily as PES. The results from SEM–EDS, FTIR and XPS show that the structure of graphite has been protected and some S-containing species are proven to be components of the SEI, suggesting that the preferable reduction of PES plays an important role in the formation of a protective SEI on NG

  5. Pasteurization as a tool to control the bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms: A pilot study of formulating Ashoka tablets with an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, Hulikal Basavarajaiah; Pramod, Kumar; Sundaram, Ramachandran; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation and use of preservatives are routine procedures to control bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms. Use of steam or pasteurization is even though reported in the literature, not many studies are available with respect to its application in reducing the bio-burden in herbal drug formulations. Hence, we undertook a series of studies to explore the suitability of pasteurization as a method to reduce bio-burden during formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, which will pave the way for preparing preservative-free formulations. Optimized Ashoka (Saraca indica) tablets were formulated and developed. The optimized formula was then subjected to pasteurization during formulation, with an aim to keep the microbial count well within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards. Then, three variants of the optimized Ashoka formulation - with preservative, without preservative and formulation without preservative and subjected to pasteurization, were compared by routine in-process parameters and stability studies. The results obtained indicate that Ashoka tablets manufactured by inclusion of the pasteurization technique not only showed the bio-burden to be within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards, but also exhibited the compliance with other parameters, such as stability and quality. The outcome of this pilot study shows that pasteurization can be employed as a distinctive method for reducing bio-burden during the formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, such as tablets.

  6. [Clinical aspect of recent progress in phosphate metabolism. Distribution of phosphorus and its physiological roles in the body: the form, distribution, and physiological function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2009-06-01

    Phosphorus plays pivotal roles in the survival such as the cellular structure, genomic information, energy metabolism, and cell signaling. Total amount of phosphorus is 500-700 g in human, most of which is stored in the bone in an insoluble form of calcium salt. About 15% of phosphorus is located in the cell membrane and the intracellular fluid in the soft tissues in a form of organic phosphate. Only 0.1% is present in the extracellular fluid. This phosphate pool plays a role in the dynamic equilibrium through the gut, kidney, bone and other tissues. Most of inorganic phosphates in the extracellular fluid are present in a form of ions such as H2PO4- and HPO(4)2-, and the concentration of phosphatic acids is about 1.2 mM. The form, distribution, and physiological function of phosphorus in the body are summarized in this review.

  7. Effect of Cultural Themes on Forming Cotard’s Syndrome: Reporting a Case of Cotard’s Syndrome with Depersonalization and Out of Body Experience Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Nejad, Alireza; Mehdizadeh Zare Anari, Ali; Pouya, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cotard’s syndrome is a rare psychiatric syndrome. Its core symptom is nihilistic ideation or delusion. Case Report: A female patient with Cotard’s syndrome symptoms associated with out of body experience and depersonalization, and complicated grief was referred for evaluation. She believed that she was killed by a creature named "Aal" in the Persian folklore Conclusions: Cultural and superstitious beliefs could affect the forming of the complex constellation of the patient’s sympto...

  8. On the mechanical stability of the body-centered cubic phase and the emergence of a metastable cI16 phase in classical hard sphere solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim B.; Ford, David M.; Monson, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid phase of classical hard spheres is of intrinsic interest and is also relevant to the development of perturbation theories for bcc solids of other model systems. Using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo, we simulated systems initialized in a perfect bcc lattice at various densities in the solid region. We observed that the systems rapidly evolved into one of four structures that then persisted for the duration of the simulation. Remarkably, one of these structures was identified as cI16, a cubic crystalline structure with 16 particles in the unit cell, which has recently been observed experimentally in lithium and sodium solids at high pressures. The other three structures do not exhibit crystalline order but are characterized by common patterns in the radial distribution function and bond-orientational order parameter distribution; we refer to them as bcc-di, with i ranging from 1 to 3. We found similar outcomes when employing any of the three single occupancy cell (SOC) restrictions commonly used in the literature. We also ran long constant-pressure simulations with box shape fluctuations initiated from bcc and cI16 initial configurations. At lower pressures, all the systems evolved to defective face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. At higher pressures, most of the systems initiated as bcc evolved to cI16 with some evolving to defective fcc/hcp. High pressure systems initiated from cI16 remained in that structure. We computed the chemical potential of cI16 using the Einstein crystal reference method and found that it is higher than that of fcc by ˜0.5kT-2.5kT over the pressure range studied, with the difference increasing with pressure. We find that the undistorted bcc solid, even with constant-volume and SOC restrictions applied, is so mechanically unstable that it is unsuitable for consideration as a metastable phase or as a reference system for studying bcc phases of other systems

  9. Improved process for contacting finely divided solid particles with gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-07-30

    A process of contacting solids and gases of the type in which finely divided solids are maintained in a dense fluidized state in a treating zone by means of an upflowing gaseous fluidizing medium wherein solid packing in the form of a body static contiguous elements is maintained in the treating zone. The size, shape, and arrangement of the elements constituting the packing being such as to define a labyrinth of passageways in which the finely divided solids are maintained in a fluidized state, and the finely divided solids are adapted to flow freely downwardly through the passageways in the absence of a gaseous fluidizing medium.

  10. In Situ Lipolysis and Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for the Direct Determination of the Precipitation and Solid-State Form of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug During Digestion of a Lipid-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Hawley, Adrian; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In situ lipolysis and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to directly detect and elucidate the solid-state form of precipitated fenofibrate from the digestion of a model lipid-based formulation (LBF). This method was developed in light of recent findings that indicate variab...... on drugs, and experimental conditions, which are anticipated to produce altered solid-state forms upon the precipitation of drug (i.e., polymorphs, amorphous forms, and salts). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci....

  11. Volumetric response classification in metastatic solid tumors on MSCT: Initial results in a whole-body setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, A.M.; Fabel, M.; Freitag-Wolf, S.; Tepper, M.; Knabe, H.M.; Schäfer, J.P.; Jansen, O.; Bolte, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future

  12. Volumetric response classification in metastatic solid tumors on MSCT: Initial results in a whole-body setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, A.M., E-mail: a.wulff@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Fabel, M. [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Freitag-Wolf, S., E-mail: freitag@medinfo.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Medizinische Informatik und Statistik, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Tepper, M., E-mail: m.tepper@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Knabe, H.M., E-mail: h.knabe@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Schäfer, J.P., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Jansen, O., E-mail: o.jansen@neurorad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Bolte, H., E-mail: hendrik.bolte@ukmuenster.de [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future.

  13. 论张洁小说女性三种形态的身体%On the Three Forms of Female Body in Zhang Jie’s Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓娟; 邱慧婷

    2016-01-01

    Zhang Jie,the only female writer having been twice awarded the Mao Dun Literature Awards, has been focusing on the destiny of female character and broadening the way of portraying females. Different forms of female body presented in her novel represented her reflection on female destiny and patriarchal culture in different dimensions.Her exploring,constructing and pursuing of the ideal female personality can be found in her analysis of different forms of female body such as the feminized body,the suffering body and the masculinized body,which can also be contributed to the understanding of Zhang Jie’s literary world and her reflections on the harmony between the sexes.%张洁是中国文坛唯一两次获得“茅盾文学奖”的女作家,一直致力于女性命运的关照和女性写作视野的开拓。她小说中的女性呈现出不同的身体形态,代表着作者对女性命运和男权文化不同维度的思考。通过雌化的身体、承受的身体和雄化的身体等不同形态身体的探析,可以发现张洁对理想女性人格积极探寻和建构追求的过程,有助于深入认知张洁的文学世界及其对两性和谐的思考。

  14. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  15. Hydrothermal calcium modification of 316L stainless steel and its apatite forming ability in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanezahad, Alireza; Ishikawa, Kunio; Tsuru, Kanji; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    To understand the feasibility of calcium (Ca) modification of type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) surface using hydrothermal treatment, 316L SS plates were treated hydrothermally in calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the surface of 316L SS plate was modified with Ca after hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. And the immobilized Ca increased with CaCl(2) concentration. However no Ca-modification was occurred for 316L SS plates treated at 100°C. When Ca-modified 316L SS plate was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma, low crystalline apatite was precipitated on its surface whereas no precipitate was observed on non Ca-modified 316L SS. The results obtained in the present study indicated that hydrothermal treatment at 200°C in CaCl(2) solution is useful for Ca-modification of 316L SS, and Ca-modification plays important role for apatite precipitation in SBF.

  16. Discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin method with optimal test functions for thin-body problems in solid mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.

    2011-02-01

    We study the applicability of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework for thin-body problems in structural mechanics. Our numerical approach is based on discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces for the trial functions and approximate, local computation of the corresponding \\'optimal\\' test functions. In the Timoshenko beam problem, the proposed method is shown to provide the best approximation in an energy-type norm which is equivalent to the L2-norm for all the unknowns, uniformly with respect to the thickness parameter. The same formulation remains valid also for the asymptotic Euler-Bernoulli solution. As another one-dimensional model problem we consider the modelling of the so called basic edge effect in shell deformations. In particular, we derive a special norm for the test space which leads to a robust method in terms of the shell thickness. Finally, we demonstrate how a posteriori error estimator arising directly from the discontinuous variational framework can be utilized to generate an optimal hp-mesh for resolving the boundary layer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  18. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  19. The ATRX syndrome protein forms a chromatin-remodeling complex with Daxx and localizes in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yutong; Gibbons, Richard; Yan, Zhijiang; Yang, Dafeng; McDowell, Tarra L; Sechi, Salvatore; Qin, Jun; Zhou, Sharleen; Higgs, Doug; Wang, Weidong

    2003-09-16

    ATRX syndrome is characterized by X-linked mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia. The gene mutated in this disease, ATRX, encodes a plant homeodomain-like finger and a SWI2/SNF2-like ATPase motif, both of which are often found in chromatin-remodeling enzymes, but ATRX has not been characterized biochemically. By immunoprecipitation from HeLa extract, we found that ATRX is in a complex with transcription cofactor Daxx. The following evidence supports that ATRX and Daxx are components of an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex: (i) Daxx and ATRX can be coimmunoisolated by antibodies specific for each protein; (ii) a proportion of Daxx cofractionates with ATRX as a complex of 1 MDa by gel-filtration analysis; (iii) in extract from cells of a patient with ATRX syndrome, the level of the Daxx-ATRX complex is correspondingly reduced; (iv) a proportion of ATRX and Daxx colocalize in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, with which Daxx had previously been located; and (v) the ATRX complex displays ATP-dependent activities that resemble those of other chromatin-remodeling complexes, including triple-helix DNA displacement and alteration of mononucleosome disruption patterns. But unlike the previously described SWI/SNF or NURD complexes, the ATRX complex does not randomize DNA phasing of the mononucleosomes, suggesting that it may remodel chromatin differently. Taken together, the results suggest that ATRX functions in conjunction with Daxx in a novel chromatin-remodeling complex. The defects in ATRX syndrome may result from inappropriate expression of genes controlled by this complex.

  20. Hydrothermally formed three-dimensional hexagon-like P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays for high performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunzhen; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three dimensional hexagon-like phosphrous (P) doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays grown on Ni foam (NF) are fabricated by a facile and green one-step hydrothermal process. Ni foam is only reacted in a certain concentration of P containing H2O2 aqueous solution. The possible growth mechanism of the P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays is discussed. As a battery-type electrode material in situ formed on Ni foam, the binder-free P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays electrode displays a ultrahigh specific areal capacitance of 2.11C cm-2 (3.51 F cm-2) at 2 mA cm-2, and excellent cycling stability (95.5% capacitance retention after 7500 cycles). The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AAS) based on such P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode achieves an energy density of 81.3 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 635 W kg-1. The AAS device also exhibits excellent practical performance, which can easily drive an electric fan (3 W rated power) when two AAS devices are assembled in series. Thus, our synthesized P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays has a lot of potential applications in future energy storage prospects.

  1. Micro-scale prediction method for API-solubility in polymeric matrices and process model for forming amorphous solid dispersion by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Esther S; Neumann, Dirk; Gryczke, Andreas; Wagner, Karl G

    2016-10-01

    A new predictive micro-scale solubility and process model for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) by hot-melt extrusion (HME) is presented. It is based on DSC measurements consisting of an annealing step and a subsequent analysis of the glass transition temperature (Tg). The application of a complex mathematical model (BCKV-equation) to describe the dependency of Tg on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)/polymer ratio, enables the prediction of API solubility at ambient conditions (25°C). Furthermore, estimation of the minimal processing temperature for forming ASDs during HME trials could be defined and was additionally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction data. The suitability of the DSC method was confirmed with melt rheological trials (small amplitude oscillatory system). As an example, ball milled physical mixtures of dipyridamole, indomethacin, itraconazole and nifedipine in poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinylacetate) (copovidone) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) were used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C–S–H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 °C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C–S–H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO) 0.99 –SiO 2 –(Al 2 O 3 ) 0.06 –(H 2 O) 0.97 , d = (2.73 ± 0.02) g/cm 3 ) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 ± 1.5) cm 3 of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  3. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The solid-state structures of organic salts formed by calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with nucleic bases cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium

    KAUST Repository

    Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2018-02-19

    Calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid has been demonstrated to possess an interesting range of biological properties, including atypical anti-cancer activity. The robustness of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid and its ubiquitous dimeric motif offers perspectives for pre-defined solid state complexation with small molecules. In the current article we describe co-crystals (organic salts) of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with four nucleic base cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium. A number of characteristic interactions between the components in the four co-crystals are pointed out also using the Hirshfeld surface analysis. All the four co-crystals are based on layers of calix[4]arene dimers, alternating with layers of nucleic acid molecules. Two of the reported crystal structures (cytosinium and guaninium) are 1D channel-type structures, while the two others (adeninium and uracilium) represent 2D channel-type structures. In three out of four reported structures, interactions between the cations of nucleic bases are present generating 1D chains of cations. A constant motif is that the nucleic base is present in a type of cavity formed by one aromatic ring and a phosphonic acid moiety.

  5. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  6. Development and Characterization of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Furosemide in the Form of a Sublingual Bioadhesive Film to Enhance Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Viviana; Ajovalasit, Alessia; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Murgia, Denise; Sabatino, Maria Antonietta; Dispenza, Clelia

    2017-06-24

    Administered by an oral route, Furosemide (FUR), a diuretic used in several edematous states and hypertension, presents bioavailability problems, reported as a consequence of an erratic gastrointestinal absorption due to various existing polymorphic forms and low and pH-dependent solubility. A mucoadhesive sublingual fast-dissolving FUR based film has been developed and evaluated in order to optimize the bioavailability of FUR by increasing solubility and guaranteeing a good dissolution reproducibility. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses confirmed that the film prepared using the solvent casting method entrapped FUR in the amorphous state. As a solid dispersion, FUR increases its solubility up to 28.36 mg/mL. Drug content, thickness, and weight uniformity of film were also evaluated. The measured Young's Modulus, yield strength, and relative elongation of break percentage (EB%) allowed for the classification of the drug-loaded film as an elastomer. Mucoadhesive strength tests showed that the force to detach film from mucosa grew exponentially with increasing contact time up to 7667 N/m². FUR was quickly discharged from the film following a trend well fitted with the Weibull kinetic model. When applied on sublingual mucosa, the new formulation produced a massive drug flux in the systemic compartment. Overall, the proposed sublingual film enhances drug solubility and absorption, allowing for the prediction of a rapid onset of action and reproducible bioavailability in its clinical application.

  7. Proton Environments in Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates Formed from Mesoporous Bioactive CaO-SiO2-P2O5 Glasses in Vitro: Insights from Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Renny; Turdean-Ionescu, Claudia; Yu, Yang; Stevensson, Baltzar; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; García, Ana; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María; Edén, Mattias

    2017-06-22

    When exposed to body fluids, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 system develop a bone-bonding surface layer that initially consists of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which transforms into hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA) with a very similar composition as bone/dentin mineral. Information from various 1 H-based solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments was combined to elucidate the evolution of the proton speciations both at the MBG surface and within each ACP/HCA constituent of the biomimetic phosphate layer formed when each of three MBGs with distinct Ca, Si, and P contents was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for variable periods between 15 min and 30 days. Directly excited magic-angle-spinning (MAS) 1 H NMR spectra mainly reflect the MBG component, whose surface is rich in water and silanol (SiOH) moieties. Double-quantum-single-quantum correlation 1 H NMR experimentation at fast MAS revealed their interatomic proximities. The comparatively minor H species of each ACP and HCA component were probed selectively by heteronuclear 1 H- 31 P NMR experimentation. The initially prevailing ACP phase comprises H 2 O and "nonapatitic" HPO 4 2- /PO 4 3- groups, whereas for prolonged MBG soaking over days, a well-progressed ACP → HCA transformation was evidenced by a dominating O 1 H resonance from HCA. We show that 1 H-detected 1 H → 31 P cross-polarization NMR is markedly more sensitive than utilizing powder X-ray diffraction or 31 P NMR for detecting the onset of HCA formation, notably so for P-bearing (M)BGs. In relation to the long-standing controversy as to whether bone mineral comprises ACP and/or forms via an ACP precursor, we discuss a recently accepted structural core-shell picture of both synthetic and biological HCA, highlighting the close relationship between the disordered surface layer and ACP.

  8. Development of a morphology-based modeling technique for tracking solid-body displacements: examining the reliability of a potential MRI-only approach for joint kinematics assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, Niladri K.; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T 1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T 1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4

  9. Development of a morphology-based modeling technique for tracking solid-body displacements: examining the reliability of a potential MRI-only approach for joint kinematics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian

    2016-05-18

    Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4

  10. Effect of solid fission products forming dissolved oxide(Nd) and metallic precipitate(Ru) on the thermophysical properties of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joo

    2006-02-01

    This study experimentally investigated the effect of solid fission products on the thermophysical properties of the mixed oxide fuel and evaluated them on the basis of the analytical theory. Neodymium and ruthenium were selected for the experiments to represent the physical states of the solid fission product as a 'dissolved oxide' and 'metallic precipitate', respectively. The state of the additives, crystal structures, lattice parameters, and theoretical densities were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal diffusivities and thermal expansion rates were measured with laser flash method and dilatometry, respectively. The thermal expansion data were then fitted to obtain an correlation equation of the density variation as a function of the temperature. The specific heat capacity values were determined using the Neumann-Kopp's rule. The thermal expansion of the 'Nd.added' sample linearly increased with the concentration of the neodymium, which is primarily due to the fact that the melting point of Nd 2 O 3 is lower than that of UO 2 . On the other hand, the thermal expansion of the 'Ru.added' sample hardly changed with increasing ruthenium content. Thermal conductivities of the simulated MOX fuel were determined on the basis of the thermal diffusivities, density variation, and specific heat values measured in this study. The effect of additives on the thermal conductivity of the samples was quantified in the form of the thermal resistance equation, the reciprocal of the phonon conduction equation, which was determined from measured data. For 'dissolved oxide' sample in the UO 2 matrix, the effect is mainly attributed to the increase of lattice point defects caused by U 4+ , Ce 4+ , Nd 3+ and O 2- ions, which play the role of phonon scattering centers, that is, mean free path of phonon scattering decreases with the point defects, thus increase the thermal resistance. Also, the mass difference between the host (U) and the substituted atom (Ce and/or Nd) can

  11. In-vitro release and permeation studies of ketoconazole from optimized dermatological vehicles using powder, nanoparticles and solid dispersion forms of drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Irfan A.

    To optimize the clinical efficacy of Ketoconazole from an externally applied product, this project was undertaken to evaluate the drug release/permeation profile from various dermatological vehicles using regular powder, nanoparticles and solid dispersion forms with reduced level of drug. Nanoparticles of drug were prepared by wet media milling method using Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-10K) as a stabilizer. The nanoparticles were in the size range of 250-300nm. Solid dispersion was prepared by solvent evaporation method using drug to PVP-10K at a weight ratio of (1:2). Formulations containing 1% w/w drug were developed using HPMC gel, Carbomer gel and a cationic cream as the vehicles. Penetration enhancers including propylene glycol (PG), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) at various levels were evaluated. A commercial 2% w/w ketoconazole product was included as a control for comparison. Studies were carried out with Franz Diffusion Cells using cellulose membrane and human cadaver skin for two and six hour studies. Among the formulations evaluated, the general rank order of the drug release through the cellulose membrane was observed to be: HPMC gel base > Anionic gel base > Cationic gel base > Commercial product. The addition of penetration enhancers showed variable effects in all samples evaluated. However, the HPMC gel-based vehicle showed significant effect in enhancing the drug release in the presence of DMSO. The formulation containing 1% w/w ketoconazole and 20% w/w DMSO gave a maximum drug release of 20.21% when compared to only 1.60% from the commercial product. This represents a twelve fold increase in the release of ketoconazole from the formulation. Furthermore, when the optimum gel-based formulation containing 1% w/w ketoconazole was studied over an extended period of 6 hours, it gave 36.01% drug release from the sample formulation compared to only 2.00% from the commercial product. Finally, this formulation was selected to

  12. N-MOSFETs Formed on Solid Phase Epitaxially Grown GeSn Film with Passivation by Oxygen Plasma Featuring High Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yung-Chin; Chen, Kuen-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Heng; Su, Chang-Chia; Wu, Yung-Hsien

    2015-12-09

    Solid phase epitaxially grown GeSn was employed as the platform to assess the eligibility of direct O2 plasma treatment on GeSn surface for passivation of GeSn N-MOSFETs. It has been confirmed that O2 plasma treatment forms a GeSnO(x) film on the surface and the GeSnO(x) topped by in situ Al2O3 constitutes the gate stack of GeSn MOS devices. The capability of the surface passivation was evidenced by the low interface trap density (D(it)) of 1.62 × 10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1), which is primarily due to the formation of Ge-O and Sn-O bonds at the surface by high density/reactivity oxygen radicals that effectively suppress dangling bonds and decrease gap states. The good D(it) not only makes tiny frequency dispersion in the characterization of GeSn MOS capacitors, but results in GeSn N-MOSFETs with outstanding peak electron mobility as high as 518 cm(2)/(V s) which outperforms other devices reported in the literature due to reduced undesirable carrier scattering. In addition, the GeSn N-MOSFETs also exhibit promising characteristics in terms of acceptable subthreshold swing of 156 mV/dec and relatively large I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio more than 4 orders. Moreover, the robust reliability in terms small V(t) variation against high field stress attests the feasibility of using the O2 plasma-treated passivation to advanced GeSn technology.

  13. Fractionation analysis of oxyanion-forming metals and metalloids in leachates of cement-based materials using ion exchange solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Wibetoe, Grethe; Engelsen, Christian J; Lund, Walter

    2009-05-15

    A simple and versatile solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed to determine the anionic species of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in leachates of cement mortar and concrete materials in the pH range 3-13. The anionic fractions of these elements were extracted using a strong anion exchanger (SAX) and their concentrations were determined as the difference in element concentration between the sample and the SAX effluent. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used off-line to analyse solutions before and after passing through the SAX. The extraction method has been developed by optimizing sorbent type, sorbent conditioning and sample percolation rate. Breakthrough volumes and effect of matrix constituents were also studied. It was found that a polymer-based SAX conditioned with a buffer close to the sample pH or in some cases deionised water gave the best retention of the analytes. Optimal conditions were also determined for the quantitative elution of analytes retained on the SAX. Extraction of the cement mortar and concrete leachates showed that most of the elements had similar distribution of anions in both leachate types, and that the distribution was strongly pH dependent. Cr, Mo and V exist in anionic forms in strongly basic leachates (pH>12), and significant fractions of anionic Se were also detected in these solutions. Cr, Mo, Se and V were not determined as anions by the present method in the leachates of pH<12. Anionic As and Sb were found in small fractions in most of the leachates.

  14. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  15. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree–Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the “dimerized” low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature

  16. Trabalho, corpo e subjetividade: toyotismo e formas de precariedade no capitalismo global Labor, body and subjectivity: toyotism and forms of precarization in global capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Alves

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos trinta anos de desenvolvimento capitalista, ocorreram transformações significativas nas diversas instâncias do ser social, com destaque para o mundo do trabalho e da reprodução social. Desenvolve-se o toyotismo, ideologia orgânica da nova produção capitalista, 'momento predominante' da reestruturação produtiva do capital. Sob o toyotismo, tende a constituir-se, pelo menos como 'promessa frustrada' do capital, o que iremos denominar 'compressão psicocorporal'. Esta constitui-se como um elemento da nova disposição sócio-subjetiva instaurada pelo toyotismo que caracteriza uma nova experiência do corpo, tanto no processo de trabalho quanto no processo sócio-reprodutivo.Many significant transformations in various instances of the social being took place over the past thirty years of capitalist development, especially in the sphere of labor and of social reproduction. That is the period when toyotism, the organic ideology of the new form of capitalist production and the most important moment in the productive reorganization of capitalism, was developed. Under the ideology of toyotism, something we will name 'mind-body compression' tends to take place (at least as capitalism's 'unkept promise'. This is a new element of the social and subjective arrangement instituted by toyotism that characterizes a new way of experiencing the body both in labor and social reproduction processes.

  17. Ufmylation and FATylation pathways are downregulated in human alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and mice fed DDC, where Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Li, J; Tillman, B; French, B A; French, S W

    2014-08-01

    We previously reported the mechanisms involved in the formation of Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) in mice fed DDC. To further provide clinical evidence as to how ubiquitin-like protein (Ubls) modification, gene transcript expression in Ufmylation and FATylation were investigated in human archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies and frozen liver sections from DDC re-fed mice were used. Real-time PCR analysis showed that all Ufmylation molecules (Ufm1, Uba5, Ufc1, Ufl1 and UfSPs) were significantly downregulated, both in DDC re-fed mice livers and patients' livers where MDBs had formed, indicating that gene transcript changes were limited to MDB-forming livers where the protein quality control system was downregulated. FAT10 and subunits of the immunoproteasome (LMP2 and LMP7) were both upregulated as previously shown. An approximate 176- and 5-fold upregulation (respectively) of FAT10 was observed in the DDC re-fed mice liver and in the livers of human alcoholic hepatitis with MDBs present, implying that there was an important role played by this gene. The FAT10-specific E1 and E2 enzymes Uba6 and USE1, however, were found to be downregulated both in patients' livers and in the liver of DDC re-fed mice. Interestedly, the downregulation of mRNA levels was proportionate to MDB abundance in the liver tissues. Our results show the first systematic demonstration of transcript regulation of Ufmylation and FATylation in the liver of patients who form MDBs, where protein quality control is downregulated. This was also shown in the livers of DDC re-fed mice where MDBs had formed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralization of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is initiated segmentally in the form of hydroxyapatite crystal accretions in the notochord sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou; Kryvi, Harald; Grotmol, Sindre; Wargelius, Anna; Krossøy, Christel; Epple, Mattias; Neues, Frank; Furmanek, Tomasz; Totland, Geir K

    2013-08-01

    We performed a sequential morphological and molecular biological study of the development of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Mineralization starts in separate bony elements which fuse to form complete segmental rings within the notochord sheath. The nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in both the lamellar type II collagen matrix of the notochord sheath and the lamellar type I collagen matrix derived from the sclerotome, were highly similar. In both matrices the hydroxyapatite crystals nucleate and accrete on the surface of the collagen fibrils rather than inside the fibrils, a process that may be controlled by a template imposed by the collagen fibrils. Apatite crystal growth starts with the formation of small plate-like structures, about 5 nm thick, that gradually grow and aggregate to form extensive multi-branched crystal arborizations, resembling dendritic growth. The hydroxyapatite crystals are always oriented parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibrils, and the lamellar collagen matrices provide oriented support for crystal growth. We demonstrate here for the first time by means of synchroton radiation based on X-ray diffraction that the chordacentra contain hydroxyapatite. We employed quantitative real-time PCR to study the expression of key signalling molecule transcripts expressed in the cellular core of the notochord. The results indicate that the notochord not only produces and maintains the notochord sheath but also expresses factors known to regulate skeletogenesis: sonic hedgehog (shh), indian hedgehog homolog b (ihhb), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (pth1r) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (tgfb1). In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the process of vertebral body development in teleost fishes, which is initially orchestrated by the notochord. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  19. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  20. Planar half-cell shaped precursor body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a half-cell shaped precursor body of either anode type or cathode type, the half-cell shaped precursor body being prepared to be free sintered to form a sintered or pre-sintered half-cell being adapted to be stacked in a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The obtained half......-cell has an improved planar shape, which remains planar also after a sintering process and during temperature fluctuations....

  1. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagim Andrew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days; or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d doses of CrM (KA-H. Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03 after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L −7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1

  2. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Sanchez, Adam; Galvan, Elfego; Fluckey, James; Riechman, Steven; Greenwood, Michael; Kelly, Katherine; Meininger, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Christopher; Kreider, Richard B

    2012-09-13

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer's recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L -7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1 ± 23.2; CrM 11.3 ± 23.9, 22.3 ± 21

  3. An Explicit Formulation of Singularity-Free Dynamic Equations of Mechanical Systems in Lagrangian Form---Part one: Single Rigid Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Johan From

    2012-04-01

    differential geometry to implement the dynamic equations of rigid bodies without the presence of singularities. Presenting the explicit dynamic equations also allows for more insight into the dynamic structure of the system. Another motivation is to correct some errors commonly found in the literature. Unfortunately, the formulation of the Boltzmann-Hamel equations used here are presented incorrectly. This has been corrected by the authors, but we present here, for the first time, the detailed mathematical details on how to arrive at the correct equations. We also show through examples that using the equations presented here, the dynamics of a single rigid body is reduced to the standard equations on a Lagrangian form, for example Euler's equations for rotational motion and Euler--Lagrange equations for free motion.

  4. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  5. Crystallographic relations between face- and body-centred cubic crystals formed under near-equilibrium conditions: Observations from the Gibeon meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youliang; Godet, Stephane; Jacques, Pascal J.; Jonas, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The orientations of the kamacite lamellae formed from a single prior-taenite grain were measured by analysing the electron backscatter diffraction patterns obtained using scanning electron microscopy. These are shown to be close to the Kurdjumov-Sachs and Nishiyama-Wassermann relations and their intermediate, i.e., the Greninger-Troiano relation. The orientations of the α grains in the plessite regions were also measured and these were found to be continuously distributed around the Bain circles formed by the variants of the common correspondence relationships, including the Pitsch one in this case. The local misorientations between individual face- and body-centred cubic crystals along their common interfaces were measured. These can be characterized by the orientation relationships mentioned above as long as a certain amount of tolerance is allowed. Orientation variations within individual kamacite lamellae were also analysed. The crystallographic data support the view that somewhat different mechanisms are involved in the formation of Widmanstaetten structures and of the plessite in meteorites

  6. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  7. Mechanical behaviour of substitutional body centered cubic Fe-Ti solid solutions at temperatures between 77 and 900 K; Plasticite des solutions solides cubiques centrees substitutionnelles fer-titane aux temperatures comprises entre 77 et 900 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubots, Patrick

    1976-05-11

    Plastic behavior of body-centered cubic, interstitial free, Fe-Ti substitutional solid solutions has been characterised. We obtained the following results: at temperatures below 500 K, the thermal component τ* of the critical resolved shear stress τ greatly increases. Solute additions (c >0.12 wt pc) results in: softening at temperatures below 200 K, hardening at temperatures between 200 and 500 K. Results are discussed on Peierls mechanism. At temperatures below 200 K, screw dislocation motion is controlled.by the nucleation of dislocation pairs over the Peierls'hill. Substitutional solute favoring this process gives account of the softening. At temperatures above 200 K, edge dislocation motion controls the strain. The observed hardening is explained by the interaction occurring between edge-dislocations and foreign atoms. At temperatures between 500 and 800 K, a Portevin-Le Chatelier effect is observed. This effect is characterised by two types of serrations. The activation energy of the PLC effect has been determined (E = 1,4 eV). The origin of this phenomenon is the diffusion of solute towards dislocation by a vacancy-mechanism. Two maxima have been observed on the (σ{sub ε} - T) curves. These are due to superposition of overstraining (hardening) and creation of dislocations (softening). The athermal component τ{sub μ} is increased by titanium additions. This hardening has been explained by modulus and size effects. (author) [French] La caracterisation des mecanismes controlant la deformation plastique des solutions solides cubiques centrees substitutionnelles fer-titane, libres d'interstitiels pour les teneurs en solute superieures a 0,12pc pds, a donne les resultats suivants: aux temperatures inferieures a 500 K, la composante thermique τ* de la contrainte critique de cisaillement resolue τ augmente fortement. L'introduction du solute se traduit (pour c>0,12 pc pds): par un adoucissement pour θ < 200 K; par un durcissement pour 200 K< θ < 500 K. Le

  8. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  9. Investigation of a Spinel-forming Cu-Mn Foam as an Oxygen Electrode Contact Material in a Solid Oxide Cell Single Repeating Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Wulff, Anders Christian; Sun, Xiufu

    2017-01-01

    A critical issue in state-of-the-art solid oxide cell stacks is the contacting of the oxygen electrode. The commonly used ceramic contact layers are applied in a green state and cannot be sintered properly, due to compliance limitations arising from other stack components like sealing glasses...

  10. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  11. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area,. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T

    2003-01-01

    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  14. Sulfur- and nitrogen-containing phenol-formaldehyde co-resites for probing the thermal behaviour of heteroatomic forms in solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.; Sirkecioglu, O.; Andresen, J.M.; Brown, S.D.; Hall, P.J.; Snape, C.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1996-09-01

    In order to probe the formation of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing gases during the pyrolysis and combustion of coals and other solid fuels, non-softening model substrates are required. In this respect phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins are ideal since they readily facilitate the incorporation of individual heteroatomic functions into a highly crosslinked matrix. A series of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing co-resites were prepared using phenol with, as the second component, thiophene, dibenzothiophene, diphenylsulfide, benzyl phenyl sulfide, thioanisole, 8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-hydroxycarbazole. A mole ratio of 3:1 (phenol: heteroatom-containing component) was used. Resoles containing diphenyldisulfide were also prepared but, due to the comparable bond strengths of the S-S and C-O linkages, a curing temperature of only 130{degree}C was used to avoid cleavage of the disulfide bond. The virtually complete elimination of ether and methylol functions from the resoles by curing at 200{degree}C was monitored by solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resultant resites were also characterized by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Simple air oxidation was found to selectively convert the aliphatic-bound sulfur to a mixture of sulfones and sulfoxides. Applications of the resites in fuel science are described.

  15. Preparation of tazheranite powders by solid phase reaction and conductivity of sintered bodies. Kosoho ni yoru tazheranite no funmatsu gosei to dodensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, H; Kobayashi, H; Mitamura, T [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Enginering; Mori, T; Yamamura, H [Tosoh Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    Single phase powder of Ca0.2Zr(0.8-x)TixOy was synthesized by replacing a part of ZrO2 in tazheranite which belongs to cubic crystal mineral of 3 constituents of CaO/ZrO2/ TiO2 with TiO2 to study the conductivity. Predetermined powder amounts of CaCO3, ZrO2 and TiO2 were respectively weighed and mixed with wet condition, the carbonate was decomposed at 1,000 centigrade, and after mixed again with wet condition, the mixture was dried and calcined again at 1,200 to 1,300 centigrade for 2 to 20 hours to get the powder. This powder was crushed and classified to make molded items by uniaxial pressing and the items were fired at 1,400 to 1,600 centigrade for 1 to 10 hours. The conductivity of sintered bodies was measured by the complex impedance method. The following results could be obtained: The targeted powder could be synthesized at the composition range of x=0.04 to 0.10 and the apparent x of single phase area was widened to 0.15 at the firing temperature of 1,500 centigrade. The activation energies of the conductivity of sintered items were 120 to 130kJ/mol, indicating that the electric conductivity was dominated by the ion conduction and was not affected by TiO2 amount, and the formed phase. The grain resistance increased and the grain boundary resistance decreased with the increase of TiO2 amount. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Method of manufacturing a thermally insulating body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.

    1988-10-11

    A method of manufacturing a microporous thermally insulating body comprises mixing together a finely divided microporous insulating material such as silica aerogel or pyrogenic silica and a solid ammonia-generating compound in particulate form, and compressing the mixture to form a thermally insulating body. The ammonia-generating compound is dispersed evenly throughout the insulating material and may comprise, for example, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate or urea. Preferably, the ammonia-generating compound comprises a mixture of about one third by weight of ammonium carbonate and about two thirds by weight of ammonium bicarbonate together with a small proportion of magnesium oxide. Experiments are described which illustrate the manufacturing process. 6 tabs.

  18. Direct modification of hydrogen/deuterium-terminated diamond particles with polymers to form reversed and strong cation exchange solid phase extraction sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jensen, David S; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-12-03

    We describe direct polymer attachment to hydrogen and deuterium-terminated diamond (HTD and DTD) surfaces using a radical initiator (di-tert-amyl peroxide, DTAP), a reactive monomer (styrene) and a crosslinking agent (divinylbenzene, DVB) to create polystyrene encapsulated diamond. Chemisorbed polystyrene is sulfonated with sulfuric acid in acetic acid. Surface changes were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, both polystyrene-modified DTD and sulfonated styrene-modified DTD were used in solid phase extraction (SPE). Percent recovery and column capacity were investigated for both phenyl (polystyrene) and sulfonic acid treated polystyrene SPE columns. These diamond-based SPE supports are stable under basic conditions, which is not the case for silica-based SPE supports. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  20. The core of Ure2p prion fibrils is formed by the N-terminal segment in a parallel cross-β structure: evidence from solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryndushkin, Dmitry S; Wickner, Reed B; Tycko, Robert

    2011-06-03

    Intracellular fibril formation by Ure2p produces the non-Mendelian genetic element [URE3] in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, making Ure2p a prion protein. We show that solid-state NMR spectra of full-length Ure2p fibrils, seeded with infectious prions from a specific [URE3] strain and labeled with uniformly (15)N-(13)C-enriched Ile, include strong, sharp signals from Ile residues in the globular C-terminal domain (CTD) with both helical and nonhelical (13)C chemical shifts. Treatment with proteinase K eliminates these CTD signals, leaving only nonhelical signals from the Gln-rich and Asn-rich N-terminal segment, which are also observed in the solid-state NMR spectra of Ile-labeled fibrils formed by residues 1-89 of Ure2p. Thus, the N-terminal segment, or "prion domain" (PD), forms the fibril core, while CTD units are located outside the core. We additionally show that, after proteinase K treatment, Ile-labeled Ure2p fibrils formed without prion seeding exhibit a broader set of solid-state NMR signals than do prion-seeded fibrils, consistent with the idea that structural variations within the PD core account for prion strains. Measurements of (13)C-(13)C magnetic dipole-dipole couplings among (13)C-labeled Ile carbonyl sites in full-length Ure2p fibrils support an in-register parallel β-sheet structure for the PD core of Ure2p fibrils. Finally, we show that a model in which CTD units are attached rigidly to the parallel β-sheet core is consistent with steric constraints. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Reinforcement of 2124 Al alloy with low micron SiC and nano Al2O3 via solid-state forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gxowa, Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powder metallurgical process was used to fabricate Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs). A 2124 aluminium alloy was reinforced with 5 and 10 vol. % of Al2O3 (40-70nm) to form Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs) as well as 10 and 15 vol. % of SiC (1...

  2. The amorphous solid dispersion of the poorly soluble ABT-102 forms nano/microparticulate structures in aqueous medium: impact on solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank KJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kerstin J Frank,1,3 Ulrich Westedt,2 Karin M Rosenblatt,2 Peter Hölig,2 Jörg Rosenberg,2 Markus Mägerlein,2 Gert Fricker,3 Martin Brandl11Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 2Abbott GmbH and Co. KG, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs are a promising formulation approach for poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, because they ideally enhance both dissolution rate and solubility. However, the mechanism behind this is not understood in detail. In the present study, we investigated the supramolecular and the nano/microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an ASD in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on solubility. The ASD, prepared by hot melt extrusion, contained the poorly soluble ABT-102 (solubility in buffer, 0.05 µg/mL, a hydrophilic polymer, and three surfactants. The apparent solubility of ABT-102 from the ASD-formulation was enhanced up to 200 times in comparison to crystalline ABT-102. At the same time, the molecular solubility, as assessed by inverse equilibrium dialysis, was enhanced two times. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in combination with a multiangle light-scattering detector, an ultraviolet detector, and a refractometer enabled us to separate and identify the various supramolecular assemblies that were present in the aqueous dispersions of the API-free ASD (placebo and of binary/ternary blends of the ingredients. Thus, the supramolecular assemblies with a molar mass between 20,000 and 90,000 could be assigned to the polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate 64, while two other kinds of assemblies were assigned to different surfactant assemblies (micelles. The amount of ABT-102 remaining associated with each of the assemblies upon fractionation was quantified offline with high

  3. Marcadores de proliferação celular na avaliação do crescimento do tumor sólido e ascítico de Ehrlich Cell proliferation markers for evaluating the growth of solid and ascitic forms of Ehrlich tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty BALB/c mice were inoculated with cell suspension of Ehrlich tumor. Ten mice were inoculated in the cushion plant (solid form and the other 10 in the peritoneum (ascitic form. Animals were euthanized on different times (7 and 14 days. Cytological and histological slides, immunohistochemical (PCNA analysis and NORs silver impregnation technique were performed. The results showed more proliferation on the 7th day in the ascitic form and on 14th day in the solid form, using both analyses (PCNA and AgNORs. The alterations observed in the Ehrlich tumor’s proliferation activity suggested that the growth curve is different between ascitic and solid forms. In the first one, the proliferation peak occurs on the seventh day and in the solid tumor the growth curve was more delayed, showing increased proliferative potential after seven days.

  4. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  5. Alternatives for conversion to solid interim waste forms of the radioactive liquid high-level wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, S.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Techniques for isolating and solidifying the nuclear wastes in the storage tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center plant have been examined. One technique involves evaporating the water and forming a molten salt containing the precipitated sludge. The salt is allowed to solidify and is stored in canisters until processing into a final waste form is to be done. Other techniques involve calcining the waste material, then agglomerating the calcine with sodium silicate to reduce its dispersibility. This option can also involve a prior separation and decontamination of the supernatant salt. The sludge and all resins containing fission-product activity are then calcined together. The technique of removing the water and solidifying the salt may be the simplest method for removing the waste from the West Valley Plant

  6. Preparation of anode-electrolyte structures using graphite, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid as pore forming agents for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Cermets based on Ni supported on YSZ or GDC were prepared for use as anode in direct reform SOFCs. NaHCO3 (Na-Ni-YSZ and Na-Ni-GDC) or citric acid (Ac-Ni-YSZ and Ac-Ni-GDC) were used as pore forming agents (PFAs). The SOFC anode was also prepared using graphite (G-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-GDC) as PFA for the purposes of comparison. The testing unitary SOFC, planar type, was made by pressing the anode-electrolyte assembly, followed by sintering at 1500 C. After this, LSM (lanthanum and strontium manganite) paint was used for the cathode deposition. The powdered cermets were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C. The ethanol conversion was 84% and 32% for cermets Na-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-YSZ, respectively and the selectivity to H{sub 2} was 32 and 20% for the two cermets, respectively. The Na-Ni-YSZ cermet was ten times more resistant to carbon deposition than the G-Ni-YSZ cermet. SEM micrographs of the anode-electrolyte assembly showed that the use of NaHCO{sub 3} as PFA created a well formed interface between layers with homogeneously distributed pores. In contrast, graphite as PFA formed a loose interface between anode and electrolyte. The performance of the unitary SOFC was evaluated using ethanol, hydrogen or methane as fuel. The cell operated well using any of these fuels; however, they exhibited different electrochemical behavior. (orig.)

  7. Influence of composition, many-body effects, spin-orbit coupling, and disorder on magnetism of Co-Pt solid-state systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej; Minár, J.; Mankovsky, S.; Ebert, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 14 (2008), 144403/1-144403/2 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : CoPt * magnetism * spin-orbit coupling * dynamical mean field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  8. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  9. First report of nonpsychotic self-cannibalism (autophagy), tongue splitting, and scar patterns (scarification) as an extreme form of cultural body modification in a western civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, M

    1999-09-01

    As part of her current lifestyle, a 28-year-old Caucasian woman routinely injures and allows subsequent healing of her skin and other tissues. Her body modifications include a "split tongue" (a tongue split to the base), which does not interfere with speaking and eating. Other modifications include large scarification patterns produced by branding and cutting. This woman has been known to eat parts of her skin that were previously cut out of her body. She also performs "needle play" by allowing medical syringe needles to be lodged temporarily under her skin. The patient had a normal childhood, is currently employed full-time as an office manager, and is psychologically stable. Although one other case of self-induced penoscrotal hypospadias is known, this is the only report of extensive, nonpsychotic, autodestructive behavior. However, this may not be the case in the future as an increasing number of young individuals have become interested in body modifications.

  10. Solid H2 in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, A.; Pfenniger, D.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Condensation of H2 in the interstellar medium (ISM) has long been seen as a possibility, either by deposition on dust grains or thanks to a phase transition combined with self-gravity. H2 condensation might explain the observed low efficiency of star formation and might help to hide baryons in spiral galaxies. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the solid fraction of H2 in the ISM due to a phase transition including self-gravity for different densities and temperatures in order to use the results in more complex simulations of the ISM as subgrid physics. Methods: We used molecular dynamics simulations of fluids at different temperatures and densities to study the formation of solids. Once the simulations reached a steady state, we calculated the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales. By determining the power laws measured over several orders of magnitude, we extrapolated to lower densities the higher density fluids that can be simulated with current computers. Results: The solid fraction and energy increase of fluids in a phase transition are above 0.1 and do not follow a power law. Fluids out of a phase transition are still forming a small amount of solids due to chance encounters of molecules. The solid mass fraction and energy increase of these fluids are linearly dependent on density and can easily be extrapolated. The timescale is below one second, the condensation can be considered instantaneous. Conclusions: The presence of solid H2 grains has important dynamic implications on the ISM as they may be the building blocks for larger solid bodies when gravity is included. We provide the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales for high density fluids and extrapolation laws for lower densities.

  11. Accumulation of radium in ferruginous protein bodies formed in lung tissue. Association of resulting radiation hotspots with malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Eizo; Makishima, Akio; Hagino, Kyoko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    While exposure to fibers and particles has been proposed to be associated with several different lung malignancies including mesothelioma, the mechanism for the carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Along with mineralogical observation, we have analyzed forty-four major and trace elements in extracted asbestos bodies (fibers and proteins attached to them) with coexisting fiber-free ferruginous protein bodies from extirpative lungs of individuals with malignant mesothelioma. These observations together with patients' characteristics suggest that inhaled iron-rich asbestos fibers and dust particles, and excess iron deposited by continuous cigarette smoking would induce ferruginous protein body formation resulting in ferritin aggregates in lung tissue. Chemical analysis of ferruginous protein bodies extracted from lung tissues reveals anomalously high concentrations of radioactive radium, reaching millions of times higher concentration than that of seawater. Continuous and prolonged internal exposure to hotspot ionizing radiation from radium and its daughter nuclides could cause strong and frequent DNA damage in lung tissue, initiate different types of tumour cells, including malignant mesothelioma cells, and may cause cancers. (author)

  12. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  13. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  14. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  17. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  18. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution to the identification of the processes kinetically limiting of the zirconium alloys oxidation; characterization of the oxide films formed at high temperature by solids electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermoyal, J.J.

    2000-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys used for cladding tubes has been extensively studied under several oxidation conditions (temperature, steam, dry air, oxygen...) in order to clarify the mechanism(s) of oxide growth and breakdown. Oxidation rate is generally assumed to be controlled by oxygen diffusion inwards the oxide layer. Nevertheless, several experimental facts, such as acceleration or inhibition of corrosion rate in coupling conditions, suggest that electrochemical processes are involved as a rate determining step. This work is an attempt to shed light about the rate-limiting-mechanism of two zirconium alloys oxidation: Zircaloy-4 (Zy-4) and Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%). Impedance spectroscopy characterizations of oxide films formed in high temperature water and studied in gaseous atmosphere clearly show the difference of electrical properties between the two alloys. The in situ electrochemical and thermogravimetric investigations in gaseous medium, and the polarization effects on oxidation and hydridation of Zr alloys in PWRs conditions indicate that oxygen diffusion can be considered as the limiting kinetic step for Zy-4 oxidation. On the contrary, the acceleration of oxide growth on Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%) under anodic polarization in PWRs conditions (360 deg C) suggests that either the electronic conductivity in the oxide or an interfacial process at least partially control the oxidation rate. Catalytic effects observed in gaseous medium when noble metals increase the oxygen reduction rate would tend to corroborate the oxidation control of this alloy by an interfacial mechanism. An electrochemical description and a heterogeneous kinetics approach based on a diffusion-interfacial process as rate determining step are then proposed. (author)

  20. Processes for forming exoergic structures with the use of a plasma and for producing dense refractory bodies of arbitrary shape therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma spraying methods of forming exoergic structures and coatings, as well as exoergic structures produced by such methods, are presented. The methods include the plasma spraying of reactive exoergic materials that are capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction onto a flat substrate or into molds of arbitrary shape and igniting the plasma sprayed materials, either under an inert gas pressure or not, to form refractory materials of varying densities and of varying shapes

  1. Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes forming fruit bodies in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okane, Izumi; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Toyama, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    to reveal the diversity and taxonomy of endophytes and the relationships between those endophytes and saprobic Xylariaceae in Thailand that have been recorded according to fruit-body formation on decayed plant materials. Analysis of 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences revealed 21 xylariaceous species inhabiting......A study of the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of endophytic Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) was carried out. In this study, we obtained isolates of Xylariaceae from healthy, attached leaves and teleomorphic stromata on decayed plant materials in a permanent plot at Khao Yai National Park (Thailand......). In addition, strains deposited beforehand were selected in which both endophytic strains isolated from living plant tissues and saprobic strains from fruit bodies were included. Consequently, 405 strains of Xylariaceae (273 endophytic and 132 saprobic strains, including identified strains) were studied...

  2. Solid-state synthesis of ZnO and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to form p–n junction composite in the use of dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jing; Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xyh0707@163.com; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jianya

    2016-08-15

    In this study, ZnO and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures are rapidly synthesized at relatively low temperature and without any organic surfactants using an economical, simple, and environmentally friendly solid-state synthesis. Results shows that the formation of p–n heterojunction electric field at the interface between ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO is significantly effective in improving the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) by efficiently promoting the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs on the surface of semiconductor, and an enhanced light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) reaches 7.28%, which improve by 54.9% compared with that of pure ZnO based DSSCs (4.70%). - Highlights: • A ZnO–ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure was fabricated by a low-temperature solid-state method. • A p–n heterojunction electric field was successfully formed at the interface between ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO. • The p–n heterojunction could effectively promote the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • The power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs improved by 54.9% compared with that of pure ZnO based DSSCs (4.70%).

  3. Assessing appearance-related disturbances in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM): psychometrics of the body change and distress questionnaire-short form (ABCD-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilson, Johannes M; Baker, Joshua S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-related disturbances are common among HIV-infected MSM; however, to date, there have been limited options in the valid assessment of this construct. The aim of the current study was to assess the structural, internal, and convergent validity of the assessment of body change distress questionnaire (ABCD) and its short version. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both versions fit the data well. Four subfactors were revealed measuring the following body disturbance constructs: (1) negative affect about appearance, (2) HIV health-related outcomes and stigma, (3) eating and exercise confusion, and (4) ART non-adherence. The subfactors and total scores revealed bivariate associations with salient health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, and ART non-adherence. The ABCD and its short form, offer valid means to assess varied aspects of body image disturbance among HIV-infected MSM, and require modest participant burden.

  4. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Sarah A.; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A)+ RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A)+ RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors. PMID:27613868

  5. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Sarah A; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2016-10-28

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A) + RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A) + RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Prediction of Path Deviation in Robot Based Incremental Sheet Metal Forming by Means of a New Solid-Shell Finite Element Technology and a Finite Elastoplastic Model with Combined Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliclar, Yalin; Laurischkat, Roman; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie

    2011-08-01

    The presented project deals with a robot based incremental sheet metal forming process, which is called roboforming and has been developed at the Chair of Production Systems. It is characterized by flexible shaping using a freely programmable path-synchronous movement of two industrial robots. The final shape is produced by the incremental infeed of the forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the part contour in lateral direction. However, the resulting geometries formed in roboforming deviate several millimeters from the reference geometry. This results from the compliance of the involved machine structures and the springback effects of the workpiece. The project aims to predict these deviations caused by resiliences and to carry out a compensative path planning based on this prediction. Therefore a planning tool is implemented which compensates the robots's compliance and the springback effects of the sheet metal. The forming process is simulated by means of a finite element analysis using a material model developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics (IFAM). It is based on the multiplicative split of the deformation gradient in the context of hyperelasticity and combines nonlinear kinematic and isotropic hardening. Low-order finite elements used to simulate thin sheet structures, such as used for the experiments, have the major problem of locking, a nonphysical stiffening effect. For an efficient finite element analysis a special solid-shell finite element formulation based on reduced integration with hourglass stabilization has been developed. To circumvent different locking effects, the enhanced assumed strain (EAS) and the assumed natural strain (ANS) concepts are included in this formulation. Having such powerful tools available we obtain more accurate geometries.

  7. Influence of welded boundaries in anelastic media on energy flow, and characteristics of P, S-I, and S-II waves: Observational evidence for inhomogeneous body waves in low-loss solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Wennerberg, Leif

    1986-10-01

    A general computer code, developed to calculate anelastic reflection-refraction coefficients, energy flow, and the physical characteristics for general P, S-I, and S-II waves, quantitatively describes physical characteristics for wave fields in anelastic media that do not exist in elastic media. Consideration of wave fields incident on boundaries between anelastic media shows that scattered wave fields experience reductions in phase and energy speeds, increases in maximum attenuation and Q-1, and directions of maximum energy flow distinct from phase propagation. Each of these changes in physical characteristics are shown to vary with angle of incidence. Finite relaxation times for anelastic media result in energy flow due to interaction of superimposed radiation fields and contribute to energy flow across anelastic boundaries for all angles of incidence. Agreement of theoretical and numerical results with laboratory measurements argues for the validity of the theoretical and numerical formulations incorporating inhomogeneous wave fields. The agreement attests to the applicability of the model and helps confirm the existence of inhomogeneous body waves and their associated set of distinct physical characteristics in the earth. The existence of such body waves in layered, low-loss anelastic solids implies the need to reformulate some seismological models of the earth. The exact anelastic formulation for a liquid-solid interface with no low-loss approximations predicts the existence of a range of angles of incidence or an anelastic Rayleigh window, through which significant amounts of energy are transmitted across the boundary. The window accounts for the discrepancy apparent between measured reflection data presented in early textbooks and predictions based on classical elasticity theory. Characteristics of the anelastic Rayleigh window are expected to be evident in certain sets of wide-angle, ocean-bottom reflection data and to be useful in estimating Q-1 for some

  8. The expanding role of stereotactic body radiation therapy in oligometastatic solid tumors: What do we know and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Julian C; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum hypothesis posits that there are distinct clinical states of metastatic progression. Early data suggest that aggressive treatment of more biologically indolent metastatic disease, characterized by metastases limited in number and destination organ, may offer an opportunity to alter the disease course, potentially allowing for longer survival, delay of systemic therapy, or even cure. The development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has opened new avenues for the treatment of oligometastatic disease. Early data support the use of SBRT for treating oligometastases in a number of organs, with promising rates of treated metastasis control and overall survival. Ongoing investigation is required to definitively establish benefit, determine the appropriate treatment regimen, refine patient selection, and incorporate SBRT with systemic therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Foreign matter identification from solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Bjørneboe, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased request for robust quality systems, the end product may contain unidentified defects or discoloured regions. The foreign matter has to be monitored, identified and its source defined in order to prevent further contamination. However, the identification task can be complicated......, since the origin and nature of foreign matter are various. The aim of this study is to provide an efficient foreign matter identification procedure for various substances possibly originating from pharmaceutical manufacturing environment. The surface or cross-section of the uncoated and coated tablets...... was analysed by utilization of different analytical techniques, such as light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (To...

  10. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  11. Effects of feed form and dietary coarse ground corn on broiler live performance, body weight uniformity, relative gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2015-07-01

    In this 14-d cage study, the effects of feed form (mash and crumble) and 6 coarse ground corn ( CC: ) inclusions [0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% CC that replaced fine corn ( FC: )] on broiler live performance, BW uniformity, gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference were investigated. The geometric mean diameter by mass ( DGW: ) of mash diets increased from 422 μm to 431, 471, 509, 542, and 640 μm, respectively, as the percentage of CC increased. Feed intake and BW were decreased by CC and mash at 7 d. Interactions between feed form and CC were observed for feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ) at 7 d of age (P nitrogen was increased (P < 0.01) by crumble diets. These data demonstrated that pelleting and crumbling reduced the impact of CC, produced a more consistent feed intake, and reduced selective feeding, and that CC stimulated gizzard weight in a linear manner in mash diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Quantitative response of bone marrow colony-forming units (CFU-C and PFU-C) in weaning beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; Stitzel, K.A.; Klein, A.K.; Shifrine, M.; Graham, R.; Jones, M.; Bradley, E.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Using a methylcellulose-supported bone marrow culture system, the dose-response relationships of suspended granulocyte-monocyte colonies (CFU-C) and adherent fibroblastic colonies (PFU-C) were investigated in 2- to 3-month-old beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation. Groups of weanling beagles were exposed at a rate of 140 R/hr delivered from a 60 Co γ source achieving total exposures ranging from 0 to 586 R. Twenty-four hours following irradiation, bone marrow was collected, plated into methylcellulose, and after 1 week of incubation both colony types were quantitated. In addition, bone marrow cellularity determinations were made for a variety of bones using an 59 Fe-labeling technique. The results show a D 37 for the linear part of the slope of 70 R for CFU-C. Although within the limits of the experiment a D 37 could not be established for the fibroblastic populations, the results indicate a substantial degree of radioresistance for these elements supporting our previous studies on PFU-C, performed on mice, which suggested a D 37 of approximately 400 R for the progenitors of these fibroblastic elements

  13. Fibrous dysplasia: an unusual case of a very aggressive form with costo-vertebral joint destruction and invasion of the contralateral D7 vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Attala, Dario; Rossi, Barbara; Zoccali, Giovanni; Ferraresi, Virginia

    2018-05-23

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign fibro-osseous disease of the bone that may be solitary or multicentric. It is important to distinguish this type of lesion from low-grade osteosarcomas (LGOS) and from secondary sarcomas, because malignant transformation has rarely been reported. It is classically described as having a ground-glass appearance, endosteal scalloping, and thinning of the cortex. Cortical disruption is considered evidence of malignancy, but it can also be present in benign FD with aggressive behavior. We present an unusual case of aggressive FD of the 7th left rib, already diagnosed more than 22 years ago, where cortical and costo-vertebral joint disruption and 7th thoracic vertebral body involvement were not evidence of malignant behavior. From a histological perspective, FD and LGOS are similar; even if histology is of fundamental importance, the diagnosis has to be made based on the clinical and radiological aspects as well, although at imaging, differentiation between FD and LGOS can be difficult. In the present case, even though the histological examination suggested a benign lesion, the radiological examination instead consistently suggests malignancy. It is for this reason that there should be a high index of suspicion during follow-up and a new biopsy should be scheduled in case any changes occur during follow-up.

  14. A study of the cytoplasmic expression of a form of human prolactin and of its solubilization and renaturation from bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso, Regina

    2000-01-01

    Different vector elements, that can determine a high expression level of a form of human prolactin (taghPrl) in bacterial cytoplasm, were studied. Expression conditions were first optimized for a reference vector, which was used to transform different strains of E. coli: HB2151, RRI and RB791. The highest expression level (113 ±16 μg/mL.A 600 ) was obtained in HB2151, after activation with only 0.1 mM IPTG. At this point the influence of the transcription terminator (g32 from bacteriophage T4), of the translation enhancer (g10 from bacteriophage T7), of the promoter (λP L or tac) and of the antibiotic resistance gene (amp r or kan r ) were studied. The first three elements did not show any significant influence, at least in our systems. On the contrary, the analysis of the influence of amp r and kan r genes showed, unexpectedly, that the presence of the last one provides an approximately 5-fold higher expression for taghPrl in E. coli cytoplasm. Finally, an appropriate extraction, solubilization, renaturation and purification process, able to provide a monomeric form of taghPrl, was studied. A method utilizing urea and mercaptoethanol as solubilizing agents and a dialysis as a renaturation procedure, provided with some modifications, one of the highest yields ever reported in the literature: 35.4 ± 4.5% of total recovery. Moreover, the biological activity of the taghPrl obtained, when tested in the Nb2 cell proliferation assay, was of the same order of that shown by the International Standard of human prolactin of pituitary origin. These data show that the cytoplasmic expression system here described, which can provide an expression efficiency 50-100 - fold higher than the periplasmic expression, can represent a valid alternative for the production of this and of other hormones of pharmaceutical interest and grade. (author)

  15. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can

  16. Determination and modeling of binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by 1,8-dinitronaphthalene and 1,5-dinitronaphthalene and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yong; Du, Cunbin; Cong, Yang; Wang, Jian; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE formed by 1,5 and/or 1,8-dinitronaphthalene and NMP was determined. • The binary and ternary phase diagrams were constructed. • The phase diagrams were correlated and calculated using thermodynamic models. - Abstract: The solubility of 1,8-dinitronaphthalene and 1,5-dinitronaphthalene in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at (293.15–343.15) K and the mutual solubility of the ternary 1,5-dinitronaphthalene + 1,8-dinitronaphthalene + N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone mixture at (313.15, 328.15 and 343.15) K were determined experimentally using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa). The solubility of 1,8-dinitronaphthalene in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is larger than that of 1,5-dinitronaphthalene. Three isothermal ternary phase diagrams were built according to the measured mutual solubility data. In each ternary phase diagram, there were one co-saturated point, two boundary curves, and three crystalline regions. Two pure solids (pure 1,8-dinitronaphthalene and pure 1,5-dinitronaphthalene) were formed in the ternary system at a given temperature, which were identified by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern. The crystallization region of 1,8-dinitronaphthalene was smaller than that of 1,5-dinitronaphthalene at each temperature. The modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, NRTL model and Wilson model were used to correlate the solubility of 1,8-dinitronaphthalene and 1,5-dinitronaphthalene in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; and the NRTL and Wilson models were employed to correlate and calculate the mutual solubility for the ternary 1,5-dinitronaphthalene + 1,8-dinitronaphthalene + N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone system. The largest value of root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) was 20.34 × 10 −4 for the binary systems; and 7.38 × 10 −3 for ternary system. The calculated results via these models are all acceptable for the binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium.

  17. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? How are body lice treated? What are body lice? Body lice are parasitic insects that live ... to freshly laundered clothing and bedding. What do body lice look like? Body lice have three forms: ...

  18. Dynamics of the changes in the number and phagocytic activity of leucocytes from whole-body gamma-irradiated guinea pigs with respect to R and S forms of Pseudomonas pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, Kh.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Guinea pigs of both sexes received whole-body gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy, 4 x 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; 92.5 rad/min). Two bacterial strains were used: Ps. pseudomallei R 1 5 and S 7 . The measurments were carried out on days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 after treatment. The changes observed were directly dependent on the dose applied: for sublethally (2 Gy) irradiated animals - an abrupt decrease of leukocytes and strongly expressed leukopenia lasting throughout the whole investigation; for fractiionally irradiated (4 x 0.5 Gy) -the number of leukocytes P<0.001 and leukopenia being observed to day 7 after irradiation; for 0.5 Gy irradiated -the leucocytes number equal to that of the controls on day 15 and significantly higher on day 30; less strongly expressed leukopenia. The alterations in phagocytic activity in relation to R and S forms of Ps. pseudomallei were similar: leukocytes from 2 Gy irradiated guinea pigs showed on day 1 a markedly raised phagocytic activity and phagocytized the R and S forms to a similar degree, while at later intervals of the study the phagocytic activity decreased and they began to phagocytize the R forms more actively. Leukocytes from 0.5 Gy treated animals phagocytized the R forms more actively than the S forms throughout the whole investigation

  19. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro-containers...... before single molecules are available for the formation of crystal nuclei, thus stabilizing the amorphous form....

  20. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product.

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  3. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Our bodies define a border between ourselves and the world around us. However we might feel about our body, it is what we present to the world. Victoria L. Blum in her book Flesh Wounds discusses how bodies are a form of inkblots, where discontent is projected onto. As bodies can be modified, we...... may choose to alter how we are perceived and to at least some extent control the discontent we may project onto our own body. Through body modification, we can alter the impression of our personality and express a cultural solidarity, as Chris Rojek points out. Tattoos, piercings and other body...... modifications become ways to express a difference from or identification with, a particular cultural segment. Body modification marks a personal subjectivity, just as it marks a border around those who participate. A distinctive bodily border is formed through the use of body modifications, and it can be viewed...

  4. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  5. Fluorine-ion conductivity of different technological forms of solid electrolytes R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} (LaF{sub 3} Type ) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R Are Rare Earth Elements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, N. I., E-mail: nsorokin1@yandex.ru; Sobolev, B. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We have investigated the conductivity of some representatives of different technological forms of fluoride-conducting solid electrolytes R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R are rare earth elements) with an LaF{sub 3} structure: single crystals, cold- and hot-pressing ceramics based on a charge prepared in different ways (mechanochemical synthesis, solid-phase synthesis, and fragmentation of single crystals), polycrystalline alloys, etc. It is shown (by impedance spectroscopy), that different technological forms of identical chemical composition (R, M, y) exhibit different electrical characteristics. The maximum conductivity is observed for the single-crystal form of R{sub 1–y}M{sub y}F{sub 3–y} tysonite phases, which provides (in contrast to other technological forms) the formation of true volume ion-conducting characteristics.

  6. Investigation of radiofrequency heating for a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body in 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 3.0 tesla MR imaging. Measurement of temperature by use of human body-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Higashida, Mitsuji; Kudo, Sadahiro; Ideta, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been sometimes reported due to a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, 3.0 T-MRI scanner has been widely used. However, it is considered that the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI can affect the heat of the loop because its own SAR becomes approximately 4 times as much as that of the 1.5 T-MRI scanner. With this, the change in temperature was measured with human body-equivalent loop phantom in both 1.5 T-MRI and 3.0 T-MRI. In the two scanners, the temperature during 20 min of scanning time was measured with three types of sequences such as field echo (FE), spin echo (SE), and turbo SE (TSE) set up with the same scanning condition. It was found from the result that rise in temperature depended on SAR of the scanning condition irrespective of static magnetic field intensity and any pulse sequences. Furthermore, the increase of SAR and rise in temperature were not only in proportion to each other but also were indicated to have good correlation. However, even low SAR can occasionally induce serious thermal injuries. It was found from result that we had to attempt not to form a closed conducting loop with in a part of the patient's body during MRI. (author)

  7. Is body-weight-supported treadmill training or robotic-assisted gait training superior to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with spinal cord injury? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, J; Harvey, L A; Thomas, S; Elsner, B

    2017-08-01

    Systematic review about randomised trials comparing different training strategies to improve gait in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and robotic-assisted gait training with overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with traumatic SCI. Systematic review conducted by researchers from Germany and Australia. An extensive search was conducted for randomised controlled trials involving people with traumatic SCI that compared either BWSTT or robotic-assisted gait training with overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy. The two outcomes of interest were walking speed (m s -1 ) and walking distance (m). BWSTT and robotic-assisted gait training were analysed separately, and data were pooled across trials to derive mean between-group differences using a random-effects model. Thirteen randomised controlled trials involving 586 people were identified. Ten trials involving 462 participants compared BWSTT to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy, but only nine trials provided useable data. The pooled mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) between-group differences for walking speed and walking distance were -0.03 m s -1 (-0.10 to 0.04) and -7 m (-45 to 31), respectively, favouring overground gait training. Five trials involving 344 participants compared robotic-assisted gait training to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy but only three provided useable data. The pooled mean (95% CI) between-group differences for walking speed and walking distance were -0.04 m s -1 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.13) and -6 m (95% CI -86 to 74), respectively, favouring overground gait training. BWSTT and robotic-assisted gait training do not increase walking speed more than overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy do, but their effects on walking distance are not clear.

  8. In vitro folding of inclusion body proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, R; Lilie, H

    1996-01-01

    Insoluble, inactive inclusion bodies are frequently formed upon recombinant protein production in transformed microorganisms. These inclusion bodies, which contain the recombinant protein in an highly enriched form, can be isolated by solid/liquid separation. After solubilization, native proteins can be generated from the inactive material by using in vitro folding techniques. New folding procedures have been developed for efficient in vitro reconstitution of complex hydrophobic, multidomain, oligomeric, or highly disulfide-bonded proteins. These protocols take into account process parameters such as protein concentration, catalysis of disulfide bond formation, temperature, pH, and ionic strength, as well as specific solvent ingredients that reduce unproductive side reactions. Modification of the protein sequence has been exploited to improve in vitro folding.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  11. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  12. Nuclear fusion in a solid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.A.; Savin, V.I.; Shakhurin, M.V.; Chernyavskij, V.T.; Pustovit, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The present work was aimed at investigating a possibility to have a fusion reaction during the interaction of gaseous deuterium with various metals under conditions of glow discharge. It is shown that neutron flux which presumably occurs due to the reaction of nuclear fusion exceeded the background level two times maximum for such materials as Cr, Pd, B, Li. A conclusion is made that for the recording of neutrons which can be generated under bombardment of material surfaces with accelerated ions an additional shielding of standard recorders is required against electromagnetic oscillations both in the input circuits and power supply circuits. A significant increase of tritium concentration in deuterium was recorded (by mass spectrometry and β activity measurement) during the passage of the latter through the metal being bombarded with accelerated ions from glow discharge plasma

  13. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  14. Many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of the discipline of many-body theory during the past 25 years is outlined and the developments originated in the Theoretical Physics Division, AERE, are discussed. Topics considered include; the connection between plasma oscillations and the dielectric properties of an electron gas, superconductivity, Fermi levels, ferromagnetism in metals, phase transformations, scaling laws, and quasi-one-dimensional solids. (UK)

  15. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  16. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  17. Composting of urban solid wastes and agricultural wastes: the influence on the temperature and oxygen levels; Compostaje conjunto de la fraccion organica de residuos munipales (FORM) y residuos vegetales triturados: influencia sobre la temperatura y los niveles de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Castro, S.; Perz Losada, C.; Soliva Torrento, M.

    1998-07-01

    The Superior School of Agriculture of Barcelona states in this paper that the compost of urban solid waste improvement is better if they are mixed with wastes of prune vegetables. This mixture improves the oxygen load and the temperatures that are reached. (Author) 26 refs.

  18. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  19. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  20. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar; Sreenivas

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  1. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  2. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  3. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  4. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  5. Differential forms theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Differential forms are utilized as a mathematical technique to help students, researchers, and engineers analyze and interpret problems where abstract spaces and structures are concerned, and when questions of shape, size, and relative positions are involved. Differential Forms has gained high recognition in the mathematical and scientific community as a powerful computational tool in solving research problems and simplifying very abstract problems through mathematical analysis on a computer. Differential Forms, 2nd Edition, is a solid resource for students and professionals needing a solid g

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  7. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  8. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  9. 13C and 15N CP/MAS, 1H-15N SCT CP/MAS and FTIR spectroscopy as tools for qualitative detection of the presence of zwitterionic and non-ionic forms of ansa-macrolide 3-formylrifamycin SV and its derivatives in solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Piotr; Pyta, Krystian; Klich, Katarzyna; Schilf, Wojciech; Kamieński, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    (13)C, (15)N CP/MAS, including (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N short contact time CP/MAS experiments, and FTIR methods were applied for detailed structural characterization of ansa-macrolides as 3-formylrifamycin SV (1) and its derivatives (2-6) in crystal and in powder forms. Although HPLC chromatograms for 2/CH3 OH and 2/CH3 CCl3 were the same for rifampicin crystals dissolved in respective solvents, the UV-vis data recorded for them were different in 300-375 nm region. Detailed solid state (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR and FTIR studies revealed that rifampicin (2), in contrast to 3-formylrifamycin SV (1) and its amino derivatives (3-6), can occur in pure non-ionic or zwitterionic forms in crystal and in pure these forms or a mixture of them in a powder. Multinuclear CP/MAS and FTIR studies demonstrated also that 3-6 derivatives were present exclusively in pure zwitterionic forms, both in powder and in crystal. On the basis of the solid state NMR and FTIR studies, two conformers of 3-formylrifamycin SV were detected in powder form due to the different orientations of carbonyl group of amide moiety. The PM6 molecular modeling at the semi-empirical level of theory, allowed visualization the most energetically favorable non-ionic and zwitterionic forms of 1-6 antibiotics, strongly stabilized via intramolecular H-bonds. FTIR studies indicated that the originally adopted forms of these type antibiotics in crystal or in powder are stable in standard laboratory conditions in time. The results presented point to the fact that because of a possible presence of two forms of rifampicin (compound 2), quantification of the content of this antibiotic in relevant pharmaceuticals needs caution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. La expresión corporal en la formación de maestros The Body Expression in Teachers Forming: Beginning Programs Study at Universities in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Vega María De Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como propósito indagar las orientaciones, enfoques y perspectivas de la expresión corporal en los programas de Educación Inicial en universidades de Bogotá. El método desarrollado fue el cualitativo y el tipo de estudio documental. Se diseñó y aplicó una matriz como instrumento de análisis y descripción basado en la categorización de la información teniendo en cuenta los documentos fuente: Proyecto Educativo Institucional (PEI, Proyecto Educativo del Programa (PEP y Planes de Estudio. A manera de conclusiones se puede decir que las orientaciones teórico-conceptuales están fundamentadas en el eje pedagógico, las perspectivas de formación se centran en el campo disciplinar, profesionalización específica y complementaria; y los enfoques pedagógicos y metodológicos están basados en el cuerpo y la expresión. This investigation inquires guidance, approaches and perspectives about corporal expression in beginning education at universities of Bogota. The qualitative method and documentary study type was put into practice. Information setting up from source documents: PEI, PEP and Study Plans provided a Matrix designed and applied to analyze and describe the pedagogical line. Forming perspectives are placed in the discipline field and in the specific and complementary professional activity. The pedagogic and method approaches are based on body and expression.

  11. Study on the improvement of toughness of Nb-based super high temperature materials by forming solid solution and composites; Niobuki chokoon zairyo no koyoka to fukugoka ni yoru kyojinsei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    If materials superior to Ni-based and Co-based super alloys could be developed, great progress is expected in the energy source saving, enhancement of aircraft speed, and simplification of member structure. Metals having high fusing point are prospective as well as C/C composites and ceramics among possible materials. Especially, Nb has a similar density to Ni, and its fusing point is 1,000 centigrade higher than Ni. It has also ductility. Furthermore, it is characterized by the formation of solid solution with other various metals having high fusing point. Accordingly, Nb-based composite alloys having excellent high temperature strength as well as excellent ductility and toughness can be developed by enhancing the solid solution formation and the dispersion with composites of compound phases using Nb as a base material. The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental data for the development of Nb-based composite alloys. The optimum matrix materials and their fabrication processes have been investigated, to evaluate their high temperature properties. Consequently, it was found that the enhancement by the deposition of intermetallic compounds or by the dispersion of oxides was an effective method for the formation of composites of Nb-based alloys. 4 refs., 88 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni-Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, S.J.; Makovicky, E.; Makovicky, M.

    1996-01-01

    of the system. There is a positive correlation between the partition coefficients and sulfur content of the monosulfide solid solution and between the partition coefficients and the sulfur content of the liquid. In sulfur-saturated and sulfur-over-saturated experimental systems, the metals behave in a manner...... (Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt) and a zoned tholeiite-related ore (Oktyabr'sky, Noril'sk region, Siberia). In both cases, the experimental partition coefficients numerically model the composition zones of the actual ores. This supports the model of fractional crystallization of a monosulfide solid...

  13. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  14. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  15. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  16. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  17. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  18. A kinetic study of the formation of organic solids from formaldehyde: Implications for the origin of extraterrestrial organic solids in primitive Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.

    2015-03-01

    Aqueous organic solid formation from formaldehyde via the formose reaction and subsequent reactions is a possible candidate for the origin of complex primitive chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) and refractory carbon in comets. The rate of formation of organic solids from formaldehyde was studied as a function of temperature and time, with and without ammonia, in order to derive kinetic expressions for polymer yield. The evolution in molecular structure as a function of time and temperature was studied using infrared spectroscopy. Using these kinetic expressions, the yield of organic solids is estimated for extended time and temperature ranges. For example, the half-life for organic solid formation is ∼5 days at 373 K, ∼200 days at 323 K, and ∼70 years at 273 K with ammonia, and ∼25 days at 373 K, ∼13 years at 323 K, and ∼2 × 104 years at 273 K without ammonia. These results indicate that organic solids could form during the aqueous alteration in meteorite parent bodies. If liquid water existed early in the interiors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), formaldehyde could convert into organic solids at temperatures close to 273 K, and possibly even below 273 K in the ammonia-water system.

  19. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  20. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  1. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. Male Body Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  4. Effect of radioactive radiation on catalytic properties of solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol' skii, D V; Kuzembaev, K K; Kel' man, I V [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Organicheskogo Kataliza i Ehlektrokhimii

    1977-05-01

    General survey is made of the problem of radiation modification of the action of solid catalysts with respect to the various types of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Consideration is given to the key mechanisms responsible for radiation damage in the interaction of high-energy radiation with a solid body. The effect of ionizing radiation on the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of solid bodies is discussed.

  5. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, O. Dale

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetrostructive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube.

  6. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). → Generalized logarithmic strain. → Consistent linearization. → Incremental principle of virtual power. → Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.

  7. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  8. The experience of a solidarity incubation project formed by mental health users A experiência de incubar um empreendimento solidário formado por usuários de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tagliaferro Rojo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the articulation of mental health and social economy actors in a city of São Paulo, a solidarity group was created trough an incubation process using the partnership between the Center for Psychosocial Care and the Regional Incubator for Popular Cooperatives. The incubation is an advisory process for groups in the formation and consolidation of economic enterprises. The incubation method of this incubator comprises sixteen classes of behavior. Objective: To describe and reflect on the process of incubation performed by this group. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, we used multiple data sources, such as reports, projects, meeting minutes, among others. All ethical guidelines were followed. Results: From the analysis of the documents, it was found that is relevant the building of partnerships and the community involvement in the process of social inclusion by the work of mental health users. We emphasize the importance of the technicians’ presence in the group, understanding it as the right to health protection. It should be considered that there are still challenges to achieve self-management and operational users in the transformation of workers/members. Conclusions: It is expected that this research contribute to the reflection of other experiences and also to the knowledge on incubation methodology in mental health.Introdução: Da articulação dos atores da saúde mental e da economia solidária de um município paulista foi criado um grupo solidário, em processo de incubação por meio de parceria entre o Centro de Atenção Psicossocial e uma Incubadora de Cooperativas Populares. A incubação é um processo de assessoria a grupos para formação e consolidação de empreendimentos econômicos. O método de incubação dessa incubadora compreende dezesseis classes de comportamentos. Objetivo: Descrever e refletir sobre a experiência de incubação desse grupo. Materiais e Métodos: Nesta pesquisa

  9. Solids recycling in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)

  10. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  11. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  12. Solid radiation curable polyene compositions containing liquid polythiols and solid styrene-allyl copolymer based polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer based solid polyene compositions which when mixed with liquid polythiols can form solid curable polyene-polythiol systems are claimed. These solid polyenes, containing at least two reactive carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, are urethane or ester derivatives of styrene-allyl alcohol copolymers. The solid polyenes are prepared by treating the hydroxyl groups of a styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer with a reactive unsaturated isocyanate, e.g., allyl isocyanate or a reactive unsaturated carboxylic acid, e.g., acrylic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, the solid polyene-polythiol compositions cure to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products. Since the solid polyene-liquid polythiol composition can be cured in a solid state, such a curable system finds particular use in preparation of coatings, imaged surfaces such as photoresists, particularly solder-resistant photoresists, printing plates, etc

  13. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  14. Boundary determinations for trivariate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I

    1999-01-01

    The trivariate tensor-product B-spline solid is a direct extension of the B-spline patch and has been shown to be useful in the creation and visualization of free-form geometric solids. Visualizing these solid objects requires the determination of the boundary surface of the solid, which is a combination of parametric and implicit surfaces. This paper presents a method that determines the implicit boundary surface by examination of the Jacobian determinant of the defining B-spline function. Using an approximation to this determinant, the domain space is adaptively subdivided until a mesh can be determined such that the boundary surface is close to linear in the cells of the mesh. A variation of the marching cubes algorithm is then used to draw the surface. Interval approximation techniques are used to approximate the Jacobian determinant and to approximate the Jacobian determinant gradient for use in the adaptive subdivision methods. This technique can be used to create free-form solid objects, useful in geometric modeling applications

  15. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  16. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  17. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  18. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  19. Molecular phospholipid films on solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes are versatile structures for mimicking biological surfaces. Bilayer and monolayer membranes can be formed on solid supports, leading to enhanced stability and accessibility of the biomimetic molecular film. This has facilitated functional studies of membrane proteins and ai...

  20. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  1. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  2. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.

    2013-09-01

    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  3. Method and apparatus for semi-solid material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou [Knoxville, TN; Jian, Xiaogang [Knoxville, TN; Xu, Hanbing [Knoxville, TN; Meek, Thomas T [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-24

    A method of forming a material includes the steps of: vibrating a molten material at an ultrasonic frequency while cooling the material to a semi-solid state to form non-dendritic grains therein; forming the semi-solid material into a desired shape; and cooling the material to a solid state. The method makes semi-solid castings directly from molten materials (usually a metal), produces grain size usually in the range of smaller than 50 .mu.m, and can be easily retrofitted into existing conventional forming machine.

  4. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  5. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  6. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  7. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  8. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  9. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  10. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Andrew J [Cirtland Hills, OH

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  11. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  12. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  13. Many-body interactions in quasi-freestanding graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, David; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Hwang, Choongyu; Deslippe, Jack; Fedorov, Alexei; Louie, Steven; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    The Landau-Fermi liquid picture for quasiparticles assumes that charge carriers are dressed by many-body interactions, forming one of the fundamental theories of solids. Whether this picture still holds for a semimetal such as graphene at the neutrality point, i.e., when the chemical potential coincides with the Dirac point energy, is one of the long-standing puzzles in this field. Here we present such a study in quasi-freestanding graphene by using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We see the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions go through substantial changes when the semimetallic regime is approached, including renormalizations due to strong electron-electron interactions with similarities to marginal Fermi liquid behavior. These findings set a new benchmark in our understanding of many-body physics in graphene and a variety of novel materials with Dirac fermions.

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  15. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  16. Radioactive test body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyton, P.F.; Lonn, A.H.R.

    1983-01-01

    This patent application describes a test body or phantom for use in checking the performance of apparatus which detects the emission of radiations from a body, such as a matrix of detectors, includes an element of pre-determined shape, a material having a known level of radiation intensity being included within the said element. The material is preferably in the shape of part-charter segments arranged in sets to form tubular bands. The central aperture left by the part segments contains a tubular rod having apertures for receiving further rods of varying levels of emission. The sets of segments preferably contain material with different levels of radiation intensity. (author)

  17. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  18. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  19. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  20. Density-functional theory for fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Atul S; Singh, Yashwant

    2017-03-01

    We develop a theory to describe solid-solid phase transitions. The density functional formalism of classical statistical mechanics is used to find an exact expression for the difference in the grand thermodynamic potentials of the two coexisting phases. The expression involves both the symmetry conserving and the symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function. The theory is used to calculate phase diagram of systems of soft spheres interacting via inverse power potentials u(r)=ε(σ/r)^{n}, where parameter n measures softness of the potential. We find that for 1/nfcc) structure while for 1/n≥0.154 the body-centred-cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The bcc structure transforms into the fcc structure upon increasing the density. The calculated phase diagram is in good agreement with the one found from molecular simulations.

  1. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  2. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms | Enayatifard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. These products have the potential of contamination with different microorganisms. This is due to raw materials contamination and unhygienic production conditions.

  3. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  4. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  5. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  6. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  7. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  8. Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Building on the novel pedagogy of fusing concepts covered in traditional undergraduate courses in rigid-body statics and deformable body mechanics, rather than simply grafting them together, this new edition develops further the authors’ very original treatment of solid mechanics with additional figures, an elaboration on selected solved problems, and additional text as well as a new subsection on viscoelasticity in response to students’ feedback. Introduction to Solid Mechanics: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, offers a holistic treatment of the depth and breadth of solid mechanics and the inter-relationships of its underlying concepts. Proceeding from first principles to applications, the book stands as a whole greater than the sum of its parts.  .

  9. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  10. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  12. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  13. Method of contacting solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-08-06

    A continuous method is described for contacting solids and gases. The process involves passing a confined stream of gases through an extended path including a treating zone and imposing a pressure on the stream of gases at least sufficient to overcome the resistence of said path to the flow of said gases. A solid in finely divided form is then introduced into said stream of gases, maintaining a vertical column of finely divided solid in fluidized state of a height which will produce a pressure at the column bottom at least equal to the gas pressure at the point of entry of the solids into the stream. The solids then pass from the bottom of the column into the stream.

  14. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  16. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Nishi, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  17. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In the analysis of body-memory and improvisation presented in this paper I contend that dancers’ specialised body-memory are not to be understood as more or less automatized. Rather, in each repetition, body-memories – or habits – are to be understood as unfolding in response to the actual context....... The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  18. Production of silicon carbide bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, K.

    1981-01-01

    A body consisting essentially of a coherent mixture of silicon carbide and carbon for subsequent siliconising is produced by casting a slip comprising silicon carbide and carbon powders in a porous mould. Part of the surface of the body, particularly internal features, is formed by providing within the mould a core of a material which retains its shape while casting is in progress but is compressed by shrinkage of the cast body as it dries and is thereafter removable from the cast body. Materials which are suitable for the core are expanded polystyrene and gelatinous products of selected low elastic modulus. (author)

  19. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  20. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  1. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  2. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  3. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  4. [Correlations between the characters of the mycelium vegetative growth and the formation of the fruiting body of Ganoderma luciderm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-fang; He, Xiu-feng; He, Hui-xia; Zhu, Ping

    2006-01-01

    To select a proper Ganoderma luciderm strain for the fruiting body production. The strains were cultivated on the agar media and in the liquid media, respectively. Then the strains were inoculated onto the solid medium made from agricultural products (such as wheat bran, corn powder, wood meal, etc.) and cultured for a certain period. Strains, which were easier to produce polyporic tissues at the vegetative growth stage, would be more quickly to form fruiting body with high quality and yield of the spores. Appearance of the polyporic tissues at the mycelium vegetative growth stage could be used as a marker for the strain selection for the G. luciderm substituted cultivation.

  5. Analysis of an ideal amorphous solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, L.T.; Stachurski, Z.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In geometrical terms, amorphous solids are fundamentally different from crystalline solids in that they can not be constructed by the crystallographic method of translation of the basis along a lattice. Therefore, to study amorphous structures we must invoke concepts and use measures different to those used for ordered structures. Nevertheless, an ideal amorphous solid must share together with the ideal crystalline solid in the same definition of the term 'ideal'. In both cases it must be a perfect body, in which perfection is carried through in every detail to an unlimited (infinite) size without fault or defect. The latest results on this research will be presented. To qualify for a solid, rigid body, close packing of the spheres is required. For an ideal amorphous solids composed of hard spheres of identical size, we impose a stricter condition for the packing, namely, to be such that all spheres are in fixed positions (no loose spheres). To define the ideal solid, we must define what we mean by a perfect amorphous structure. Here, perfection is defined by, first the definition of imperfections, and next by the requirement of absence of imperfections of any kind. We envisage two types of defects: (i) geometrical, and (ii) statistical. Geometrical defects are: a sphere of different size, a loose sphere, and a vacancy. A statistical defect is defined with respect to two statistical functions: Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ). The former describes the probability of a given sphere having nc number of touching contacts, and the latter describes the disposition of the contacts on the surface of the sphere. Defects relating to the two functions will be described. The results for the functions, Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ), for the corresponding radial distribution function, and so called blocking number will be presented from simulations of an ideal amorphous solid

  6. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  7. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  8. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  10. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  11. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  12. Clustering fossils in solid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhshik, Mohammad, E-mail: m.akhshik@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tenor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quadrupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with the Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of the scalar perturbations. We argue that the imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.

  13. In-situ formed Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 barrier layers on yttria stabilized zirconia backbones by infiltration - A promising path to high performing oxygen electrodes of solid oxide cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming; Samson, Alfred Junio

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes for solid oxide cells were prepared by a consecutive infiltration of a gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9, CGO) barrier layer and a lanthanum cobalt nickelate (La0.95Co0.4Ni0.6O3, LCN) electro catalyst layer into a porous yttrium doped zirconia (YSZ) backbone. The influences...... of the following parameters on the microstructure of the formed CGO barrier layer and on the electrochemical performance of the cells were studied: i) surfactants and wetting agents, ii) ceria/gadolinia coverage, iii) calcination profiles and iv) exposure temperature during testing. The infiltration process...... performance and only a small increase of the cell-resistance with increasing exposure temperatures during testing were obtained. A complete and homogenous covering of the YSZ backbone with Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 was found to be necessary to maintain high performance also at higher exposure temperatures (> 800 °C)....

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  15. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  16. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  17. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  18. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  20. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  1. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  2. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  3. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  5. Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U Sik

    1998-01-01

    In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids

  6. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  7. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  8. Forming of porous mullite green bodies by albumin thermal consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, M.L.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Pre-firing mullite microstructures developed by a new thermal consolidation method using globular proteins as foaming and consolidator/binders were analyzed. Commercial available powders of mullite (Baikowski) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, Aldricht) were employed. Stable aqueous suspensions (40 vol.%) of mullite- BSA (10 vol.%) were foamed (2300 rpm, 10 min) at: I) room temperature; II) 68 deg C, temperature slightly lower to the gelling 'onset' TG"0, and III) 68 deg C with the addition of 2 wt.% of methylcellulose. Green disks were prepared by pouring of foamed suspensions into pre-heated metal molds (70 deg C), thermal gelling (80 °C, 3h) and drying (50 °C, 12h). Previously, the developed foams were characterized and their rheological properties were determined as a function of temperature (TG"0). The characterization of the pre-firing microstructures were carried out by measurements of porosity (>80%) and microstructural analysis in fracture surface by SEM. (author)

  9. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  10. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  11. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  12. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  13. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  14. A novel accelerated oxidative stability screening method for pharmaceutical solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Donghua Alan; Zhang, Geoff G Z; George, Karen L S T; Zhou, Deliang

    2011-08-01

    Despite the fact that oxidation is the second most frequent degradation pathway for pharmaceuticals, means of evaluating the oxidative stability of pharmaceutical solids, especially effective stress testing, are still lacking. This paper describes a novel experimental method for peroxide-mediated oxidative stress testing on pharmaceutical solids. The method utilizes urea-hydrogen peroxide, a molecular complex that undergoes solid-state decomposition and releases hydrogen peroxide vapor at elevated temperatures (e.g., 30°C), as a source of peroxide. The experimental setting for this method is simple, convenient, and can be operated routinely in most laboratories. The fundamental parameter of the system, that is, hydrogen peroxide vapor pressure, was determined using a modified spectrophotometric method. The feasibility and utility of the proposed method in solid form selection have been demonstrated using various solid forms of ephedrine. No degradation was detected for ephedrine hydrochloride after exposure to the hydrogen peroxide vapor for 2 weeks, whereas both anhydrate and hemihydrate free base forms degraded rapidly under the test conditions. In addition, both the anhydrate and the hemihydrate free base degraded faster when exposed to hydrogen peroxide vapor at 30°C under dry condition than at 30°C/75% relative humidity (RH). A new degradation product was also observed under the drier condition. The proposed method provides more relevant screening conditions for solid dosage forms, and is useful in selecting optimal solid form(s), determining potential degradation products, and formulation screening during development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  16. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  17. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  18. Three-body forces and the trinucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs

  19. Evolution of Ca-Al-rich bodies in the earliest solar system: growth by incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wark, D.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Many Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite contain two types of spinel structures, 'framboids' and 'palisades'. Framboids are clumps of spinel grains generally < 100 μm across. Experimental studies show that they probably formed in situ by solid state growth processes. Palisades are texturally different and consist of ovoid shells of spinel grains that appear in thin sections as long arcs or rings with diameters ranging from approx. 50 μm up to 2 cm. No in situ formation process seems able to explain the variety of sizes and morphologies of palisades nor the different compositions and textures of the enclosed and enclosing materials. We therefore suggest that palisades are the spinel rims of smaller, earlier-formed Type B CAI's that were incorporated into other CAI material in various ways - by capture into liquid drops, by solid condensate overgrowths and by the partial melting or welding of agglomerates containing the bodies. As some Type B bodies have been found inside Type A host material it appears that in at least some regions, and probably generally, Type A CAI's formed after Type B. Proposals are made concerning the origin of the CAI material. (author)

  20. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)