Solid angles III. The role of conformers in solid angle calculations
White, D
1995-06-14
Full Text Available The values of the solid angles Omega for a range of commonly encountered ligands in organometallic chemistry (phosphines, phosphites, amines, arsines and cyclopentadienyl rings) have been determined. The solid angles were derived from a single...
On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations
Friot, Samuel
2014-01-01
Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella Fc functions.
Liquid/liquid/solid contact angles
Borocco, Marine; Pellet, Charlotte; Authelin, Jean-René; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Compagnie des Interfaces Team
2016-11-01
Many studies have investigated solid/liquid/air interfaces and their corresponding wetting properties. We discuss what happens in less-studied liquid/liquid/solid systems, and focus on questions of dynamical wetting in a tube, having in mind applications in detergency. We use a capillary tube filled with water and containing a slug of silicone oil (or vice-versa), and present a series of experiments to determine static and dynamic wetting properties corresponding to this situation. We also discuss interfacial aging of such systems.
UPPER LIMITS FOR THE CONTACT ANGLES OF LIQUIDS ON SOLIDS
available on equilibrium contact angles . These data were obtained under well- controlled and comparable experimental conditions for many liquids on...Earlier systematic studies of the angle of contact (theta) exhibited by drops of liquid on plane solid surfaces of low surface energy have made data...From the parameters defining this straight line, estimates can be made of the limiting contact angles for each liquid.
Equilibrium contact angles of liquid droplets on ideal rough solids.
Kang, Hie Chan; Jacobi, Anthony M
2011-12-20
This work proposes a theoretical model for predicting the apparent equilibrium contact angle of a liquid on an ideal rough surface that is homogeneous and has a negligible body force, line tension, or contact angle hysteresis between solid and liquid. The model is derived from the conservation equations and the free-energy minimization theory for the changes of state of liquid droplets. The work of adhesion is expressed as the contact angles in the wetting process of the liquid droplets. Equilibrium contact angles of liquid droplets for rough surfaces are expressed as functions of the area ratios for the solid, liquid, and surrounding gas and the roughness ratio and wetting ratio of the liquid on the solid for the partially and fully wet states. It is found that the ideal critical angle for accentuating the contact angles by the surface roughness is 48°. The present model is compared with existing experimental data and the classical Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models and agrees with most of the experimental data for various surfaces and liquids better than does the Wenzel model and accounts for trends that the Wenzel model cannot explain.
HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM NMR OF SOLIDS BY MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING
Eckman, R.R.
1982-10-01
The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large spectral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. For example, the homonuclear dipolar broadening, HD, for hydrogen is usually several tens of kilohertz. For deuterium, HD is relatively small; however, the quadrupole interaction causes a broadening which can be hundreds of kilohertz in polycrystalline or amorphous solids. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, {beta}{sub m} = Arccos(3{sup -1/2}), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Two approaches have been developed for each nucleus. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of {beta}. A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H{sub D} was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal
Contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface.
Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli
2015-02-21
The contact angle of a cylindrical nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface is calculated, for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, using the density functional theory. The emphasis of the paper is on the dependence of the contact angle on roughness. The roughness is modeled by rectangular pillars of infinite length located on the smooth surface of a substrate, with fluid-pillar interactions different in strength from the fluid-substrate ones. It is shown that for hydrophobic substrates the trend of the contact angle to increase with increasing roughness, which was noted in all previous studies, is not universally valid, but depends on the fluid-pillar interactions, pillar height, interpillar distance, as well as on the size of the drop. For hydrophilic substrate, an unusual kink-like dependence of the contact angle on the nanodrop size is found which is caused by the change in the location of the leading edges of the nanodrop on the surface. It is also shown that the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations can not explain all the peculiarities of the contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough surface.
Surface free energy of a solid from contact angle hysteresis.
Chibowski, Emil
2003-04-25
Nature of contact angle hysteresis is discussed basing on the literature data (Colloids Surf. A 189 (2001) 265) of dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of n-alkanes and n-alcohols on a very smooth surface of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2,-trifluoroethane (FC-732) film deposited on a silicon plate. The authors considered the liquid absorption and/or retention (swelling) processes responsible for the observed hysteresis. In this paper hysteresis is considered to be due to the liquid film left behind the drop during retreating of its contact line. Using the contact angle hysteresis an approach is suggested for evaluation of the solid surface free energy. Molecular spacing and the film structure are discussed to explain the difference in n-alkanes and n-alcohols behaviour as well as to explain the difference between dispersion free energy gamma(s)(d) and total surface free energy gamma(s)(tot) of FC-732, as determined from the advancing contact angles and the hysteresis, respectively.
``DELF'', a large solid angle detection system for heavy fragments
Bougault, R.; Duchon, J.; Gautier, J. M.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Mosrin, P.; Regimbart, R.
1987-09-01
To detect the heavy fragments ( Z > 8) emitted at large angle (30° < θ < 150°) in heavy ion collisions at GANIL, a large solid angle detection system has been built. It consists of 18 independent cells surrounding the target, the beam axis being the revolution axis. In each cell, a fragment penetrates at first into a parallel plate avalanche counter with localization which gives velocity, position and {∂E}/{∂x} measurements and then into an ionization chamber with longitudinal field for the residual energy measurement. The Z evaluation is performed over a large range of velocities (0.05 < {E}/{A} < 5 MeV/u) for atomic numbers ranging from 8 to 90.
Optical trapping of nanoparticles by full solid-angle focusing
Salakhutdinov, Vsevolod; Carbone, Luigi; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto; Leuchs, Gerd
2015-01-01
We propose and implement a dipole-trap for nanoparticles that is based on focusing from the full solid angle with a deep parabolic mirror. The key aspect is the generation of a linear-dipole mode. For such a mode, our calculations predict a trapping potential that is deeper and tighter than the potential obtainable with microscope objectives. We demonstrate the trapping of dot-in-rod nanoparticles. From the detected fluorescence photons we obtain intensity correlation functions of second order with $g^{(2)}(0)< 0.5$, suggesting the trapping of a single quantum emitter.
Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei
2014-12-01
In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.
A novel solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) scanning scheme
Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 and Xcision Medical System, LLC, 12707 Chapel Chase Drive, Clarksville, Maryland 21209 (United States)
2010-08-15
Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.
Bounds for solid angles of lattices of rank three
Fukshansky, Lenny
2010-01-01
We find sharp absolute constants $C_1$ and $C_2$ with the following property: every well-rounded lattice of rank 3 in a Euclidean space has a minimal basis so that the solid angle spanned by these basis vectors lies in the interval $[C_1,C_2]$. In fact, we show that these absolute bounds hold for a larger class of lattices than just well-rounded, and the upper bound holds for all. We state a technical condition on the lattice that may prevent it from satisfying the absolute lower bound on the solid angle, in which case we derive a lower bound in terms of the ratios of successive minima of the lattice. We use this result to show that among all spherical triangles on the unit sphere in $\\mathbb R^N$ with vertices on the minimal vectors of a lattice, the smallest possible area is achieved by a configuration of minimal vectors of the (normalized) face centered cubic lattice in $\\mathbb R^3$. Such spherical configurations come up in connection with the kissing number problem.
Modular 20 kW solid state RF amplifier for Indus-2 syncrotron radiation source
Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Hannurkar, P.R.; Sharma, D.K.; Gupta, A.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Lad, M.; Kumar, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Gupta, P.D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)
2012-06-01
This article presents the design and development of 505.8 MHz modular solid state Radio frequency (RF) amplifier capable of delivering 20 kW continuous RF power. It has been successfully commissioned for serving as the modern RF power source in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. For this amplifier, design procedure has been formulated for the solid state amplifier modules, radial combiner, divider, directional coupler and overall system architecture, with specifications suited to RF source for particle accelerator. This article describes underlying design principles and indigenous development of this amplifier, consisting of 400 W amplifier modules, 5 kW 16-port radial combiner/divider and directional couplers. Detail performance characterization of amplifier on component level as well as system level serves as useful data for higher power solid state amplifier designers. Simple design, indigenous technology, high efficiency and ease of fabrication, are the main features of this design.
Defined solid-angle counter with variable geometry
Garcia-Torano, E. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.es; Duran Ramiro, T. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Burgos, C. [Division de Infraestrutura General Tecnica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Begona Ahedo, M. [Unidad de Ingenieria y Obras, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
2008-06-15
We describe a defined solid-angle counter for the standardization of radioactive sources of alpha-particle emitters. It has been built with the aim of combining good counting efficiencies, low uncertainties and flexibility of operation. The distance between source and detector can be changed in a continuous way with a precision guide and a ball screw from 8 to 19 cm, which correspond to counting efficiencies between 0.023 and 0.004 for small size sources. A linear encoder allows the accurate determination of the source position. Alpha spectra of the sources are measured with an implanted silicon detector with an active area of 2000 mm{sup 2}. Uncertainties, excluding counting statistics, are below 0.1%.
Understanding contact angle hysteresis on an ambient solid surface
Wang, Yong Jian; Guo, Shuo; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Tong, Penger
2016-05-01
We report a systematic study of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) with direct measurement of the capillary force acting on a contact line formed on the surface of a long glass fiber intersecting a liquid-air interface. The glass fiber of diameter 1 -2 μ m and length 100 -200 μ m is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever beam, which is used for atomic force microscopy. From the measured hysteresis loop of the capillary force for 28 different liquids with varying surface tensions and contact angles, we find a universal behavior of the unbalanced capillary force in the advancing and receding directions and the spring constant of a stretched meniscus by the glass fiber. Measurements of the capillary force and its fluctuations suggest that CAH on an ambient solid surface is caused primarily by two types of coexisting and spatially intertwined defects with opposite natures. The contact line is primarily pinned by the relatively nonwetting (repulsive) defects in the advancing direction and by the relatively wetting (attractive) defects in the receding direction. Based on the experimental observations, we propose a "composite model" of CAH and relevant scaling laws, which explain the basic features of the measured hysteresis force loops.
Understanding contact angle hysteresis on an ambient solid surface.
Wang, Yong Jian; Guo, Shuo; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Tong, Penger
2016-05-01
We report a systematic study of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) with direct measurement of the capillary force acting on a contact line formed on the surface of a long glass fiber intersecting a liquid-air interface. The glass fiber of diameter 1-2μm and length 100-200μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever beam, which is used for atomic force microscopy. From the measured hysteresis loop of the capillary force for 28 different liquids with varying surface tensions and contact angles, we find a universal behavior of the unbalanced capillary force in the advancing and receding directions and the spring constant of a stretched meniscus by the glass fiber. Measurements of the capillary force and its fluctuations suggest that CAH on an ambient solid surface is caused primarily by two types of coexisting and spatially intertwined defects with opposite natures. The contact line is primarily pinned by the relatively nonwetting (repulsive) defects in the advancing direction and by the relatively wetting (attractive) defects in the receding direction. Based on the experimental observations, we propose a "composite model" of CAH and relevant scaling laws, which explain the basic features of the measured hysteresis force loops.
Modular Coils with Low Hydrogen Content Especially for MRI of Dry Solids.
Timon Eichhorn
Full Text Available Recent advances have enabled fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of solid materials. This development has opened up new applications for MRI, but, at the same time, uncovered new challenges. Previously, MRI-invisible materials like the housing of MRI detection coils are now readily depicted and either cause artifacts or lead to a decreased image resolution. In this contribution, we present versatile, multi-nuclear single and dual-tune MRI coils that stand out by (1 a low hydrogen content for high-resolution MRI of dry solids without artifacts; (2 a modular approach with exchangeable inductors of variable volumes to optimally enclose the given object; (3 low cost and low manufacturing effort that is associated with the modular approach; (4 accurate sample placement in the coil outside of the bore, and (5 a wide, single- or dual-tune frequency range that covers several nuclei and enables multinuclear MRI without moving the sample.The inductors of the coils were constructed from self-supporting copper sheets to avoid all plastic materials within or around the resonator. The components that were mounted at a distance from the inductor, including the circuit board, coaxial cable and holder were manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene.Residual hydrogen signal was sufficiently well suppressed to allow 1H-MRI of dry solids with a minimum field of view that was smaller than the sensitive volume of the coil. The SNR was found to be comparable but somewhat lower with respect to commercial, proton-rich quadrature coils, and higher with respect to a linearly-polarized commercial coil. The potential of the setup presented was exemplified by 1H/23Na high-resolution zero echo time (ZTE MRI of a model solution and a dried human molar at 9.4 T. A full 3D image dataset of the tooth was obtained, rich in contrast and similar to the resolution of standard cone-beam computed tomography.
Improvement of effective solid angle using virtual-pivot holder and large EDS detector.
Koshiya, Shogo; Kimoto, Koji
2017-02-01
This paper describes the effective solid angle improvement achieved using a large-area silicon drift detector together with a virtual-pivot double-tilt specimen holder. The virtual-pivot mechanism enables various designs of specimen-retaining and can reduce the shadowing effect. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were measured and converted into effective solid angles using different types of specimen holders and specimens. The investigated shadowing-free mechanical system yielded effective solid angles approaching the nominal solid angle of 0.464sr. In addition, we have demonstrated the availability of the plastic (polyetheretherketone) specimen holder for low system noise.
The high granularity and large solid angle detection array EXPADES
Strano, E., E-mail: estrano@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Anastasio, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bettini, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cassese, C. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Castellani, L.; Corti, D. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Meo, P. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Galet, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, Str. Reactorului No. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grebosz, J. [IFJ PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Guglielmetti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nicoletto, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others
2013-12-15
Highlights: • We realized a detection array for Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams. • High granularity (32 × 32 pixels 2 × 2 mm wide for 8 telescopes). • High solid angle (8 telescopes 64 × 64 mm wide in a cylindrical configuration covering up to 2.6 sr). • We tested each component of the array by both alpha particles and in-beam environment. • We measured the angular distribution for {sup 17}O elastic scattering on a {sup 58}Ni target. -- Abstract: The EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System) detector array consists of 16 Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with active areas of 64 × 64 mm{sup 2}, arranged in 8 ΔE (40/50 μm)–E (300 μm) telescopes. All detector faces are segmented into 32 × 2-mm wide strips, ensuring a 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} pixel configuration. Eight ionization chambers can be alternatively used as ΔE stages or, if needed, as an additional third layer for more complex triple telescopes. The signals from silicon ΔE layers and from ionization chambers are read by standard electronics, while innovative 32-channel ASIC chips are employed for the readout of the E stages. The results of off-line tests with alpha sources and from the first in-beam experiment with a {sup 17}O beam are presented.
Hong, Seung Do; Ha, Man Yeong; Balachandar, S
2009-11-01
The present study investigates the variation of static contact angle of a water droplet in equilibrium with a solid surface in the absence of a body force and the dynamic contact angles of water droplet moving on a solid surface for different characteristic energies using the molecular dynamics simulation. With increasing characteristic energy, the static contact angle in equilibrium with a solid surface in the absence of a body force decreases because the hydrophobic surface changes its characteristics to the hydrophilic surface. In order to consider the effect of moving water droplet on the dynamic contact angles, we apply the constant acceleration to an individual oxygen and hydrogen atom. In the presence of a body force, the water droplet changes its shape with larger advancing contact angle than the receding angle. The dynamic contact angles are compared with the static contact angle in order to see the effect of the presence of a body force.
Contact Angles on a Soft Solid: From Young’s Law to Neumann’s Law
Marchand, A.; Das, S.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Andreotti, B.
2012-01-01
The contact angle that a liquid drop makes on a soft substrate does not obey the classical Young’s relation, since the solid is deformed elastically by the action of the capillary forces. The finite elasticity of the solid also renders the contact angles differently from those predicted by Neumann’s
Contact angles on a soft solid: from Young's law to Neumann's law
Marchand, Antonin; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Andreotti, Bruno
2012-01-01
The contact angle that a liquid drop makes on a soft substrate does not obey the classical Young's relation, since the solid is deformed elastically by the action of the capillary forces. The finite elasticity of the solid also renders the contact angles different from that predicted by Neumann's law, which applies when the drop is floating on another liquid. Here we derive an elasto-capillary model for contact angles on a soft solid, by coupling a mean-field model for the molecular interactions to elasticity. We demonstrate that the limit of vanishing elastic modulus yields Neumann's law or a slight variation thereof, depending on the force transmission in the solid surface layer. The change in contact angle from the rigid limit (Young) to the soft limit (Neumann) appears when the length scale defined by the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus $\\gamma/E$ reaches a few molecular sizes.
Comparing contact angle measurements and surface tension assessments of solid surfaces.
Cwikel, Dory; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Chen; Su, Xueju; Marmur, Abraham
2010-10-05
Four types of contact angles (receding, most stable, advancing, and "static") were measured by two independent laboratories for a large number of solid surfaces, spanning a large range of surface tensions. It is shown that the most stable contact angle, which is theoretically required for calculating the Young contact angle, is a practical, useful tool for wettability characterization of solid surfaces. In addition, it is shown that the experimentally measured most stable contact angle may not always be approximated by an average angle calculated from the advancing and receding contact angles. The "static" CA is shown in many cases to be very different from the most stable one. The measured contact angles were used for calculating the surface tensions of the solid samples by five methods. Meaningful differences exist among the surface tensions calculated using four previously known methods (Owens-Wendt, Wu, acid-base, and equation of state). A recently developed, Gibbsian-based correlation between interfacial tensions and individual surface tensions was used to calculate the surface tensions of the solid surfaces from the most stable contact angle of water. This calculation yielded in most cases higher values than calculated with the other four methods. On the basis of some low surface energy samples, the higher values appear to be justified.
Development of a software package for solid-angle calculations using the Monte Carlo method
Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie_scu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Xiulian [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Changsheng [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Gang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu, Jiayun, E-mail: xjy@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Sun, Guangai [Key Laboratory for Neutron Physics of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2014-02-01
Solid-angle calculations play an important role in the absolute calibration of radioactivity measurement systems and in the determination of the activity of radioactive sources, which are often complicated. In the present paper, a software package is developed to provide a convenient tool for solid-angle calculations in nuclear physics. The proposed software calculates solid angles using the Monte Carlo method, in which a new type of variance reduction technique was integrated. The package, developed under the environment of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) in Microsoft Visual C{sup ++}, has a graphical user interface, in which, the visualization function is integrated in conjunction with OpenGL. One advantage of the proposed software package is that it can calculate the solid angle subtended by a detector with different geometric shapes (e.g., cylinder, square prism, regular triangular prism or regular hexagonal prism) to a point, circular or cylindrical source without any difficulty. The results obtained from the proposed software package were compared with those obtained from previous studies and calculated using Geant4. It shows that the proposed software package can produce accurate solid-angle values with a greater computation speed than Geant4. -- Highlights: • This software package (SAC) can give accurate solid-angle values. • SAC calculate solid angles using the Monte Carlo method and it has higher computation speed than Geant4. • A simple but effective variance reduction technique which was put forward by the authors has been applied in SAC. • A visualization function and a graphical user interface are also integrated in SAC.
Development of a software package for solid-angle calculations using the Monte Carlo method
Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiulian; Zhang, Changsheng; Li, Gang; Xu, Jiayun; Sun, Guangai
2014-02-01
Solid-angle calculations play an important role in the absolute calibration of radioactivity measurement systems and in the determination of the activity of radioactive sources, which are often complicated. In the present paper, a software package is developed to provide a convenient tool for solid-angle calculations in nuclear physics. The proposed software calculates solid angles using the Monte Carlo method, in which a new type of variance reduction technique was integrated. The package, developed under the environment of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) in Microsoft Visual C++, has a graphical user interface, in which, the visualization function is integrated in conjunction with OpenGL. One advantage of the proposed software package is that it can calculate the solid angle subtended by a detector with different geometric shapes (e.g., cylinder, square prism, regular triangular prism or regular hexagonal prism) to a point, circular or cylindrical source without any difficulty. The results obtained from the proposed software package were compared with those obtained from previous studies and calculated using Geant4. It shows that the proposed software package can produce accurate solid-angle values with a greater computation speed than Geant4.
Kong, Bin; Yang, Xiaozhen
2006-02-28
We have studied two types of topological substrates--the continuous solid substrates (CSS) and the discontinuous solid substrates (DSS)--by using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for a better understanding of the contact angle hysteresis on two such substrates. After the validation of DPD in the system, we found that DSS has a different distribution of the metastable states from that of CSS and that DSS has relatively larger contact angle hysteresis at lower temperature. Obtained results also show that CSS is more suitable for making an ultrahydrophobic or ultralyophobic surface than DSS from the point of view of dynamic wettability.
1020MHz single-channel proton fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy.
Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Zhang, Rongchun; Hashi, Kenjiro; Ohki, Shinobu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Takashi; Deguchi, Kenzo; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Maeda, Hideaki; Takahashi, Masato; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshio; Iguchi, Seiya; Tanaka, Ryoji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke
2015-12-01
This study reports a first successful demonstration of a single channel proton 3D and 2D high-throughput ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR techniques in an ultra-high magnetic field (1020MHz) NMR spectrometer comprised of HTS/LTS magnet. High spectral resolution is well demonstrated.
Lazar, Markus, E-mail: lazar@fkp.tu-darmstadt.de [Heisenberg Research Group, Department of Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstr. 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Po, Giacomo [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2014-01-24
A representation of the solid angle and the Burgers formula as line integral is derived in the framework of the theory of gradient elasticity of Helmholtz type. The gradient version of the Eshelby–deWit representation of the Burgers formula of a closed dislocation loop is given. Such a form is suitable for the numerical implementation in 3D dislocation dynamics (DD).
Characterization of actinide targets by low solid-angle alpha particle counting
Denecke, B; Pauwels, J; Robouch, P; Gilliam, D M; Hodge, P; Hutchinson, J M R; Nico, J S
1999-01-01
Actinide samples were characterized in an interlaboratory comparison between IRMM and NIST, including alpha-particle counting at defined low solid angle and counting in a 2 pi proportional gas counter. For this comparison, nine sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 UF sub 4 samples with high uniformity in the layer thickness were prepared at IRMM by deposition under vacuum. Polished silicon wafers were used as source substrates, and these were rotated during the deposition using a planetary rotation system. The estimated uncertainties for the defined low solid-angle methods were about 0.1% at both NIST and IRMM. The agreement of reported alpha-particle emission rates in the energy range 2.5-5.09 MeV was better than or equal to 0.02% for the defined solid-angle methods. When comparing total alpha-particle emission rates over the larger energy range 0-9 MeV (which includes all emissions from the daughter nuclides and the impurities), the agreement of the defined solid-angle methods was better than or equal to 0.05%. The 2 pi propo...
Huotari, S; Sahle, Ch J; Henriquet, Ch; Al-Zein, A; Martel, K; Simonelli, L; Verbeni, R; Gonzalez, H; Lagier, M C; Ponchut, C; Moretti Sala, M; Krisch, M; Monaco, G
2017-03-01
An end-station for X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at beamline ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. This end-station is dedicated to the study of shallow core electronic excitations using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. The spectrometer has 72 spherically bent analyzer crystals arranged in six modular groups of 12 analyzer crystals each for a combined maximum flexibility and large solid angle of detection. Each of the six analyzer modules houses one pixelated area detector allowing for X-ray Raman scattering based imaging and efficient separation of the desired signal from the sample and spurious scattering from the often used complicated sample environments. This new end-station provides an unprecedented instrument for X-ray Raman scattering, which is a spectroscopic tool of great interest for the study of low-energy X-ray absorption spectra in materials under in situ conditions, such as in operando batteries and fuel cells, in situ catalytic reactions, and extreme pressure and temperature conditions.
Comparison of contact angle hysteresis of different probe liquids on the same solid surface.
Chibowski, Emil; Jurak, Malgorzata
2013-02-01
Advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) layers deposited on three different solid supports-glass, mica and poly(methyl methacrylate). Up to five statistical monolayers were deposited on the surfaces by spreading DPPC solution. It was found that even on five statistical DPPC monolayers, the hysteresis of a given liquid depends on the kind of solid support. Also on the same solid support the contact angle hysteresis is different for each probe liquid used. The AFM images show that the heights of roughness of the DPPC films cannot be the primary cause of the observed hysteresis because the heights are too small to cause the observed hystereses. It is believed that the hysteresis is due to the liquid film present right behind the three-phase solid surface/liquid drop/gas (vapour) contact line and the presence of Derjaguin pressure. The value of contact angle hysteresis depends on both the solid surface and liquid properties as well as on intermolecular interactions between them.
EFFECT OF NOZZLE FAN ANGLE ON SPRAYS IN GAS-SOLID RISER FLOW
Muhammad; M.; R.; Qureshi; Chao; Zhu; Chao-Hsin; Lin; Liang-Shih; Fan
2006-01-01
A three-dimensional simulation study is performed for investigating the hydrodynamic behaviors of a cross-flow liquid nitrogen spray injected into an air-fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) riser of rectangular cross-section. Rectangular nozzles with a fixed aspect ratio but different fan angles are used for the spray feeding. While our numerical simulation reveals a generic three-phase flow structure with strong three-phase interactions under rapid vaporization of sprays, this paper tends to focus on the study of the effect of nozzle fan angle on the spray coverage as well as vapor flux distribution by spray vaporization inside the riser flow. The gas-solid (air-FCC) flow is simulated using the multi-fluid method while the evaporating sprays (liquid nitrogen) are calculated using the Lagrangian trajectory method, with a strong two-way coupling between the Eulerian gas-solid flow and the Lagrangian trajectories of spray. Our simulation shows that the spray coverage is basically dominated by the spray fan angle. The spray fan angle has a very minor effect on spray penetration. The spray vaporization flux per unit area of spray coverage is highly non-linearly distributed along the spray penetration. The convection of gas-solid flow in a riser leads to a significant downward deviation of vapor generated by droplet vaporization, causing a strong recirculating wake region in the immediate downstream area of the spray.
Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic-angle spinning
Eckman, R.R.
1982-10-01
The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large specral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, ..beta../sub m/ = Arccos (3/sup -1/2/), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of ..beta... A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H/sub D/ was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal motion. In the general case of large H/sub D/, isotropic spectra were obtained by dilution of /sup 1/H with /sup 2/H combined with magic angle rotation. The resolution obtained represents the practical limit for proton NMR of solids.
Bratchenko, M I
2001-01-01
A novel method of Monte Carlo simulation of small-angle reflection of charged particles from solid surfaces has been developed. Instead of atomic-scale simulation of particle-surface collisions the method treats the reflection macroscopically as 'condensed history' event. Statistical parameters of reflection are sampled from the theoretical distributions upon energy and angles. An efficient sampling algorithm based on combination of inverse probability distribution function method and rejection method has been proposed and tested. As an example of application the results of statistical modeling of particles flux enhancement near the bottom of vertical Wehner cone are presented and compared with simple geometrical model of specular reflection.
The wetting problem of fluids on solid surfaces: Dynamics of lines and contact angle hysteresis
Gouin, Henri
2001-01-01
8 pages; International audience; In 1805, Young was the first who introduced an expression for contact angle in static, but today, the motion of the contact-line formed at the intersection of two immiscible fluids and a solid is still subject to dispute. By means of the new physical concept of line viscosity, the equations of motions and boundary conditions for fluids in contact on a solid surface together with interface and contact-line are revisited. A new Young-Dupré equation for the dynam...
Force of adhesion upon loss of contact angle hysteresis: when a liquid behaves like a solid.
Escobar, Juan V; Castillo, Rolando
2013-11-27
The theoretically predicted vanishment of the macroscopic contact angle hysteresis is found experimentally along with a small but finite force of adhesion (F(Ad)≈-0.5 μN) that, unexpectedly, is independent of the history of the preload. Our results agree with the prediction of a model in which the surface tension of the liquid provides the counterpart of the restoring force of an elastic solid, evidencing that the dewetting of a liquid in the absence of strong pinning points is equivalent to the detachment of an elastic solid.
Instrumentation for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization with magic angle spinning NMR
Rosay, Melanie; Blank, Monica; Engelke, Frank
2016-03-01
Advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation and methodology have been key factors in the recent growth of solid-state DNP NMR applications. We review the current state of the art of solid-state DNP NMR instrumentation primarily based on available commercial platforms. We start with a general system overview, including options for microwave sources and DNP NMR probes, and then focus on specific developments for DNP at 100 K with magic angle spinning (MAS). Gyrotron microwave sources, passive components to transmit microwaves, the DNP MAS probe, a cooling device for low-temperature MAS, and sample preparation procedures including radicals for DNP are considered.
Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.
Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong
2015-07-01
Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended.
Drops on soft solids: Free energy and double transition of contact angles
Lubbers, Luuk A; Botto, Lorenzo; Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H
2013-01-01
The equilibrium shape of liquid drops on elastic substrates is determined by minimising elastic and capillary free energies. The problem is governed by three length scales: the size of the drop $R$, the molecular size $a$, and the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus $\\gamma/E$. We show that the contact angles undergo two transitions upon changing the substrates from rigid to soft. The microscopic wetting angles deviate from Young's law when $\\gamma/Ea \\gg 1$, while the apparent macroscopic angle only changes in the very soft limit $\\gamma/ER \\gg 1$. Details of the elastic deformations are worked out in the simplifying case where the surface energy of the solid is assumed independent of the elastic strain. The total free energy is found to be lowest on softer substrates, consistent with recent experiments. Finally, we discuss how the variational framework can be generalized to properly account for surface stress.
Kuchin, Igor V; Starov, Victor M
2016-05-31
A theory of contact angle hysteresis of a meniscus inside thin capillaries with smooth, homogeneous solid walls is developed in terms of surface forces (disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm) using a quasi-equilibrium approach. The disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm includes electrostatic, intermolecular, and structural components. The values of the static receding θr, advancing θa, and equilibrium θe contact angles in thin capillaries were calculated on the basis of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It was shown that both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the capillary radius. The suggested mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis has a direct experimental confirmation: the process of receding is accompanied by the formation of thick β-films on the capillary walls. The effect of the transition from partial to complete wetting in thin capillaries is predicted and analyzed. This effect takes place in very thin capillaries, when the receding contact angle decreases to zero.
Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization
Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård
The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....
Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report
Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)
2010-10-15
This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)
Abbas, Mahmoud I., E-mail: mabbas@physicist.net [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Hammoud, Sami [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Art, Lebanese International University (Lebanon); Ibrahim, Tarek; Sakr, Mohamed [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon)
2015-01-21
In this article, we introduce a direct analytical mathematical method for calculating the solid angle, Ω, subtended at a point by closed elliptical contours. The solid angle is required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the flux of particle beam of radiation and to determine the activity of a radioactive source. The validity of the derived analytical expressions was successfully confirmed by the comparison with some published data (Numerical Method)
A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies
Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.
2006-01-01
We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature $50\\mathrm{\\mu m}$. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and the cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a d...
Kuchin, I; Starov, V
2015-05-19
A theory of contact angle hysteresis of liquid droplets on smooth, homogeneous solid substrates is developed in terms of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm and quasi-equilibrium phenomena. It is shown that all contact angles, θ, in the range θr contact angle θ ≠ θe, correspond to the state of slow "microscopic" advancing or receding motion of the liquid if θe contact angle reaches the critical values θa or θr, correspondingly. The values of the static receding, θr, and static advancing, θa, contact angles in cylindrical capillaries were calculated earlier, based on the shape of disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It is shown now that (i) both advancing and receding contact angles of a droplet on a on smooth, homogeneous solid substrate can be calculated based on shape of disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm, and (ii) both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the drop volume and are not unique characteristics of the liquid-solid system. The latter is different from advancing/receding contact angles in thin capillaries. It is shown also that the receding contact angle is much closer to the equilibrium contact angle than the advancing contact angle. The latter conclusion is unexpected and is in a contradiction with the commonly accepted view that the advancing contact angle can be taken as the first approximation for the equilibrium contact angle. The dependency of hysteresis contact angles on the drop volume has a direct experimental confirmation.
Absence of solid angle deficit singularities in beyond-generalized proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-12-01
In Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) scalar-tensor theories, which are outside the domain of second-order Horndeski theories, it is known that there exists a solid angle deficit singularity in the case where the parameter αH characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a nonvanishing constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body. Meanwhile, it was recently shown that second-order generalized Proca theories with a massive vector field Aμ can be consistently extended to beyond-generalized Proca theories, which recover shift-symmetric GLPV theories in the scalar limit Aμ→∇μχ . In beyond-generalized Proca theories up to quartic-order Lagrangians, we show that solid angle deficit singularities are generally absent due to the existence of a temporal vector component. We also derive the vector-field profiles around a compact object and show that the success of the Vainshtein mechanism operated by vector Galileons is not prevented by new interactions in beyond generalized Proca theories.
Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods
Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan
2015-11-01
Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.
Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.
Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko
2014-03-01
Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.
Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements
Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław
2017-05-01
The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.
Riedel, Kerstin; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai [Institut fuer Molekulare Biotechnologie, Abteilung Molekulare Biophysik/NMR-Spektroskopie (Germany)], E-mail: raman@imb-jena.de
2005-04-15
It is demonstrated that the spatial proximity of {sup 1}H nuclei in hydrogen bonded base-pairs in RNAs can be conveniently mapped via magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments involving proton spin diffusion driven chemical shift correlation of low gamma nuclei such as the imino and amino nitrogens of nucleic acid bases. As different canonical and non-canonical base-pairing schemes encountered in nucleic acids are characterised by topologically different networks of proton dipolar couplings, different base-pairing schemes lead to characteristic cross-peak intensity patterns in such correlation spectra. The method was employed in a study of a 100 kDa RNA composed of 97 CUG repeats, or (CUG){sub 97} that has been implicated in the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N chemical shift correlation studies confirm the presence of Watson-Crick GC base pairs in (CUG){sub 97}.
Ultra fast magic angle spinning solid - state NMR spectroscopy of intact bone.
Singh, Chandan; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Kayastha, Arvind M; Sinha, Neeraj
2016-02-01
Ultra fast magic angle spinning (MAS) has been a potent method to significantly average out homogeneous/inhomogeneous line broadening in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy. It has given a new direction to ssNMR spectroscopy with its different applications. We present here the first and foremost application of ultra fast MAS (~60 kHz) for ssNMR spectroscopy of intact bone. This methodology helps to comprehend and elucidate the organic content in the intact bone matrix with resolution and sensitivity enhancement. At this MAS speed, amino protons from organic part of intact bone start to appear in (1) H NMR spectra. The experimental protocol of ultra-high speed MAS for intact bone has been entailed with an additional insight achieved at 60 kHz.
A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies
Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.
2006-03-01
We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature 50 µm. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a diffraction-limited (sub-micron) mode-waist at the planar mirror, leading to a large coupling constant between the cavity mode and QD. The half-monolithic design gives more spatial and spectral tuning abilities, relatively to fully monolithic structures. This unique micro-cavity design will potentially enable us to both reach the cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) strong coupling regime and realize the deterministic generation of single photons on demand.
Equilibrium gas-liquid-solid contact angle from density-functional theory
Pereira, Antonio
2010-01-01
We investigate the equilibrium of a fluid in contact with a solid boundary through a density-functional theory. Depending on the conditions, the fluid can be in one phase, gas or liquid, or two phases, while the wall induces an external field acting on the fluid particles. We first examine the case of a liquid film in contact with the wall. We construct bifurcation diagrams for the film thickness as a function of the chemical potential. At a specific value of the chemical potential, two equally stable films, a thin one and a thick one, can coexist. As saturation is approached, the thickness of the thick film tends to infinity. This allows the construction of a liquid-gas interface that forms a well defined contact angle with the wall.
Liquid transfer between two solid surfaces with the effect of contact angle hysteresis
Chen, Huanchen; Tang, Tian; Amirfazli, Alidad
2013-11-01
Drop transfer from one solid surface to another (e.g. due to the approach of a surface from top to a sessile drop resting on a lower surface) is widely observed in many industrial areas, e.g. offset printing. This process is governed by many factors such as the contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of surfaces, viscosity of the liquid and the rate at which the donor and acceptor surfaces are separated. In this work, an experimental apparatus is developed to study the transfer of liquid drop between surfaces, with the particular focus on addressing the effect of the surfaces' CAH when the loading speed is low (transfer is quasi-static). In the experiment, a liquid bridge between the two surfaces is first formed by compression; then stretched to the point of breakage. By using surfaces that have similar CA but dissimilar CAH, the liquid transfer ratio (the amount of liquid transferred to the acceptor surface over the total amount of liquid) is found to be significantly influenced by CAH. In addition, as a result of CAH, the maximum compression of the liquid bridge is found to play an important role in determining the transfer ratio. These findings can be very helpful for the design of surfaces and loading conditions to achieve desired transfer ratios in practice.
Grandinetti, P.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Baltisberger, J.H. [Berea College, KY (United States); Farnan, I.; Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Werner, U.; Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-08-10
Five distinctly resolved {sup 17}O solid-state NMR resonances in room temperature coesite, an SiO{sub 2} polymorph, have been observed and assigned using dynamic angle spinning (DAS) at 11.7 T along with magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra at 9.4 and 11.7 T. The {sup 17}O quadrupolar parameters for each of the five oxygen environments in coesite are correlated with the Si-O-Si bridging bond angles determined by diffraction experiments. The sign of e{sup 2}-qQ/h along with the orientation of the electric field gradient for oxygen in the Si-O-Si linkage were determined from a Townes-Dailey analysis of the data. 41 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Czerwinski, Bartlomiej, E-mail: bartlomiej.czerwinski@uj.edu.pl [Goszczynski College, pl. Krasinskiego 1, 34-400 Nowy Targ (Poland); Rzeznik, Lukasz; Paruch, Robert [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Postawa, Zbigniew [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2011-07-15
Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been used to investigate the effect of the cluster size on the sputtering yield dependence on the impact angle. Ar{sub 366} and Ar{sub 2953} cluster projectiles with 14.75 keV of incident energy are directed at the surface of a solid benzene crystal described by a coarse-grained representation at angles between 0 deg. and 70 deg. It is observed that the shape of the angular dependence of sputtering efficiency is strongly affected by the cluster size. For the Ar{sub 366} cluster, the sputtering yield only slightly increases with the impact angle, has a broad maximum around 40 deg., and decreases at larger angles. For the Ar{sub 2953} cluster, the yield strongly increases with the impact angle, has a maximum around 45 deg. followed by a steep decrease at larger angles. For both investigated cluster projectiles the primary energy is deposited so close to the surface so that the sputtering efficiency only weekly benefits from the shift of the deposited energy profile toward the surface which occurs at larger impact angles. In this study, molecular dynamics computer simulations are used to probe the effect of the impact angle on the efficiency of ejection molecules emitted from solid benzene by 14.75 keV Ar{sub 366} and Ar{sub 2953} clusters.
The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification
Tyugai Zemfira
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. Wettability of surface is usually expressed in terms of contact angle (CA measurement. If the CA between liquid and solid surface is less than 90°, the surface is called hydrophilic, otherwise the surface is called hydrophobic. If the CA of water droplet on hydrophilic surface is in a range of 0-30° this surface is called superhydrophilic. In case of superhydrophobic surfaces the CA exceeds 150° that means that these surfaces are extremely difficult to wet. CA of wetting of mineral soil particles depends on the overlying organic and iron compounds. The object of study is a sample of the humus-accumulative horizon of typical chernozem (Kursk, Russia and two samples (horizons A1, B2 of red ferrallitic soils (Fr. Norfolk, NE Oceania. The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, forms of non-silicate iron and hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition of humic substances. CA of wetting was determined in the intact samples and after removal of organic matter (H2O2 treatment, amorphous and crystallized forms of iron. Static contact angles were determined with the sessile drop method using a digital goniometer (Drop Shape Analysis System, DSA100, Krüss GmbH, Hamburg, Germany. The contact angle was calculated by the Young–Laplace method (fitting of Young–Laplace equation to the drop shape. The measurements were repeated 10-15 times for every sample. Oxidation of organic matter (H2O2 treatment causes an increase in the values of CA of wetting (in chernozem from 9.3 to 28,0-29.5º, in ferrallitic soil from 18.0 − 27.3 to 22.4 − 33.4º. CA remained constant for chernozem and slightly decreased in the case of ferrallitic soil, when the removal of amorphous and crystallized forms of iron was performed on samples pretreated with H2O2. CA increase occurs after successive removal of nonsilicate forms of iron from soil samples of
Metastable nanobubbles at the solid-liquid interface due to contact angle hysteresis.
Nishiyama, Takashi; Yamada, Yutaka; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki
2015-01-27
Nanobubbles exist at solid-liquid interfaces between pure water and hydrophobic surfaces with very high stability, lasting in certain cases up to several days. Not only semispherical but also other shapes, such as micropancakes, are known to exist at such interfaces. However, doubt has been raised as to whether or not the nanobubbles are gas-phase entities. In this study, surface nanobubbles at a pure water-highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface were investigated by peak force quantitative nanomechanics (PF-QNM). Multiple isolated nanobubbles generated by the solvent-exchange method were present on the terraced areas, avoiding the steps of the HOPG surface. Adjacent nanobubbles coalesced and formed metastable nanobubbles. Coalescence was enhanced by the PF-QNM measurement. We determined that nanobubbles can exist for a long time because of nanoscale contact angle hysteresis at the water-HOPG interface. Moreover, the hydrophilic steps of HOPG were avoided during coalescence, providing evidence that the nanobubbles are truly gas phase.
A unified heteronuclear decoupling strategy for magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy
Equbal, Asif; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Madhu, P. K., E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500075 (India)
2015-05-14
A unified strategy of two-pulse based heteronuclear decoupling for solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. The analysis presented here shows that different decoupling sequences like two-pulse phase-modulation (TPPM), X-inverse-X (XiX), and finite pulse refocused continuous wave (rCW{sup A}) are basically specific solutions of a more generalized decoupling scheme which incorporates the concept of time-modulation along with phase-modulation. A plethora of other good decoupling conditions apart from the standard, TPPM, XiX, and rCW{sup A} decoupling conditions are available from the unified decoupling approach. The importance of combined time- and phase-modulation in order to achieve the best decoupling conditions is delineated. The consequences of different indirect dipolar interactions arising from cross terms comprising of heteronuclear and homonuclear dipolar coupling terms and also those between heteronuclear dipolar coupling and chemical-shift anisotropy terms are presented in order to unfold the effects of anisotropic interactions under different decoupling conditions. Extensive numerical simulation results are corroborated with experiments on standard amino acids.
Modulation of cross polarization in motionally averaged solids by Variable Angle Spinning NMR
Espinosa, Catalina A.; Thureau, Pierre; Shapiro, Rebecca A.; Litvak, Ilya M.; Martin, Rachel W.
2011-01-01
In systems where the dipolar couplings are partially averaged by molecular motion, cross-polarization is modulated by sample spinning. The cross-polariation efficiency in Variable Angle Spinning (VAS) and Switched Angle Spinning (SAS) experiments on mobile samples is therefore strongly dependent on the spinning angle. We describe simulations and experimental measurements of these effects over a range of spinning angles from 0° to 90°. PMID:21743604
Mao, Kanmi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2011-01-01
The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., ^{13}C and ^{15}N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., ^{1}H and ^{19}F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for ^{1}H-^{1}H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of ^{1}H-^{1}H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in ^{1}H detected 2D ^{1}H{l_brace}^{13}C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional ^{13}C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear ^{1}H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5_{m}^{$\\bar{x}$}, PMLG5_{mm}^{$\\bar{x}$x} and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based
Principles of spin-echo modulation by J-couplings in magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR.
Duma, Luminita; Lai, Wai Cheu; Carravetta, Marina; Emsley, Lyndon; Brown, Steven P; Levitt, Malcolm H
2004-06-21
In magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR, the homonuclear J-couplings between pairs of spin-1/2 nuclei may be determined by studying the modulation of the spin echo induced by a pi-pulse, as a function of the echo duration. We present the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation in magic-angle-spinning solids, and derive a set of modulation regimes which apply under different experimental conditions. In most cases, the dominant spin-echo modulation frequency is exactly equal to the J-coupling. Somewhat surprisingly, the chemical shift anisotropies and dipole-dipole couplings tend to stabilise--rather than abscure--the J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing 13C spin pairs.
Proton-Based Ultrafast Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.
Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy
2017-04-18
Protons are vastly abundant in a wide range of exciting macromolecules and thus can be a powerful probe to investigate the structure and dynamics at atomic resolution using solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy. Unfortunately, the high signal sensitivity, afforded by the high natural-abundance and high gyromagnetic ratio of protons, is greatly compromised by severe line broadening due to the very strong (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. As a result, protons are rarely used, in spite of the desperate need for enhancing the sensitivity of ssNMR to study a variety of systems that are not amenable for high resolution investigation using other techniques including X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and solution NMR spectroscopy. Thanks to the remarkable improvement in proton spectral resolution afforded by the significant advances in magic-angle-spinning (MAS) probe technology, (1)H ssNMR spectroscopy has recently attracted considerable attention in the structural and dynamics studies of various molecular systems. However, it still remains a challenge to obtain narrow (1)H spectral lines, especially from proteins, without resorting to deuteration. In this Account, we review recent proton-based ssNMR strategies that have been developed in our laboratory to further improve proton spectral resolution without resorting to chemical deuteration for the purposes of gaining atomistic-level insights into molecular structures of various crystalline solid systems, using small molecules and peptides as illustrative examples. The proton spectral resolution enhancement afforded by the ultrafast MAS frequencies up to 120 kHz is initially discussed, followed by a description of an ensemble of multidimensional NMR pulse sequences, all based on proton detection, that have been developed to obtain in-depth information from dipolar couplings and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). Simple single channel multidimensional proton NMR experiments could be performed to probe the proximity
Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana
2015-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...
Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-10-01
During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.
Drops on soft solids: Free energy and double transition of contact angles
Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Botto, Lorenzo; Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.
2013-01-01
The equilibrium shape of liquid drops on elastic substrates is determined by minimising elastic and capillary free energies, focusing on thick incompressible substrates. The problem is governed by three length scales: the size of the drop $R$, the molecular size $a$, and the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus $\\gamma/E$. We show that the contact angles undergo two transitions upon changing the substrates from rigid to soft. The microscopic wetting angles deviate from Young's law when...
Rao, D V; Brunetti, A; Gigante, G E; Takeda, T; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T
2002-01-01
A new approach is developed to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangements using X-ray tube and secondary target as an excitation source in order to produce the nearly monoenergetic K alpha radiation to excite the sample. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the total solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work. (authors)
How Does a Liquid Wet a Solid? Hydrodynamics of Dynamic Contact Angles
Rame, Enrique
2001-01-01
A contact line is defined at the intersection of a solid surface with the interface between two immiscible fluids. When one fluid displaces another immiscible fluid along a solid surface, the process is called dynamic wetting and a "moving" contact line (one whose position relative to the solid changes in time) often appears. The physics of dynamic wetting controls such natural and industrial processes as spraying of paints and insecticides, dishwashing, film formation and rupture in the eye and in the alveoli, application of coatings, printing, drying and imbibition of fibrous materials, oil recovery from porous rocks, and microfluidics.
Bandyopadhyay, J
2011-05-01
Full Text Available -1 Polymer Volume 52, Issue 12, 26 May 2011, Pages 2628?2642 Determination of structural changes of dispersed clay platelets in a polymer blend during solid-state rheological property measurement by small-angle X-ray scattering ? Jayita Bandyopadhyaya... frequency and temperature sweep tests. Graphical abstract Keywords ? Blend composites; ? Small-angle X-ray scattering; ? Solid-state rheology ...
Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting blocks of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent blocks. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2011-02-04
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Avram, Liat; Goldbourt, Amir; Cohen, Yoram
2016-01-18
Powders of pyrogallol[4]arene hexamers were produced by evaporation from organic solvents and were studied, for the first time, by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS ssNMR). Evaporation selectively removed non-encapsulated solvent molecules leaving stable hexameric capsules encapsulating solvent molecules. After exposure of the powder to solvent vapors, (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear correlation MAS ssNMR experiments were used to assign the signals of the external and encapsulated solvent molecules. The formed capsules were stable for months and the process of solvent encapsulation was reversible. According to the ssNMR experiments, the encapsulated solvent molecules occupy different sites and those sites differ in their mobility. The presented approach paves the way for studying guest exchange, guest affinity, and gas storage in hexamers of this type in the solid state.
Madhu, P K
2009-02-01
High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of (1)H spins in the solid state is normally rendered difficult due to the strong homonuclear (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. Even under very high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ca. 60-70kHz, these couplings are not completely removed. An appropriate radiofrequency pulse scheme is required to average out the homonuclear dipolar interactions in combination with MAS to get high-resolution (1)H NMR spectrum in solid state. Several schemes have been introduced in the recent past with a variety of applications also envisaged. Development of some of these schemes has been made possible with a clear understanding of the underlying spin physics based on bimodal Floquet theory. The utility of these high-resolution pulse schemes in combination with MAS has been demonstrated for spinning speeds of 10-65kHz in a range of (1)H Larmor frequencies from 300 to 800MHz.
Magic-Angle-Spinning Solid-State NMR of Membrane Proteins
Baker, Lindsay A.; Folkers, Gert E.; Sinnige, Tessa; Houben, Klaartje; Kaplan, M.; van der Cruijsen, Elwin A W; Baldus, Marc
2015-01-01
Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) provides increasing possibilities to examine membrane proteins in different molecular settings, ranging from synthetic bilayers to whole cells. This flexibility often enables ssNMR experiments to be directly correlated with membrane protein function. In this
Characterisation of porous solids using small-angle scattering and NMR cryoporometry\\ud
2004-01-01
The characteristics of several porous systems have been studied by the use of small-angle neutron scattering [SANS] and nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] techniques. The measurements reveal different characteristics for sol-gel silicas, activated carbons and ordered mesoporous silicas of the MCM and SBA type. Good agreement is obtained between gas adsorption measurements and the NMR and SANS results for pore sizes above 10 nm. Recent measurements of the water/ice phase transformation in SBA si...
Equilibrium gas-liquid-solid contact angle from density-functional theory
Pereira, Antonio; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2010-01-01
We investigate the equilibrium of a fluid in contact with a solid boundary through a density-functional theory. Depending on the conditions, the fluid can be in one phase, gas or liquid, or two phases, while the wall induces an external field acting on the fluid particles. We first examine the case of a liquid film in contact with the wall. We construct bifurcation diagrams for the film thickness as a function of the chemical potential. At a specific value of the chemical potential, two equal...
Large angle solid state position sensitive x-ray detector system
Kurtz, D.S.; Ruud, C.O.
1998-03-03
A method and apparatus for x-ray measurement of certain properties of a solid material are disclosed. In distinction to known methods and apparatus, this invention employs a specific fiber-optic bundle configuration, termed a reorganizer, itself known for other uses, for coherently transmitting visible light originating from the scintillation of diffracted x-radiation from the solid material gathered along a substantially one dimensional linear arc, to a two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The two-dimensional photodetector array, with its many closely packed light sensitive pixels, is employed to process the information contained in the diffracted radiation and present the information in the form of a conventional x-ray diffraction spectrum. By this arrangement, the angular range of the combined detector faces may be increased without loss of angular resolution. Further, the prohibitively expensive coupling together of a large number of individual linear diode photodetectors, which would be required to process signals generated by the diffracted radiation, is avoided. 7 figs.
Protein fold determined by paramagnetic magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy
Sengupta, Ishita; Nadaud, Philippe S.; Helmus, Jonathan J.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.
2012-01-01
Biomacromolecules that are challenging for the usual structural techniques can be studied with atomic resolution by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. However, the paucity of >5 Å distance restraints, traditionally derived from measurements of magnetic dipole-dipole couplings between protein nuclei, is a major bottleneck that hampers such structure elucidation efforts. Here we describe a general approach that enables the rapid determination of global protein fold in the solid phase via measurements of nuclear paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in several analogs of the protein of interest containing covalently-attached paramagnetic tags, without the use of conventional internuclear distance restraints. The method is demonstrated using six cysteine-EDTA-Cu2+ mutants of the 56-residue B1 immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G, for which ~230 longitudinal backbone 15N PREs corresponding to ~10-20 Å distances were obtained. The mean protein fold determined in this manner agrees with the X-ray structure with a backbone atom root-mean-square deviation of 1.8 Å. PMID:22522262
Oxygen-17 NMR in solids by dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation
Chmelka, B. F.; Mueller, K. T.; Pines, A.; Stebbins, J.; Wu, Y.; Zwanziger, J. W.
1989-05-01
IT is widely lamented that despite its unqualified success with spin-1/2 nuclei such as 13C, 29Si and31P, the popular NMR technique of magic-angle spinning (MAS) has experienced a somewhat restricted applicability among quadrupolar nuclei such as 17O, 23Na and 27A1 (refs 1-3). The resolution in the central (1/2 lrarr-1/2) transition of these non-integer quadrupolar spins under MAS is thought to be limited primarily by second-order quadrupolar broadening. Such effects of second-order spatial anisotropy cannot be eliminated by rotation about a fixed axis or by multiple-pulse techniques4,5. More general mechanisms of sample reorientation (refs 6-8 and A. Samoson and A. Pines, manuscript in preparation) can, however, make high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei feasible. MAS is implemented by spinning a sample about a single axis so that second-rank spherical harmonics (which give rise to first-order broadening through anisotropy of electrical and magnetic interactions) are averaged away. But dynamic-angle-spinning (DAS) and double-rotation (DOR) NMR involve spinning around two axes, averaging away both the second- and fourth-rank spherical harmonics, which are responsible for second-order broadening. Here we present the application of these new techniques to 17O in two minerals, cristobalite (SiO2) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6). This work goes beyond previous results on 23Na (ref. 8) by showing the first experimental results using DAS and by demonstrating the application of DOR to the resolution of distinct oxygen sites in an important class of oxide materials.
Sven M. Ivansson
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Phononic crystals (PCs can be used as acoustic frequency selective insulators and filters. In a two-dimensional (2D PC, cylindrical scatterers with a common axis direction are located periodically in a host medium. In the present paper, the layer multiple-scattering (LMS computational method for wave propagation through 2D PC slabs is formulated and implemented for general 3D incident-wave directions and polarizations. Extensions are made to slabs with cylindrical scatterers of different types within each layer. As an application, the problem is considered to design such a slab with small sound transmittance within a given frequency band and solid angle region for the direction of the incident plane wave. The design problem, with variable parameters characterizing the scatterer geometry and material, is solved by differential evolution, a global optimization algorithm for efficiently navigating parameter landscapes. The efficacy of the procedure is illustrated by comparison to a direct Monte Carlo method.
Grabowska, I; Dehaen, W; Radecka, H; Radecki, J
2016-05-01
In this article we present the results of the studies on interactions between the VC1 domain of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and its ligand, the S100B protein, performed by contact angle measurements. Histidine-tagged (His6) VC1-RAGE domain was covalently bonded to Cu(II) or Ni(II) complexes with dipyrromethene (DPM) self-assembled on gold surface. The method based on the theory of van Oss was used for the purpose of determining the Lifshitz-van der Waals (γ(LW)) component as well as the electron acceptor-electron donor (the Lewis acid-base, γ(+)-γ(-)) parameters of the VC1-RAGE-S100B complex. Moreover, the surface free energies of the interactions between the VC1 domain attached to the surface and the ligand present in the aqueous phase were determined. The specificity of the VC1- RAGE interactions with the ligand studied was also proved.
Ngankam, P. A.; Schaaf, P.; Voegel, J. C.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.
1999-03-01
Mineralization of calcium phosphate salts at a solid/liquid silica interface was examined by means of scanning angle reflectometry (SAR). A critical supersaturation of 7.60±0.15 mM was found to be the lowest calcium phosphate concentration at pH 6.85 at which the reflectivity at the Brewster angle started to vary. The analyses of the signals by mean of the homogeneous isotropic layer model led to layer thicknesses of about 3.5 μm also characterized by very low mean refractive index increments. These observations were completed by complementary experiments. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy led to similar layer thicknesses with crystallites dispersed in the whole layer confirming thus SAR results. X-ray analyses showed a presence of brushite (DCPD) at the silica interface. A pH of 5.44 was estimated for the acidic silica interface for which DCPD is nucleated after addition of 7.60±0.15 mM calcium and phosphate. However, at this pH value, the solution is largely supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAP theoretical saturating concentration: 1.37 mM). A faster growth of DCPD crystals compared to HAP crystals is thus assumed to explain our observations.
L Muthuselvi; Aruna Dhathathreyan
2006-03-01
Adhesion of zein to solid substrates has been studied using surface energy profiles as indices and by adhesion mapping using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Different plasticizers like glycerol and sorbitol have been used to form mixed films with zein and properties of these films are studied using surface energy profiles. Comparison of the results from the different mixed samples with those from the pure zein films showed that force mapping could identify areas rich in protein. The adhesion maps produced were deconvoluted from sample topography and contrasted with the data obtained from contact angle measurements. A comparison of the two methods shows that the extent of contact angle hysteresis is indicative of both hydrophobicity of the surface as well as the force of adhesion. Mechanical properties and microstructure of zein films prepared by casting from solutions and using Langmuir-Blodgett film technique have been investigated. Pure zein seemed brittle and exhibited an essentially linear relationship between stress and strain. Films with plasticizer were tougher than these films. In general, mixed films showed better mechanical properties than pure films and had higher ultimate tensile strength and increased per cent elongation. Further, the mixed films of zein showed a higher force of adhesion compared to the pure films.
Paquette, Michelle M; Li, Wenjing; Sky Driver, M; Karki, Sudarshan; Caruso, A N; Oyler, Nathan A
2011-11-01
Magic angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are applied to the elucidation of the local physical structure of an intermediate product in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin-film amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (B(x)C:H(y)) from an orthocarborane precursor. Experimental chemical shifts are compared with theoretical shift predictions from ab initio calculations of model molecular compounds to assign atomic chemical environments, while Lee-Goldburg cross-polarization and heteronuclear recoupling experiments are used to confirm atomic connectivities. A model for the B(x)C:H(y) intermediate is proposed wherein the solid is dominated by predominantly hydrogenated carborane icosahedra that are lightly cross-linked via nonhydrogenated intraicosahedral B atoms, either directly through B-B bonds or through extraicosahedral hydrocarbon chains. While there is no clear evidence for extraicosahedral B aside from boron oxides, ∼40% of the C is found to exist as extraicosahedral hydrocarbon species that are intimately bound within the icosahedral network rather than in segregated phases.
Powder-XRD and (14) N magic angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of some metal nitrides.
Kempgens, Pierre; Britton, Jonathan
2016-05-01
Some metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, InN, GaN, Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 ) have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (14) N magic angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 , no (14) N NMR signal was observed. Low speed (νr = 2 kHz for TiN, ZrN, and GaN; νr = 1 kHz for InN) and 'high speed' (νr = 15 kHz for TiN; νr = 5 kHz for ZrN; νr = 10 kHz for InN and GaN) MAS NMR experiments were performed. For TiN, ZrN, InN, and GaN, powder-XRD was used to identify the phases present in each sample. The number of peaks observed for each sample in their (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectrum matches perfectly well with the number of nitrogen-containing phases identified by powder-XRD. The (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectra are symmetric and dominated by the quadrupolar interaction. The envelopes of the spinning sidebands manifold are Lorentzian, and it is concluded that there is a distribution of the quadrupolar coupling constants Qcc 's arising from structural defects in the compounds studied.
Son, Yangsoo; Kim, Chongyoup; Yang, Doo Ho; Ahn, Dong June
2008-03-18
Even though the inkjet technology has been recognized as one of the most promising technologies for electronic and bio industries, the full understanding of the dynamics of an inkjet droplet at its operating conditions is still lacking. In this study, the normal impact of water droplets on solid substrates was investigated experimentally. The size of water droplets studied here was 46 microm and was much smaller than the most of the previous studies on drop impact. The Weber number (We) and Reynolds number (Re) were 0.05-2 and 10-100, respectively, and the Ohnesorge number was fixed at 0.017. The wettability of the solid substrate was varied by adsorbing a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane followed by the exposure to UV-ozone plasma. The impact scenarios for low We impacts were found to be qualitatively different from the high to moderate We impacts. Neither the development of a thin film and lamella under the traveling sphere nor the entrapment of small bubbles was observed. The dynamics of droplet impact at the conditions studied here is found to proceed under the combined influences of inertia, surface tension, and viscosity without being dominated by one specific mechanism. The maximum spreading factor (beta), the ratio of the diameter of the wetted surface and the drop diameter before impact, was correlated well with the relationship ln beta=0.090 ln We/(fs-cos theta)+0.151 for three decades of We/(fs-cos theta), where theta is the equilibrium contact angle, and fs is the ratio between the surface areas contacting the air and the solid substrate. The result implies that the final shape of the droplet is determined by the surface phenomenon rather than fluid mechanical effects.
Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-03-01
In February 2015, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a Strip Effluent (SE) coalescer (FLT-304) from MCU. That coalescer was first installed at MCU in July 2014 and removed in October 2014. While processing approximately 31,400 gallons of strip solution, the pressure drop steadily increased from 1 psi to beyond the administrative limit of 20 psi. The physical and chemical analysis was conducted on this coalescer to determine the mechanism that led to the plugging of this coalescer. Characterization of this coalescer revealed the adsorption of organic containing amines as well as MCU modifier. The amines are probably from the decomposition of the suppressor (TiDG) as well as from bacteria. This adsorption may have changed the surface energetics (characteristics) of the coalescer fibers and therefore, their wetting behavior. A very small amount of inorganic solids were found to have deposited on this coalescer (possibly an artifact of cleaning the coalescer with Boric acid. However, we believe that inorganic precipitation, as has been seen in the past, did not play a role in the high pressure drop rise of this coalescer. With regards to the current practice of reducing the radioactive content of the SE coalescer, it is recommended that future SE coalescer should be flushed with 10 mM boric acid which is currently used at MCU. Plugging of the SE coalescer was most likely due to the formation and accumulation of a water-in-oil emulsion that reduced the overall porosity of the coalescer. There is also evidence that a bimodal oil particle distribution may have entered and deposited in the coalescer and caused the initial increase in pressure drop.
Chistyakov, Vyacheslav
2015-01-01
Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...
Cogging torque mitigation of modular permanent magnet machines
Li, G. J.; Ren, B.; Zhu, Z-Q.; Li, Y X; Ma, J.
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel cogging torque mitigation method for modular permanent magnet (PM) machines with flux gaps in alternate stator teeth. The slot openings of the modular PM machines are divided into two groups in a special way. By shifting the slot openings of two groups in opposite directions with the same angle, the machine cogging torque can be significantly reduced. Analytical formula of the desired shift angle is derived, and can be applicable to other modular machines with diff...
Large solid-angle polarisation analysis at thermal neutron wavelengths using a sup 3 He spin filter
Heil, W; Cywinski, R; Humblot, H; Ritter, C; Roberts, T W; Stewart, J R
2002-01-01
The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarised sup 3 He opens up the possibility of polarising neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. In this paper we describe the first large solid-angle polarisation analysis measurement using a sup 3 He neutron spin filter at thermal neutron wavelengths (lambda=2.5 A). This experiment was performed on the two-axis diffractometer D1B at the Institut Laue-Langevin using a banana-shaped filter cell (530 cm sup 3 ) filled with sup 3 He gas with a polarisation of P=52% at a pressure of 2.7 bar. A comparison is made with a previous measurement on D7 using a cold neutron beam on the same sample, i.e. amorphous ErY sub 6 Ni sub 3. Using uniaxial polarisation analysis both the nuclear and magnetic cross-sections could be extracted over the range of scattering-vectors [0.5<=Q(A sup - sup 1)<=3.5]. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the D7-data, whe...
Praz, Christophe; Roulet, Yves-Alain; Berne, Alexis
2017-04-01
A new method to automatically classify solid hydrometeors based on Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) images is presented. For each individual image, the method relies on the calculation of a set of geometric and texture-based descriptors to simultaneously identify the hydrometeor type (among six predefined classes), estimate the degree of riming and detect melting snow. The classification tasks are achieved by means of a regularized multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model trained over more than 3000 MASC images manually labeled by visual inspection. In a second step, the probabilistic information provided by the MLR is weighed on the three stereoscopic views of the MASC in order to assign a unique label to each hydrometeor. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on data collected in the Swiss Alps and in Antarctica. The algorithm achieves high performance, with a hydrometeor-type classification accuracy and Heidke skill score of 95 % and 0.93, respectively. The degree of riming is evaluated by introducing a riming index ranging between zero (no riming) and one (graupel) and characterized by a probable error of 5.5 %. A validation study is conducted through a comparison with an existing classification method based on two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) data and shows that the two methods are consistent.
Nakai, Toshihito; Toda, Mitsuru; Ashida, Jun; Hobo, Fumio; Endo, Yuki; Utsumi, Hiroaki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Mizuno, Takashi
2017-06-01
Sensitivity enhancement in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance using a cryocoil magic-angle-spinning system was investigated, by comparing, at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, the signal-to-noise ratios of the multiple-quantum magic-angle-spinning spectra as well as the conventional spectra for a low-γ nucleus 85Rb in RbNO3. The increase of the sample-coil quality-factor and the thermal noise reduction were found to enhance the sensitivities by approximately 4.5 times; the former yielded the further doubled signal increase in the multiple-quantum spectroscopy via the increase of the radio-frequency field strengths. Eventually, 20-30 times of the sensitivity enhancement were realized in the two-dimensional multiple-quantum magic-angle-spinning spectra.
粗糙表面上的接触角滞后现象与滞后张力%Contact Angle Hysteresis and Hysteresis Tension on Rough Solid Surface
王晓东; 彭晓峰; 王补宣
2004-01-01
Observation and measurement were conducted to investigate contact angle and its hysteresis on rough surface. The experimental results indicate that the increase in solid surface roughness enlarges advancing contact angle and decreases receding contact angle, resulting in enhanced hysteresis. It was observed that when Young's contact angle θy ＜ 90°, as the roughness of solid surface increased the extent of the decrease in receding contact angle exceeded that of the increase in advancing contact angle. Based on the experimental observations, the concept of hysteresis tension was introduced to describe the contact angle hysteresis behavior on rough solid surface. The model provides a thoughtful understanding of the physical nature of contact angle hysteresis, in particular an instructive description of the influence of surface roughness on the hysteresis. The prediction of the model is found in quite good agreement with the experimental observation and measurement.
Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Yusuke
2016-08-10
(14)N/(14)N correlations are vital for structural studies of solid samples, especially those in which (15)N isotopic enrichment is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Although (14)N nuclei have high isotopic abundance (99.6%), there are inherent difficulties in observing (14)N/(14)N correlations due to limited resolution and sensitivity related to: (i) low (14)N gyromagnetic ratio (γ), (ii) large (14)N quadrupolar couplings, (iii) integer (14)N spin quantum number (I = 1), and (iv) very weak (14)N-(14)N dipolar couplings. Previously, we demonstrated a proton-detected 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H correlation experiment at fast magic angle spinning (MAS) on l-histidine·HCl·H2O utilizing a through-bond (J) and residual dipolar-splitting (RDS) based heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (J-HMQC) sequence mediated through (1)H/(1)H radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR). As an extension of our previous work, in this study we show the utility of dipolar-based HMQC (D-HMQC) in combination with (1)H/(1)H RFDR mixing to obtain sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations in more complex biological solids such as a glycyl-l-alanine (Gly-l-Ala) dipeptide, and parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) β-strand alanine tripeptides (P-(Ala)3 and AP-(Ala)3, respectively). These systems highlight the mandatory necessity of 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H measurements to get (14)N/(14)N correlations when the amide proton resonances are overlapped. Moreover, the application of long selective (14)N pulses, instead of short hard ones, is shown to improve the sensitivity. Globally, we demonstrate that replacing J-scalar with dipolar interaction and hard- with selective-(14)N pulses allows gaining a factor of ca. 360 in experimental time. On the basis of intermolecular NH/NH distances and (14)N quadrupolar tensor orientations, (14)N/(14)N correlations are effectively utilized to make a clear distinction between the parallel and antiparallel arrangements of the β-strands in (Ala)3 through the
Welzel, Petra B; Rauwolf, Cordula; Yudin, Olexandr; Grundke, Karina
2002-07-01
The interaction of inorganic ions with low-energy hydrophobic surfaces was examined using model systems of solid polymers without ionizable functional surface groups in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Low-rate dynamic contact angle measurements with captive bubbles in conjunction with axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) were performed to study the influence of electrolyte ions (in the aqueous test solutions) on the wettability of the polymers. When various types of ions were used, no significant change in advancing and receding contact angles was observed. The contact angle hysteresis was small. The zeta potential of the model polymers in aqueous electrolyte solutions was determined from streaming potential measurements. The variation of the zeta potential at different pH levels indicates preferential adsorption of hydroxyl ions at this interface. However, the presence of electrolytes at the interface between water and the different model polymers did not influence the macroscopic contact angle. The results may suggest the absence of any specific interaction between the ions and the solid polymer, as this should result in changes of hydrophobicity. Similar to the air/water interface, the composition and the potential of the polymer/water interface are obviously determined predominantly by the aqueous phase with only slight influence from the solid phase.
Parthasarathy, Sudhakar
2013-09-17
Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of at least 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in (1)H and (13)C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (∼ms/scan) with short (1)H T1 values, we can perform (1)H SSNMR microanalysis of paramagnetic systems on the microgram scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that observed for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ∼40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of (13)C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power (1)H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for (13)C SSNMR by nominal (1)H RF irradiation at ∼10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach with enhanced (1)H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping, we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments with (13)C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine (13)C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary (13)C SSNMR data of Aβ amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at (1)H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and ultrahigh fields could allow for routine multidimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the
PARTHASARATHY, SUDHAKAR; NISHIYAMA, YUSUKE; ISHII, YOSHITAKA
2013-01-01
CONSPECTUS Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved in the resolution and sensitivity for NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarizes recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting 13C and 1H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in 1H and 13C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (~ms/scan) using short 1H T1 values we can perform 1H SSNMR micro-analysis of paramagnetic systems in the μg scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ~40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of 13C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power 1H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for 13C SSNMR by nominal 1H RF irradiation at ~10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach and enhanced 1H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments for 13C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine 13C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary 13C SSNMR data of Aβ amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at 1H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and the ultra-high fields could allow for routine multi-dimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the prospects for studying bimolecules using 13
Mahady, K; Kondic, L
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a computationally efficient method for including fluid-solid interactions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier--Stokes equations. This method is found to be as powerful as our earlier formulation [J. Comp. Phys., vol. 249: 243 (2015)], while outperforming the earlier method in terms of computational efficiency. The performance and efficacy of the presented method are demonstrated by computing contact angles of droplets at equilibrium. Furthermore, we study the instability of films due to destabilizing fluid-solid interactions, and discuss the influence of contact angle and inertial effects on film breakup. In particular, direct simulation results show an increase in the final characteristic length scales when compared to the predictions of a linear stability analysis, suggesting significant influence of nonlinear effects. Our results also show that emerging length scales differ, depending on a number of physical dimensions considered.
Understanding Socio Technical Modularity
Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars
2011-01-01
Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...
Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P; Shaibat, Medhat A; Ishii, Yoshitaka
2007-08-23
Characterizing paramagnetic complexes in solids is an essential step toward understanding their molecular functions. However, methodologies to characterize chemical and electronic structures of paramagnetic systems at the molecular level have been notably limited, particularly for noncrystalline solids. We present an approach to obtain connectivities of chemical groups and metal-binding structures for unlabeled paramagnetic complexes by 13C and 1H high-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) using very fast magic angle spinning (VFMAS, spinning speed >or=20 kHz). It is experimentally shown for unlabeled Cu(II)(Ala-Thr) that 2D 13C/1H correlation SSNMR under VFMAS provides the connectivity of chemical groups and assignments for the characterization of unlabeled paramagnetic systems in solids. We demonstrate that on the basis of the assignments provided by the VFMAS approach multiple 13C-metal distances can be simultaneously elucidated by a combination of measurements of 13C anisotropic hyperfine shifts and 13C T1 relaxation due to hyperfine interactions for this peptide-Cu(II) complex. It is also shown that an analysis of 1H anisotropic hyperfine shifts allows for the determination of electron-spin states in Fe(III)-chloroprotoporphyin-IX in solid states.
Mahady, K.; Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we present a computationally efficient method for including fluid-solid interactions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. This method is found to be as powerful as our earlier formulation [K. Mahady et al., "A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries," J. Comput. Phys. 294, 243 (2015)], while outperforming the earlier method in terms of computational efficiency. The performance and efficacy of the presented method are demonstrated by computing contact angles of droplets at equilibrium. Furthermore, we study the instability of films due to destabilizing fluid-solid interactions, and discuss the influence of contact angle and inertial effects on film breakup. In particular, direct simulation results show an increase in the final characteristic length scales when compared to the predictions of a linear stability analysis, suggesting significant influence of nonlinear effects. Our results also show that emerging length scales differ, depending on a number of physical dimensions considered.
Complexity in Managing Modularization
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi
2011-01-01
In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....
Modularity and Economic Organization
Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.
This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product...
Understanding Socio Technical Modularity
Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars
2011-01-01
Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...
Palai, Pabitra; Prabhu, N.; Kashyap, B. P.
2017-02-01
The effects of die channel angle (Φ) in hot ( 623 K) equi-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on microstructure, and tensile and compressive flow properties of AZ80 Mg alloy were investigated. Two solid ECAP dies, having Φ of (1) dual 60° and 120° in a single die and (2) 90° in another die, were designed for this purpose. Grain refinement with more than 40% reduction in average grain size along with submicron size second-phase β-precipitates was achieved after single-pass ECAP. A great variation in β-Mg17Al12 phase morphology with increasing flow stresses in tension and compression are found with decreasing value of angle Φ. There found an increasing effect on strain to failure with decrease in porosity and second-phase precipitate modification. However, there appears flow asymmetry between tension and compression with the latter exhibiting greater flow stress and strain to failure.
Ashida, Jun; Ohgo, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kohei; Kubota, Ayumi; Asakura, Tetsuo [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biotechnology (Japan)], E-mail: asakura@cc.tuat.ac.jp
2003-02-15
Spiders synthesize several kinds of silk fibers. In the primary structure of spider silk, one of the major ampullate (dragline, frame) silks, spidroin 1, and flagelliform silk (core fibers of adhesive spiral), there are common repeated X-Gly-Gly (X = Ala, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Glu, and Arg) sequences, which are considered to be related to the elastic character of these fibers. In this paper, two dimensional spin diffusion solid-state NMR under off magic angle spinning (OMAS), {sup 13}C chemical shift contour plots, and Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR) were applied to determine the torsion angles of one Ala and two kinds of Gly residues in the Ala-Gly-Gly sequence of {sup 13}C=O isotope-labeled (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10}. The torsion angles were determined to be ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) within an experimental error of {+-}10 deg. for each residue. This conformation is characterized as 3{sub 1} helix which is in agreement with the structure proposed from the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of poly(Ala-Gly-Gly). The 3{sub 1} helix of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} does not change by formic acid treatment although (Ala-Gly){sub 15} easily changes from the silk I conformation (the structure of Bombyx mori silk fibroin before spinning in the solid state) to silk II conformation (the structure of the silk fiber after spinning) by such treatment. Thus, the 3{sub 1} helix conformation of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} is considered very stable. Furthermore, the torsion angles of the 16th Leu residue of (Leu-Gly-Gly){sub 10} were also determined as ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) and this peptide is also considered to take 3{sub 1} helix conformation.
Venus Singh Mithu
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (13C-(13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13C-(13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.
Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K.
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of 13C-13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on 1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail. PMID:23326308
Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13)C-(13)C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1)H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.
Complexity in Managing Modularization
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi
2011-01-01
modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...
Nanoscale fluid structure of liquid-solid-vapour contact lines for a wide range of contact angles
Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Benjamin D; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2015-01-01
We study the nanoscale behaviour of the density of a simple fluid in the vicinity of an equilibrium contact line for a wide range of Young contact angles between 40 and 135 degrees. Cuts of the density profile at various positions along the contact line are presented, unravelling the apparent step-wise increase of the film height profile observed in contour plots of the density. The density profile is employed to compute the normal pressure acting on the substrate along the contact line. We observe that for the full range of contact angles, the maximal normal pressure cannot solely be predicted by the curvature of the adsorption film height, but is instead softened -- likely by the width of the liquid-vapour interface. Somewhat surprisingly however, the adsorption film height profile can be predicted to a very good accuracy by the Derjaguin-Frumkin disjoining pressure obtained from planar computations, as was first shown in [Nold et al., Phys. Fluids, 26, 072001, 2014] for contact angles less than 90 degrees,...
Modularity and Economic Organization
Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.
and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...
Product Architecture Modularity Strategies
Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan
2003-01-01
The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...
接触角滞后现象的理论分析%Hysteresis of Contact Angle at Liquid-solid Interface
王晓东; 彭晓峰; 闵敬春; 刘涛
2001-01-01
A concept, resistance of liquid wetting solid surface, was introduced to investigate the contact anglecharacteristics of liquid touching solid surface in equilibrium. An expression and unified theory of liquid-solidcontact angle accounting for the resistance was theoretically obtained from mechanical and thermodynamic theoryrespectively, relating the wettability, advancing and receding contact angle with the roughness of the solidsurface. This new approach provides a thoughtful understanding of the physical nature of advancing and recedingcontact angle and the contact angle hysteresis phenomenon. Using this theoretical evidence, some phase-changetransport phenomena such as boiling nucleation, critical heat flux, minimum heat flux and droplet condensationwill be more intelligently described with a new discrimination. It is also possible to expose the effects of surfaceroughness on phase change heat transfer using a unique parameter, contact angle, other than the detail surfaceinformation.%通过引入"滞后阻力"的概念,分别用力学方法和热力学方法导出固体表面上液滴平衡时接触角应满足的条件;定性地给出了表面湿润性和前进接触角与后退接触角同表面粗糙度的关系,分析了前进接触角和后退接触角的物理意义;由此给出了接触角滞后现象的一种合理解释.本文的研究为汽液相变传热过程中的沸腾核化、临界热负荷、最小热流密度、珠状凝结等现象的深刻认识,开拓了新的思路,传统研究中对粗糙度影响的复杂定量化测量描述也可转化为用接触角单一参数表征和描述的简化方法.因此本文的认识对研究沸腾和凝结传热有重要的现实意义.
Christoph Meichner
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard® 184 and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10−4. Information on the sample thickness is not required.
Meichner, Christoph; Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Kador, Lothar
2015-08-01
We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard® 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025∘ results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ṡ 10-4. Information on the sample thickness is not required.
Meichner, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.meichner@uni-bayreuth.de; Kador, Lothar, E-mail: lothar.kador@uni-bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Institute of Physics and Bayreuth Institute of Macromolecular Research, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Schedl, Andreas E.; Neuber, Christian; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner, E-mail: hans-werner.schmidt@uni-bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Macromolecular Chemistry I, Bayreuth Institute of Macromolecular Research and Bayreuth Center for Colloids and Interfaces, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)
2015-08-15
We present two approaches for measuring the refractive index of transparent solids in the visible spectral range based on diffraction gratings. Both require a small spot with a periodic pattern on the surface of the solid, collimated monochromatic light, and a rotation stage. We demonstrate the methods on a polydimethylsiloxane film (Sylgard{sup ®} 184) and compare our data to those obtained with a standard Abbe refractometer at several wavelengths between 489 and 688 nm. The results of our approaches show good agreement with the refractometer data. Possible error sources are analyzed and discussed in detail; they include mainly the linewidth of the laser and/or the angular resolution of the rotation stage. With narrow-band light sources, an angular accuracy of ±0.025{sup ∘} results in an error of the refractive index of typically ±5 ⋅ 10{sup −4}. Information on the sample thickness is not required.
Nizioł, Jacek, E-mail: niziol@agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)
2014-12-21
DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day)
Modular titanium alloy neck failure in total hip replacement: analysis of a relapse case.
Ceretti, Marco; Falez, Francesco
2016-04-29
Modular neck hip prosthesis born in the 1990 with the aim of allowing the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intra-operatively restoring patient's original biomechanics. In order to achieve the best biomechanics of the reconstructed hip, preoperative planning is essential. In the last few years modularity has been questioned and an argument made for the return to mono block stems due to events of breakage or disconnection of modular components. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such modular device due to the contamination inside the modular coupling or to high loads. We present a case of repetitive modular femoral neck prosthesis fracture.
Ward, C A; Sefiane, K
2010-12-15
We review the thermodynamic approach to determining the surface tension of solid-fluid interfaces. If the pressure is in the narrow range where the contact angle, θ, can exist, then for isothermal systems, adsorption at the solid-liquid interface affects γ(SL) or θ, but γ(SV) is very nearly equal γ(LV), the surface tension of the adsorbing fluid. For a liquid partially filling a cylinder, the pressure in the liquid phase at the three-phase line, x(3)(L), depends on the curvature of the three-phase line, C(cl), but the line tension can play no role, since it acts perpendicular to the cylinder wall. C(cl) is decreased as the cylinder diameter is increased; x(3)(L) is increased; and θ increases. For a given value of C(cl), x(3)(L) can be changed by rotating the cylinder or by changing the height of the three-phase line in a gravitational field. In all cases, for water in borosilicate glass cylinders, the value of θ is shown to increase as x(3)(L) is increased. This behaviour requires the Gibbsian adsorption at the solid-liquid interface to be negative, indicating the liquid concentration in the interphase is less than that in the bulk liquid. For sessile droplets, the value of θ depends on both x(3)(L) and C(cl). If the value of θ for spherical sessile droplets is measured as a function of C(cl), the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface that would give that dependence can be determined. It is unnecessary to introduce the line tension hypothesis to explain the dependence of θ on C(cl). Adsorption at the solid-liquid interface gives a full explanation.
Goldbourt, A
2002-01-01
Experimental and theoretical aspects of the multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning experiment (MQMAS) are discussed in this review. The significance of this experiment, introduced by Frydman and Harwood, is in its ability to provide high-resolution NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei (I /geq 3/2). This technique has proved to be useful in various systems ranging from inorganic materials to biological samples. This review addresses the development of various pulse schemes aimed at improving the signal-to-noise ratio and anisotropic lineshapes. Representative spectra are shown to underscore the importance and applications of the MQMAS experiment. Refs. 97 (author)
Maruyoshi, Keisuke; Iuga, Dinu; Watts, Abigail E; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M; Brown, Steven P
2017-07-25
The lower detection limit for 2 distinct crystalline phases by (1)H magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is investigated for a minority amount of cimetidine (anhydrous polymorph A) in a physical mixture with the anhydrous HCl salt of cimetidine. Specifically, 2-dimensional (1)H double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR spectra of polymorph A and the anhydrous HCl salt constitute fingerprints for the presence of each of these solid forms. For solid-state NMR data recorded at a (1)H Larmor frequency of 850 MHz and a MAS frequency of 30 kHz on ∼10 mg of sample, it is shown that, by following the pair of cross-peaks at a (1)H DQ frequency of 7.4 + 11.6 = 19.0 ppm that are unique to polymorph A, the level of detection for polymorph A in a physical mixture with the anhydrous HCl salt is a concentration of 1% w/w. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi
2009-01-01
In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....
Designing Modular Robotic Playware
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia
2009-01-01
In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games....... Key features of this design approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, activity design by end-users, and creative exploration of play activities. These features permit the use of such modular playware by a vast array of users, including disabled...
Ellis, Jonathan S.; McHale, Glen; Hayward, Gordon L.; Thompson, Michael
2003-11-01
We have revisited the Blake-Tolstoi theory [Coll. Surf. 47, 135 (1990)] for molecular and hydrodynamic slip and applied it to the fundamental description of acoustic wave devices coupled to a liquid of finite thickness. The aim is to provide a framework for a predictive model for slip, based on surface-liquid interactions and contact angle. This theory provides a description of slip that links hydrodynamic boundary slip to a schematic, molecular description involving the wettability of the liquid-solid interface. We redevelop the model, using current acoustic sensors notation, then evaluate its qualitative behavior as a predictive model for slip length in the context of acoustic wave devices. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model and consider the advantages of a predictive model for boundary slip.
Fluid adsorption in ordered mesoporous solids determined by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering.
Findenegg, Gerhard H; Jähnert, Susanne; Müter, Dirk; Prass, Johannes; Paris, Oskar
2010-07-14
The adsorption of two organic fluids (n-pentane and perfluoropentane) in a periodic mesoporous silica material (SBA-15) is investigated by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) using synchrotron radiation. Structural changes are monitored as the ordered and disordered pores in the silica matrix are gradually filled with the fluids. The experiments yield integrated peak intensities from up to ten Bragg reflections from the 2D hexagonal pore lattice, and additionally diffuse scattering contributions arising from disordered (mostly intrawall) porosity. The analysis of the scattering data is based on a separation of these two contributions. Bragg scattering is described by adopting a form factor model for ordered pores of cylindrical symmetry which accounts for the filling of the microporous corona, the formation of a fluid film at the pore walls, and condensation of the fluid in the core. The filling fraction of the disordered intrawall pores is extracted from the diffuse scattering intensity and its dependence on the fluid pressure is analyzed on the basis of a three-phase model. The data analysis introduced here provides an important generalisation of a formalism presented recently (J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 13, 15201), which was applicable to contrast-matching fluids only. In this way, the adsorption behaviour of fluids into ordered and disordered pores in periodic mesoporous materials can be analyzed quantitatively irrespective of the fluid density.
Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K; Mote, Kaustubh R
2016-08-01
One of the fundamental challenges in the application of solid-state NMR is its limited sensitivity, yet a majority of experiments do not make efficient use of the limited polarization available. The loss in polarization in a single acquisition experiment is mandated by the need to select out a single coherence pathway. In contrast, sequential acquisition strategies can encode more than one pathway in the same experiment or recover unused polarization to supplement a standard experiment. In this article, we present pulse sequences that implement sequential acquisition strategies on one and two radiofrequency channels with a combination of proton and carbon detection to record multiple experiments under magic-angle spinning. We show that complementary 2D experiments such as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] or DARR and [Formula: see text], and 3D experiments such as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] can be combined in a single experiment to ensure time savings of at least 40 %. These experiments can be done under fast or slow-moderate magic-angle spinning frequencies aided by windowed [Formula: see text] acquisition and homonulcear decoupling. The pulse sequence suite is further expanded by including pathways that allow the recovery of residual polarization, the so-called 'afterglow' pathways, to encode a number of pulse sequences to aid in assignments and chemical-shift mapping.
Fast magic-angle sample spinning solid-state NMR at 60-100kHz for natural abundance samples.
Nishiyama, Yusuke
2016-09-01
In spite of tremendous progress made in pulse sequence designs and sophisticated hardware developments, methods to improve sensitivity and resolution in solid-state NMR (ssNMR) are still emerging. The rate at which sample is spun at magic angle determines the extent to which sensitivity and resolution of NMR spectra are improved. To this end, the prime objective of this article is to give a comprehensive theoretical and experimental framework of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) technique. The engineering design of fast MAS rotors based on spinning rate, sample volume, and sensitivity is presented in detail. Besides, the benefits of fast MAS citing the recent progress in methodology, especially for natural abundance samples are also highlighted. The effect of the MAS rate on (1)H resolution, which is a key to the success of the (1)H inverse detection methods, is described by a simple mathematical factor named as the homogeneity factor k. A comparison between various (1)H inverse detection methods is also presented. Moreover, methods to reduce the number of spinning sidebands (SSBs) for the systems with huge anisotropies in combination with (1)H inverse detection at fast MAS are discussed.
Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms
Amanda Clemm
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.
Roberts, J E; Bonar, L C; Griffin, R G; Glimcher, M J
1992-01-01
The properties of bone mineral change with age and maturation. Several investigators have suggested the presence of an initial or "precursor" calcium phosphate phase to help explain these differences. We have used solid state 31P magic angle sample spinning (MASS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray radial distribution function (RDF) analyses to characterize 11- and 17-day-old embryonic chick bone and fractions obtained from them by density fractionation. Density fractionation provides samples of bone containing Ca-P solid-phase deposits even younger and more homogeneous with respect to the age of mineral than the calcium phosphate (Ca-P) deposits in the whole bone samples. The analytical techniques yield no evidence for any distinct phase other than the poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite phase characteristic of mature bone mineral. In particular, there is no detectable crystalline brushite [DCPD, CaHPO4 2H2O less than 1%] or amorphous calcium phosphate (less than 8-10%) in the most recently formed bone mineral. A sizeable portion of the phosphate groups exist as HPO4(2-) in a brushite (DCPD)-like configuration. These acid phosphate moieties are apparently incorporated into the apatitic lattice. The most likely site for the brushite-like configuration is probably on the surface of the crystals.
A dictionary of modular threefolds
Meyer, Christian
2005-01-01
The thesis deals with the modularity conjecture for three-dimensional Calabi-Yau varieties. This is a generalization of the work of A. Wiles and others on modularity of elliptic curves. Modularity connects the number of points on varieties with coefficients of certain modular forms. In chapter 1 we collect the basics on arithmetic on Calabi-Yau manifolds, including general modularity results and strategies for modularity proofs. In chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 we investigate exa...
Supercongruences via modular forms
Osburn, Robert
2009-01-01
We prove two supercongruences for the coefficients of power series expansions in t of modular forms where t is a modular function. As a result, we settle two recent conjectures of Chan, Cooper and Sica. Additionally, we provide a table of supercongruences for numbers which appear in similar power series expansions and in the study of integral solutions of Apery-like differential equations.
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...
None
2002-12-01
This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...
Modular Abelian Varieties of Odd Modular Degree
Yazdani, Soroosh
2009-01-01
In this paper, we will study modular Abelian varieties with odd congruence numbers by examining the cuspidal subgroup of $J_0(N)$. We will show that the conductor of such Abelian varieties must be of a special type. For example, if $N$ is the conductor of an absolutely simple modular Abelian variety with an odd congruence number, then $N$ has at most two prime divisors, and if $N$ is odd, then $N=p^\\alpha$ or $N=pq$ for some prime $p$ and $q$. In the second half of this paper, we will focus o...
葛宋; 陈民†
2013-01-01
本文利用分子动力学方法模拟了液体在固体表面的接触角及液固界面热阻，并探讨了二者之间的关系。通过分别改变液固结合强度和固体的原子性质来分析接触角和界面热阻的关系及变化趋势。模拟结果显示增强液固间相互作用时，接触角减小的同时界面热阻也随之单调减小；而改变固体原子间结合强度和原子质量时，接触角几乎保持不变，但界面热阻显著改变。固体原子间结合强度和原子质量影响界面热阻的原因是其改变了固体的振动频率分布，导致液固原子间的振动耦合程度发生变化。本文的结果表明界面热阻不仅与由接触角所表征的液固结合强度有关，还与液固原子间的振动耦合程度有关。接触角与界面热阻间不存在单值的对应关系，不能单一地将接触角作为液固界面热阻的评价标准。%With the fast development of nanotechnology, the solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistance draws increasing research interest due to its importance in nanoscale energy transport. The contact angle is an important quantity characterizing the interfacial properties and is easy to be measured experimentally. Previous researchers have tried to correlate the contact angle to the interfacial thermal resistance. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we have calculated the contact angle and interfacial thermal resistance at a solid/liquid interface and discuss the relationship between the two quantities. The solid/liquid bonding strength and the solid properties are varied to test their effects on both contact angle and interfacial thermal resistance. The simulation results demonstrate that with increasing solid/liquid bonding strength, both the contact angle and interfacial thermal resistance decrease. However, the bonding strength between solid atoms and the solid atomic mass influence the interfacial resistance remarkably while they have little effect
Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S
2007-03-07
The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (
Claudiu Pozna
2007-08-01
Full Text Available The present paper intention is to develop a kinematical foundation for our nextworks in industrial robots (IR modular design. The goal of this works is todevelop cheap and improved robots which are adapted to the costumer needs. Inorder to achieve the mentioned goal, in [43], we have started a bibliographicalresearch of the main modular design aspects. The mentioned analyze of the actualresults in modular robots design gives us the possibility to establish our researchprogram. The idea of this paper is to develop a kinematical formalism which willbe use in the next dedicated to this subject.
Exploring Modularity in Services
Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana
2017-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how modularity manifests in the design of services. The study brings new insights on the organization of service firms by empirically exploring and theoretically advancing the intersection of modularity and service design. Design/methodology/approac......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how modularity manifests in the design of services. The study brings new insights on the organization of service firms by empirically exploring and theoretically advancing the intersection of modularity and service design. Design...... concept), intra-firm organization (service delivery system), and inter-firm relationships (service network). They posit that service architectures require the examination of different analytical levels due to the complex and dynamic nature of service business. Additionally, the analysis provides new...
Kadota, K; Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.
2003-01-01
We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.
Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, P K; Agarwal, Vipin
2016-09-01
The performance of heteronuclear spin decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR severely degrades when the proton radiofrequency (RF) nutation frequencies (ν1) are close to or at multiples of magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequency (νr) that are referred to as rotary-resonance recoupling conditions (ν1=n·νr). Recently, two schemes, namely, PISSARRO and rCW(ApA), have been shown to be less affected by the problem of MAS and RF interference, specifically at the n=2 rotary-resonance recoupling condition, especially in the fast MAS regime. Here, we systematically evaluate the loss in intensity of several heteronuclear spin decoupling sequences at the n=1, 2 conditions compared to high-power decoupling in the fast-MAS regime. We propose that in the fast-MAS regime (above 40kHz) the entire discussion about RF and MAS interference can be avoided by using appropriate low-power decoupling sequences which give comparable performance to decoupling sequences with high-power (1)H irradiation of ca.195kHz.
Mote, Kaustubh R; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K
2015-12-01
(1)H-detection offers a substitute to the sensitivity-starved experiments often used to characterize biomolecular samples using magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy (MAS-ssNMR). To mitigate the effects of the strong (1)H-(1)H dipolar coupled network that would otherwise severely broaden resonances, high MAS frequencies (>40kHz) are often employed. Here, we have explored the alternative of stroboscopic (1)H-detection at moderate MAS frequencies of 5-30kHz using windowed version of supercycled-phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg homonuclear decoupling. We show that improved resolution in the (1)H dimension, comparable to that obtainable at high spinning frequencies of 40-60kHz without homonuclear decoupling, can be obtained in these experiments for fully protonated proteins. Along with detailed analysis of the performance of the method on the standard tri-peptide f-MLF, experiments on micro-crystalline GB1 and amyloid-β aggregates are used to demonstrate the applicability of these pulse-sequences to challenging biomolecular systems. With only two parameters to optimize, broadbanded performance of the homonuclear decoupling sequence, linear dependence of the chemical-shift scaling factor on resonance offset and a straightforward implementation under experimental conditions currently used for many biomolecular studies (viz. spinning frequencies and radio-frequency amplitudes), we expect these experiments to complement the current (13)C-detection based methods in assignments and characterization through chemical-shift mapping.
Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong
2017-04-15
Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detection technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP-PCR directly on top of the SAF microlens array. Attribute to the high fluorescence collection efficiency of the SAF microlens array, the SP-PCR assay on the LOC platform demonstrated a high sensitivity of 1.6 copies/µL, comparable to off-chip detection using conventional laser scanner. The combination of SP-PCR and SAF microlens array allows for on-chip highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection with low-cost and compact optical components. The LOC platform would be widely used as a high-throughput biosensor to analyze food, clinical and environmental samples.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2014-05-14
We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.
Service Modularity and Architecture
Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana
2017-01-01
Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots of the e......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design....../methodology/approach: The paper is built on a literature review mapping the current body of literature on the topic and developing future research directions in service modularity and architecture. Findings: The growing focus on services has triggered needs to investigate the suitability and implementation of physical...
Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin
2016-02-01
Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases of an acute-angle banana-shaped molecule, N(1,7)-S30. In the hexagonal columnar phase, three peaks appear at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that the two alkyl tails have different packing structures, and one of the tails has two different conformations within a single molecule. Combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurements show that one of the alkyl chains is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure. In the cubic phase, pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurement shows that only one peak appears at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that both of the alkyl chains are located outside the cubic structure.
Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.
1982-01-01
Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60...... at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition......, an ionization cascade treatment leads to an expression for the behavior of the yield of those secondary electrons that are generated directly by the primaries. The agreement with experimental data is good...
On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics
Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.
2012-01-01
Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...... in the longer term may lead to more affordable modular robots. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....
On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics
Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.
2012-01-01
Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...... in the longer term may lead to more affordable modular robots. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....
Peyronel, Fernanda; Ilavsky, Jan; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Pink, David A.
2013-12-01
Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering has been used for the first time to elucidate, in situ, the aggregation structure of a model edible oil system. The three-dimensional nano- to micro-structure of tristearin solid particles in triolein solvent was investigated using 5, 10, 15, and 20% solids. Three different sample preparation procedures were investigated: two slow cooling rates of 0.5°/min, case 1 (22 days of storage at room temperature) and case 2 (no storage), and one fast cooling of 30°/min, case 3 (no storage). The length scale investigated, by using the Bonse-Hart camera at beamline ID-15D at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, covered the range from 300 Å to 10 μm. The unified fit and the Guinier-Porod models in the Irena software were used to fit the data. The former was used to fit 3 structural levels. Level 1 structures showed that the primary scatterers were essentially 2-dimensional objects for the three cases. The scatterers possessed lateral dimensions between 1000 and 4300 Å. This is consistent with the sizes of crystalline nanoplatelets present which were observed using cryo-TEM. Level 2 structures were aggregates possessing radii of gyration, Rg2 between 1800 Å and 12000 Å and fractal dimensions of either D2=1 for case 3 or 1.8≤D2≤2.1 for case 1 and case 2. D2 = 1 is consistent with unaggregated 1-dimensional objects. 1.8 ≤ D2 ≤ 2.1 is consistent with these 1-dimensional objects (below) forming structures characteristic of diffusion or reaction limited cluster-cluster aggregation. Level 3 structures showed that the spatial distribution of the level 2 structures was uniform, on the average, for case 1, with fractal dimension D3≈3 while for case 2 and case 3 the fractal dimension was D3≈2.2, which suggested that the large-scale distribution had not come to equilibrium. The Guinier-Porod model showed that the structures giving rise to the aggregates with a fractal dimension given by D2 in the unified fit level 2
Modular jet impingement assemblies with passive and active flow control for electronics cooling
Zhou, Feng; Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Joshi, Shailesh
2016-09-13
Power electronics modules having modular jet impingement assembly utilized to cool heat generating devices are disclosed. The modular jet impingement assemblies include a modular manifold having a distribution recess, one or more angled inlet connection tubes positioned at an inlet end of the modular manifold that fluidly couple the inlet tube to the distribution recess and one or more outlet connection tubes positioned at an outlet end of the modular manifold that fluidly coupling the outlet tube to the distribution recess. The modular jet impingement assemblies include a manifold insert removably positioned within the distribution recess and include one or more inlet branch channels each including an impinging slot and one or more outlet branch channels each including a collecting slot. Further a heat transfer plate coupled to the modular manifold, the heat transfer plate comprising an impingement surface including an array of fins that extend toward the manifold insert.
Modular titanium alloy neck failure in total hip replacement: analysis of a relapse case
Ceretti Marco; Falez Francesco
2016-01-01
Modular neck hip prosthesis born in the 1990 with the aim of allowing the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intra-operatively restoring patient’s original biomechanics. In order to achieve the best biomechanics of the reconstructed hip, preoperative planning is essential. In the last few years modularity has been questioned and an argument made for the return to mono block stems due to events of breakage or disconnection of modular components. Fretting or crevice cor...
Sinigoi, Loris; Bravin, Paola; Ebert, Cynthia; D'Amelio, Nicola; Vaccari, Lisa; Ciccarelli, Laura; Cantone, Sara; Basso, Alessandra; Gardossi, Lucia
2009-01-01
Porous and rigid methacrylic Synbeads were optimized and applied efficiently to the solid phase peptide synthesis with the objective of improving significantly volumetric yields (0.33 mol/L calculated on the basis of maximum chemical accessibility, i.e. the maximum number of functional groups that can be acylated by FmocCl) as compared to swelling commercial polymers (from 0.06 to 0.12 mol/L). The effects of the density of functional groups and spacer length were investigated obtaining a chemical accessibility of the functional groups up to 1 mmol/g(dry). High resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) was exploited to evidence the presence of "solution-like" flexible linkers anchored on the rigid methacrylic backbone of Synbeads and to study the degree of functionalization by the Wang linker. To demonstrate the efficiency of the optimized Synbeads, the peptides Somatostatin and Terlipressin were synthesized. In the case of Somatostatin, final synthetic yields of 45 and 60% were achieved by following the HCTU/DIPEA and DIC/HOBt routes respectively, with the HPLC purity always higher than 83%. In the case of Terlipressin, the synthesis was carried out in parallel on Synbeads and also on TentaGel, ChemMatrix, and PS-DVB for comparison (DIC/HOBt route). The profiles describing the synthetic efficiency demonstrated that Synbeads leads to synthetic efficiency (86%) comparable to PS-DVB (96%) or ChemMatrix (84%). In order to gain a more precise picture of chemical and morphological features of Synbeads, their matrix was also characterized by exploiting innovative approaches based on FTIR microspectroscopy with a conventional source and with synchrotron radiation. A uniform distribution of the functional groups was evidenced through a detailed chemical mapping.
Modular Optofluidic Systems (MOPS)
Ackermann, Tobias N.; Dietvorst, Jiri; Sanchis, Ana; Salvador, Juan P.; Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Alvarez-Conde, Erica; Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Marco, M.-Pilar; Llobera, Andreu
2016-12-01
Elementary PDMS-based building blocks of fluidic, optical and optofluidic components for Lab on a chip (LOC) platforms has here been developed. All individual modules are compatible and can be anchored and released with the help of puzzle-type connectors This approach is a powerful toolbox to create modular optofluidic systems (MOPS), which can be modified/upgraded to user needs and in-situ reconfigurable. In addition, the PDMS can locally be functionalized, defining a modular biosensor. Measurements in absorbance and fluorescence have been pursued as demonstrator.
Modular assembled space telescope
Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc
2013-09-01
We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
Modular High Voltage Power Supply
Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-05-18
The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.
Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.
1982-01-01
Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60......-65°. Only at large angles and low energies were the results different for H2 and D2, those for H2 being the lower ones. The angular variation of the SEE coefficient δ may be written as δ(θ)=δ(0)(cos θ)3/2 up to an angle of 65-75°. For H2 the SEE coefficient is around 0.65 times that the D2 except...... at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition...
The Evolution of Modular Construction.
American School & University, 1993
1993-01-01
Explores how the myths of modular construction for schools began; also discusses the advances made in steel and modular construction. The major advantages of using permanent modular construction for schools are highlighted, including its rapid construction, use of standard building materials, financial flexibility, and durability. (GR)
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Urakawa, Yuko
2016-01-01
Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field $T$ whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by $T$. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential $V_{ht}$, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from $V_{ht}$. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still po...
Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Kita, Sapporo, 060-0810 (Japan); Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University,Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-08-08
Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.
Modular cleanroom construction success.
Möllmann, Markus
2007-09-01
The completion of a 408 m2 major new aseptic pharmacy unit for the St George's Hospital NHS Trust, London, is a significant example of the benefits of using modern modular construction techniques compared to a traditional cleanroom build. At every stage from concept through project planning to final completion, the use of modules proved to be the most appropriate for the task.
Network modularity promotes cooperation.
Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David
2013-05-01
Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.
Evolution of Modularity Literature
Frandsen, Thomas
2017-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis ident...
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko
2016-08-01
Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.
Blach, K.
Notatet er på engelsk, idet det er lavet som et oplæg til den internationale standardiseringsorganisations (ISO) arbejde med målkoordinering i byggeriet. Materialet har også været forelagt ekspertgrupperne i CIB W24 og i International Modular Group. Det i notatet præsenterede materiale er blevet ...
Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Long, Fei; Ishii, Yoshitaka
2016-02-01
This study demonstrates a novel spectral editing technique for protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to simplify the spectrum drastically and to reduce the ambiguity for protein main-chain signal assignments in fast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions at a wide frequency range of 40-80 kHz. The approach termed HIGHLIGHT (Wang et al., in Chem Comm 51:15055-15058, 2015) combines the reverse (13)C, (15)N-isotope labeling strategy and selective signal quenching using the frequency-selective REDOR pulse sequence under fast MAS. The scheme allows one to selectively observe the signals of "highlighted" labeled amino-acid residues that precede or follow unlabeled residues through selectively quenching (13)CO or (15)N signals for a pair of consecutively labeled residues by recoupling (13)CO-(15)N dipolar couplings. Our numerical simulation results showed that the scheme yielded only ~15% loss of signals for the highlighted residues while quenching as much as ~90% of signals for non-highlighted residues. For lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein, the 2D (15)N/(13)Cα correlation and 2D (13)Cα/(13)CO correlation SSNMR spectra by the HIGHLIGHT approach yielded signals only for six residues following and preceding the unlabeled lysine residues, respectively. The experimental dephasing curves agreed reasonably well with the corresponding simulation results for highlighted and quenched residues at spinning speeds of 40 and 60 kHz. The compatibility of the HIGHLIGHT approach with fast MAS allows for sensitivity enhancement by paramagnetic assisted data collection (PACC) and (1)H detection. We also discuss how the HIGHLIGHT approach facilitates signal assignments using (13)C-detected 3D SSNMR by demonstrating full sequential assignments of lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein (~300 nmol), for which data collection required only 11 h. The HIGHLIGHT approach offers valuable means of signal assignments especially for larger proteins through reducing the
Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Long, Fei; Ishii, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yishii@uic.edu [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Chemistry (United States)
2016-02-15
This study demonstrates a novel spectral editing technique for protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to simplify the spectrum drastically and to reduce the ambiguity for protein main-chain signal assignments in fast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions at a wide frequency range of 40–80 kHz. The approach termed HIGHLIGHT (Wang et al., in Chem Comm 51:15055–15058, 2015) combines the reverse {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-isotope labeling strategy and selective signal quenching using the frequency-selective REDOR pulse sequence under fast MAS. The scheme allows one to selectively observe the signals of “highlighted” labeled amino-acid residues that precede or follow unlabeled residues through selectively quenching {sup 13}CO or {sup 15}N signals for a pair of consecutively labeled residues by recoupling {sup 13}CO–{sup 15}N dipolar couplings. Our numerical simulation results showed that the scheme yielded only ∼15 % loss of signals for the highlighted residues while quenching as much as ∼90 % of signals for non-highlighted residues. For lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein, the 2D {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C{sub α} correlation and 2D {sup 13}C{sub α}/{sup 13}CO correlation SSNMR spectra by the HIGHLIGHT approach yielded signals only for six residues following and preceding the unlabeled lysine residues, respectively. The experimental dephasing curves agreed reasonably well with the corresponding simulation results for highlighted and quenched residues at spinning speeds of 40 and 60 kHz. The compatibility of the HIGHLIGHT approach with fast MAS allows for sensitivity enhancement by paramagnetic assisted data collection (PACC) and {sup 1}H detection. We also discuss how the HIGHLIGHT approach facilitates signal assignments using {sup 13}C-detected 3D SSNMR by demonstrating full sequential assignments of lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein (∼300 nmol), for which data collection required only 11 h. The HIGHLIGHT approach offers valuable
Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G. [Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Ave., Bldg. 434D, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Mazzanti, Gianfranco [Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Pink, David A. [Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Physics Department, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5 (Canada)
2013-12-21
Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering has been used for the first time to elucidate, in situ, the aggregation structure of a model edible oil system. The three-dimensional nano- to micro-structure of tristearin solid particles in triolein solvent was investigated using 5, 10, 15, and 20% solids. Three different sample preparation procedures were investigated: two slow cooling rates of 0.5°/min, case 1 (22 days of storage at room temperature) and case 2 (no storage), and one fast cooling of 30°/min, case 3 (no storage). The length scale investigated, by using the Bonse-Hart camera at beamline ID-15D at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, covered the range from 300 Å to 10 μm. The unified fit and the Guinier-Porod models in the Irena software were used to fit the data. The former was used to fit 3 structural levels. Level 1 structures showed that the primary scatterers were essentially 2-dimensional objects for the three cases. The scatterers possessed lateral dimensions between 1000 and 4300 Å. This is consistent with the sizes of crystalline nanoplatelets present which were observed using cryo-TEM. Level 2 structures were aggregates possessing radii of gyration, R{sub g2} between 1800 Å and 12000 Å and fractal dimensions of either D{sub 2}=1 for case 3 or 1.8≤D{sub 2}≤2.1 for case 1 and case 2. D{sub 2} = 1 is consistent with unaggregated 1-dimensional objects. 1.8 ≤ D{sub 2} ≤ 2.1 is consistent with these 1-dimensional objects (below) forming structures characteristic of diffusion or reaction limited cluster-cluster aggregation. Level 3 structures showed that the spatial distribution of the level 2 structures was uniform, on the average, for case 1, with fractal dimension D{sub 3}≈3 while for case 2 and case 3 the fractal dimension was D{sub 3}≈2.2, which suggested that the large-scale distribution had not come to equilibrium. The Guinier-Porod model showed that the structures giving rise to the aggregates
Freidel, Laurent; Minic, Djordje
2016-01-01
At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrodinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrodinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and...
Shape optimization of the modular press body
Pabiszczak Stanisław
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A paper contains an optimization algorithm of cross-sectional dimensions of a modular press body for the minimum mass criterion. Parameters of the wall thickness and the angle of their inclination relative to the base of section are assumed as the decision variables. The overall dimensions are treated as a constant. The optimal values of parameters were calculated using numerical method of the tool Solver in the program Microsoft Excel. The results of the optimization procedure helped reduce body weight by 27% while maintaining the required rigidity of the body.
Modularity promotes epidemic recurrence
Jesan, T; Sinha, Sitabhra
2016-01-01
The long-term evolution of epidemic processes depends crucially on the structure of contact networks. As empirical evidence indicates that human populations exhibit strong community organization, we investigate here how such mesoscopic configurations affect the likelihood of epidemic recurrence. Through numerical simulations on real social networks and theoretical arguments using spectral methods, we demonstrate that highly contagious diseases that would have otherwise died out rapidly can persist indefinitely for an optimal range of modularity in contact networks.
Modular titanium alloy neck failure in total hip replacement: analysis of a relapse case
Ceretti Marco
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Modular neck hip prosthesis born in the 1990 with the aim of allowing the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intra-operatively restoring patient’s original biomechanics. In order to achieve the best biomechanics of the reconstructed hip, preoperative planning is essential. In the last few years modularity has been questioned and an argument made for the return to mono block stems due to events of breakage or disconnection of modular components. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such modular device due to the contamination inside the modular coupling or to high loads. We present a case of repetitive modular femoral neck prosthesis fracture.
Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje
2016-11-01
At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.
Javier Valenzuela
2007-06-01
Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.
[Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].
Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D
1991-01-01
Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.
Modular load flow for restructured power systems
Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P
2016-01-01
In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...
The modularity of pollination networks
Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko
2007-01-01
consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... almost 10,000 species and 20,000 links and tested for modularity by using a recently developed simulated annealing algorithm. All networks with >150 plant and pollinator species were modular, whereas networks with
A Unifying Modularity in Networks
HAO Jun-Jun; CAI Shui-Ming; HE Qin-Bin; LIU Zeng-Rong
2010-01-01
@@ We propose a new modularity criterion in complex networks,called the unifying modularity q which is independent of the number of partitions.It is shown that,for a given network,the relationship between the upper limit of Q and the number of the partitions,k,is sup(Qk)=(k-1)/k.Since the range of Q for each partition number is inconsistent,we try to extend the concept Q to unifying modularity q,which is independent of the number of partitions.Subsequently,we indicate that it is more accurately to determine the number of partitions by using unifying modularity q than Q.
Uniruledness of orthogonal modular varieties
Gritsenko, Valery
2012-01-01
A strongly reflective modular form with respect to an orthogonal group of signature (2,n) determines a Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebra. We find a new geometric application of such modular forms: we prove that if the weight is larger than n then the corresponding modular variety is uniruled. We also construct new reflective modular forms and thus provide new examples of uniruled moduli spaces of lattice polarised K3 surfaces. Finally we prove that the moduli space of Kummer surfaces associated to (1,21)-polarised abelian surfaces is uniruled.
Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems
Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.
2013-06-01
Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.
Abraham, A.; Prins, R.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Eck, E.R.H. van; Kentgens, A.P.M.
2006-01-01
A combination of Al-27 magic-angle spinning (MAS)/multiple quantum (MQ)-MAS, C-13-H-1 CPMAS, and C-13-{Al-27} transfer of population in double-resonance (TRAPDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for the structural elucidation of the aluminum alkoxides aluminum ethoxide, aluminum
Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas
facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open......Pharmaceuticals increasingly consider the potential of services, as healthcare payers require them to provide data on treatment outcomes. Ranging from corporate websites to free apps, these services are meant to increase the value of product offerings. This paper investigates how services can...
Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.
Modular Biometric Monitoring System
Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.
Modular Mobile Application Design
Jim Hahn
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.
Modular radiochemistry synthesis system
Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, Michael R.; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu
2016-11-01
A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.
Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.
Preheating after modular inflation
Barnaby, Neil; Bond, J. Richard; Huang, Zhiqi; Kofman, Lev
2009-12-01
We study (p)reheating in modular (closed string) inflationary scenarios, with a special emphasis on Kähler moduli/Roulette models. It is usually assumed that reheating in such models occurs through perturbative decays. However, we find that there are very strong non-perturbative preheating decay channels related to the particular shape of the inflaton potential (which is highly nonlinear and has a very steep minimum). Preheating after modular inflation, proceeding through a combination of tachyonic instability and broad-band parametric resonance, is perhaps the most violent example of preheating after inflation known in the literature. Further, we consider the subsequent transfer of energy to the standard model sector in scenarios where the standard model particles are confined to a D7-brane wrapping the inflationary blow-up cycle of the compactification manifold or, more interestingly, a non-inflationary blow-up cycle. We explicitly identify the decay channels of the inflaton in these two scenarios. We also consider the case where the inflationary cycle shrinks to the string scale at the end of inflation; here a field theoretical treatment of reheating is insufficient and one must turn instead to a stringy description. We estimate the decay rate of the inflaton and the reheat temperature for various scenarios.
Modular radiochemistry synthesis system
Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu
2015-12-15
A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.
Modular Engineering of Production Plants
Miller, Thomas Dedenroth
1998-01-01
Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...
Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot
Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael
2013-01-01
Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...
Modular Decomposition of Boolean Functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor)
2002-01-01
textabstractModular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli- cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paper we give a uni_ed treatment of modular decompositio
Modular Engineering of Production Plants
Miller, Thomas Dedenroth
1998-01-01
Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...
Modular Decomposition of Boolean Functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor)
2002-01-01
textabstractModular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli- cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paper we give a uni_ed treatment of modular
Pallas, Norman R.
2016-03-01
The three-phase contact angle (θ) for the system cyclohexane/aniline/quartz has been measured from drop shapes as a function of temperature on approach to the cyclohexane/aniline upper consolute solution temperature Tc. The experiments employed exacting criteria previously established for thermodynamic-quality measurements at fluid interfaces. A first-order wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting was observed at a temperature Tw, 2.12 K below Tc. The contact angle vanishes at Tw, scaling as cos θ ˜ |T - Tc|β1-μ for T system. These results are in marked contrast to previous measurements on this system from measurements of capillary rise and meniscus curvature.
Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions
Kimport, Susanna
Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions
2009-11-01
incident angle on depolarization ratio and reected energy from polarized lights is also provided. DRDC Valcartier TR 2008-394 i Résumé Des capteurs ...41.5 -22 10 Laiton Brass 10 -37.5 11 Aluminium Aluminum 26 -37.5 12 Acier "sand-blasté" Sandblasted steel 41.5 -37.5 13 Acier naturel Natural steel 10
Configuring Product Modularity and Service Modularity for Mass Customization Strategies
Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi
Service modularity is an emerging field of research, and there has been a growing interest on how it can contribute to service design and operations management. In this study we develop a framework to assess configurations of the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies......, and how such configurations become the foundations for mass customization strategies. As a result we identify critical characteristics that are relevant for both product and services, and suggest a conceptual framework consisting of twelve dynamic mass customization strategies with paired product...... and service modularity. Case examples are used for illustration of different strategies....
Configuring Product Modularity and Service Modularity for Mass Customization Strategies
Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi
, and how such configurations become the foundations for mass customization strategies. As a result we identify critical characteristics that are relevant for both product and services, and suggest a conceptual framework consisting of twelve dynamic mass customization strategies with paired product......Service modularity is an emerging field of research, and there has been a growing interest on how it can contribute to service design and operations management. In this study we develop a framework to assess configurations of the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies...... and service modularity. Case examples are used for illustration of different strategies....
Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory
2014-08-28
The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.
Collier, Scott; Yin, Xi
2016-01-01
We constrain the spectrum of two-dimensional unitary, compact conformal field theories with central charge c > 1 using modular bootstrap. Upper bounds on the gap in the dimension of primary operators of any spin, as well as in the dimension of scalar primaries, are computed numerically as functions of the central charge using semi-definite programming. Our bounds refine those of Hellerman and Friedan-Keller, and are in some cases saturated by known CFTs. In particular, we show that unitary CFTs with c < 8 must admit relevant deformations, and that a nontrivial bound on the gap of scalar primaries exists for c < 25. We also study bounds on the dimension gap in the presence of twist gaps, bounds on the degeneracy of operators, and demonstrate how "extremal spectra" which maximize the degeneracy at the gap can be determined numerically.
Modular small hydro configuration
1981-09-01
Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.
Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control
Padayachee, J
2008-01-01
Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...
Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.
Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D
2010-03-15
A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.
Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi
2016-01-01
Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detectio......-PCR and SAF microlens array allows for on-chip highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection with low-cost and compact optical components. The LOC platform would be widely used as a high-throughput biosensor to analyze food, clinical and environmental samples....
RoboMusic with modular playware
Falkenberg, Kasper; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob
2011-01-01
Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and modular playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited in the modular playware approach are modularity, fl exibility, construction...
RoboMusic with Modular Playware
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob
2010-01-01
Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and Modular Playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices, which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited from the Modular Playware approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction...
Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?
Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A
2014-04-01
It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.
Ito, Yuji; Imai, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shiro [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokai Naka Ibaraki (Japan)
1994-12-31
A small-angle neutron spectrometer (SANS-U) suitable for the study of mesoscopic structure in the field of polymer chemistry and biology, has been constructed at the guide hall of JRR-3M reactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The instrument is 32m long and utilizes a mechanical velocity selector and pinhole collimation to provide a continuous beam with variable wavelength in the range from 5 to 10{Angstrom}. The neutron detector is a 65 x 65cm{sup 2} 2D position sensitive proportional counter. The practical Q range of SANS-U is 0.0008 to 0.45{Angstrom}{sup -1}. The design, characteristics and performance of SANS-U are described with some biological studies using SANS-U.
Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors
Valtin Markus
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.
AES Modular Power Systems Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goals of this project are to 1) develop modular power design concepts for human exploration flight vehicles (longer-term) and assess, develop, and/or...
Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities
D'Hoker, Eric
2016-01-01
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...
Resilience of modular complex networks
Shai, Saray; Kenett, Yoed N; Faust, Miriam; Dobson, Simon; Havlin, Shlomo
2014-01-01
Complex networks often have a modular structure, where a number of tightly- connected groups of nodes (modules) have relatively few interconnections. Modularity had been shown to have an important effect on the evolution and stability of biological networks, on the scalability and efficiency of large-scale infrastructure, and the development of economic and social systems. An analytical framework for understanding modularity and its effects on network vulnerability is still missing. Through recent advances in the understanding of multilayer networks, however, it is now possible to develop a theoretical framework to systematically study this critical issue. Here we study, analytically and numerically, the resilience of modular networks under attacks on interconnected nodes, which exhibit high betweenness values and are often more exposed to failure. Our model provides new understandings into the feedback between structure and function in real world systems, and consequently has important implications as divers...
Habidite: viviendas modulares industrializadas
Gómez Jáuregui, V.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to one of the most relevant constructive systems of the last years: The integral industrialized construction. This method, based on three-dimensional modules, produces buildings made mainly from spatial cells of big dimensions; these three-dimensional modules are fabricated entirely in factory and, once they are finished, they are carried out to the site, where they are assembled in an easy manner. Even though it’s not a totally new system (in fact, the precedents will also be mentioned in this essay, Habidite is very confident in backing this tendency and doing its part in order to obtain modular reinforced concrete buildings of extraordinary quality, with domotic implements totally integrated in the dwellings and a high degree of sustainability, eco-technology and energetic efficiency. Many advantages are exposed and explained, dealing with the optimization of the productive processes in construction by means of the most advanced technologies.En este artículo se realiza una breve introducción a uno de los sistemas constructivos que más auge está teniendo en los últimos años: la edificación industrializada integral. Realizado a base de módulos tridimensionales, es éste un método de construcción en el cual los edificios se conforman básicamente por medio de células espaciales de grandes dimensiones; estos módulos tridimensionales se elaboran íntegramente en fábrica y, una vez están totalmente terminados, se transportan a obra, donde son montados de forma sencilla y rápida. Aunque no es un sistema totalmente novedoso (de hecho sus antecedentes también serán tratados brevemente en este texto, Habidite apuesta fuertemente por esta tendencia y aporta su grano de arena para conseguir edificios modulares de hormigón armado de extraordinaria calidad, con implementos domóticos totalmente integrados en la vivienda y un alto grado de sostenibilidad, eco-tecnología y eficiencia energética. Se abordan
Enzymatic computation and cognitive modularity
Barrett, H. Clark
2005-01-01
Currently, there is widespread skepticism that higher cognitive processes, given their apparent flexibility and globality, could be carried out by specialized computational devices, or modules. This skepticism is largely due to Fodor's influential definition of modularity. From the rather flexible catalogue of possible modular features that Fodor originally proposed has emerged a widely held notion of modules as rigid, informationally encapsulated devices that accept highly local inputs and w...
ISCE: A Modular, Reusable Library for Scalable SAR/InSAR Processing
Agram, P. S.; Lavalle, M.; Gurrola, E. M.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.
2016-12-01
Traditional community SAR/InSAR processing software tools have primarily focused on differential interferometry and Solid Earth applications. The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) was specifically designed to support the Earth Sciences user community as well as large scale operational processing tasks, thanks to its two-layered (Python+C/Fortran) architecture and modular framework. ISCE is freely distributed as a source tarball, allowing advanced users to modify and extend it for their research purposes and developing exploratory applications, while providing a relatively simple user interface for novice users to perform routine data analysis efficiently. Modular design of the ISCE library also enables easier development of applications to address the needs of Ecosystems, Cryosphere and Disaster Response communities in addition to the traditional Solid Earth applications. In this talk, we would like to emphasize the broader purview of the ISCE library and some of its unique features that sets it apart from other freely available community software like GMTSAR and DORIS, including: Support for multiple geometry regimes - Native Doppler (ALOS-1) as well Zero Doppler (ESA missions) systems. Support for data acquired by airborne platforms - e.g, JPL's UAVSAR and AirMOSS, DLR's F-SAR. Radiometric Terrain Correction - Auxiliary output layers from the geometry modules include projection angles, incidence angles, shadow-layover masks. Dense pixel offsets - Parallelized amplitude cross correlation for cryosphere / ionospheric correction applications. Rubber sheeting - Pixel-by-pixel offsets fields for resampling slave imagery for geometric co-registration/ ionospheric corrections. Preliminary Tandem-X processing support - Bistatic geometry modules. Extensibility to support other non-Solid Earth missions - Modules can be directly adopted for use with other SAR missions, e.g., SWOT. Preliminary support for multi-dimensional data products- multi-polarization, multi
Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites
Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert
2015-01-01
Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.
Equbal, Asif; Leskes, Michal; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Madhu, P K; Vega, Shimon
2016-02-01
We present a bimodal Floquet analysis of the recently introduced refocused continuous wave (rCW) solid-state NMR heteronuclear dipolar decoupling method and compare it with the similar looking X-inverse X (XiX) scheme. The description is formulated in the rf interaction frame and is valid for both finite and ideal π pulse rCW irradiation that forms the refocusing element in the rCW scheme. The effective heteronuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian up to first order is described. The analysis delineates the difference between the two sequences to different orders of their Hamiltonians for both diagonal and off-diagonal parts. All the resonance conditions observed in experiments and simulations have been characterised and their influence on residual line broadening is highlighted. The theoretical comparison substantiates the numerical simulations and experimental results to a large extent.
Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator
Schock, Alfred
1981-04-03
Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.
Modular Nuclear Testing Concept
Wouters, L. F.
1964-07-01
The continuing concern with efficient utilization of manpower at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the seemingly high cost of individual nuclear shots, together with the recent evolution of the L-12 scope, generated some fresh thoughts concerning more efficient procedures for the `average` test. Every time anyone looks at the problem., they tend to analyze the existing conventional approach and try to find the one or two most expensive and `lossy` factors in the can of worms. Usually this turns out to be a problem within the realm of specialization of the particular analyst! People not so directly concerned with the program tend to look for, or wish for, or even `invent` miracles`. Our present techniques appear to be the sum (and possibly even the product) of many small contributions which have all been beaten down to the same level of importance. Such a situation in any systemic problem is usually symptomatic of the need for fairly violent departures in the aver-all system approach, at least in thinking. This report proposes and details a modular nuclear testing concept.
Modular Approach to Spintronics.
Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo
2015-06-11
There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-28
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
Curtis, Joseph E; Nanda, Hirsh; Khodadadi, Sheila; Cicerone, Marcus; Lee, Hyo Jin; McAuley, Arnold; Krueger, Susan
2012-08-16
The structure, interactions, and interprotein configurations of the protein lysozyme were studied in a variety of phases. These properties have been studied under a variety of solution conditions before, during, and after freezing and after freeze-drying in the presence of glucose and trehalose. Contrast variation experiments have also been performed to determine which features of the scattering in the frozen solutions are from the protein and which are from the ice structure. Data from lysozyme at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL in solution and water ice with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.4 mol/L are fit to model small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensity functions consisting of an ellipsoidal form factor and either a screened-Coulomb or hard-sphere structure factor. Parameters such as protein volume fraction and long dimension are followed as a function of temperature and salt concentration. The SANS results are compared to real space models of concentrated lysozyme solutions at the same volume fractions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. A cartoon representation of the frozen lysozyme solution in 0 mol/L NaCl is presented based on the SANS and Monte Carlo results, along with those obtained from other complementary methods.
Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms
Goren, Eyal Z
2001-01-01
This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...
Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator
Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.
2016-01-01
High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific
A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis
Makkonen, Lasse
2017-08-01
When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
Wah, Benny; Breidigan, Jeffrey M.; Adams, Joseph; Horbal, Piotr; Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Perez-Salas, Ursula
2017-04-11
Maintaining compositional lipid gradients across membranes in animal cells is essential to biological function, but what is the energetic cost to maintain these differences? It has long been recognized that studying the passive movement of lipids in membranes can provide insight into this toll. Confusingly the reported values of inter- and, particularly, intra-lipid transport rates of lipids in membranes show significant differences. To overcome this difficulty, biases introduced by experimental approaches have to be identified. The present study addresses the difference in the reported intramembrane transport rates of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) on flat solid supports (fast flipping) and in curved free-standing membranes (slow flipping). Two possible scenarios are potentially at play: one is the difference in curvature of the membranes studied and the other the presence (or not) of the support. Using DMPC vesides and DMPC supported membranes on silica nanoparticles of different radii, we found that an increase in curvature (from a diameter of 30 nm to a diameter of 100 nm) does not change the rates significantly, differing only by factors of order I. Additionally, we found that the exchange rates of DMPC in supported membranes are similar to the ones in vesicles. And as previously reported, we found that the activation energies for exchange on free-standing and supported membranes are similar (84 and 78 kJ/mol, respectively). However, DMPC's flip-flop rates increase significantly when in a supported membrane, surpassing the exchange rates and no longer limiting the exchange process. Although the presence of holes or cracks in supported membranes explains the occurrence of fast lipid flip-flop in many studies, in defect-free supported membranes we find that fast flip-flop is driven by the surface's induced disorder of the bilayer's acyl chain packing as evidenced from their broad melting temperature behavior.
Design of the Modular Pneumatic Valve Terminal
Jakub E. TAKOSOGLU
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents design of the modular pneumatic valve terminal, which was made on the basis of the patent application No A1 402905 „A valve for controlling fluid power drives, specially for pneumatic actuators, and the control system for fluid power drives valves”. The authors describe a method of operation of the system with double-acting valve and 5/2 (five ways and two position valve. Functions of the valve, and an example of application of the valve terminal in the production process were presented. 3D solid models of all the components of the valve were made. The paper presents a complete 3D model of the valve in various configurations. Using CAD-embedded SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation computational fluid dynamics CFD analysis was also carried out of compressed air flow in the ways of the valve elements
Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions
Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.
2016-01-01
Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.
Product Modular Design Incorporating Preventive Maintenance Issues
GAO Yicong; FENG Yixiong; TAN Jianrong
2016-01-01
Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.
Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues
Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong
2016-03-01
Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.
Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy
Lund, Henrik Hautop
2009-01-01
We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...... the rehabilitation. Also, initial pilot test data suggest that some playful exercises on the tiles demand an average heart rate of 75% and 86% of the maximum heart rate....
Modular Software-Defined Radio
Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.
Modular process modeling for OPC
Keck, M. C.; Bodendorf, C.; Schmidtling, T.; Schlief, R.; Wildfeuer, R.; Zumpe, S.; Niehoff, M.
2007-03-01
Modular OPC modeling, describing mask, optics, resist and etch processes separately is an approach to keep efforts for OPC manageable. By exchanging single modules of a modular OPC model, a fast response to process changes during process development is possible. At the same time efforts can be reduced, since only single modular process steps have to be re-characterized as input for OPC modeling as the process is adjusted and optimized. Commercially available OPC tools for full chip processing typically make use of semi-empirical models. The goal of our work is to investigate to what extent these OPC tools can be applied for modeling of single process steps as separate modules. For an advanced gate level process we analyze the modeling accuracy over different process conditions (focus and dose) when combining models for each process step - optics, resist and etch - for differing single processes to a model describing the total process.
Modular system design and evaluation
Levin, Mark Sh
2015-01-01
This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...
Emergent interfaces for feature modularization
Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus
2014-01-01
Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.
Walk modularity and community structure in networks
Mehrle, David; Harkin, Anthony
2014-01-01
Modularity maximization has been one of the most widely used approaches in the last decade for discovering community structure in networks of practical interest in biology, computing, social science, statistical mechanics, and more. Modularity is a quality function that measures the difference between the number of edges found within clusters minus the number of edges one would statistically expect to find based on random chance. We present a natural generalization of modularity based on the difference between the actual and expected number of walks within clusters, which we call walk-modularity. Walk-modularity can be expressed in matrix form, and community detection can be performed by finding leading eigenvectors of the walk-modularity matrix. We demonstrate community detection on both synthetic and real-world networks and find that walk-modularity maximization returns significantly improved results compared to traditional modularity maximization.
Modularity for Modulating Exercises and Levels
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Nielsen, Camilla Balslev
2011-01-01
The modular interactive tiles aim at engaging anybody (elderly, carer, hospital personnel, children) in performing playful and motivating physical activities. Inspired by modular robotics, each tile is a self-contained module with processing power and communication to neighbouring modules...
p-adic Modular Symbols and Λ-adic Modular Forms
Fu Zheng WANG
2006-01-01
A construction of Λ-adic modular forms from p-adic modular symbols is described. It showsthat each Λ linear map satisfying some certain conditions from the module of p-adic modular symbols to Λ corresponds to a Λ-adic modular form.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML
Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira
2004-01-01
This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting log...
Generating graphs that approach a prescribed modularity
Trajanovski, S.; Kuipers, F.A.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Van Mieghem, P.
2013-01-01
Modularity is a quantitative measure for characterizing the existence of a community structure in a network. A network's modularity depends on the chosen partitioning of the network into communities, which makes finding the specific partition that leads to the maximum modularity a hard problem. In t
SOME RESULTS OF MODULAR LIE SUPERALGEBRAS
无
2006-01-01
In the present article, the authors give some properties on subinvariant subalgebras of modular Lie superalgebras and obtain the derivation tower theorem of modular Lie superalgebras, which is analogous to the automorphism tower theorem of finite groups.Moreover, they announce and prove some results of modular complete Lie superalgebras.
On modular Galois representations modulo prime powers
Chen, Imin; Kiming, Ian; Wiese, Gabor
2013-01-01
We study modular Galois representations mod pm. We show that there are three progressively weaker notions of modularity for a Galois representation mod pm: We have named these "strongly", "weakly", and "dc-weakly" modular. Here, "dc" stands for "divided congruence" in the sense of Katz and Hida. ...
On modular Galois representations modulo prime powers
Chen, Imin; Kiming, Ian; Wiese, Gabor
2013-01-01
. These notions of modularity are relative to a fixed level M. Using results of Hida we display a level-lowering result ("stripping-of-powers of p away from the level"): A mod pm strongly modular representation of some level Npr is always dc-weakly modular of level N (here, N is a natural number not divisible...
Palke, Aaron C; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Boatner, Lynn A
2013-11-04
We present (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of flux-grown solid solutions of La(1-x)Ce(x)PO4 (x between 0.027 and 0.32) having the monoclinic monazite structure, and of Y(1-x)M(x)PO4 (M = V(n+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), x between 0.001 and 0.014) having the tetragonal zircon structure. Paramagnetically shifted NMR resonances are observed in all samples due to the presence of paramagnetic V(n+), Ce(3+), and Nd(3+) in the diamagnetic LaPO4 or YPO4. As a first-order observation, the number and relative intensities of these peaks are related to the symmetry and structure of the diamagnetic host phase. The presence of paramagnetic shifts allows for increased resolution between NMR resonances for distinct atomic species which leads to the observation of low intensity peaks related to PO4 species having more than one paramagnetic neighbor two or four atomic bonds away. Through careful analysis of peak areas and comparison with predictions for simple models, it was determined that solid solutions in the systems examined here are characterized by complete disorder (random distribution) of diamagnetic La(3+) or Y(3+) with the paramagnetic substitutional species Ce(3+) and Nd(3+). The increased resolution given by the paramagnetic interactions also leads to the observation of splitting of specific resonances in the (31)P NMR spectra that may be caused by local, small-scale distortions from the substitution of ions having dissimilar ionic radii.
Hierarchy of modular graph identities
D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-11-09
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.
Modular crystals as modulated structures
Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.;
2008-01-01
The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated c...
Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES
Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania
2010-01-01
This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic expl...
Modularity in Cancer Care Provision
Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana
2012-01-01
The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...
Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies
Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi;
2012-01-01
Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....
Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets
Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure
2009-01-01
as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...... concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed...
Reflective modular forms in algebraic geometry
Gritsenko, Valery
2010-01-01
We prove that the existence of a strongly reflective modular form of a large weight implies that the Kodaira dimension of the corresponding modular variety is negative or, in some special case, it is equal to zero. Using the Jacobi lifting we construct three towers of strongly reflective modular forms with the simplest possible divisor. In particular we obtain a Jacobi lifting construction of the Borcherds-Enriques modular form Phi_4 and Jacobi liftings of automorphic discriminants of the K\\"ahler moduli of Del Pezzo surfaces constructed recently by Yoshikawa. We obtain also three modular varieties of dimension 4, 6 and 7 of Kodaira dimension 0.
Modularity and stability in ecological communities
Grilli, Jacopo; Rogers, Tim; Allesina, Stefano
2016-01-01
Networks composed of distinct, densely connected subsystems are called modular. In ecology, it has been posited that a modular organization of species interactions would benefit the dynamical stability of communities, even though evidence supporting this hypothesis is mixed. Here we study the effect of modularity on the local stability of ecological dynamical systems, by presenting new results in random matrix theory, which are obtained using a quaternionic parameterization of the cavity method. Results show that modularity can have moderate stabilizing effects for particular parameter choices, while anti-modularity can greatly destabilize ecological networks. PMID:27337386
Banigan, James R.; Gayen, Anindita; Traaseth, Nathaniel J., E-mail: traaseth@nyu.edu [New York University, Department of Chemistry (United States)
2013-04-15
Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a viable method to characterize membrane protein structure and dynamics. Nevertheless, the spectral resolution for uniformly labeled samples is often compromised by redundancy of the primary sequence and the presence of helical secondary structure that results in substantial resonance overlap. The ability to simplify the spectrum in order to obtain unambiguous site-specific assignments is a major bottleneck for structure determination. To address this problem, we used a combination of {sup 15}N reverse labeling, afterglow spectroscopic techniques, and frequency-selective dephasing experiments that dramatically improved the ability to resolve peaks in crowded spectra. This was demonstrated using the polytopic membrane protein EmrE, an efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance. Residues preceding the {sup 15}N reverse labeled amino acid were imaged using a 3D NCOCX afterglow experiment and those following were recorded using a frequency-selective dephasing experiment. Our approach reduced the spectral congestion and provided a sensitive way to obtain chemical shift assignments for a membrane protein where no high-resolution structure is available. This MAS methodology is widely applicable to the study of other polytopic membrane proteins in functional lipid bilayer environments.
Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity.
Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W
2015-01-01
Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.
Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity
Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.
2015-01-01
Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.
Yunhan Lin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.
Guodong Liu; Yining Zhang; Huilin Lu; Ersheng You; Xiang Li
2013-01-01
Modular pebble-bed nuclear reactor (MPBNR) technology is promising due to its attractive features such as high fuel performance and inherent safety. Particle motion of fuel and graphite pebbles is highly associated with the performance of pebbled-bed modular nuclear reactor. To understand the mechanism of pebble’s motion in the reactor, we numerically studied the influence of number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles, funnel angle of the reactor, height of guide ring on the distribution of pe...
Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems
Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo
2014-01-01
Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks
肖冉; 刘艳芬; 许文贞; 谭宗泉; 成斌; 孔伟; 叶邦角
2014-01-01
高通量µ子源是国际上µ子科学研究的重要条件。在中国散裂中子源的高能质子应用区中，运用蒙特卡罗工具Geant4和G4beamline软件设计了使用内靶超导螺线管俘获高通量表面µ子的束线。与传统的分离靶和基于四极磁铁的收集系统相比，大孔径超导螺线管可以将收集效率提高两个量级。通过对不同靶材的粒子产率进行分析得出石墨是最佳靶材，然后比较俘获螺线管与束流的不同偏转角度下收集的表面µ的产率，提出了合理的较高产率的俘获和输运螺线管的设计方案，并与常规磁铁方案比较，最终在衰变螺线管端口的表面µ通量高达108/s。%High intense muons are required by many applications in muon science. A large acceptance channel for surface muons was designed at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) using a superconducting solenoid and an internal target, which can provide a large solid angle to collect intense surface muons. Compared to conventional separate target and collection system based on quadrupole magnets, a superconducting solenoid with large aperture can collect two orders larger of surface muons. This device was simulated by Geant4 and G4beamline. By analyzing the surface muon production ratio produced by the process that protons bombard four different materials, we chose the graphite as the target material. Then comparing the intensity of surface muon by different angles between the axis of the capture solenoids and the proton beam line, we proposed the capture and transport solenoid system with higher muon production ratio. Finally, the yield of surface muon at the exit of decay solenoid can be up to 108/s.
On modular semifinite index theory
Kaad, Jens
2011-01-01
We propose a definition of a modular spectral triple which covers existing examples arising from KMS-states, Podles sphere and quantum SU(2). The definition also incorporates the notion of twisted commutators appearing in recent work of Connes and Moscovici. We show how a finitely summable modular spectral triple admits a twisted index pairing with unitaries satisfying a modular condition. The twist means that the dimensions of kernels and cokernels are measured with respect to two different but intimately related traces. The twisted index pairing can be expressed by pairing Chern characters in reduced versions of twisted cyclic theories. We end the paper by giving a local formula for the reduced Chern character in the case of quantum SU(2). It appears as a twisted coboundary of the Haar-state. In particular we present an explicit computation of the twisted index pairing arising from the sequence of corepresentation unitaries. As an important tool we construct a family of derived integration spaces associated...
Variable angle correlation spectroscopy
Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.
Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei
2015-04-07
A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function; thus, it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static (31)P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. Two-dimensional (2D) (31)P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. (31)P- and (13)C-detected (1)H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the (31)P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. On the basis of this resolution, 2D (1)H-(31)P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not DHPC (31)P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in good
Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei
2015-01-01
A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function, thus it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state NMR methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static 31P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented DMPC/DHPC bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the peptide with the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. 2D 31P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. 31P- and 13C-detected 1H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the 31P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. Based on this resolution, 2D 1H-31P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not the DHPC 31P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the M2 amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in excellent agreement with the membrane-scission function of the protein. These bicelle-based relaxation and OMAS solid-state NMR techniques are
Nanofluid surface wettability through asymptotic contact angle.
Vafaei, Saeid; Wen, Dongsheng; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian
2011-03-15
This investigation introduces the asymptotic contact angle as a criterion to quantify the surface wettability of nanofluids and determines the variation of solid surface tensions with nanofluid concentration and nanoparticle size. The asymptotic contact angle, which is only a function of gas-liquid-solid physical properties, is independent of droplet size for ideal surfaces and can be obtained by equating the normal component of interfacial force on an axisymmetric droplet to that of a spherical droplet. The technique is illustrated for a series of bismuth telluride nanofluids where the variation of surface wettability is measured and evaluated by asymptotic contact angles as a function of nanoparticle size, concentration, and substrate material. It is found that the variation of nanofluid concentration, nanoparticle size, and substrate modifies both the gas-liquid and solid surface tensions, which consequently affects the force balance at the triple line, the contact angle, and surface wettability.
Songlin Wang
Full Text Available We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52-57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems.
Wang, Songlin
2015-04-09
We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL) proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52–57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg) that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile) residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems.
Modular Robotics in an African Context
Lund, Henrik Hautop
2011-01-01
In this paper, we review the concept, development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. The modular robotics inspired technology has the advantage of allowing any user easy access to a physical construction of new and advanced technology. We...... conceptualized several educational tools inspired by modular robotics for contextualized IT education in Tanzania, leading to a novel IT degree program and the development of East Africa’s first science and business park in Iringa, Tanzania. The prototypes inspired by modular robotics were developed in the local......, rural context and tested by local users in hospitals and rehabilitation centres. In this paper, we review the development of both modular building blocks for education and modular robotic tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania....
(Automated) software modularization using community detection
Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos
2015-01-01
detection algorithm of Reichardt and Bornholdt improved community quality for all systems, that coupling decreased for 99 of the systems, and that coherence increased for 102 of the systems. Furthermore, the modularity function correlates with existing metrics for coupling and coherence.......The modularity of a software system is known to have an effect on, among other, development effort, change impact, and technical debt. Modularizing a specific system and evaluating this modularization is, however, challenging. In this paper, we apply community detection methods to the graph...... of class dependencies in software systems to find optimal modularizations through communities. We evaluate this approach through a study of 111 Java systems contained in the Qualitas Corpus. We found that using the modularity function of Newman with an Erdős-Rényi null-model and using the community...
Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment
Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-01-27
It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.
A Robust Modular IGBT Power Supply for Magnetic Confinement Concepts
Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Ken; Carscadden, John; Prager, Jim
2009-11-01
Among current challenges in fusion science, and in particular within the Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICC) community, is the ability to generate increased power levels for pulsed magnets, arc plasma sources, radio frequency (RF) heating and current drive schemes at reasonable cost with current generation solid state devices. Continuous wave (CW) tube based power supplies are typically large and expensive, making them prohibitive for smaller experimental facilities or not cost effective when only pulsed input power is required. Next generation solid state power supplies could allow for multiple use applications with a single well developed module that can be easily reconfigured. As such, this type of robust power supply could be beneficial to several important fusion applications including high power RF heating and current drive schemes, high current pulsed magnets and plasma pre-ionization sources. Data will be presented on design characteristics and testing of a modular robust solid state power supply based on Insulate Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT) technologies and developed by Eagle Harbor Technologies, INC. The modular power supply system can be assembled in multiple ways to address a wide range of applications and needs for the magnetic confinement community.
Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks
Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad
1996-01-01
Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.
A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML
Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira
2004-01-01
This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting log...... of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications....
Identification of drivers for modular production
Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld
2015-01-01
Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....
Modularity and its effects on innovation
Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård
Purpose Through a discussion of the link between modularity and innovation, it is assessed whether and, then, when it is appropriate for an entrepreneur to apply modularity in his company’s innovation processes. Design/Methodology/Approach A conceptual paper, which aims to combine three theoretical...... fields: Modularity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Findings: Modularization can provide huge advantages for entrepreneurs. However, the true benefits can first be pursued when the product and production processes are mature enough. At this point of time the entrepreneur will need to accept more...
A SCALABLE HYBRID MODULAR MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHM
Meng Qiang; Chen Tao; Dai Zibin; Chen Quji
2008-01-01
Based on the analysis of several familiar large integer modular multiplication algorithms,this paper proposes a new Scalable Hybrid modular multiplication (SHyb) algorithm which has scalable operands, and presents an RSA algorithm model with scalable key size. Theoretical analysis shows that SHyb algorithm requires m2n/2+2m iterations to complete an mn-bit modular multiplication with the application of an n-bit modular addition hardware circuit. The number of the required iterations can be reduced to a half of that of the scalable Montgomery algorithm. Consequently, the application scope of the RSA cryptosystem is expanded and its operation speed is enhanced based on SHyb algorithm.
Problems in the theory of modular forms
Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester
2016-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .
Establishing an Improved Kane Dynamic Model for the 7-DOF Reconfigurable Modular Robot
Xiao Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an improved Kane dynamic model theory for the 7-DOF modular robot in this paper, and the model precision is improved by the improved function T′it. We designed three types of progressive modular joints for reconfigurable modular robot that can be used in industrial robot, space robot, and special robot. The Kane dynamic model and the solid dynamic model are established, respectively, for the 7-DOF modular robot. After that, the experimental results are obtained from the simulation experiment of typical task in the established dynamic models. By the analysis model of error, the equation of the improved torque T′it is derived and proposed. And the improved Kane dynamic model is established for the modular robot that used T′it. Based on the experimental data, the undetermined coefficient matrix is five-order linear that was proved in 7-DOF modular robot. And the explicit formulation is solved of the Kane dynamic model and can be used in control system.
Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.
Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W
2007-10-31
Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only
Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.
Kanchana Padmanabhan
Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our
Geometric Kac-Moody Modularity
Lynker, M; Lynker, Monika; Schimmrigk, Rolf
2004-01-01
It is shown how the arithmetic structure of algebraic curves encoded in the Hasse-Weil L-function can be related to affine Kac-Moody algebras. This result is useful in relating the arithmetic geometry of Calabi-Yau varieties to the underlying exactly solvable theory. In the case of the genus three Fermat curve we identify the Hasse-Weil L-function with the Mellin transform of the twist of a number theoretic modular form derived from the string function of a non-twisted affine Lie algebra. The twist character is associated to the number field of quantum dimensions of the conformal field theory.
Modular training for career counsellors
Maruša Goršak
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Exactly ten years have passed since first attempts were made in Slovenia to establish a comprehensive and formalized educational program for counsellors working in the field of lifelong career guidance. In the past, organizations providing (career guidance services have established their own non-formal employee trainings. A step forward has been made under the framework of the project “National coordination point for lifelong career guidance”, which enabled the implementation of the first joint training for (career guidance counsellors, called Modular training of career counsellors.
Spintronic device modeling and evaluation using modular approach to spintronics
Ganguly, Samiran
Spintronics technology finds itself in an exciting stage today. Riding on the backs of rapid growth and impressive advances in materials and phenomena, it has started to make headway in the memory industry as solid state magnetic memories (STT-MRAM) and is considered a possible candidate to replace the CMOS when its scaling reaches physical limits. It is necessary to bring all these advances together in a coherent fashion to explore and evaluate the potential of spintronic devices. This work creates a framework for this exploration and evaluation based on Modular Approach to Spintronics, which encapsulate the physics of transport of charge and spin through materials and the phenomenology of magnetic dynamics and interaction in benchmarked elemental modules. These modules can then be combined together to form spin-circuit models of complex spintronic devices and structures which can be simulated using SPICE like circuit simulators. In this work we demonstrate how Modular Approach to Spintronics can be used to build spin-circuit models of functional spintronic devices of all types: memory, logic, and oscillators. We then show how Modular Approach to Spintronics can help identify critical factors behind static and dynamic dissipation in spintronic devices and provide remedies by exploring the use of various alternative materials and phenomena. Lastly, we show the use of Modular Approach to Spintronics in exploring new paradigms of computing enabled by the inherent physics of spintronic devices. We hope that this work will encourage more research and experiments that will establish spintronics as a viable technology for continued advancement of electronics.
A new angle on the Euler angles
Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.
1995-01-01
We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.
Compactification of Drinfeld modular varieties and Drinfeld Modular Forms of Arbitrary Rank
Pink, Richard
2010-01-01
We give an abstract characterization of the Satake compactification of a general Drinfeld modular variety. We prove that it exists and is unique up to unique isomorphism, though we do not give an explicit stratification by Drinfeld modular varieties of smaller rank which is also expected. We construct a natural ample invertible sheaf on it, such that the global sections of its $k$-th power form the space of (algebraic) Drinfeld modular forms of weight~$k$. We show how the Satake compactification and modular forms behave under all natural morphisms between Drinfeld modular varieties; in particular we define Hecke operators. We give explicit results in some special cases.
INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ROUGHNESS ON THE WETTING ANGLE
Zhou, X.B; de Hosson, J.T.M.
1995-01-01
In this paper the influence of surface roughness on contact angles in the system of liquid Al wetting solid surfaces of Al2O3 has been studied. It was observed that contact angles of liquid Al vary significantly on different rough surfaces of Al2O3 A model is proposed to correlate contact angles wit
Modularity, noise, and natural selection.
Marroig, Gabriel; Melo, Diogo A R; Garcia, Guilherme
2012-05-01
Most biological systems are formed by component parts that are to some degree interrelated. Groups of parts that are more associated among themselves and are relatively autonomous from others are called modules. One of the consequences of modularity is that biological systems usually present an unequal distribution of the genetic variation among traits. Estimating the covariance matrix that describes these systems is a difficult problem due to a number of factors such as poor sample sizes and measurement errors. We show that this problem will be exacerbated whenever matrix inversion is required, as in directional selection reconstruction analysis. We explore the consequences of varying degrees of modularity and signal-to-noise ratio on selection reconstruction. We then present and test the efficiency of available methods for controlling noise in matrix estimates. In our simulations, controlling matrices for noise vastly improves the reconstruction of selection gradients. We also perform an analysis of selection gradients reconstruction over a New World Monkeys skull database to illustrate the impact of noise on such analyses. Noise-controlled estimates render far more plausible interpretations that are in full agreement with previous results. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture
Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence
2014-08-01
This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.
Modular polynomials via isogeny volcanoes
Broker, Reinier; Sutherland, Andrew V
2010-01-01
We present a new algorithm to compute the classical modular polynomial Phi_n in the rings Z[X,Y] and (Z/mZ)[X,Y], for a prime n and any positive integer m. Our approach uses the graph of n-isogenies to efficiently compute Phi_n mod p for many primes p of a suitable form, and then applies the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). Under the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we achieve an expected running time of O(n^3 (log n)^3 log log n), and compute Phi_n mod m using O(n^2 (log n)^2 + n^2 log m) space. We have used the new algorithm to compute Phi_n with n over 5000, and Phi_n mod m with n over 20000. We also consider several modular functions g for which Phi_n^g is smaller than Phi_n, allowing us to handle n over 60000.
Modular invariance and the fusion algebra
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik
1988-12-01
We discuss the relation between modular transformations and the fusion algebra, and explain its proof. It is shown that the existence of off-diagonal modular invariant partition functions imply the existence of a non-trivial automorphism of the fusion algebra. This is illustrated using the SU(2) affine models.
Algebra and Arithmetic of Modular Forms
Rustom, Nadim
In [Rus14b] and [Rus14a], we study graded rings of modular forms over congruence subgroups, with coefficients in subrings A of C, and determine bounds of the weights of modular forms constituting a minimal set of generators, as well as on the degree of the generators of the ideal of relations bet...
A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System
Newswanger, Craig D.
1984-05-01
WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.
Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory
Hadasz, Leszek, E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.p [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Jaskolski, Zbigniew, E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Suchanek, Paulina, E-mail: paulina@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)
2010-02-22
The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.
Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory
Hadasz, Leszek; Suchanek, Paulina
2009-01-01
The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.
Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel
Nemkov, Nikita
2016-01-01
On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block.
Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs
Kawamoto, Tatsuro
2016-01-01
We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.
Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.
Savage, Chuck
1989-01-01
Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)
Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic
Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José;
2003-01-01
Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif...
Complex Convexity of Orlicz Modular Sequence Spaces
Lili Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The concepts of complex extreme points, complex strongly extreme points, complex strict convexity, and complex midpoint locally uniform convexity in general modular spaces are introduced. Then we prove that, for any Orlicz modular sequence space lΦ,ρ, lΦ,ρ is complex midpoint locally uniformly convex. As a corollary, lΦ,ρ is also complex strictly convex.
Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel
Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-06-15
On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)
The Algorithmic Complexity of Modular Decomposition
J.C. Bioch (Cor)
2001-01-01
textabstractModular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. We propose an O(mn)-algorithm for the recognition of a modular set of a monotone Boolean function f with m prime implicants and n variables.
Algebra and Arithmetic of Modular Forms
Rustom, Nadim
In [Rus14b] and [Rus14a], we study graded rings of modular forms over congruence subgroups, with coefficients in subrings A of C, and determine bounds of the weights of modular forms constituting a minimal set of generators, as well as on the degree of the generators of the ideal of relations bet...
Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters
Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Leo; Guerrero, Josep M.
2014-01-01
. The user-frame concept proposed here when designing microgrids considers that the end-user is the basis for the geographical deployment. Meanwhile, a modular user-oriented approach is adopted in order to enhance reliability and expansibility. Finally, a unified dispatching and hierarchical management...... approach is proposed and evaluated to effectively optimize and manage modular microgrid architectures....
... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...
Modularity bounds for clusters located by leading eigenvectors of the normalized modularity matrix
Fasino, Dario
2016-01-01
Nodal theorems for generalized modularity matrices ensure that the cluster located by the positive entries of the leading eigenvector of various modularity matrices induces a connected subgraph. In this paper we obtain lower bounds for the modularity of that set of nodes showing that, under certain conditions, the nodal domains induced by eigenvectors corresponding to highly positive eigenvalues of the normalized modularity matrix have indeed positive modularity, that is they can be recognized as modules inside the network. Moreover we establish Cheeger-type inequalities for the cut-modularity of the graph, providing a theoretical support to the common understanding that highly positive eigenvalues of modularity matrices are related with the possibility of subdividing a network into communities.
李群; 张加波; 魏贵乔; 邹智祥
2013-01-01
以组合夹具设计管理柔性化定制平台为研究对象，基于业务流程特点，形成了柔性化定制平台的系统架构，进行了零组件规格参数的定义与配置、功能定制与配置、流程定制与配置等的研究与设计。实践证明，该系统有效解决了组合夹具组装的模拟性、资料的保留性、经验的继承性、使用和管理的数字化等问题，从而提高组合夹具的生产效率和柔性化水平。%In this paper, the flexible customized platform on the design and management system of modular fixture was studied. Base on the business process feature,the system architecture of flexible customized platform was designed. The parameters of standard part were definitized and disposed, the customization and configuration of function and flow were studied and designed. The problems of assembly simulating and reservation of data keeping and experience succeeding, numeralization of use and management were solved. The working efficiency and flexibility were improved.
A Formal Theory for Modular ERDF Ontologies
Analyti, Anastasia; Antoniou, Grigoris; Damásio, Carlos Viegas
The success of the Semantic Web is impossible without any form of modularity, encapsulation, and access control. In an earlier paper, we extended RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF #n-stable model semantics of the extended RDF framework (ERDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. In this paper, we propose a framework for modular ERDF ontologies, called modular ERDF framework, which enables collaborative reasoning over a set of ERDF ontologies, while support for hidden knowledge is also provided. In particular, the modular ERDF stable model semantics of modular ERDF ontologies is defined, extending the ERDF #n-stable model semantics. Our proposed framework supports local semantics and different points of view, local closed-world and open-world assumptions, and scoped negation-as-failure. Several complexity results are provided.
Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems
Thyssen, Jesper
2005-01-01
This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... of the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...
Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code
Pierre-Loic Garoche
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Finding network communities using modularity density
Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.
2016-12-01
Many real-world complex networks exhibit a community structure, in which the modules correspond to actual functional units. Identifying these communities is a key challenge for scientists. A common approach is to search for the network partition that maximizes a quality function. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed function, namely modularity density. We show that it does not incur in the drawbacks suffered by traditional modularity, and that it can identify networks without ground-truth community structure, deriving its analytical dependence on link density in generic random graphs. In addition, we show that modularity density allows an easy comparison between networks of different sizes, and we also present some limitations that methods based on modularity density may suffer from. Finally, we introduce an efficient, quadratic community detection algorithm based on modularity density maximization, validating its accuracy against theoretical predictions and on a set of benchmark networks.
A Robust Modular IGBT Power Supply for Fusion Science Applications
Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Ken; Prager, James
2010-11-01
A present challenge facing the fusion energy community and particularly the ICC community in its support of the main line tokamak program is the ability to generate increased power levels for pulsed magnets, arc plasma sources, radio frequency heating, and current drive schemes, at reasonable cost. Continuous wave (CW) tube based power supplies are typically large and expensive, making them prohibitive for smaller experimental facilities or not cost effective when only pulsed input power is required. Continued research and development of next generation solid state power supplies could allow for multiple applications with a single well developed, low cost module that could be configured in many ways. Eagle Harbor Technologies has developed, built, and tested a modular solid state power supply based on Insulate Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT) technologies. The power supply utilized a modular, low cost, high power IGBT based system that can be assembled in multiple ways to address a wide range of applications. Testing results demonstrating the prototype abilities in both parallel and series configurations and for both high current and/or high voltage operation will be presented. The prototype cost was shown to be significantly lower than older generation power supplies for similar applications. Future work includes upgrading the prototype for increased power levels (> 10 MW).
Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment
Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.
2012-06-01
? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview
A microscopic view on contact angle selection
Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Andreotti, Bruno
2008-01-01
We discuss the equilibrium condition for a liquid that partially wets a solid on the level of intermolecular forces. Using a mean field continuum description, we generalize the capillary pressure from variation of the free energy and show at what length scale the equilibrium contact angle is selected. After recovering Young's law for homogeneous substrates, it is shown how hysteresis of the contact angle can be incorporated in a self-consistent fashion. In all cases the liquid-vapor interface...
Modular generation of fluorescent phycobiliproteins.
Wu, Xian-Jun; Chang, Kun; Luo, Juan; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong
2013-06-01
Phycobiliproteins are brightly-fluorescent light-harvesting pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. They are also of interest as fluorescent biomarkers, but their heterologous generation in vivo has previously required multiple transformations. We report here a modular approach that requires only two DNA segments. The first codes for the apo-protein. The second codes for fusions capable of chromophore biosynthesis and its covalent attachment to the apo-protein; it contains the genes of heme oxygenase, a bilin reductase, and a chromophore lyase. Phycobiliproteins containing phycoerythrobilin (λ(fluor) ~ 560 nm), phycourobilin (λ(fluor) ~ 500 nm), phycocyanobilin (λ(fluor) ~ 630 nm) or phycoviolobilin (λ(fluor) ~ 580 nm) were obtained in high yield in E. coli. This approach facilitates chromophorylation studies of phycobiliproteins, as well as their use for fluorescence labeling based on their high fluorescence.
Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems
Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.
2003-12-01
This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.
Modular construction of dynamic nucleodendrimers.
Abet, Valentina; Evans, Robert; Guibbal, Florian; Caldarelli, Stefano; Rodriguez, Raphaël
2014-05-01
Isoguanosine-containing dendritic small molecules self-assemble into decameric nucleodendrimers as observed by 1D NMR spectroscopy, 2D DOSY, and mass spectrometry. In particular, apolar building blocks readily form pentameric structures in acetonitrile while the presence of alkali metals promotes the formation of stable decameric assemblies with a preference for cesium ions. Remarkably, co-incubation of guanosine and isoguanosine-containing nucleodendrons results in the formation of decameric structures in absence of added salts. Further analysis of the mixture indicated that guanosine derivatives facilitate the formation, but are not involved in decameric structures; a process reminiscent of molecular crowding. This molecular system provides a powerful canvas for the rapid and modular assembly of polyfunctional dendritic macromolecules.
MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS
Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.
2001-07-31
ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.
On some relations between advancing, receding and Young's contact angles.
Chibowski, Emil
2007-05-31
Problems of experimental determination and theoretical verification of equilibrium contact angles are discussed basing on the literature data. A relationship between the advancing and receding contact angles versus the equilibrium contact angle is described and then verified using the literature contact angles determined on paraffin wax and polypropylene. Using the proposed relationship and experimentally determined equilibrium contact angles, obtained by plotting the advancing and receding contact angles versus the contact angle hysteresis or by applying vibration of the system liquid drop/solid surface, it is found that the same value of the surface free energy for paraffin wax is calculated from the contact angles of water and ethylene glycol. However, in the case of polypropylene some inconsistency appears between the equilibrium contact angles of the probe liquid used and the calculated surface free energy. More experimental data of the equilibrium contact angle are needed to verify further the relationship.
Spectral characterization of hierarchical network modularity and limits of modularity detection.
Somwrita Sarkar
Full Text Available Many real world networks are reported to have hierarchically modular organization. However, there exists no algorithm-independent metric to characterize hierarchical modularity in a complex system. The main results of the paper are a set of methods to address this problem. First, classical results from random matrix theory are used to derive the spectrum of a typical stochastic block model hierarchical modular network form. Second, it is shown that hierarchical modularity can be fingerprinted using the spectrum of its largest eigenvalues and gaps between clusters of closely spaced eigenvalues that are well separated from the bulk distribution of eigenvalues around the origin. Third, some well-known results on fingerprinting non-hierarchical modularity in networks automatically follow as special cases, threreby unifying these previously fragmented results. Finally, using these spectral results, it is found that the limits of detection of modularity can be empirically established by studying the mean values of the largest eigenvalues and the limits of the bulk distribution of eigenvalues for an ensemble of networks. It is shown that even when modularity and hierarchical modularity are present in a weak form in the network, they are impossible to detect, because some of the leading eigenvalues fall within the bulk distribution. This provides a threshold for the detection of modularity. Eigenvalue distributions of some technological, social, and biological networks are studied, and the implications of detecting hierarchical modularity in real world networks are discussed.
Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity
Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.
2008-12-24
The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.
On modular Galois representations modulo prime powers
Chen, Imin; Wiese, Gabor
2011-01-01
We study modular Galois representations mod $p^m$. We show that there are three progressively weaker notions of modularity for a Galois representation mod $p^m$: we have named these `strongly', `weakly', and `dc-weakly' modular. Here, `dc' stands for `divided congruence' in the sense of Katz and Hida. These notions of modularity are relative to a fixed level $M$. Using results of Hida we display a `stripping-of-powers of $p$ away from the level' type of result: A mod $p^m$ strongly modular representation of some level $Np^r$ is always dc-weakly modular of level $N$ (here, $N$ is a natural number not divisible by $p$). We also study eigenforms mod $p^m$ corresponding to the above three notions. Assuming residual irreducibility, we utilize a theorem of Carayol to show that one can attach a Galois representation mod $p^m$ to any `dc-weak' eigenform, and hence to any eigenform mod $p^m$ in any of the three senses. We show that the three notions of modularity coincide when $m=1$ (as well as in other, particular ca...
Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.
Carlos Espinosa-Soto
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.
Rational design of efficient modular cells.
Trinh, Cong T; Liu, Yan; Conner, David J
2015-11-01
The modular cell design principle is formulated to devise modular (chassis) cells. These cells can be assembled with exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion to build microbial cell factories for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of novel molecules, requiring minimal iterative strain optimization steps. A modular cell is designed to be auxotrophic, containing core metabolic pathways that are necessary but insufficient to support cell growth and maintenance. To be functional, it must tightly couple with an exchangeable production module containing auxiliary metabolic pathways that not only complement cell growth but also enhance production of targeted molecules. We developed a MODCELL (modular cell) framework based on metabolic pathway analysis to implement the modular cell design principle. MODCELL identifies genetic modifications and requirements to construct modular cell candidates and their associated exchangeable production modules. By defining the degree of similarity and coupling metrics, MODCELL can evaluate which exchangeable production module(s) can be tightly coupled with a modular cell candidate. We first demonstrated how MODCELL works in a step-by-step manner for example metabolic networks, and then applied it to design modular Escherichia coli cells for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of five alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol) and five butyrate esters (ethyl butyrate, propyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, butyl butyrate and isobutyl butyrate) from pentose sugars (arabinose and xylose) and hexose sugars (glucose, mannose, and galactose) under anaerobic conditions. We identified three modular cells, MODCELL1, MODCELL2 and MODCELL3, that can couple well with Group 1 of modules (ethanol, isobutanol, butanol, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, butyl butyrate), Group 2 (isopropanol, isopropyl butyrate), and Group 3 (propanol, isopropanol), respectively. We validated the design of MODCELL1 for anaerobic
Hisao, Grant S; Harland, Michael A; Brown, Robert A; Berthold, Deborah A; Wilson, Thomas E; Rienstra, Chad M
2016-04-01
The study of mass-limited biological samples by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy critically relies upon the high-yield transfer of material from a biological preparation into the MAS rotor. This issue is particularly important for maintaining biological activity and hydration of semi-solid samples such as membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, pharmaceutical formulations, microcrystalline proteins and protein fibrils. Here we present protocols and designs for rotor-packing devices specifically suited for packing hydrated samples into Pencil-style 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm standard, and 3.2 mm limited speed MAS rotors. The devices are modular and therefore readily adaptable to other rotor and/or ultracentrifugation tube geometries.
Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits
Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper
2012-01-01
Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...
Generalized epidemic process on modular networks
Chung, Kihong; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong
2013-01-01
Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified by the finite-size scaling analysis for critical behaviors and the bimodality coefficient test for discontinuous transitions.
Principles for Implementing Modularity in Healthcare
Soffers, Ruter; Meijboom, Bert; Hsuan, Juliana
Modularity can help address urgent societal needs of cost reductions and improved patient centeredness in healthcare, but has only rarely been implemented in that sector. We propound that this is at least partially due to the lack of guidance on reorganizations of existing healthcare offerings...... in a modular way. We identify three principles to do so: 1) the service architecture should be decomposable; 2) a proper service specification process should be introduced; and 3) the presence of interfaces should be ensured. Followingthese principles should help policy makers as well as managers to implement...... modularity in existing healthcare offerings....
Eigenvector dynamics under perturbation of modular networks
Sarkar, Somwrita; Robinson, Peter A; Fortunato, Santo
2015-01-01
Rotation dynamics of eigenvectors of modular network adjacency matrices under random perturbations are presented. In the presence of $q$ communities, the number of eigenvectors corresponding to the $q$ largest eigenvalues form a "community" eigenspace and rotate together, but separately from that of the "bulk" eigenspace spanned by all the other eigenvectors. Using this property, the number of modules or clusters in a network can be estimated in an algorithm-independent way. A general derivation for the theoretical detectability limit for sparse modular networks with $q$ communities is presented, beyond which modularity persists in the system but cannot be detected, and estimation results are shown to hold right to this limit.
Immersed surfaces in the modular orbifold
Calegari, Danny
2010-01-01
A hyperbolic conjugacy class in the modular group PSL(2,Z) corresponds to a closed geodesic in the modular orbifold. Some of these geodesics virtually bound immersed surfaces, and some do not; the distinction is related to the polyhedral structure in the unit ball of the stable commutator length norm. We prove the following stability theorem: for every hyperbolic element of the modular group, the product of this element with a sufficiently large power of a parabolic element is represented by a geodesic that virtually bounds an immersed surface.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...
Increased Versatility of Modular Robots through Layered Heterogeneity
Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper; Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza
2011-01-01
This paper introduces a new class of modular robots, called: “layered heterogeneous modular robots”, which is a type of modular robot, where the functionality of a robot is modularized into three layers of heterogeneous modules: mechanics, actuation and electronics. This novel approach may make i...
Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children
Lund, Henrik Hautop
2009-01-01
Based upon user-configurable modular robotics and design principles for modular playware, we developed modular robotic tiles to be used as playful, interactive tools for children with autism. The modular playware can make automatic documentation of the construction play activities by the autistic...
Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard
2009-01-01
We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user to p...
Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK
Bekar, Kursat B.
This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the
Modular solar-heating system - design package
Sinton, D. S.
1979-01-01
Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.
Permanent Magnet Boosted Modular Switched Reluctance Motor
SZABÓ Loránd
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the analyses of a novel motor structure obtained by boosting with permanent magnets a formerly studied modular switched reluctance motor. Upon dynamic simulation results the improvements of the proposed motor are emphasized.
Modular Actuators for Space Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...
Volkov's Pentagon for the Modular Quantum Dilogarithm
Faddeev, L D
2012-01-01
The new form of pentagon equations suggested by Volkov for the $ q $-exponential on the basis of formal series is derived within the Hilbert space framework for the modular version of the quantum dilogarithm.
Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks
Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009
2010-01-01
The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...
Modular, Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR effort was to prove the viability of an Ethernet version of the MicroSat Systems, Inc. (MSI) modular, plug and play (PnP) spacecraft...
Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic
Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Erik Hermann; Meseguer, José
Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution......-performance implementation of RWL. In this paper we characterize the mapping and the MSOS-SL Interpreter. The reader is assumed to have some basic knowledge of structural operational semantics and object-oriented concepts....
Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic
Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José
2003-01-01
Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution......-performance implementation of RWL. In this paper we characterize the mapping and the MSOS-SL Interpreter. The reader is assumed to have some basic knowledge of structural operational semantics and object-oriented concepts....
Individualized Project Physics in a Modular Schedule.
Cange, Francis
1985-01-01
Project Physics is taught at Gibault High School (Waterloo, IL) using a modular schedule and learning activity packets. A description of the course, instructional strategies used, and the learning activity packets is provided. (JN)
Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infinia Technology Corporation's (ITC) proposed Modular Stirling Power System (MSPS) is a free-piston Stirling system that addresses NASA needs in 12-kW increments....
47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.
2010-10-01
... modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be... shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded radio...
A merged modular/nonmodular multiplier
Phillips, Braden
2005-02-01
A new hardware architecture is described to perform multiplication and modular multiplication with a modulus of variable wordlength. It is intended for a microprocessor datapath to support efficient implementation of long wordlength operations using the residue number system.
Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design
Fogal, G. L.
1974-01-01
The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.
Modular solar-heating system - design package
Sinton, D. S.
1979-01-01
Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.
Reconfigurable robot based on modular joint concept
Shi Shicai; Xie Zongwu; Gao Xiaohui; Jin Minghe; Zhu Yingyuan; Ni Fenglei; Liu Hong; Kraemer Erich; Hirzinger Gerd
2006-01-01
A reconfigurable modular robot was developed for a free-flying robot project. This robot was composed of 6 same modular joints and one gripper. In order to save space and cost for transporting it into the space, the robot should be folded overall and locked. A big central hole in the modular joint was designed for the placement of the cables and plugs in the robot arm, which prevented them from damage of high temperature, radiation in the space environment and the motion of the robot. Multiple sensors were integrated into the fully modular joint, such as joint torque sensor, joint position sensor and temperature sensors, which made the joint more intelligent. A zero gravity experimental system was developed to verify the functions of the robot under zero gravity environment.
Modular modelling with Physiome standards.
Cooling, Michael T; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J
2016-12-01
The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models. We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML. By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity. We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology. The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole-cell models and linking such models in multi-scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set of principles to
丁矿; 朱宏武; 张建华; 朱君尧; 罗璇
2013-01-01
Internal flow law of right-angle bend pipe is analyzed base on the CFD method. Calculation results show that flow separation occurs at the 90° corner and in downstream horizontal pipeline and obvious secondary circulation in the downstream horizontal pipeline. Erosion model provided by the Erosion and Corrosion Joint Research Center of Tulsa University (E/CRC) is introduced on the basis of flow field calculation to conduct the research on erosive wear of the right-angle bend pipe, in which spatial distribution characteristics of solid particles as well as maximum erosion rate and overall quality loss of upstream and downstream pipe walls are analyzed to show good consistency between calculation results and experimental data. Spatial distribution characteristics of solid particles depend on fluid flow characteristics and the most serious wear occurs at the bent pipe corner and inside wall surface of downstream pipeline. Flow rate, particle concentration and particle diameter have a significant effect on the maximum erosion rate, of which the flow rate follows an exponential growth relationship so that flow rates of upstream and downstream pipe walls respectively reach the index of 2.5 and 2.3.%基于流体力学(CFD)方法,分析了直角弯管的内部流动规律,计算结果表明:直角弯管在90°转角和下游水平管路中存在流动分离现象,同时在下游水平管路中形成明显的二次环流.在流场计算的基础上,引入TulSa大学冲蚀与腐蚀联合研究中心(E/CRC)提供的冲蚀模型,对直角弯管的冲蚀磨损问题进行研究,分析了固体颗粒的空间分布特征和上下游管壁的最大冲蚀率以及总体质量损失,计算结果与实验数据具有良好的一致性.固体颗粒的空间分布特征依赖于流体流动特性,磨损最严重的位置发生在弯管转角处和下游管路的内侧壁面.流速、颗粒浓度和颗粒直径对最大冲蚀率有明显影响,其中,流速与最大冲蚀率呈指数
Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets
GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.
Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems
J. Kohlas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.
A Framework for Determining Product Modularity Levels
Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Haug, Anders
2017-01-01
products have been implemented in specific types companies (mostly mass producers), but little guidance exists on how to identify the right level of modularity for other types of companies (such as engineer-to-order companies). In this article, we address this gap by suggesting a framework that categorizes...... in practice is illustrated. This paper thereby contributes with new theoretical developments as well as a practical tool for practitioners in industries using partial modularization, such as, for example, the construction and building industry....
Parametric Design of Modular Fixture Structure
陈冰冰
2001-01-01
Based on an example of its typical structure, the concept of modular fixture structure module is presented, and the structure module system of modular fixture is summarized. Then the parametric design of structure is discussed, and its advantages are also emphasized.Furthermore, some specific methods are provided, such as the selection of fixture components, the determination and input of parameters, drawing representative model,and the creation of drawing. Finally an applied example of strcture parametric design is presented.
On Shanks' Algorithm for Modular Square Roots
Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph
2011-01-01
Let $p$ be a prime number, $p=2^nq+1$, where $q$ is odd. D. Shanks described an algorithm to compute square roots $\\pmod{p}$ which needs $O(\\log q + n^2)$ modular multiplications. In this note we describe two modifications of this algorithm. The first needs only $O(\\log q + n^{3/2})$ modular multiplications, while the second is a parallel algorithm which needs $n$ processors and takes $O(\\log q+n)$ time.
Contract modularity in design by contract languages
Rebêlo, Henrique Emanuel Mostaert
2014-01-01
Design by Contract (DbC) is a popular technique for developing programs using behavioral specifications. In this context, researchers have found that the realization of DbC is crosscutting and fares better when modularized by Aspect-Oriented Programming. However, previous efforts aimed at supporting crosscutting contracts modularly actually compromised the main DbC principles. For example, in AspectJ-style, reasoning about the correctness of a method call may require a whole-pr...
Modular realizations of hyperbolic Weyl groups
Kleinschmidt, Axel; Palmkvist, Jakob
2010-01-01
We study the recently discovered isomorphisms between hyperbolic Weyl groups and unfamiliar modular groups. These modular groups are defined over integer domains in normed division algebras, and we focus on the cases involving quaternions and octonions. We outline how to construct and analyse automorphic forms for these groups; their structure depends on the underlying arithmetic properties of the integer domains. We also give a new realization of the Weyl group W(E8) in terms of unit octavians and their automorphism group.
Modular Parameter Identification of Biomolecular Networks
Lang, Moritz; Stelling, Jörg
2016-01-01
The increasing complexity of dynamic models in systems and synthetic biology poses computational challenges especially for the identification of model parameters. While modularization of the corresponding optimization problems could help reduce the "curse of dimensionality," abundant feedback and crosstalk mechanisms prohibit a simple decomposition of most biomolecular networks into subnetworks, or modules. Drawing on ideas from network modularization and multiple-shooting optimization, we pr...
Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.
Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I
2014-08-21
We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.
Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems
Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man
2013-03-01
Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased
Niestemski, Liang; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael
2015-03-01
Although the modularity of a biological system is demonstrated and recognized, the evolution of the modularity is not well understood. We here present a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity. Complemented with numerical models, this analytical theory shows the calculation of the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment, the relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity, as well as a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state.
朱志强; 汪洋; 刘秋生
2012-01-01
本文利用微重力落塔实验研究了Bond数改变时，PTFE和铝板表面上正滴和倒滴接触角的动态变化。实验发现液滴接触角与Bond数的大小有关，当Bond数趋于0时，还与其放置状态有关。本文采用VOF方法对Bond数变化引起的液滴形状及内部流动变化进行二维数值模拟，结果显示液滴内部的流动控制着液滴的外形和接触角。%The behaviors of liquid drops in microgravity have been experimentally performed in Beijing 3.6 s Drop Tower. Contact angle dynamic behaviors of sessile and pendant liquid drops on PTFE and Aluminum were measured and analyzed for varying Bond number. It was found that Bond number had direct influence on the drop contact angle. And the drops with different status （sessile or pendant） also exhibited dissimilar contact angle behaviors when Bond number closed to zero. For comparison, the VOF methodology was introduced to analyze numerically the influence of Bond number on the shapes and inner bulk flow fields of liquid drops. It indicated that the bulk flow could influence the shape and contact angle of drops evidently.
González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith
2012-01-01
The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and evolving
Rolando González-José
Full Text Available The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric
González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith
2012-01-01
The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and
Pressure dependence of the contact angle.
Wu, Jiyu; Farouk, T; Ward, C A
2007-06-07
When a liquid and its vapor contact a smooth, homogeneous surface, Gibbsian thermodynamics indicates that the contact angle depends on the pressure at the three-phase line of an isothermal system. When a recently proposed adsorption isotherm for a solid-vapor interface is combined with the equilibrium conditions and the system is assumed to be in a cylinder where the liquid-vapor interface can be approximated as spherical, the contact-angle-pressure relation can be made explicit. It indicates that a range of contact angles can be observed on a smooth homogeneous surface by changing the pressure at the three-phase line, but it also indicates that the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is negative, and leads to the prediction that the contact angle increases with pressure. The predicted dependence of the contact angle on pressure is investigated experimentally in a system that has an independent mechanism for determining when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. The predictions are in agreement with the measurements. The results provide a possible explanation for contact angle hysteresis.
Microcomputer applications of, and modifications to, the modular fault trees
Zimmerman, T.L.; Graves, N.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.; Whitehead, D.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-10-01
The LaSalle Probabilistic Risk Assessment was the first major application of the modular logic fault trees after the IREP program. In the process of performing the analysis, many errors were discovered in the fault tree modules that led to difficulties in combining the modules to form the final system fault trees. These errors are corrected in the revised modules listed in this report. In addition, the application of the modules in terms of editing them and forming them into the system fault trees was inefficient. Originally, the editing had to be done line by line and no error checking was performed by the computer. This led to many typos and other logic errors in the construction of the modular fault tree files. Two programs were written to help alleviate this problem: (1) MODEDIT - This program allows an operator to retrieve a file for editing, edit the file for the plant specific application, perform some general error checking while the file is being modified, and store the file for later use, and (2) INDEX - This program checks that the modules that are supposed to form one fault tree all link up appropriately before the files are,loaded onto the mainframe computer. Lastly, the modules were not designed for relay type logic common in BWR designs but for solid state type logic. Some additional modules were defined for modeling relay logic, and an explanation and example of their use are included in this report.
A modularized pulse forming line using glass-ceramic slabs.
Wang, Songsong; Shu, Ting; Yang, Hanwu
2012-08-01
In our lab, a kind of glass-ceramic slab has been chosen to study the issues of applying solid-state dielectrics to pulse forming lines (PFLs). Limited by the manufacture of the glass-ceramic bulk with large sizes, a single ceramic slab is hard to store sufficient power for the PFL. Therefore, a modularized PFL design concept is proposed in this paper. We regard a single ceramic slab as a module to form each single Blumlein PFL. We connect ceramic slabs in series to enlarge pulse width, and stack the ceramic Blumlein PFLs in parallel to increase the output voltage amplitude. Testing results of a single Blumlein PFL indicate that one ceramic slab contributes about 11 ns to the total pulse width which has a linear relation to the number of the ceramic slabs. We have developed a prototype facility of the 2-stage stacked Blumlein PFL with a length of 2 ceramic slabs. The PFL is dc charged up to 5 kV, and the output voltage pulse of 10 kV, 22 ns is measured across an 8 Ω load. Simulation and experiment results in good agreement demonstrate that the modularized design is reasonable.
Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.
Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane
2009-09-15
A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.
Modular Packaging Development: Incorporating a modular perspective in the packaging design process
Karlsson, John
2013-01-01
This report presents the result of a research project conducted in 2012-2013 that aimed to adjust the existing modularity theories so that they could be used in packaging development. The study resulted in a model that can be incorporated into an existing packaging design process, thereby complementing this with aspects of modularity. The research project was conducted in close collaboration with Ericsson.
Theoretical Analysis of the Relationships Between Modularity in Design and Modularity in Production
Kubota, Flávio Issao; Hsuan, Juliana; Cauchick-Miguel, Paulo Augusto
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the relationships between modularity in design (MID) and modularity in production (MIP) in the automotive industry in terms of how automotive companies obtain benefits and/or drawbacks through MID/MIP relationships. A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify ...
Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development
Adam Szczepanek
2006-02-04
Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main
Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems
Lemos Pereira, A. de
2000-06-01
The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)
Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations
Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason
2004-01-01
Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot
Local modularity for community detection in complex networks
Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Ke; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Shi
2016-02-01
Community detection is a topic of interest in the study of complex networks such as the protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks. In recent years, various methods were proposed to detect community structures of the networks. Here, a kind of local modularity with tunable parameter is derived from the Newman-Girvan modularity by a special self-loop strategy that depends on the community division of the networks. By the self-loop strategy, one can easily control the definition of modularity, and the resulting modularity can be optimized by using the existing modularity optimization algorithms. The local modularity is used as the target function for community detection, and a self-consistent method is proposed for the optimization of the local modularity. We analyze the behaviors of the local modularity and show the validity of the local modularity in detecting community structures on various networks.
Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface
Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy; Kuznetsov, Geniy
2015-01-01
This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.
Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface
Orlova Evgenija
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.
General survey of solid-waste management
Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.
1974-01-01
Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.
ON THE PRIMARY DECOMPOSITION THEOREM OF MODULAR LIE SUPERALGEBRAS
CHEN LIANGYUN; MENG DAOJI
2005-01-01
This gives some identities of associative Lie superalgebras and some properties of modular Lie superalgebras. Furthermore, the primry decomposition theorem of modular Lie superalgebras is shown. It is well known that the primary decomposition theorem of modular Lie algebras has played an important role in the classification of the finite-dimensional simple modular Lie algebras (see [5, 6]). Analogously, the primary decomposition theorem of modular Lie superalgebras may play an important role in the open classification of the finite dimensional simple modular Lie superalgebras.
Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases
Roberto Milev
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.
Decomposition theorems for Hilbert modular newforms
Linowitz, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Let $\\mathscr{S}_k^+(\\cn,\\Phi)$ denote the space generated by Hilbert modular newforms (over a fixed totally real field $K$) of weight $k$, level $\\cn$ and Hecke character $\\Phi$. We show how to decompose $\\mathscr{S}_k^+(\\cn,\\Phi)$ into direct sums of twists of other spaces of newforms. This sheds light on the behavior of a newform under a character twist: the exact level of the twist of a newform, when such a twist is itself a newform, and when a newform may be realized as the twist of a primitive newform. These results were proven for elliptic modular forms by Hijikata, Pizer and Shemanske by employing a formula for the trace of the Hecke operator $T_k(n)$. We obtain our results not by employing a more general formula for the trace of Hecke operators on spaces of Hilbert modular forms, but instead by using basic properties of newforms which were proven for elliptic modular forms by Li, and Atkin and Li, and later extended to Hilbert modular forms by Shemanske and Walling.
Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.
2016-06-14
A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2014-01-01
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…
Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems.
Becker, Stefan; Urbassek, Herbert M; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans
2014-11-18
Molecular dynamics simulations are used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150,000 particles. For particle numbers below 10,000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of θ = 90° is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed that describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature, and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.
PLM system support for modular product development
Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf
2015-01-01
properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper......A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...
Inverse theta functions as quantum modular forms
Bringmann, Kathrin; Rolen, Larry
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider the Fourier coefficients of a special class of meromorphic Jaocbi forms of negative index. Much recent work has been done on the Fourier coefficients of meromorphic Jacobi forms of positive index, but almost nothing is known for Jacobi forms of negative index. Here we show from two different perspectives that their Fourier coefficients have a simple decomposition in terms of partial theta functions. The first perspective uses the language of Lie super algebras, and the second applies the theory of elliptic functions. In particular, we find a new infinite family of rank-crank type PDEs generalizing the famous example of Atkin and Garvan. We then describe the modularity properties of these coefficients, showing that they are \\emph{mixed quantum modular forms}, along the way determining a new class of quantum modular partial theta functions.
Eigenvector dynamics under perturbation of modular networks
Sarkar, Somwrita; Chawla, Sanjay; Robinson, P. A.; Fortunato, Santo
2016-06-01
Rotation dynamics of eigenvectors of modular network adjacency matrices under random perturbations are presented. In the presence of q communities, the number of eigenvectors corresponding to the q largest eigenvalues form a "community" eigenspace and rotate together, but separately from that of the "bulk" eigenspace spanned by all the other eigenvectors. Using this property, the number of modules or clusters in a network can be estimated in an algorithm-independent way. A general argument and derivation for the theoretical detectability limit for sparse modular networks with q communities is presented, beyond which modularity persists in the system but cannot be detected. It is shown that for detecting the clusters or modules using the adjacency matrix, there is a "band" in which it is hard to detect the clusters even before the theoretical detectability limit is reached, and for which the theoretically predicted detectability limit forms the sufficient upper bound. Analytic estimations of these bounds are presented and empirically demonstrated.
More Modular Invariant Anomalous U(1) Breaking
Gaillard, Mary Katherin; Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel
2002-01-01
We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to an anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds upon previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated o...
Evolution of a Modular Software Network
Fortuna, Miguel A; Levin, Simon A
2011-01-01
"Evolution behaves like a tinkerer" (Francois Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a unique opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a novel way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolu...
Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface
Orlova Evgenija; Feoktistov Dmitriy; Kuznetsov Geniy
2015-01-01
This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It...
Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity
Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian
2014-01-01
finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral......This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...
Parallel Relational Universes – experiments in modularity
Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop
2015-01-01
: We here describe Parallel Relational Universes, an artistic method used for the psychological analysis of group dynamics. The design of the artistic system, which mediates group dynamics, emerges from our studies of modular playware and remixing playware. Inspired from remixing modular playware......, where users remix samples in the form of physical and functional modules, we created an artistic instantiation of such a concept with the Parallel Relational Universes, allowing arts alumni to remix artistic expressions. Here, we report the data emerged from a first pre-test, run with gymnasium’s alumni...
Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic
Ostermann, Klaus
2008-01-01
Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....
Proving relations between modular graph functions
Basu, Anirban
2016-12-01
We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.
Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements
Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed. PMID:28010165
Research in Green Modularity Design Methodology
LI Fang-yi; LI Jian-feng; DUAN Guang-hong; ZHANG Hong-chao; XU Jin-yong; MA Kai-ling
2005-01-01
Green design and manufacturing is a proactive approach to minimize wastes during a product's design stage, thus preventing future environmental impacts. Current modular design method mainly focuses on productfunctional and manufacturing issues. In this paper,a theoretical scheme of multi-objective modularity analysis for discrete electromechanical product design was proposed. Product physical architecture was represented by a fuzzy graph, where fuzzy relationships contain environmental objectives and influence module formulation. Finally the optimal product modules combining all objectives can be searched by clustering algorithm.
Successes and failures in modular genetic engineering.
Kittleson, Joshua T; Wu, Gabriel C; Anderson, J Christopher
2012-08-01
Synthetic biology relies on engineering concepts such as abstraction, standardization, and decoupling to develop systems that address environmental, clinical, and industrial needs. Recent advances in applying modular design to system development have enabled creation of increasingly complex systems. However, several challenges to module and system development remain, including syntactic errors, semantic errors, parameter mismatches, contextual sensitivity, noise and evolution, and load and stress. To combat these challenges, researchers should develop a framework for describing and reasoning about biological information, design systems with modularity in mind, and investigate how to predictively describe the diverse sources and consequences of metabolic load and stress.
Conditionals and Modularity in General Logics
Gabbay, Dov M
2011-01-01
This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valu
Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets
Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure
2009-01-01
When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...
Modular Forms of Weight One Over Finite Fields
Wiese, Gabor
2005-01-01
The thesis deals with certain aspects of Katz modular forms over finite fields, in particular of weight one. A special case of Serre's conjecture is proved and the faithfulness of the Hecke module of modular symbols is studied.
Spherical Parameterization Balancing Angle and Area Distortions.
Nadeem, Saad; Su, Zhengyu; Zeng, Wei; Kaufman, Arie; Gu, Xianfeng
2017-06-01
This work presents a novel framework for spherical mesh parameterization. An efficient angle-preserving spherical parameterization algorithm is introduced, which is based on dynamic Yamabe flow and the conformal welding method with solid theoretic foundation. An area-preserving spherical parameterization is also discussed, which is based on discrete optimal mass transport theory. Furthermore, a spherical parameterization algorithm, which is based on the polar decomposition method, balancing angle distortion and area distortion is presented. The algorithms are tested on 3D geometric data and the experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed methods.
Fixed Points of Multivalued Maps in Modular Function Spaces
Kutbi MarwanA
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the existence of fixed points for contractive-type and nonexpansive-type multivalued maps in the setting of modular function spaces. We also discuss the concept of -modular function and prove fixed point results for weakly-modular contractive maps in modular function spaces. These results extend several similar results proved in metric and Banach spaces settings.
Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.
2001-06-01
The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.
Pick'n'Fix: Capturing Control Flow in Modular Compilers
Day, Laurence E.; Bahr, Patrick
2014-01-01
We present a modular framework for implementing languages with effects and control structures such as loops and conditionals. This framework enables modular definitions of both syntax and semantics as well as modular implementations of compilers and virtual machines. In order to compile control s...
Procedure-modular specification and verification of temporal safety properties
Soleimanifard, Siavash; Gurov, Dilian; Huisman, Marieke
2015-01-01
This paper describes ProMoVer, a tool for fully automated procedure-modular verification of Java programs equipped with method-local and global assertions that specify safety properties of sequences of method invocations. Modularity at the procedure-level is a natural instantiation of the modular ve
Siegel modular forms of genus 2 and level 2
Cléry, F.; van der Geer, G.; Grushevsky, S.
2015-01-01
We study vector-valued Siegel modular forms of genus 2 on the three level 2 groups Γ[2] ◁ Γ1[2] ◁ Γ0[2] ⊂ Sp(4, ℤ). We give generating functions for the dimension of spaces of vector-valued modular forms, construct various vector-valued modular forms by using theta functions and describe the structu
Logarithmic conformal field theory, log-modular tensor categories and modular forms
Creutzig, Thomas
2016-01-01
The two pillars of rational conformal field theory and rational vertex operator algebras are modularity of characters on the one hand and its interpretation of modules as objects in a modular tensor category on the other one. Overarching these pillars is the Verlinde formula. In this paper we consider the more general class of logarithmic conformal field theories and $C_2$-cofinite vertex operator algebras. We suggest that their modular pillar are trace functions with insertions corresponding to intertwiners of the projective cover of the vacuum, and that the categorical pillar are finite tensor categories $\\mathcal C$ which are ribbon and whose double is isomorphic to the Deligne product $\\mathcal C\\otimes \\mathcal C^{opp}$. Overarching these pillars is then a logarithmic variant of Verlinde's formula. Numerical data realizing this are the modular $S$-matrix and modified traces of open Hopf links. The representation categories of $C_2$-cofinite and logarithmic conformal field theories that are fairly well un...
Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective
Truscott, John
2015-01-01
Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…
Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering
Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth
1997-01-01
This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...
Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering
Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth
1997-01-01
This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...
Modularizing a DSL implementation with Rascal
Timmer, J.J.W.
2013-01-01
To make compilers more maintainable, one could build the language implementation in a modular way. This would mean adding only new les to the existing base language. Rascal is a language workbench that supports this for Domain Specific Languages (DSLs), as claimed by it's developers. To test this, a
Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation
CUNNINGHAM, L.T.
1999-09-27
This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.
GAMBIT: Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool
GAMBIT Collaboration; Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrzä Szcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Dickinson, Hugh; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Lundberg, Johan; McKay, James; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje Raklev, Are; Ripken, Joachim; Rogan, Christopher; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Seo, Seon-Hee; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Wild, Sebastian
2017-08-01
GAMBIT (Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool) performs statistical global fits of generic physics models using a wide range of particle physics and astrophysics data. Modules provide native simulations of collider and astrophysics experiments, a flexible system for interfacing external codes (the backend system), a fully featured statistical and parameter scanning framework, and additional tools for implementing and using hierarchical models.
Appel, Claus; Oostrom, V. van; Grue Simonsen, Jakob
2010-01-01
We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. For the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting systems we prove tha
Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development
Pires, Craig
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).
Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits
Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper
2012-01-01
are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...
Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition
Baddeley, Alan D.
2017-01-01
The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…
Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation
Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean
2015-09-29
A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.
Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.
Buchholtz, Emily A
2007-01-01
Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).
Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2010-01-01
We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting syst...
Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective
Truscott, John
2015-01-01
Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…
Automatic configuration of modular vault walls
Grković Vladan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Products such as modular partition walls of vault rooms (with or without vault doors are made at the request of the client who chooses the safety degree and provides the available dimensions of the wall that should be made. Modular construction of vault walls is the system of construction of industrially made elements which are composed in situ, which allows design of products adjusted to individual requirements of clients. Since the vault wall modules repeat in every new project and since they differ only by their number and dimensions, the use of modern CA (Computer Aided tools and the possibility of application of parameter and variant design shorten design time and eliminate possible errors in the process of design of modular vault walls, which reduces the costs of production and increases the level of product quality. The paper presents the procedure for calculation of parameters of parts, modules and the entire vault wall in Microsoft Excel based on which the 3D model of a modular vault wall is automatically configured and developed in software package Autodesk Inventor. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37020
Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2010-01-01
We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting syst...
A Modular SOS for Action Notation - Revisited
Mosses, Peter David
A draft modular SOS for the new version of AN, referred to as AN-2, has been available since 2000. It is written in CASL and has been checked for well-formedness using CATS (CASL Tool Set). It appears to be significantly more accessible than the original SOS of AN-1. However, it now appears that ...
Principles for Implementing Modularity in Healthcare
Soffers, Ruter; Meijboom, Bert; Hsuan, Juliana
in a modular way. We identify three principles to do so: 1) the service architecture should be decomposable; 2) a proper service specification process should be introduced; and 3) the presence of interfaces should be ensured. Followingthese principles should help policy makers as well as managers to implement...
Farley, Gary L.
1990-01-01
Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.
K. Anup Kumar
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this investigation, we have modified the Feistel cipher by taking the plaintext in the form of a pair of square matrices. Here we have introduced the operation multiplication with the key matrices and the modular arithmetic addition in encryption. The modular arithmetic inverse of the key matrix is introduced in decryption. The cryptanalysis carried out in this paper clearly indicate that this cipher cannot be broken by the brute force attack and the known plaintext attack.
Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting
Li, Qing; Luo, K. H.; Kang, Q. J.; Chen, Q.
2014-11-01
In this paper we investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio ρL/ρV=500 . The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevE.49.2941] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions, the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles θ static contact angles close to 180∘. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles θ >90∘ as compared with the two other types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.
Can dynamic contact angle be measured using molecular modeling?
Malani, Ateeque; Raghavanpillai, Anilkumar; Wysong, Ernest B; Rutledge, Gregory C
2012-11-02
A method is presented for determining the dynamic contact angle at the three-phase contact between a solid, a liquid, and a vapor under an applied force, using molecular simulation. The method is demonstrated using a Lennard-Jones fluid in contact with a cylindrical shell of the fcc Lennard-Jones solid. Advancing and receding contact angles and the contact angle hysteresis are reported for the first time by this approach. The increase in force required to wet fully an array of solid cylinders (robustness) with decreasing separation distance between cylinders is evaluated. The dynamic contact angle is characterized by partial slipping of the three phase contact line when a force is applied.
Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.
d'Avella, Andrea
2016-01-01
How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.
Frisch, Nicholas B; Lynch, Jonathan R; Banglmaier, Richard F; Silverton, Craig D
2016-09-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that off-axis impaction has on stability of dual-taper modular implants as measured by forces delivered to and transmitted through the head-neck and neck-stem tapers, respectively. One hundred forty-four impact tests were performed using 6 different directions: one on-axis and five 10° off-axes. Four different simulations were performed measuring the head-neck only and 3 different neck angulations: 0°, 8°, and 15°. A drop tower impactor delivered both on- and off-axis impaction from a constant height. Load cells positioned in the drop mass and at the head-neck (HN) or neck-stem (NS) junction measured the impact and joint forces, respectively. Impact force of the hammer on the head ranged from 3800-4500 N. Greatest impact force delivered to the head was typically with axial impact. However, greatest force transmission to the neck-stem junction was not necessarily with axial impacts. There was limited variability in the force measured at the NS junction for all impaction directions seen in the 8° neck, whereas the 15° neck had greater forces transmitted to the NS junction with off-axes impactions directed in the proximal and posterior-proximal directions. The location of the impact significantly influences the force transmitted to the head-neck and neck-stem junctions in dual-taper modular hip implants. Although axial impacts proved superior to off-axis impacts for the straight 0° neck, greater force transmission with off-axis impacts for the angled necks suggests that off-axis impacts may potentially compromise the stability of dual-taper components. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The Impact of Product and Service Modularity on Business Performance
Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad
Modularity has been proposed as a powerful way of managing complexity. The emerging literature points to the importance of modularity of service architecture, with case based studies in logistics and healthcare. Little is known about the relationship between product and service modularity...... and their effects on business performance, both empirically and theoretically. This paper explores the relationship between product and service modularity and their effects on business performance based on a survey of Danish manufacturers. We provide empirical and theoretical insights into the emerging fields...... of service modularity and industrial services....
Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems
Thuesen, Christian Langhoff
This paper seeks to contribute to the development of Configurational Theory by offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network Theory (ANT) in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social......, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity dimension. The developed theoretical framework is used for analyzing the modularity of three different production systems the pre......-modern, modern and post-modern construction practices....
Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W
2002-02-25
Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention
Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting
Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q
2014-01-01
In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...
Modularity and the Spread of Perturbations in Complex Dynamical Systems
Kolchinsky, Artemy; Rocha, Luis M
2015-01-01
We propose a method to decompose a multivariate dynamical system into weakly-coupled modules based on the idea that module boundaries constrain the spread of perturbations. Using a novel quality function called 'perturbation modularity', we find system coarse-grainings that optimally separate the dynamics of perturbation spreading into fast intra-modular and slow inter-modular components. Our method is defined directly in terms of system dynamics, unlike approaches that find communities in networks (whether in structural networks or 'functional networks' of statistical dependencies) or that impose arbitrary dynamics onto graphs. Due to this, we are able to capture the variation of modular organization across states, timescales, and in response to different perturbations, aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. However, in certain cases, mappings exist between perturbation modularity and community detection methods of `Markov stability' and Newman's modularity. Our approac...
Community Detection via Maximization of Modularity and Its Variants
Chen, Mingming; Szymanski, Boleslaw K
2015-01-01
In this paper, we first discuss the definition of modularity (Q) used as a metric for community quality and then we review the modularity maximization approaches which were used for community detection in the last decade. Then, we discuss two opposite yet coexisting problems of modularity optimization: in some cases, it tends to favor small communities over large ones while in others, large communities over small ones (so called the resolution limit problem). Next, we overview several community quality metrics proposed to solve the resolution limit problem and discuss Modularity Density (Qds) which simultaneously avoids the two problems of modularity. Finally, we introduce two novel fine-tuned community detection algorithms that iteratively attempt to improve the community quality measurements by splitting and merging the given network community structure. The first of them, referred to as Fine-tuned Q, is based on modularity (Q) while the second one is based on Modularity Density (Qds) and denoted as Fine-tu...
On the Classification of Weakly Integral Modular Categories
Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia Y.; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan
2016-09-01
In this paper we classify all modular categories of dimension 4m, where m is an odd square-free integer, and all rank 6 and rank 7 weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank 7. In particular, our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most 7 are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension 1). All the non-integral (but weakly integral) modular categories of ranks 6 and 7 have dimension 4m, with m an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank 7 integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of the two group actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the S-matrix and the group of invertible isomorphism classes of objects. We derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from these actions.
Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report
John Reardon; Art Lilley
2004-06-15
On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.
Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito
2016-12-01
We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.
Hennig, A; Eichhorn, K-J; Staudinger, U; Sahre, K; Rogalli, M; Stamm, M; Neumann, A W; Grundke, K
2004-08-03
The phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis was studied on smooth films of polyimide, a polymer type used in the microelectronic industry, by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile in combination with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). It was found that both advancing and receding contact angles became smaller with increasing the number of cycles and are, therefore, not a property of the dry solid alone. The changes of the wetting behavior during these dynamic cycling contact angle measurements are attributed mainly to swelling and/or liquid retention. To reveal the water-induced changes of the polymer film, the polyimide surface was studied before and after the contact with a water droplet by VASE. Both the experimental ellipsometric spectrum for Delta and that for Psi as well as the corresponding simulations show characteristic shifts due to the contact with water. The so-called effective medium approximation was applied to recover information about the thickness and effective optical constants of the polymer layer from the ellipsometrically measured values of Delta and Psi. On the basis of these results, the swelling and retention behavior of the polyimide films in contact with water droplets were discussed.
Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation
Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-11-01
Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.
Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System
Francisca Segura
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.
Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic
Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Erik Hermann; Meseguer, José;
Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......-performance implementation of RWL. In this paper we characterize the mapping and the MSOS-SL Interpreter. The reader is assumed to have some basic knowledge of structural operational semantics and object-oriented concepts....... and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high...
Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits
Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun
2016-07-01
The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size.
Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction
Paolo Torrini
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.
Modular Curvature for Noncommutative Two-Tori
Connes, Alain
2011-01-01
Starting from the description of the conformal geometry of noncommutative 2-tori in the framework of modular spectral triples, we explicitly compute the local curvature functionals determined by the value at zero of the zeta functions affiliated with these spectral triples. We give a closed formula for the Ray-Singer analytic torsion in terms of the Dirichlet quadratic form and the generating function for Bernoulli numbers applied to the modular operator. The gradient of the Ray-Singer analytic torsion is then expressed in terms of these functionals, and yields the analogue of scalar curvature. Computing this gradient in two ways elucidates the meaning of the complicated two variable functions occurring in the formula for the scalar curvature. Moreover, the corresponding evolution equation for the metric produces the appropriate analogue of Ricci curvature. We prove the analogue of the classical result which asserts that in every conformal class the maximum value of the determinant of the Laplacian on metrics...
Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders
M. Czyzak
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.
Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses
Pierre-Loïc Garoche
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.
Discrete optimization in architecture extremely modular systems
Zawidzki, Machi
2017-01-01
This book is comprised of two parts, both of which explore modular systems: Pipe-Z (PZ) and Truss-Z (TZ), respectively. It presents several methods of creating PZ and TZ structures subjected to discrete optimization. The algorithms presented employ graph-theoretic and heuristic methods. The underlying idea of both systems is to create free-form structures using the minimal number of types of modular elements. PZ is more conceptual, as it forms single-branch mathematical knots with a single type of module. Conversely, TZ is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. In physical space, TZ uses two types of modules that are mirror reflections of each other. The optimization criteria discussed include: the minimal number of units, maximal adherence to the given guide paths, etc.
Siegel Modular Forms and Black Hole Entropy
Belin, Alexandre; Gomes, Joao; Keller, Christoph A
2016-01-01
We discuss the application of Siegel Modular Forms to Black Hole entropy counting. The role of the Igusa cusp form $\\chi_{10}$ in the D1D5P system is well-known, and its transformation properties are what allows precision microstate counting in this case. We implement this counting for other Siegel modular and paramodular forms, and we show that they could serve as candidates for other types of black holes. We investigate the growth of their coefficients, identifying the dominant contributions and the leading logarithmic corrections in various regimes. We also discuss similarities and differences to the behavior of $\\chi_{10}$, and possible physical interpretations of such forms both from a microscopic and gravitational point of view.
CosmoSIS: modular cosmological parameter estimation
Zuntz, Joe; Jennings, Elise; Rudd, Douglas; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott; Bridle, Sarah; Sehrish, Saba; Kowalkowski, James
2014-01-01
Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. We present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. We illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis
A modular guitar for teaching musical acoustics
Marozeau, Jeremy
2016-01-01
In order to keep students activated in a course on musical acoustics, they were asked to build a modular guitar, designed to be updated throughout the course. In the first stage, dedicated to the physics of strings, a guitar was made out of three strings attached to a long piece of wood. The stud......In order to keep students activated in a course on musical acoustics, they were asked to build a modular guitar, designed to be updated throughout the course. In the first stage, dedicated to the physics of strings, a guitar was made out of three strings attached to a long piece of wood....... The students measured the effect of the place of plucking on the mode of the vibrations of the strings. The second stage was dedicated to the acoustic resonances. Using a laser cutter, the students built a wooden box that was coupled to their guitar using straps. New acoustical measurements were made to study...
Robustness and modular structure in networks
Bagrow, James P; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
2011-01-01
Many complex systems, from power grids and the internet, to the brain and society, can be modeled using modular networks. Modules, densely interconnected groups of elements, often overlap due to elements that belong to multiple modules. The elements and modules of these networks perform individual and collective tasks such as generating and consuming electrical load, transmitting data, or executing parallelized computations. We study the robustness of these systems to the failure of random elements. We show that it is possible for the modules themselves to become isolated or uncoupled (non-overlapping) well before the network falls apart. When modular organization is critical to overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than expected.
Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits.
Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun
2016-07-28
The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size.
Autonomous vehicle platforms from modular robotic components
Schonlau, William J.
2004-09-01
A brief survey of current autonomous vehicle (AV) projects is presented with intent to find common infrastructure or subsystems that can be configured from commercially available modular robotic components, thereby providing developers with greatly reduced timelines and costs and encouraging focus on the selected problem domain. The Modular Manipulator System (MMS) robotic system, based on single degree of freedom rotary and linear modules, is introduced and some approaches to autonomous vehicle configuration and deployment are examined. The modules may be configured to provide articulated suspensions for very rugged terrain and fall recovery, articulated sensors and tooling plus a limited capacity for self repair and self reconfiguration. The MMS on-board visually programmed control software (Model Manager) supports experimentation with novel physical configurations and behavior algorithms via real-time 3D graphics for operations simulation and provides useful subsystems for vision, learning and planning to host intelligent behavior.
Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.
Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas
2017-06-07
Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.
Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.
Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R
2013-01-01
A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability.
Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant
Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.
1983-07-01
A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.
Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation
Anderson, Robert J.
1996-12-03
Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.
A Modular Toolkit for Distributed Interactions
Julien Lange
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We discuss the design, architecture, and implementation of a toolkit which supports some theories for distributed interactions. The main design principles of our architecture are flexibility and modularity. Our main goal is to provide an easily extensible workbench to encompass current algorithms and incorporate future developments of the theories. With the help of some examples, we illustrate the main features of our toolkit.
Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles
Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron
1993-01-01
The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.
A Modular Approach for Automating Video Analysis
Nadarajan, Gayathri; Renouf, Arnaud
2007-01-01
International audience; Automating the steps involved in video processing has yet to be tackled with much success by vision developers and knowledge engineers. This is due to the difficulty in formulating vision problems and their solutions in a generalised manner. In this collaborated work, we introduce a modular approach that utilises ontologies to capture the goals, domain description and capabilities for performing video analysis. This modularisation is tested on real-world videos from an...
Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms
Rolen, Larry
This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his
The Galois closure of Drinfeld modular towers
Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter
2011-01-01
In this article we study Drinfeld modular curves X0(pn) associated to congruence subgroups Γ0(pn) of GL(2,Fq[T]) where p is a prime of Fq[T]. For n>r>0 we compute the extension degrees and investigate the structure of the Galois closures of the covers X0(pn)→X0(pr) and some of their variations. T...
Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home
Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)
2016-03-01
With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.
Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.
Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C
2003-12-21
Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.
AP1000{sup TM} plant modularization
Cantarero L, C.; Demetri, K. J. [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Quintero C, F. P., E-mail: cantarc@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2016-09-15
The AP1000{sup TM} plant is an 1100 M We pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Modules are used extensively in the design of the AP1000 plant nuclear island. The AP1000 plant uses modern, modular-construction techniques for plant construction. The design incorporates vendor-designed skids and equipment packages, as well as large, multi-ton structural modules and special equipment modules. Modularization allows traditionally sequential construction tasks to be completed simultaneously. Factory-built modules can be installed at the site in a planned construction schedule. The modularized AP1000 plant allows many more construction activities to proceed in parallel. This reduces plant construction calendar time, thus lowering the costs of plant financing. Furthermore, performing less work onsite significantly reduces the amount of skilled field-craft labor, which costs more than shop labor. In addition to labor cost savings, doing more welding and fabrication in a factory environment raises the quality of work, allowing more scheduling flexibility and reducing the amount of specialized tools required onsite. The site layout for the AP1000 plant has been established to support modular construction and efficient operations during construction. The plant layout is compact, using less space than previous conventional plant layouts. This paper provides and overview of the AP1000 plant modules with an emphasis on structural modules. Currently the Westinghouse AP1000 plant has four units under construction in China and four units under construction in the United States. All have shown successful fabrication and installation of various AP1000 plant modules. (Author)
The small (or large) modular CANDU
Meneley, D.; Harvel, G. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)
2013-07-01
This presentation outlines the design for small (or large) modular CANDU. The origins of this work go back many years to a comment by John Foster, then President of AECL CANDU. Foster noted that the CANDU reactor, with its many small fuel channels, was like a wood campfire. To make a bigger fire, just throw on some more logs (channels). If you want a smaller fire, just use fewer logs. The design process is greatly simplified.
Modular Avionics for Seamless Reconfigurable UAS Missions
2008-01-01
Abstract Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture is a trend in current avionics that employs a partitioned environment in which different avionics functions share a unique computing environment. UAS avionics, especially in small UAS, are usually of less complexity than not the present on airliners, however, in real autonomous UAS, the onboard avionics should control not only the flight and navigation but also the mission and payload of the aircraft. This involves more complex softwa...
Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.
Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y
2015-06-17
Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Good families of Drinfeld modular curves
Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate examples of good and optimal Drinfeld modular towers of function fields. Surprisingly, the optimality of these towers has not been investigated in full detail in the literature. We also give an algorithmic approach for obtaining explicit defining equations for some...... of these towers and, in particular, give a new explicit example of an optimal tower over a quadratic finite field....
Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect
Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.
2015-01-01
On a macroscopic scale, a nonreactive liquid partially covering a homogeneous solid surface will intersect the solid at an angle called the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, the contact angle is materially dependent upon both the solid and liquid and typical values fall in the range 80-170 deg, depending on the crucible material. On a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the liquid and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously. Consider the example of the so called detached Bridgman crystal growth process. In this technique, a small gap is formed between the growing crystal and the crucible. At the crystal/melt interface, a meniscus ring is formed. Its width can be in the range of a few micrometers, approaching a microscopic scale. It then becomes questionable to describe the shape of this meniscus by the contact angle. A more advanced treatment of the interface is needed and here we propose such a refined model. The interaction of the liquid surface with the solid can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir or van der Waals force.
A robust polynomial fitting approach for contact angle measurements.
Atefi, Ehsan; Mann, J Adin; Tavana, Hossein
2013-05-14
Polynomial fitting to drop profile offers an alternative to well-established drop shape techniques for contact angle measurements from sessile drops without a need for liquid physical properties. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of contact angles resulting from fitting polynomials of various orders to drop profiles in a Cartesian coordinate system, over a wide range of contact angles. We develop a differentiator mask to automatically find a range of required number of pixels from a drop profile over which a stable contact angle is obtained. The polynomial order that results in the longest stable regime and returns the lowest standard error and the highest correlation coefficient is selected to determine drop contact angles. We find that, unlike previous reports, a single polynomial order cannot be used to accurately estimate a wide range of contact angles and that a larger order polynomial is needed for drops with larger contact angles. Our method returns contact angles with an accuracy of contact angles in a wide range with a fourth-order polynomial. We show that this approach returns dynamic contact angles with less than 0.7° error as compared to ADSA-P, for the solid-liquid systems tested. This new approach is a powerful alternative to drop shape techniques for estimating contact angles of drops regardless of drop symmetry and without a need for liquid properties.
Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona
2012-01-01
: Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...
Topological Strings And (Almost) Modular Forms
Aganagic, Mina; Bouchard, Vincent; Klemm, Albrecht
2007-05-04
The B-model topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold X has a symmetry group {Lambda}, generated by monodromies of the periods of X. This acts on the topological string wave function in a natural way, governed by the quantum mechanics of the phase space H{sup 3}(X). We show that, depending on the choice of polarization, the genus g topological string amplitude is either a holomorphic quasi-modular form or an almost holomorphic modular form of weight 0 under {Lambda}. Moreover, at each genus, certain combinations of genus g amplitudes are both modular and holomorphic. We illustrate this for the local Calabi-Yau manifolds giving rise to Seiberg-Witten gauge theories in four dimensions and local IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 1} x IP{sub 1}. As a byproduct, we also obtain a simple way of relating the topological string amplitudes near different points in the moduli space, which we use to give predictions for Gromov-Witten invariants of the orbifold C{sub 3}/ZZ{sub 3}.
Using Modularity with Rough Decision Models
Ahmed T. Shawky
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Many real world applications need to deal with imprecise data. Therefore, there is a need for new techniques which can manage such imprecision. Computational Intelligence (CI techniques are the most appropriate for dealing with imprecise data to help decision makers. It is well known that soft computing techniques like genetic algorithms, neural networks, and fuzzy logic are effective in dealing with problems without explicit model and characterized by uncertainties Using fuzzy set theory considered as major techniques, which allows decision makers to take a good decision using imprecise inexact data and knowledge. Now using rough set is getting quite necessary to be used for its ability to mining such type of data. In this research, we are looking forward to propose a novel technique, which depends on the integration between fuzzy set concepts and rough set theory in mining relational databases. The proposed model allows introducing modularity mechanism, by building a virtual modular decision tables according to variety of decision makers points of view. And introduce decision grouping mechanism for getting the optimizing decision. This approach provides flexibility in decision making verifies all decision standards and determines decision requirements, through modularizing rough decision table, extraction of rough association rules and developing mechanisms for decision grouping.
USING MODULARITY WITH ROUGH DECISION MODELS
Ahmed T. Shawky
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Many real world applications need to deal with imprecise data. Therefore, there is a need for newtechniques which can manage such imprecision. Computational Intelligence (CI techniques are the mostappropriate for dealing with imprecise data to help decision makers. It is well known that soft computingtechniques like genetic algorithms, neural networks, and fuzzy logic are effective in dealing with problemswithout explicit model and characterized by uncertainties Using fuzzy set theory considered as majortechniques, which allows decision makers to take a good decision using imprecise inexact data andknowledge. Now using rough set is getting quite necessary to be used for its ability to mining such type ofdata. In this research, we are looking forward to propose a novel technique, which depends on theintegration between fuzzy set concepts and rough set theory in mining relational databases. The proposedmodel allows introducing modularity mechanism, by building a virtual modular decision tables accordingto variety of decision makers points of view. And introduce decision grouping mechanism for getting theoptimizing decision. This approach provides flexibility in decision making verifies all decision standardsand determines decision requirements, through modularizing rough decision table, extraction of roughassociation rules and developing mechanisms for decision grouping.
Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home
Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.
2016-03-01
Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.
Modular injection systems for miniature engines
Cochran, Mike
1992-07-01
Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.
Evolution of a modular software network.
Fortuna, Miguel A; Bonachela, Juan A; Levin, Simon A
2011-12-13
"Evolution behaves like a tinkerer" (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed.
RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology
Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others
1996-10-01
The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.
Survey on research and development of reconfigurable modular robots
Jinguo Liu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive survey of reconfigurable modular robots, which covers the origin, history, the state of the art, key technologies, challenges, and applications of reconfigurable modular robots. An elaborative classification of typical reconfigurable modular robots is proposed based on the characteristics of the modules and the reconfiguration mechanism. As the system characteristics of reconfigurable modular robots are mainly dependent on the functions of modules, the mechanical and electrical design features of modules of typical reconfigurable modular robots are discussed in detail. Furthermore, an in-depth comparison analysis is conducted, which encompasses discussions of module shape, module degrees of freedom, module attribute, connection mechanisms, interface autonomy, locomotion modes, and workspace. Meanwhile, many reconfigurable modular robot researches focus on the study of self-X capabilities (i.e. self-reconfiguration, self-assembly, self-adaption, etc., which embodies autonomy performance of reconfigurable modular robots in certain extent. An evolutionary cobweb evaluation model is proposed in this article to evaluate the autonomy level of reconfigurable modular robots. Although various reconfigurable modular robots have been developed and some of them have been put into practical applications such as search and rescue missions, there still exist many open theoretical, technical, and practical challenges in this field. This work is hopefully to offer a reference for the further developments of reconfigurable modular robots.
Habib, Hesham A; Hoffmann, Anke; Höppe, Henning A; Steinfeld, Gunther; Janiak, Christoph
2009-03-02
Hydrothermal reactions of 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane (btre) with copper(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) salts have yielded the dinuclear complexes [Zn2Cl4(mu2-btre)2] (1) and [Zn2Br4(mu2-btre)2] (2), the one-dimensional coordination polymer infinity1[Zn(NCS)2(2-btre)] (3), the two-dimensional networks infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Cl)2(mu4-btre)] (4), infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Br)2(mu4-btre)] (5), and infinity2{[Cd6(mu3-OH)2(mu3-SO4)4(mu4-btre)3(H2O)6](SO4).6H2O} (6), and the three-dimensional frameworks infinity3{[Cu(mu4-btre)]ClO4.0.25H2O} (7), 3{[Zn(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (8), infinity3{[Cd(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (9), and infinity3[Cu2(mu2-CN)2(mu4-btre)] (10, 2-fold 3D interpenetrated framework). The copper-containing products 4, 5, 7, and 10 contain the metal in the +1 oxidation state, from a simultaneous redox and self-assembly reaction of the Cu(II) starting materials. The cyanide-containing framework 10 has captured the CN- ions from the oxidative btre decomposition. The perchlorate frameworks 7, 8, or 9 react in an aqueous NH4+PF6- solution with formation of the related PF6--containing frameworks. The differences in the metal-btre bridging mode (mu2-kappaN1:N1', mu2-kappaN1:N2 or mu4-kappaN1:N2:N1':N2') and the btre ligand symmetry can be correlated with different signal patterns in the 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectra. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 7 to 10 exhibit fluorescence at 403-481 nm upon excitation at 270-373 nm which is not seen in the free btre ligand.
Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) For Astrophysics and Astronomy
Sun, Ke-Xun; Buchman, S.; Byer, R. L.; DeBra, D.; Goebel, J.; Allen, G.; Conklin, J.; Gerardi, D.; Higuchi, S.; Leindecker, N.; Lu, P.; Swank, A.; Torres, E.; Trillter, M.; Zoellner, A.
2009-01-01
The study of space-time for gravitational wave detection and cosmology beyond Einstein will be an important theme for astrophysics and astronomy in decades to come. Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) is designed for detecting gravitational wave in space. The Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) is developed as the next generation core instrument for space-time research, including gravitational wave detection beyond LISA, and an array of precision experiments in space. The MGRS provide a stable gravitational cardinal point in space-time by using a test sphere, which eliminates the need for orientation control, minimizing disturbances. The MGRS measures the space-time variation via a two step process: measurement between test mass and housing, and between housings of two spacecraft. Our Stanford group is conducting systematic research and development on the MGRS. Our initial objectives are to gain a system perspective of the MGRS, to develop component technologies, and to establish test platforms. We will review our recent progress in system technologies, optical displacement and angle sensing, diffractive optics, proof mass characterization, UV LED charge management system and space qualification, thermal control and sensor development. Some highlights of our recent results are: Demonstration of the extreme radiation hardness of UV LED which sustained 2 trillion protons per square centimeter; measurement of mass center offset down to 300 nm, and measurement of small angle 0.2 nrad per root hertz using a compact grating angular sensor. The Stanford MGRS program has made exceptional contribution to education of next generation scientists and engineers. We have undergraduate and graduate students in aeronautical and astronautic engineering, applied physics, cybernetics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and physics. We have also housed a number of high school students in our labs for education and public outreach.
Crusader solid propellant best technical approach
Graves, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bader, G. [Fire Support Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Dolecki, M. [Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ (United States); Krupski, S. [Benet Weapons Lab., Watervliet Arsenal, NY (United States); Zangrando, R. [Close Combat Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)
1995-12-01
The goal of the Solid Propellant Resupply Team is to develop Crusader system concepts capable of automatically handling 155mm projectiles and Modular Artillery Charges (MACs) based on system requirements. The system encompasses all aspects of handling from initial input into a resupply vehicle (RSV) to the final loading into the breech of the self-propelled howitzer (SPH). The team, comprised of persons from military and other government organizations, developed concepts for the overall vehicles as well as their interior handling components. An intermediate review was conducted on those components, and revised concepts were completed in May 1995. A concept evaluation was conducted on the finalized concepts, from both a systems level and a component level. The team`s Best Technical Approach (BTA) concept was selected from that evaluation. Both vehicles in the BTA have a front-engine configuration with the crew situated behind the engine-low in the vehicles. The SPH concept utilizes an automated reload port at the rear of the vehicle, centered high. The RSV transfer boom will dock with this port to allow automated ammunition transfer. The SPH rearm system utilizes fully redundant dual loaders. Active magazines are used for both projectiles and MACs. The SPH also uses a nonconventional tilted ring turret configuration to maximize the available interior volume in the vehicle. This configuration can be rearmed at any elevation angle but only at 0{degree} azimuth. The RSV configuration is similar to that of the SPH. The RSV utilizes passive storage racks with a pick-and-place manipulator for handling the projectiles and active magazines for the MACs. A telescoping transfer boom extends out the front of the vehicle over the crew and engine.
Crusader solid propellant best technical approach
Graves, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bader, G. [Fire Support Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Dolecki, M. [Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ (United States); Krupski, S. [Benet Weapons Lab., Watervliet Arsenal, NY (United States); Zangrando, R. [Close Combat Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)
1995-12-01
The goal of the Solid Propellant Resupply Team is to develop Crusader system concepts capable of automatically handling 155mm projectiles and Modular Artillery Charges (MACs) based on system requirements. The system encompasses all aspects of handling from initial input into a resupply vehicle (RSV) to the final loading into the breech of the self-propelled howitzer (SPH). The team, comprised of persons from military and other government organizations, developed concepts for the overall vehicles as well as their interior handling components. An intermediate review was conducted on those components, and revised concepts were completed in May 1995. A concept evaluation was conducted on the finalized concepts, from both a systems level and a component level. The team`s Best Technical Approach (BTA) concept was selected from that evaluation. Both vehicles in the BTA have a front-engine configuration with the crew situated behind the engine-low in the vehicles. The SPH concept utilizes an automated reload port at the rear of the vehicle, centered high. The RSV transfer boom will dock with this port to allow automated ammunition transfer. The SPH rearm system utilizes fully redundant dual loaders. Active magazines are used for both projectiles and MACs. The SPH also uses a nonconventional tilted ring turret configuration to maximize the available interior volume in the vehicle. This configuration can be rearmed at any elevation angle but only at 0{degree} azimuth. The RSV configuration is similar to that of the SPH. The RSV utilizes passive storage racks with a pick-and-place manipulator for handling the projectiles and active magazines for the MACs. A telescoping transfer boom extends out the front of the vehicle over the crew and engine.
A Comprehensive View On Benefits From Product Modularization
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi
2010-01-01
. Definitely, the many various aspects of product modularization have demonstrated substantial potentials regarding improved and enhanced competitiveness, but our empirical studies illustrate that the efforts in regards to realizing specific product modularization benefits need to be managed carefully. Our......In many cases the phenomenon of product modularization is presented in an inherently positive way. Based on the frequency of these positive cases it might be expected that product modularization is a universal cure for any competitive weaknesses experienced by manufacturing or service companies...... studies illustrates that the expected and the realized benefits from a product modularization effort rarely match. In most cases the companies have only weak estimations about both the type and the magnitude of the potential benefits when planning the modularization project. This indicates a serious need...
Research on Modular Manufacture Strategy under New Economic Circumstance
WU Zhenggang; SHI Chunsheng
2006-01-01
Modularity can simplify the process of complex product design and manufacture effectively, and it can also optimize the supply resource to satisfy the customization needs of customers, which has aroused more and more awareness of people both in management theory research and in enterprise practice recently. In the article, we analyze the difficulty of complex product manufacture, introduce the idea of modular manufacture and research the basic content of modular manufacture strategy. Meanwhile, the significance of modular manufacture strategy to build up core competition and fast innovation for the manufacture industry are studied. At last, we discuss the necessity of building modular manufacture strategy and its modes and process. The studies demonstrate that based on modular manufacture is crucial to establish enterprise strategy and optimize enterprise competence.
Summer School and Conference : Computations with Modular Forms
Wiese, Gabor
2014-01-01
This volume contains original research articles, survey articles and lecture notes related to the Computations with Modular Forms 2011 Summer School and Conference, held at the University of Heidelberg. A key theme of the Conference and Summer School was the interplay between theory, algorithms and experiment. The 14 papers offer readers both, instructional courses on the latest algorithms for computing modular and automorphic forms, as well as original research articles reporting on the latest developments in the field. The three Summer School lectures provide an introduction to modern algorithms together with some theoretical background for computations of and with modular forms, including computing cohomology of arithmetic groups, algebraic automorphic forms, and overconvergent modular symbols. The 11 Conference papers cover a wide range of themes related to computations with modular forms, including lattice methods for algebraic modular forms on classical groups, a generalization of the Maeda conjecture, ...
Environmental variability and modularity of bacterial metabolic networks
Kashtan Nadav
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological systems are often modular: they can be decomposed into nearly-independent structural units that perform specific functions. The evolutionary origin of modularity is a subject of much current interest. Recent theory suggests that modularity can be enhanced when the environment changes over time. However, this theory has not yet been tested using biological data. Results To address this, we studied the relation between environmental variability and modularity in a natural and well-studied system, the metabolic networks of bacteria. We classified 117 bacterial species according to the degree of variability in their natural habitat. We find that metabolic networks of organisms in variable environments are significantly more modular than networks of organisms that evolved under more constant conditions. Conclusion This study supports the view that variability in the natural habitat of an organism promotes modularity in its metabolic network and perhaps in other biological systems.
Contact angle hysteresis explained.
Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J
2006-07-04
A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.
Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.
2013-01-01
measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....