Sample records for solid abdominal organs

  1. Blunt abdominal trauma: does the use of a second-generation sonographic contrast agent help to detect solid organ injuries?

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Mentha, Gilles; Vermeulen, Bernard; Buhler, Léo H; Terrier, François


    The objective of our study was to prospectively evaluate whether a second-generation sonography contrast agent (SonoVue) can improve the conspicuity of solid organ injuries (liver; spleen; or kidney, including adrenal glands) in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Two hundred ten consecutive hemodynamically stable trauma patients underwent both abdominal sonography and CT at admission. The presence of solid organ injuries and the quality of sonography examinations were recorded. Patients with false-negative sonography findings for solid organ injuries in comparison with CT results underwent control sonography. If a solid organ injury was still undetectable, contrast-enhanced sonography was performed. Findings of admission, control, and contrast-enhanced sonograms were compared with CT results for their ability to depict solid organ injuries. Contrast-enhanced sonography was also performed in patients in whom a vascular injury (pseudoaneurysm) was shown on admission or control CT. CT findings were positive for 88 solid organ injuries in 71 (34%) of the 210 patients. Admission, control, and contrast-enhanced sonograms had a detection rate for solid organ injury of 40% (35/88), 57% (50/88), and 80% (70/88), respectively. The improvement in the detection rate between control and contrast-enhanced sonography was statistically significant (p = 0.001). After exclusion of low-quality examinations, contrast-enhanced sonography still missed 18% of solid organ injuries. Five vascular liver (n = 1) and spleen (n = 4) injuries (pseudoaneurysms) were detected on CT; all were visible on contrast-enhanced sonography. Contrast-enhanced sonography misses a large percentage of solid organ injuries and cannot be recommended to replace CT in the triage of hemodynamically stable trauma patients. However, contrast-enhanced sonography could play a role in the detection of pseudoaneurysms.

  2. Changing patterns in diagnostic strategies and the treatment of blunt injury to solid abdominal organs

    C.H. van der Vlies (Cornelis); D.C. Olthof (Dominique); M. Gaakeer (Menno); K.J. Ponsen (Kees); O.M. van Delden (Otto); J.C. Goslings (Carel)


    textabstractBackground: In recent years there has been increasing interest shown in the nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt traumatic injury. The growing use of NOM for blunt abdominal organ injury has been made possible because of the progress made in the quality and availability of the multidet

  3. Mass Screening of Multiple Abdominal Solid Organs Using Mobile Helical Computed Tomography Scanner—A Preliminary Report

    Susumu Ishikawa


    Conclusion: Qualitative diagnoses of solid tumours were difficult using CT findings without contrast medium. CT screening procedures require further investigation in aspect of the selection of examinees, CT scanning procedure, sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infection in Abdominal Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    Rolling, Katherine E; Jorgenson, Margaret R; Descourouez, Jillian L; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Redfield, Robert R; Smith, Jeannina A


    Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (GR-CMV) is emerging as a significant infection in the abdominal transplant population. GR-CMV is difficult to manage, and treatment options are limited. We report a descriptive case series of 15 patients who had documented GR-CMV at our center and review the literature on treatment of GR-CMV. The first case in this series was detected in 2012; the majority of cases occurred after January 1, 2014, with approximately 50% occurring in 2015. UL97 and UL54 viral genome mutations were present in 100% and 40% of CMV-infected patients, respectively. GR-CMV infection occurred ≤ 1 year posttransplantation in 11 patients (73%). All patients experienced dose reduction of valganciclovir (the oral prodrug of ganciclovir) before the development of GR-CMV. Initial treatment for GR-CMV included a variety of regimens, all including reduction in maintenance immunosuppression. Of the 6 patients with detectable GR-CMV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) who were discharged without GR-CMV treatment and had a length of stay (LOS) less than 14 days, 83% were subsequently readmitted for treatment of GR-CMV within 2 months (60% in < 20 days); none received leflunomide. Of six patients with a LOS ≥ 14 days, 80% had CMV PCR below quantification on hospital discharge, and only one patient was readmitted in less than 20 days; 83% received leflunomide. Following GR-CMV, there was a 50% rejection incidence, 27% graft loss, and 20% mortality. For patients with more than three admissions for GR-CMV treatment, 100% had a major complication: 60% rejection, 20% graft loss, and 40% mortality. Common clinical characteristics of patients with GR-CMV included high-risk serostatus, lymphocyte depletion, and history of valganciclovir dose reduction. Overall, outcomes were poor. It appears that hospital readmission rate was reduced when CMV was treated to negativity with an initial treatment regimen of reduced immunosuppression, foscarnet, intravenous immunoglobulins

  5. Organic Molecular Solids

    Schwoerer, Marcus


    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  6. [Abdominal multi-organ transplantation in dogs].

    Kumagae, T


    Abdominal multi-organ transplantation including the liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tract was attempted in 8 dogs. Each experiment was discontinued when the recipient deteriorated. Immersion hypothermia was introduced in both the donor and recipient until the esophageal temperature reached 27-30 degrees C. Whole abdominal organs of the donor were removed in an en-bloc fashion at 20 degrees C of the graft temperature after additional cooling by ice slush scattering into the abdominal cavity. Transplantation was carried out orthotopically in the following sequence: (1) the proximal aorta, (2) suprahepatic vena cava, (3) distal aorta, (4) infrahepatic vena cava. The alimentary tract was reconstructed by gastro-gastrostomy and colo-colostomy. The ureters were implanted in the bladder. Cold ischemic time of the graft was about 40 minutes. Heparin was not used throughout the procedure. Five out of eight dogs were alive for more than 24 hours and two of them survived for 60 hours with good recovery. No immunosuppressant was given. Though the result in the present study was far from satisfaction, the experiment may provide a possibility of a new experimental model for transplantation, especially regarding pathophysiology and interrelationship of the transplanted complex organs.

  7. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Serdar Baygeldi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  8. Organic solid-state lasers

    Forget, Sébastien


    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  9. Excitations in organic solids

    Agranovich, Vladimir M


    During the last decade our expertise in nanotechnology has advanced considerably. The possibility of incorporating in the same nanostructure different organic and inorganic materials has opened up a promising field of research, and has greatly increased the interest in the study of properties of excitations in organic materials. In this book not only the fundamentals of Frenkel exciton and polariton theory are described, but also the electronic excitations and electronic energytransfers in quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, at surfaces, at interfaces, in thin films, in multilayers,

  10. A review of abdominal organ transplantation in cystic fibrosis.

    Lu, Brandy R; Esquivel, Carlos O


    With advances in medical treatments, patients with CF are having improved quality of life and living longer. Although pulmonary disease is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, this longevity has allowed for the development of other organ dysfunction, mainly liver and pancreas. This review discusses the abdominal organ complications and the role of abdominal organ transplantation in CF. Liver failure and portal hypertension complications are the most common indicators for liver transplantation in CF, and five-yr survival for isolated liver transplantation is >80%. Deficiency of pancreatic enzymes is almost universal and up to 40% of patients with CF can develop insulin-dependent diabetes, although the role of pancreas transplantation is less clear and needs further research. Finally, the need for lung transplantation should always be assessed and considered in combination with liver transplantation on a case-by-case basis.

  11. [Perforation of hollow organs in the abdominal contusion: diagnostic features and prognostic factors of death].

    Nicolau, A E; Merlan, V; Dinescu, G; Crăciun, M; Kitkani, A; Beuran, M


    Blunt hollow viscus perforations (HVP) due to abdominal contusions (AC), although rare, are difficult to diagnose early and are associated with a high mortality. Our paper analyses retrospectively data from patients operated for HVP between January 2005 and January 2009, the efficiency of different diagnostic tools, mortality and prognostic factors for death. There were 62 patients operated for HVP, 14 of which had isolated abdominal contusion and 48 were poly trauma patients. There were 9 women and 53 men, the mean age was 41.5 years (SD: +17,9), the mean ISS was 32.94 (SD: +15,94), 23 patients had associated solid viscus injuries (SVI). Clinical examination was irelevant for 16 of the 62 patients, abdominal Xray was false negative for 30 out of 35 patients and abdominal ultrasound was false negative for 16 out of 60 patients. Abdominal CT was initially false negative for 7 out of 38 patients: for 4 of them the abdominal CT was repeated and was positive for HVP, for 3 patients a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. Direct signs for HVP on abdominal CT were present for 3 out of 38 patients. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed for 7 patients with suspicion for HVP, and was positive for 6 of them and false negative for a patient with a duodenal perforation. Single organ perforations were present in 55 cases, multi organ perforations were present in 7 cases. There were 15 deaths (15.2%), most of them caused by haemodynamic instability (3 out of 6 patients) and associated lesions: SOL for 9 out of 23 cases, pelvic fracture (PF) for 6 out of 14 patients, craniocerebral trauma (CCT) for 12 out of 33 patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic factors for death were ISS value (p = 0,023) and associated CCT (odds ratio = 4,95; p = 0,017). The following factors were not confirmed as prognostic factors for death: age, haemodynamic instability, associated SVI, thoracic trauma (TT), pelvic fractures (PF), limbs fractures (LF) and admission-operation interval

  12. Clinical significance of serum biomarkers in pediatric solid mediastinal and abdominal tumors.

    Sandoval, John A; Malkas, Linda H; Hickey, Robert J


    Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children.

  13. Clinical Significance of Serum Biomarkers in Pediatric Solid Mediastinal and Abdominal Tumors

    Robert J. Hickey


    Full Text Available Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children.

  14. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    Greenbaum, Elias


    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  15. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)


    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. A Pancreatic Solid Pseudo-Papillary Tumor Detected After Abdominal Injury

    Ishii, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Kazuko; Ideguchi, Hiroshi; Hirose, Shinichi


    Solid pseudo-papillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a relatively benign tumor that is more frequently reported in females. Most patients usually present with abdominal pain or mass. We experienced the girl who identified SPT with the injury. We diagnosed SPT in a previously healthy 14-year-old Asian girl after abdominal injury. She experienced upper abdominal pain and vomiting after being hit by a basketball. Blood examination revealed a high serum amylase level. Abdominal radiography indicated abnormal bowel gases. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a smooth, peripheral and unilocular mass approximately 55 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Based on these observations, acute pancreatitis complicated by a pancreatic mass was initially diagnosed. Therapy for acute pancreatitis was instituted, while we simultaneously investigated the mass. Levels of tumor markers were not profoundly elevated in serum. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed moderate and gradual increase in contrast-enhanced imaging, consistent with findings of SPT of the pancreas. We thus elected surgical resection for her. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed our diagnosis of SPT. SPT of the pancreas should be considered as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen disorders, especially in instances after minor abdominal injuries in young women, and diagnoses must be confirmed with MRIs.

  17. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P


    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery of abdominal large visceral organs

    Li-Hua Dai; Bo Xu; Guang-Hui Zhu


    AIM: To design a hand-assisted laparoscopic approach in an attempt to provide an option for laparoscopic resection of abdominal large viscera.METHODS: A 5-6 cm incision (for HandPort) and 2 trocars were employed. The main vessel of the target organ was taken as a "core", and all tissues around the core were taken as peripheral structures. The peripheral structures were dissected first, and the core vessels were treated last. Twenty-six patients underwent laparoscopic deroofing of the hepatic huge cysts, resection of the segments lying at the outer edge of the liver (segments 2 to 6), splenectomy, hemicolectomy, ileocecectomy and subtotal gastrectomy with HandPort device, harmonic scalpel, or Ligasure.RESULTS: The duration of the procedure was within 2 hours. Blood loss amounted to 8-120 mL. The conversion rate was 3.8% (1/26). All patients had uneventful postoperative courses with less pain, earlier oral intake,and faster recovery, compared with conventional surgery.CONCLUSION: This method combines the advantages of both open and laparoscopic techniques, achieving better hemostasis effect, shortening the operative time,and is beneficial to the patients.

  19. Multi-Atlas Segmentation for Abdominal Organs with Gaussian Mixture Models.

    Burke, Ryan P; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Poulose, Benjamin K; Abramson, Richard G; Landman, Bennett A


    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid/gray matter/white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  20. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology


    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  1. Cryptosporidial infections after solid organ transplantation in children.

    Gerber, D A; Green, M; Jaffe, R; Greenberg, D; Mazariegos, G; Reyes, J


    The diagnosis and treatment of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients is often a challenge because of the variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The morbidity associated with this clinical condition is of particular significance in the pediatric population where malnutrition may lead to poor growth and development. Rarely, Cryptosporidium has been identified as the cause of clinically significant diarrhea in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. A retrospective review identified cases of cryptosporidiosis among the 1160 non-renal, abdominal organ transplant recipients cared for at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1981 and June 1998. Four cases of clinically significant diarrhea were identified in three liver transplant recipients and one small bowel transplant recipient. Endoscopy and biopsy with histologic confirmation diagnosed three cases; ova and parasitic examination of stool specimens identified the fourth case. Therapy varied among the patients depending on when they had been diagnosed as, over the years, different and newer agents have been indicated for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. All four patients resolved their infections. Hence, endoscopy and biopsy is recommended for pediatric transplant patients who present with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. The patients who may be at a higher risk for cryptosporidial infections include those with an increased immunosuppressive state (i.e. pre-existing immunodeficiency, malignancy, re-transplantation, and those receiving higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy). While cryptosporidiosis is a non-lethal complication, it allows the clinician to gain further insight into the degree of immunosuppression of their patient.

  2. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J


    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...

  3. Renal function after solid organ transplantation

    Broekroelofs, Jan


    The studies described in this thesis focus on the problem of renal chronic function loss following solid organ transplantation form a nephrologist point of view. Nephrologists have been and are still confionted with renal function loss in native kidney diseases. The last 3 decades chronic renal func

  4. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process w...

  5. Evaluation of body-wise and organ-wise registrations for abdominal organs

    Xu, Zhoubing; Panjwani, Sahil A.; Lee, Christopher P.; Burke, Ryan P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.


    Identifying cross-sectional and longitudinal correspondence in the abdomen on computed tomography (CT) scans is necessary for quantitatively tracking change and understanding population characteristics, yet abdominal image registration is a challenging problem. The key difficulty in solving this problem is huge variations in organ dimensions and shapes across subjects. The current standard registration method uses the global or body-wise registration technique, which is based on the global topology for alignment. This method (although producing decent results) has substantial influence of outliers, thus leaving room for significant improvement. Here, we study a new image registration approach using local (organ-wise registration) by first creating organ-specific bounding boxes and then using these regions of interest (ROIs) for aligning references to target. Based on Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Mean Surface Distance (MSD) and Hausdorff Distance (HD), the organ-wise approach is demonstrated to have significantly better results by minimizing the distorting effects of organ variations. This paper compares exclusively the two registration methods by providing novel quantitative and qualitative comparison data and is a subset of the more comprehensive problem of improving the multi-atlas segmentation by using organ normalization.

  6. [Clinical and imaging features of abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma of non-organ origin in children].

    Shi, J; Du, J; Wu, W; Wang, Q


    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging features of abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma of non-organ origin in children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging features of 12 pediatric patients with abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma confirmed by surgery and pathology at our hospital. Results: There were 9 boys and 3 girls, with an average age of (5.47±3.92) years old (range, 1 to 15). According to Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) staging system, they were of stage Ⅲ to stage Ⅳ, and most were of embryonal type. Tumors of 7 cases were located in the pelvic cavity, 2 cases in the abdominal cavity, 1 in the retroperitoneal space, 1 in both the abdominal and pelvic cavities and 1 across the retroperitoneal space, and abdominal and pelvic cavities. Gray-scale ultrasound showed moderate inhomogeneous echo structure and color Doppler flow imaging showed rich blood flow signals. CT plain scan showed masses of iso- or low-density, and the contrast-enhanced scan showed lesions with inhomogeneous enhancement. The enhancement in delay scan was more obvious and the peripheral enhancement was more significant than central enhancement. Conclusions: Childhood abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma of non-organ origin may arise from the peritoneum, be commonly seen in boys younger than 10 years old, more likely located in the pelvic cavity, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common histological variant seen in childhood. Ultrasound and CT imaging can provide useful information for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor.

  7. Anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome: Multidetector computed tomography findings

    Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok; Jung, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare situs ambiguous anomaly associated with multiple spleens and anomalies of abdominal organs. Because most of the minor anomalies do not cause clinical symptoms, polysplenia syndrome is detected incidentally in the adults. Anomalies of abdominal organs may include multiple spleens of variable size or right-sided spleen, large midline or left-sided liver, midline gallbladder, biliary tract anomalies, short pancreas, right-sided stomach, intestinal malrotation, inferior vena cava interruption with azygos or hemiazygos continuation, and a preduodenal portal vein. As the multidetector computed tomography is increasingly used, situs anomalies will likely to be found with greater frequency in the adults. Therefore, radiologists should become familiar with these rare and peculiar anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome.

  8. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M


    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  9. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)


    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.


    Katta Srinivasa


    Full Text Available Blunt Abdominal trauma is one of the most common causes among injuries caused mainly due to road traffic accidents. 1 The rapid increase in number of motor vehicles and its aftermath has caused rapid increase in number of victims to blunt abdominal trauma. Motor vehicle accidents account for 75 to 80% of blunt abdominal trauma. 2 Blunt injury of abdomen is also a result of fall from height, assault with blunt objects, industrial mishaps, sport injuries, bomb blast and fall from riding bicycle. 2 In view of increasing number of vehicles and consequently road traffic accidents, this topic is chosen to study the cases of blunt abdominal trauma with reference to the patients presenting at Govt. General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College, Guntur. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are: 1. To evaluate the impact of blunt abdominal trauma on solid viscera. 2. To evaluate etiology and various modes of presentation. 3. To evaluate various available investigations for the detection of solid organ injuries. 4. To evaluate various modalities of treatment available with aim to reduce the mortality and morbidity. 5. To evaluate common complications of solid organ injury in blunt trauma abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted in Government General Hospital, Guntur, from November 2012 to October 2014 and studied 50 cases. This is a prospective study conducted over 2 years. RESULTS: Male patients were commonly affected (80%, Peak age group being 21 – 30 years (48%. The commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident (58%. The common organ injured was spleen (54% followed by liver. 70% of the patients were treated by surgery, 30% conservatively. The mortality in this study was 14%. CONCLUSIONS : Blunt injury abdomen forms considerable load and health care system, most common age group is youngsters in road traffic accidents , so efforts should be made to formulate and execute road traffic regulations. Well established trauma care

  11. Plastic surgery after solid organ transplantations

    QI Fa-zhi; ZHANG Yong; YANG Zhen; FENG Zi-hao; GU Jian-ying


    Background More patients receive organ transplantation surgeries due to the advancement in immunosuppressive agents and surgical techniques. Some of those patients may need to undergo plastic or reconstructive surgery.Long-term use of immunosuppressive agents raises some serious problems. Therefore, this study aimed to introduce our experience about the safety and effectiveness of plastic surgeries after solid organ allograft transplantation.Methods A retrospective review of 17 transplant recipients who underwent different reconstructive or cosmetic operations was carried out. The subjects included 1 heart transplant, 1 liver transplant and 15 kidney transplant recipients.Results "All patients tolerated the plastic surgery procedures well. Flaps and skin grafts were the main constructive methods. There were no postoperative infections and wound dehiscence. Transferred flaps survived completely. Skin grafts took well. Three of the cosmetic surgery patients were satisfied with the results.Conclusions Immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients can successfully undergo major reconstructive and cosmetic surgery when given special attention.

  12. Comparison of abdominal ultrasonographic findings with endoscopic ultrasonographic findings of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Jung, Woo Sang; Kim, Jai Keun; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Joo Hee; Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon


    To compare abdominal ultrasonographic (AU) findings with endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS) findings of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas, 13 patients (male-to-female ratio, 3:10; mean age, 36 years) with surgically proven SPN who underwent both preoperative AU and EUS were included in the study. Ultrasonographic findings of the 2 modalities were compared according to internal echogenicity, calcification, demarcation, internal septum, and main pancreatic duct dilatation. Nine cases showed hypoechogenicity on both AU and EUS. The remaining 4 cases showed different echogenicity on both modalities as follows: hypoechogenicity (n = 2) and isoechogenicity (n = 2) on AU; and hyperechogenicity (n = 1), poor visualization of internal architecture due to dense rim calcification (n = 2), and isoechogenicity (n = 1) on EUS. In 2 cases with dense rim calcification, evaluation of the internal contents was more difficult on EUS compared with AU. In addition, central punctate calcifications of 2 cases were well visualized on both AU and EUS, but the 1 case of peripheral calcification was only seen on EUS. All cases showed good demarcation without main pancreatic ductal dilatation or internal septa. Endoscopic ultrasonography was superior to AU for the evaluation of internal echogenicity of pancreatic SPN; however, AU was superior at evaluating larger tumors and tumors with dense rim calcification.

  13. Objective comparison of subtotal vs. total abdominal hysterectomy regarding pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe Elisabeth


    OBJECTIVE: To compare subtotal and total abdominal hysterectomy regarding objective assessment of pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence and voiding function 14 years after hysterectomy for benign diseases. STUDY DESIGN: Long-term follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of subtotal vs. total......, total: 100), the PFDI-20 questionnaire was answered by 140 (46.1%) (subtotal: 68, total: 72). We found no difference between subtotal and total abdominal hysterectomy in the PFDI-20 scores or regarding objectively assessed urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. In the subtotal hysterectomy group......, 31 (59.6%) women had objective stage 2 pelvic organ prolapse compared with 33 (70.2%) in the total hysterectomy group (P=0.27); however, only 6/31 and 9/33 had symptoms (P=0.45). There were more anterior pelvic organ prolapses in the total hysterectomy group (N=10) than in the subtotal hysterectomy...

  14. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs; Abdominelles Polytrauma und Parenchymorgane

    Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien AKH, Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)


    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [German] Die akute radiologische Diagnostik bei Polytraumapatienten ist in den letzten Jahren unerlaesslicher Bestandteil der interdisziplinaeren Versorgung im Schockraum geworden. Die Inzidenz von Polytraumata mit einem Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 betraegt in Europa ca. 450/Mio. Einwohner/Jahr. Verletzungen abdomineller Parenchymorgane sind von

  15. Ultrasonic research of abdominal organs in conditions of long-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

    Afonin, B V; Nichiporuk, I A; Nesterov, M A; Belousova, I V


    Change in functional activity of digestive system in space flight usually is associated with phenomenon of hypokinesia which takes place in microgravity. However, it is marked that the reorganization of a gastrointestinal tract in space flight occurs on a background of the phenomenon of venous plethora in abdominal cavity, which can also result in changes of functional activity in organs of digestive system. Insignificant amount of studies of venous plethora in abdominal cavity carried out in conditions of space flight does not allow to create a complete picture of this phenomenon. Hemodynamical changes comparable to microgravity are well-simulated in conditions of a long-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (AH)--bed-rest in a head-down tilt. The present research was performed with the aim to study venous plethora in abdominal cavity in conditions of long-term AH.

  16. Blunt abdominal trauma: The role of focused abdominal sonography in assessment of organ injury and reducing the need for CT

    Samer Malak Boutros


    Conclusion: Ultrasonography is considered the best modality in initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma patients as it is noninvasive, readily available, and requires minimal preparation time. Ultrasonography is very useful in follow up of patients with intra-abdominal injury and decreases use of CT which has the disadvantages of being expensive, high dose radiation.

  17. Impact of Abdominal Follow-Up Sonography in Trauma Patients Without Abdominal Parenchymal Organ Lesion or Free Intraabdominal Fluid in Whole-Body Computed Tomography.

    Schneck, Emmanuel; Koch, Christian; Borgards, Mara; Reichert, Martin; Hecker, Andreas; Heiß, Christian; Padberg, Winfried; Alejandre-Lafont, Enrique; Röhrig, Rainer; Krombach, Gabriele Anja; Weigand, Markus; Bernhard, Michael; Roller, Fritz Christian


    Purpose Patients suffering from severe blunt abdominal trauma are challenging because of their need for accurate diagnostic imaging and fast therapeutic action. Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is highly sensitive and represents the gold standard in the trauma room diagnostic setting. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact and therapy relevance of abdominal follow-up sonography (AFS) as part of the tertiary trauma survey (TTS) in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free abdominal fluid in initial WBCT. Materials and Methods All adult patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination, who received AFS within 24 hours after trauma, were included in this retrospective analysis between January 2008 and December 2011. Results 316 patients were analyzed (ISS 10 ± 8, NISS 13 ± 11) according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, only small amounts of free intraabdominal fluid were detected in AFS in 3 patients (0.9 %) and remained without therapeutic consequence. None of the patients died due to intraabdominal bleeding. Conclusion AFS as part of the TTS did not show additional benefits and had no impact on further treatment in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination. We conclude that AFS is not routinely required but should be performed if indicated on a clinical or laboratory basis because of its fast and less invasive character. Key points  · Seriously injured patients are challenging for medical imaging and treatment.. · Whole-body computed tomography is known for its high accuracy in trauma patients.. · Nonetheless, missed injuries are a major challenge in trauma patients.. · Therefore, follow-up ultrasound is often performed within the tertiary trauma survey.. · Follow-up ultrasound in patients with an inconspicuous abdominal computed tomography scan did not show any

  18. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    Chhavi Sawhney


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70% were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU. Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years. Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury.

  19. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.


    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  20. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta


    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  1. Abdominal organ procurement in the Netherlands - an analysis of quality and clinical impact.

    de Boer, Jacob D; Kopp, Wouter H; Ooms, Kirsten; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J; Krikke, Christina; de Jonge, Jeroen; van Heurn, L W Ernst; Baranski, Andre G; van der Vliet, J Adam; Braat, Andries E


    Between March 2012 and August 2013, 591 quality forms were filled out for abdominal organs in the Netherlands. In 133 cases (23%), there was a discrepancy between the evaluation from the procuring and transplanting surgeons. Injuries were seen in 148 (25%) organs of which 12 (2%) led to discarding of the organ: one of 133 (0.8%) livers, five of 38 (13%) pancreata and six of 420 (1.4%) kidneys (P procurement-related injury in all organs (OR: 1.06, P = 0.011) and donor after cardiac death (DCD) donation in liver procurement (OR: 2.31, P = 0.034). DCD donation is also associated with more pancreata being discarded due to injury (OR: 10.333, P = 0.046). A higher procurement volume in a centre was associated with less injury in pancreata (OR = -0.95, P = 0.013) and kidneys (OR = -0.91, P = 0.012). The quality form system efficiently monitors the quality of organ procurement. Although there is a relatively high rate of organ injury, the discard rate is low and it does not significantly affect 1-year graft survival for any organ. We identified higher BMI as a risk factor for injury in abdominal organs and DCD as a risk factor in livers. A higher procurement volume is associated with fewer injuries.

  2. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Fakhri Y. Hmood


    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  3. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L


    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients.

  4. [Abdominal pain and defecation disorders without a known organic origin: importance of the psychodiagnosis].

    Matricardi, A; Faranda, F; Sicignano, G


    The authors submitted some children examined in the Division of Pediatric Surgery of the Ospedali Galliera in Genoa to a psychodiagnostic evaluation. They presented abdominal pain and defecation disorders, whose organic etiology was not demonstrated. The psychodiagnostic evaluation, consisting in colloquia, tests, drawings and plays, was completed in 11 of the 28 patients referred. A profoundly disturbed and protagonist mother-child relationship and a frequent "border position" of the father was focused. The symptoms disappeared in 8 of the 11 patients during the diagnostic evaluation, that resulted, its own, therapeutic. 3 patients were treated with psychotherapy and a remarkable improvement at 6 months from the beginning of therapy was noticed. Seventeen patients were lost because they didn't come to the outpatient dates or because they were already followed by other specialists in their residential zones. The authors believe that a psychodiagnostic evaluation is important in children with abdominal pain and defecation disorders whose organic origin has not been demonstrated.

  5. Tobacco smoking and solid organ transplantation.

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James


    Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs.

  6. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L


    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  7. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Mitrano, Matteo


    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  8. Interpretability of anatomical variability analysis of abdominal organs via clusterization of decomposition modes.

    Reyes, Mauricio; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A; Li, Zhixi; Kozic, Nina; Summers, Ronald M; Linguraru, Marius George


    Extensive recent work has taken place on the construction of probabilistic atlases of anatomical organs, especially the brain, and their application in medical image analysis. These techniques are leading the way into similar studies of other organs and more comprehensively of groups of organs. In this paper we report results on the analysis of anatomical variability obtained from probabilistic atlases of abdominal organs. Two factor analysis techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA), were used to decompose and study shape variability within the abdomen. To assess and ease the interpretability of the resulting deformation modes, a clustering technique of the deformation vectors is proposed. The analysis of deformation fields obtained using these two factor analysis techniques showed strong correlation with anatomical landmarks and known mechanical deformations in the abdomen, allowing us to conclude that PFA is a complementary decomposition technique that offers easy-to-interpret additional information to PCA in a clinical setting. The analysis of organ anatomical variability will represent a potentially important research tool for abdominal diagnosis and modeling.

  9. Cancer Risk After Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Smith, Jodi M; Shiels, Meredith S; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Kahn, Amy R; Koch, Lori; Pawlish, Karen S; Engels, Eric A


    The effects of pediatric solid organ transplantation on cancer risk may differ from those observed in adult recipients. We described cancers in pediatric recipients and compared incidence to the general population. The US transplant registry was linked to 16 cancer registries to identify cancer diagnoses among recipients <18 years old at transplant. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by dividing observed cancer counts among recipients by expected counts based on the general population rates. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between recipient characteristics and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk. Among 17 958 pediatric recipients, 392 cancers were diagnosed, of which 279 (71%) were NHL. Compared with the general population, incidence was significantly increased for NHL (SIR = 212, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 188-238), Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 19, 95% CI = 13-26), leukemia (SIR = 4, 95% CI = 2-7), myeloma (SIR = 229, 95% CI = 47-671), and cancers of the liver, soft tissue, ovary, vulva, testis, bladder, kidney, and thyroid. NHL risk was highest during the first year after transplantation among recipients <5 years old at transplant (SIR = 313), among recipients seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) at transplant (SIR = 446), and among intestine transplant recipients (SIR = 1280). In multivariable analyses, seronegative EBV status, the first year after transplantation, intestine transplantation, and induction immunosuppression were independently associated with higher NHL incidence. Pediatric recipients have a markedly increased risk for many cancers. NHL constitutes the majority of diagnosed cancers, with the highest risk occurring in the first year after transplantation. NHL risk was high in recipients susceptible to primary EBV infection after transplant and in intestine transplant recipients, perhaps due to EBV transmission in the donor organ. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Construction of Abdominal Probabilistic Atlases and Their Value in Segmentation of Normal Organs in Abdominal CT Scans

    Park, Hyunjin; Hero, Alfred; Bland, Peyton; Kessler, Marc; Seo, Jongbum; Meyer, Charles

    A good abdominal probabilistic atlas can provide important information to guide segmentation and registration applications in the abdomen. Here we build and test probabilistic atlases using 24 abdominal CT scans with available expert manual segmentations. Atlases are built by picking a target and mapping other training scans onto that target and then summing the results into one probabilistic atlas. We improve our previous abdominal atlas by 1) choosing a least biased target as determined by a statistical tool, i.e. multidimensional scaling operating on bending energy, 2) using a better set of control points to model the deformation, and 3) using higher information content CT scans with visible internal liver structures. One atlas is built in the least biased target space and two atlases are built in other target spaces for performance comparisons. The value of an atlas is assessed based on the resulting segmentations; whichever atlas yields the best segmentation performance is considered the better atlas. We consider two segmentation methods of abdominal volumes after registration with the probabilistic atlas: 1) simple segmentation by atlas thresholding and 2) application of a Bayesian maximum a posteriori method. Using jackknifing we measure the atlas-augmented segmentation performance with respect to manual expert segmentation and show that the atlas built in the least biased target space yields better segmentation performance than atlases built in other target spaces.

  11. Simultaneous thoracic and abdominal transplantation: can we justify two organs for one recipient?

    Wolf, J H; Sulewski, M E; Cassuto, J R; Levine, M H; Naji, A; Olthoff, K M; Shaked, A; Abt, P L


    Simultaneous thoracic and abdominal (STA) transplantation is controversial because two organs are allocated to a single individual. We studied wait-list urgency, and whether transplantation led to successful outcomes. Candidates and recipients for heart-kidney (SHK), heart-liver (SHLi), lung-liver (SLuLi) and lung-kidney (SLuK) were identified through the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and outcomes were compared to single-organ transplantation. Since 1987, there were 1801 STA candidates and 836 recipients. Wait-list survival at 1- and 3 years for SHK (67.4%, 40.8%; N = 1420), SHLi (65.7%, 43.6%; N = 218) and SLuLi (65.7%, 41.0%; N = 122), was lower than controls (p organ candidates. STA outcomes were similar to thoracic transplantation; however, outcomes were similar to abdominal transplantation for SHLi only. Although select patients benefit from STA, risk-exposure variables for decreased survival should be identified, aiming to eliminate futile transplantation.

  12. Prevention of infection in adult travelers after solid organ transplantation.

    Kotton, Camille Nelson; Ryan, Edward T; Fishman, Jay A


    Increasing numbers of solid organ transplant recipients are traveling to the developing world. Many of these individuals either do not seek or do not receive optimal medical care prior to travel. This review considers risks of international travel to adult solid organ transplant recipients and the use of vaccines and prophylactic agents in this population.

  13. Aneurysm Outreach Inc., a nonprofit organization, offers community-based, ultrasonography screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Arrington, Sheila; Ogata, Toru; Davis, P Michael; Sam, Albert D; Hollier, Larry H; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena


    Aneurysm Outreach Inc. (AOI; is a nonprofit volunteer organization founded in 1999 whose aim is to (a) raise public awareness about aneurysms; (b) stimulate and fund genetic research through donations; and (c) coordinate a support network for aneurysm patients and their families. Since abdominal ultrasonography examination of an asymptomatic individual is not presently reimbursed by health insurance in the United States, one of the initiatives supported by AOI is to have free ultrasonography screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) for those most at risk. One of the initiatives supported by AOI is to have free ultrasonography screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). To meet this goal, a free screening program was initiated in September 2001 and by November 2004 approximately 3,000 participants were screened and 61 (2.0%) participants were confirmed to have a dilated aorta and were referred to their primary care physicians or vascular surgeons for further follow-up and treatment, if indicated.

  14. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Mehmet Salih Aydin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  15. Proneural and abdominal Hox inputs synergize to promote sensory organ formation in the Drosophila abdomen.

    Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Witt, Lorraine M; Gresser, Amy L; Burns, Kevin A; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian


    The atonal (ato) proneural gene specifies a stereotypic number of sensory organ precursors (SOP) within each body segment of the Drosophila ectoderm. Surprisingly, the broad expression of Ato within the ectoderm results in only a modest increase in SOP formation, suggesting many cells are incompetent to become SOPs. Here, we show that the SOP promoting activity of Ato can be greatly enhanced by three factors: the Senseless (Sens) zinc finger protein, the Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox factor, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. First, we show that expression of either Ato alone or with Sens induces twice as many SOPs in the abdomen as in the thorax, and do so at the expense of an abdomen-specific cell fate: the larval oenocytes. Second, we demonstrate that Ato stimulates abdominal SOP formation by synergizing with Abd-A to promote EGF ligand (Spitz) secretion and secondary SOP recruitment. However, we also found that Ato and Sens selectively enhance abdominal SOP development in a Spitz-independent manner, suggesting additional genetic interactions between this proneural pathway and Abd-A. Altogether, these experiments reveal that genetic interactions between EGF-signaling, Abd-A, and Sens enhance the SOP-promoting activity of Ato to stimulate region-specific neurogenesis in the Drosophila abdomen.

  16. 影响腹部实体器官移植受者发生多重耐药革兰阴性菌血流感染死亡的危险因素分析%Factors Influencing Mortality in Abdominal Solid Organ Transplant Recipients with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

    万齐全; 张盛; 方泽鸿; 叶啟发


    -related 30-day mortality in abdominal solid organ transplant (ASOT) recipients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB).Methods:We performed a retrospective,double-center analysis of a case series of ASOT patients with MDR GNB over a 13-year study period.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for mortality.Results:During the observational period,2 169 subjects underwent ASOT.Ninety-nine episodes of MDR GNB were diagnosed in 91 ASOT recipients (4.6%),with a predominance of E.coli (29 isolates,29.3%) and A.baumanii (24 isolates,24.2%).The mean age of these 91 recipients was 44.0±12.7 years.Mortality after the first episode of MDR GNB was 39.6% (36 deaths).The univariate analysis identified the following variables as predictors of bacteremia-related mortality:lung focus (P=0.001),nosocomial origin (P=0.002),presence of other concomitant bloodstream infections (P<0.001),temperature of 40℃ or greater at the onset of MDR GNB (P=0.039),creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl (P=0.006),albumin<30 g/L(P=0.009),platelet count <50000/mm3 (P<0.001),and septic shock (P<0.001).In multiple logistic regression analysis,septic shock (odds ratio(OR) =160.463,95% confidence interval(CI) =19.377-1328.832,P<0.001),creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (OR=24.498,95% CI=3.449-173.998,P=0.001),nosocomial origin (OR=23.963,95%CI =1.285-446.991,P=0.033),and presence of other concomitant bloodstream infections (OR =27.074,95%CI=3.937-186.210,P=0.001) were the variables associated with MDR GNB-related 30-day mortality.Conclusion:MDR GNB was associated with high morbidity and mortality in ASOT recipients,with a predominant causative organisms being E.coli and A.baumanii.Nosocomial origin,presence of other concomitant bloodstream infections,along with increased creatinine level and septic shock were the main predictors of MDR GNB-related 30-day mortality.

  17. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)


    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  18. Long-term Outcomes Following Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Nygaard, Ingrid; Brubaker, Linda; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Richter, Holly; Gantz, Marie; Fine, Paul; Menefee, Shawn; Ridgeway, Beri; Visco, Anthony; Warren, Lauren Klein; Zhang, Min; Meikle, Susan


    Importance Over 225,000 surgeries are performed annually in the U.S. for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about long-term effectiveness and adverse events. Objective To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy). Design, setting, participants Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year CARE trial (Colpopexy And urinary Reduction Efforts). Participants were stress continent women undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002–5 for symptomatic POP randomized to concomitant urethropexy or not. 92% (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers enrolled into this extended study with 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completing 5 and 7 years follow-up, respectively. Median follow-up was 7 years. Main Outcome Measures POP: Symptomatic failure: POP retreatment or reporting bulge on Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI); Anatomic failure: POP retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex descend below upper third of the vagina or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen. Urinary incontinence (UI): Stress UI: more than 1 stress urinary incontinence symptom on PFDI or interval treatment; Overall UI: score ≥ 3 on Incontinence Severity Index. Results By year 7, the estimated probabilities of failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy and no urethropexy groups respectively were were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (difference 0.050; 95% CI −0.161, 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (0.049; −0.060, 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (0.134; −0.096, 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (−0.153; −0.268, 0.030) 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (−0.064; −0.161, 0.032). Mesh erosion probability estimated by Kaplan-Meier method

  19. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Stephen A.; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.


    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  20. Clinical Analysis for the Correlation of Intra-abdominal Organ Injury in the Patients with Rib Fracture


    Background Although it is rare for the fracture itself to become a life threatening injury in patients suffering from rib fracture, the lives of these patients are occasionally threatened by other associated injuries. Especially, early discovery of patients with rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury is extremely important to the prognosis. This study analyzed the link between rib fracture and intra-abdominal injury to achieve improved treatment. Materials and Methods Among trauma patients that had visited the hospital emergency room from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective study was conducted on 453 patients suffering from rib fracture due to blunt trauma. Rib fracture was classified according to location (left, right, and bilateral), and according to level (upper rib fracture [1-2nd rib], middle rib fracture [3-8th rib], and lower rib fracture [9-12th rib]). The researched data was statistically compared and analyzed to investigate the correlation between the location, level, and number of rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury. Results Motor vehicle injury was found to be the most common mechanism of injury with 208 cases (46%). Associated injuries accompanied with rib fracture were generated in 276 cases (61%). Intra-abdominal organ injury was discovered in 97 cases (21%). Liver injury was the most common intra-abdominal injury associated with rib fracture with 39 cases (40%), followed by spleen injury, with 23 cases (23%). Intra-abdominal injury according to level of rib fracture was presented as upper rib fracture in 11 cases (11%), middle rib fracture in 31 cases (32%), and lower rib fracture in 55 cases (57%), thus verifying that intra-abdominal injuries were commonly accompanied in lower rib fractures (p=0.03). In particular, significant increase of intra-abdominal injury was presented in fractures below the 8th rib (p=0.03). The number of intra-abdominal injuries requiring emergency operations was significantly higher in patients

  1. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  2. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation.

    González-Moreno, J; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Ríos-Fernández, R; Ortego-Centeno, N


    Antiphospholipid syndrome is considered a high risk factor for any kind of surgery. Considering that all solid organ transplants are critically dependent on the patency of vascular anastomosis, there is much concern about the consequences this pro-thrombotic condition may have on transplantation. Relatively little information is available in the literature assessing the real risk that antiphospholipid syndrome or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies represent in solid organ transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies.

  3. Fine needle biopsy of abdominal organs in dogs -- indications, contraindications and performance technique.

    Glińska-Suchocka, K; Jankowski, M; Kubiak, K; Spuzak, J; Dzimira, S; Nicpoń, J


    Recent years have seen in both human and veterinary medicine the development of numerous techniques allowing for evaluation and classification of changes in individual organs and tissues. Despite introduction of such techniques into diagnostics as among others, CT, MRI, CEUS or elastography, biopsy is still considered a "golden standard" and it is a procedure performed in order to obtain a final diagnosis. There are many biopsy techniques, such as fine needle aspiration biopsy, core biopsy as well as methods of performing a procedure, e.g. blind biopsy, biopsy under USG control and biopsy during laparotomy. In the article usefulness of biopsy techniques in relation to diagnostics of individual abdominal organ, as well as the procedure technique, contraindication and complications are discussed.

  4. Surface reconstruction of abdominal organs using laparoscopic structured light for augmented reality

    Ackerman, Jeremy D.; Keller, Kurtis; Fuchs, Henry


    Creation of accurate surface models of abdominal organs is essential for many developing technologies in medicine and surgery. One application we are working towards is augmented reality (AR) visualization for laparoscopic surgery. Our current system meets some, but not all, of the requirements. We use two custom built laparoscopes, a custom built miniature projector, a standard camera, and a standard video capture and processing card to implement a laparoscopic structured light range acquisition system. We will briefly show the custom hardware but will emphasize the structured light depth extraction techniques used for the unique properties of surfaces inside the body, particularly dealing with specular reflections. In early experiments, we studied the effectiveness of our algorithm in highly specular environments by creating range images acquired from fresh animal organs. These experiments used a large projector, open abdomens, and offline image processing. We report the results of experiments using our miniature projector, and on line processing.

  5. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially the systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their ...

  6. Emergency Department Ultrasound Is not a Sensitive Detector of Solid Organ Injury

    Kendall, John L


    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of emergency department (ED ultrasound for the detection of solid organ injury following blunt abdominal trauma.Methods: A prospective cohort study performed in the ED of an urban Level I trauma center on patients who sustained blunt abdominal trauma. Following initial standard trauma evaluation, patients underwent a secondary ultrasound examination performed specifically to identify injury to the liver or spleen, followed by computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen. Ultrasound examinations were performed by emergency medicine residents or attending physicians experienced in the use of ultrasound for detecting hemoperitoneum. Ultrasonographers prospectively determined the presence or absence of liver or spleen injury. CT findings were used as the criterion standard to evaluate the ultrasound results.Results: From July 1998 through June 1999, 152 patients underwent secondary ultrasound examination and CT. Of the 152 patients, nine (6% had liver injuries and 10 (7% had spleen injuries. Ultrasound correctly detected only one of the liver injuries for a sensitivity of 11% (95% CI: 0%-48% and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 94%-100%. Ultrasound correctly detected eight spleen injuries for a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 44%-98% and a specificity of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%.Conclusion: Emergency ultrasound is not sensitive or specific for detecting liver or spleen injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.[WestJEM. 2009;10:1-5.

  7. When thoracic organ recipients become abdominal organ donors: sharing the risks and benefits of transplantation: a case report.

    Chua, S; Swaminathan, R; Irish, A


    The increasing demand for organ donation has resulted in the use of expanded-criteria donors. Solid organ transplant recipients and potential recipients represent a unique pool of selected organ donors that may help to meet this demand. We present 2 cases, a lung transplant recipient and a patient on the lung transplant waiting list, who became kidney donors to 4 recipients. These donations illustrate the interrelated risks and benefits for transplant recipients who themselves can become unintended, but effective donors. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter.

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state (13)C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on (13)C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used (15)N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interfacial Effects and Organization of Inorganic-Organic Composite Solids.


    FRANCE; Jean-Marc Fabre, Univ de Montpellier II, Lab de Chimie Organique Structurale, Montpellier, FRANCE Layered metal (IV) hydrogen phosphatei (forms...Fluid Laboratory, Cranbury, NJ; Clement Sanchez, Univ Pierre et Mane Curie, Chimie de la Mauere Condensee, Paris, FRANCE Hydrolysis and condensation...of Geosciences, Pnnceton, NJ; Mohamed Haouas, Univ Louis Pasteur, RMN et Chimie du Solide. Strasbourg. FRANCE; Francis B. L. Taulelle, Univ Louis

  10. Fluid structure interaction of patient specific abdominal aortic aneurysms: a comparison with solid stress models

    Thom Simon A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a dilatation of the aortic wall, which can rupture, if left untreated. Previous work has shown that, maximum diameter is not a reliable determinant of AAA rupture. However, it is currently the most widely accepted indicator. Wall stress may be a better indicator and promising patient specific results from structural models using static pressure, have been published. Since flow and pressure inside AAA are non-uniform, the dynamic interaction between the pulsatile flow and wall may influence the predicted wall stress. The purpose of the present study was to compare static and dynamic wall stress analysis of patient specific AAAs. Method Patient-specific AAA models were created from CT scans of three patients. Two simulations were performed on each lumen model, fluid structure interaction (FSI model and static structural (SS model. The AAA wall was created by dilating the lumen with a uniform 1.5 mm thickness, and was modeled as a non-linear hyperelastic material. Commercial finite element code Adina 8.2 was used for all simulations. The results were compared between the FSI and SS simulations. Results Results are presented for the wall stress patterns, wall shear stress patterns, pressure, and velocity fields within the lumen. It is demonstrated that including fluid flow can change local wall stresses slightly. However, as far as the peak wall stress is concerned, this effect is negligible as the difference between SS and FSI models is less than 1%. Conclusion The results suggest that fully coupled FSI simulation, which requires considerable computational power to run, adds little to rupture risk prediction. This justifies the use of SS models in previous studies.

  11. [State of the abdominal organs and vessels on the background of simulated venous plethora in the splanchnic vascular system].

    Afonin, B V; Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Sedova, E A; Goncharova, N P


    Ultrasonic investigations of the abdominal organs and splanchnic veins were performed in essentially healthy subjects tilted at 12 degrees and 15 degrees for the period of 12 hrs. and 24 hrs. Tilting produced typical redistribution of venous blood and body liquids toward the cranial end. In its turn, blood redistribution caused excessive venous plethora and abdominal stasis. These were succeeded by expansion of large veins in the abdomen, enlargement of parenchymal organs and contraction of their echogenicity, and thickening of the hollow organs walls. Changes in the gastrointestinal functions before meal included elevated gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretion, and an increased amount of intestinal content. The investigations demonstrated that stasis of the splanchnic veins altered functioning of the digestive organs in tilted human subjects.

  12. Toxicity of pulp and paper solid organic waste constituents to soil organisms.

    Fraser, D Scott; O'Halloran, Kathryn; van den Heuvel, Michael R


    This study examined the potential biological hazard of pulp and paper waste solids. The solids examined were chosen on the basis of the range of wood-related organic extractives and were either primary solids screened from the effluent stream before secondary treatment, or biosolids from aerated stabilisation lagoons. Acute effects were tested at the level of plants, invertebrates and soil microbes using an oat germination and growth test, earthworm survival and reproduction test, an enchytraeid worm survival and reproduction test, and standard measures of microbial respiration. This was further benchmarked against a marine bacteria toxicity test using extract of the waste solids. Resin acids and resin acid neutrals made up the greatest proportion of organic extractives measured in biosolids whereas resin acids and fatty acids were the main constituents detected in primary solids. Examination of the tissue of earthworms from the tests revealed no net bioconcentration of the organic extractives. The waste solids were not acutely toxic to any of the soil organisms as tested without any dilution. Conversely, extracts of the waste solids demonstrated toxicity in the marine bacteria. In some cases, the solid waste material enhanced the growth of plants, earthworm reproduction and microbial respiration. The only adverse affect was that reproduction of enchytraeids was reduced by some of the waste solid treatments. However these effects did not appear to be associated with concentrations of resin acid neutrals and resin acids in these materials. Overall pulp and paper wastes were relatively benign in terms of toxicity to the soil organisms tested.

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  15. Nosocomial infections within the first month of solid organ transplantation.

    Dorschner, P; McElroy, L M; Ison, M G


    Infections remain a common complication of solid organ transplantation. Early postoperative infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Although significant effort has been made to understand the epidemiology and risk factors for early nosocomial infections in other surgical populations, data in SOT recipients are limited. A literature review was performed to summarize the current understanding of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, surgical-site infection, bloodstream infection, and Clostridium difficult colitis, occurring within the first 30 days after transplantation.

  16. Thermodynamics of phenanthrene partition into solid organic matter from water

    CHEN Bao-liang; ZHU Li-zhong; TAO Shu


    The thermodynamic behavior of organic contaminants in soils is essential to develop remediation technologies and assess risk from alternative technologies. Thermodynamics of phenanthrene partition into four solids (three soils and a bentonite) from water were investigated. The thermodynamics parameters (Δ H, Δ G°, Δ S°, ) were calculated according to experimental data. The total sorption heats of phenanthrene to solids from water ranged from - 7.93 to - 17.1 kJ/mol, which were less exothermic than the condensation heat of phenanthrene-solid(i.e., - 18.6 k J/mol). The partition heats of phenanthrene dissolved into solid organic matter ranged from 23.1 to 32.2k J/mol, which were less endothermic than the aqueous dissolved heat of phenanthrene(i. e., 40.2 kJ/mol), and were more endothermic than the fusion heat of phenanthrene-solid (i. e., 18.6 kJ/mol). The standard free energy changes, Δ G°, are all negative which suggested that phenanthrene sorption into solid was a spontaneous process. The positive values of standard entropy changes,ΔS° , show a gain in entropy for the transfer of phenanthrene at the stated standard state. Due to solubility-enhancement of phenanthrene,the partition coefficients normalized by organic carbon contents decrease with increasing system temperature(i. e., In Koc = -0.284In S +9.82( n =4, r2 = 0.992)). The solubility of phenanthrene in solid organic matter increased with increasing temperatures. Transports of phenanthrene in different latitude locations and seasons would be predicted according to its sorption thermodynamics behavior.

  17. Biodegradable organic matter in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Zhang, Shuo; Herbell, Jan-Dirk; Gaye-Haake, Birgit


    For investigation of the behavior of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in landfill, we have analysed bottom ash samples taken after the quench tank as well as after five months of storage in the laboratory for elements and organic constituents. Water extractable organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, amino acids, hexosamines and carbohydrates considerably decreased during the five months of storage and their spectra revealed microbial reworking. This shows that the organic matter present in the bottom ash after incineration can provide a substrate for microbial activity. The resulting changes of the physico-chemical environment may effect the short-term behavior of the bottom ash in landfill. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cardiac injury after 10 gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs.

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E


    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation.

  19. User Aligned Histogram Stacks for Visualization of Abdominal Organs via MRI

    Özdemir, M.; Akay, O.; Güzeliş, C.; Dicle, O.; Selver, M. A.


    Multi-dimensional transfer functions (MDTF) are occasionally designed as two-step approaches. At the first step, the constructed domain is modelled coarsely using global volume statistics and an initial transfer function (TF) is designed. Then, a finer classification is performed using local information to refine the TF design. In this study, both a new TF domain and a novel two-step MDTF strategy are proposed for visualization of abdominal organs. The proposed domain is generated by aligning the histograms of the slices, which are reconstructed based on user aligned majority axis/regions through an interactive Multi-Planar Reconstruction graphical user interface. It is shown that these user aligned histogram stacks (UAHS) exploit more a priori information by providing tissue specific inter-slice spatial domain knowledge. For initial TF design, UAHS are approximated using a multi-scale hierarchical Gaussian mixture model, which is designed to work in quasi real time. Then, a finer classification step is carried out for refinement of the initial result. Applications to several MRI data sets acquired with various sequences demonstrate improved visualization of abdomen.

  20. Ethical tensions in solid organ transplantation: The price of success

    Sanjay Kulkarni; David C Cronin Ⅱ


    Solid organ transplantation has rapidly developed into the therapy a choice for end-stage organ failure. The expansion of its use has resulted is a large deficiency in organ supply. To address this, the field of organ transplantation has attempted to develop new strategies that would increase the availability of organs for transplant. Some of these strategies include expansion of the donor pool by increasing the number of living donors or using deceased donor organs that may be marginal or "expanded". The intent is to bring life-saving therapy to individuals in need; however, much of this expansion has been brought forward without clear prospective guidelines. This article focuses on the current disparity between organ supply and demand, and how this has impacted the use of living donors and development of the "expanded donor" concept.

  1. Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids.

    Cody, George D; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M O; Nittler, Larry R; Kilcoyne, A L David; Sandford, Scott A; Stroud, Rhonda M


    Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites.

  2. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology i

  3. Organic solid-state integrated amplifiers and lasers

    Grivas, Christos; Pollnau, Markus


    Solid-state organic amplifiers and lasers are attractive for hybrid integration due to their compatibility with different material platforms, straightforward processing, and possibility to optimize easily their optical and electronic properties by molecular engineering. Advances in the gain medium d

  4. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  5. Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Nanayakkara, Deepa; Nanda, Neha


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C. difficile in this population. Preliminary data from animal studies suggests excellent efficacy with immunization against C. difficile toxins. Over the last decade, number of individuals receiving solid organ transplants has increased exponentially making peri-transplant complications a common occurrence.C. difficile is a frequent cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Early and accurate diagnosis of C. difficile requires a stepwise approach. Differentiating between asymptomatic carriage and infection is a diagnostic challenge. Microbial diversity is inversely proportional to risk of C. difficile infection. Antimicrobial stewardship programs help to retain microbial diversity in individuals susceptible to CDI. Recurrent or relapsing C. difficile infection require fecal microbiota transplantation for definitive cure.

  6. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Bernard, Sylvain; Rigaudier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Tissandier, Laurent


    The formation of organic compounds is generally assumed to result from abiotic processes in the Solar System, with the exception of biogenic organics on Earth. Nitrogen-bearing organics are of particular interest, notably for prebiotic perspectives but also for overall comprehension of organic formation in the young solar system and in planetary atmospheres. We have investigated abiotic synthesis of organics upon plasma discharge, with special attention to N isotope fractionation. Organic aerosols were synthesized from N2-CH4 and N2-CO gaseous mixtures using low-pressure plasma discharge experiments, aimed at simulating chemistry occurring in Titan s atmosphere and in the protosolar nebula, respectively. Nitrogen is efficiently incorporated into the synthesized solids, independently of the oxidation degree, of the N2 content of the starting gas mixture, and of the nitrogen speciation in the aerosols. The aerosols are depleted in 15N by 15-25 permil relative to the initial N2 gas, whatever the experimental set...

  7. Transmission of Babesia microti Parasites by Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Brennan, Meghan B; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Kazmierczak, James J; Weiss, John W; Klein, Christina L; Leith, Catherine P; He, Rong; Oberley, Matthew J; Tonnetti, Laura; Wilkins, Patricia P; Gauthier, Gregory M


    Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor's blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation.

  8. Sonographic Screening for Abdominal Organ Involvement in Sickle Cell AnemiaA Step towards Better Patient Care

    Bhushita B. Lakhkar


    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease is characterized by repeated crisis and need for frequent transfusions. Abdominal crisis are common and potentially can damage any abdominal organ. Screening for organ involvement will lead to early detection and better patient care. Aim and Objectives: To see whether ultrasound can be a better noninvasive technique for early detection of organ involvement. Material and Methods: Prospective cross sectional observational study done on patients admitted in pediatric ward of a medical college. Total of 150 patients, already diagnosed to have sickle cell anemia (homozygous 110 and heterozygous 40 was included in the study. All the patients were in steady state. Demographic, clinical biochemical details were noted and were subjected to ultrasonography. Renal artery, Being end artery, Doppler study was also done. All the modalities were compared for early detection. Results: Majority of patients (77% were between 1 to 30 years with male female ratio of 2:1. Recurrent fever (64% and recurrent abdominal pain (47% were most common symptoms and anemia (66%, hepatomegaly (62%, splenomegaly (21% were most common signs. When clinical examination, biochemical tests and ultrasonography were compared for organ detection, ultrasound significantly detected more patients (p=<0.05. Ultrasonography of kidney included renal doppler also. Renal involvement by microalbuminuria measurement was of same as ultrasonography. Organ involvement increased with age. Conclusion: Ultrasonography was good noninvasive technique for organ detection but kidneysyield was better with Doppler study. Most common organ found to be affected was liver. Involvement increased with age. Early detection helps clinicians to avoid drugs toxic to involved organs.

  9. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173


    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  10. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G


    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  11. Iomeprol versus iopamidol in contrast-enhanced computed tomography of thoracic and abdominal organs.

    Valentini, A L; Tartaglione, T; Monti, L; Marano, P


    The aim of this double-blind, parallel-group study was to compare the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of iomeprol-350 (350 mgI/ml), iomeprol-400 (400 mgI/ml) and iopamidol-370 (370 mgI/ml) for use in contrast-enhanced body computed tomography (CT). Following written informed consent, 120 adult inpatients of either sex requiring CT of thoracic or abdominal organs were randomly assigned to receive iomeprol-350, iomeprol-400 or iopamidol-370. Pre- and post-contrast, all patients underwent clinical, instrumental and laboratory investigation to assess the safety of the test agents. Tolerance was assessed in terms of discomfort associated with contrast injection. Two experienced radiologists independently and blindly graded the quality of contrast enhancement obtained with the different contrast solutions by means of a five-point ordinal scale as follows: 1, insufficient; 2, sufficient; 3, good; 4, excellent; or E, excessive. Patients in the iomeprol groups needed fewer injections and a smaller volume of contrast medium to obtain examinations of adequate diagnostic quality. Contrast enhancement was judged as excellent or good in about 90% of the study examinations, without significant differences between the three study groups. During contrast injection, heat and pain sensations were minimal or absent in most cases. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. No significant changes in clinical, instrumental or laboratory safety parameters were observed. In conclusion, iomeprol-400 and iomeprol-350 appear to be contrast solutions at least as safe, well tolerated and effective as iopamidol-370 when used as contrast agents for body CT.

  12. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence


    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology.

  13. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina


    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny


    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  15. The possibilities of single-port laparoscopic access in cholecystectomy after operations on the abdominal cavity organs

    V. M. Klimenko


    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the possibility and effectiveness of single-port access in cholecystectomy using for chronic calculous cholecystitis in patients who were previously operated on the abdominal organs. Materials and Methods. For the period from September 2015 to March 2017, 27 patients were been operated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy using single-port access for chronic calculous cholecystitis. All patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group included 12 (44.4% patients with previous surgery on the abdominal organs, who were performed laparotomy. The second group (2 included 15 (55.5% patients who didn’t have surgical interventions on the abdominal organs. Results and Discussion. The average duration of surgical intervention in patients of the 1st group (n = 12 was 87.66 ± 4.03 minutes. In all cases chronic calculous cholecystitis was observed. There was no transition to open cholecystectomy. The average bed-day was 2.41 ± 0.20. Drainage of the abdominal cavity was carried out only for 7 patients (58.3%. In 7 (58.3% patients opioid analgesics were prescribed once to reduce postoperative pain. Activation of patients occurred on the first day after the operation. After 2 days the ultrasound of the abdominal cavity was performed. In 2 (16.6% patients there was a slight accumulation of fluid in the region of the removed gallbladder that did not require puncture. Patients in the second group in all cases were performed a single-port cholecystectomy without additional trocars. The average duration of the operation was 38.93 ± 1.85 minutes. In all cases chronic calculous cholecystitis was observed. Conversions to the open methodology have not been noted. The average bed-day was 2.06 ± 0.07.Drainage of the abdominal cavity has not been performed. In 2 (13.3% cases opioid analgesics were prescribed once for postoperative pain relieving. Activation of patients occurred on the next day after the operation. After 2 days on the day of releasing

  16. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A


    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  17. [Mathematical analysis of complicated course of acute surgical diseases of abdominal cavity organs].

    Vozniuk, S M; Pol'ovyĭ, V P; Sydorchuk, R I; Palianytsia, A S


    In this paper we analyze the results of diagnosis and treatment of 130 patients with acute surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity, complicated by peritonitis. We proposed the method of estimating the severity of the patients using a coefficient of status severity (C(SS)), developed a scale for prediction of complicated outcomes of acute surgical pathology of the abdominal cavity and abdominal sepsis, which is adapted to the working conditions of local clinics. Using the C(SS) and the scale prediction, allowed timely identification of patients' risk group with possible complicated course, assign adequate treatment, reduce postoperative complications by 5%, relaparotomies by 4.4%, decrease postoperative mortality by 3.9%.


    Valderi Duarte Leite


    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  19. In situ vibrational spectroscopy of thin organic films confined at the solid-solid interface

    Haydock, S A


    Raman scattering was used to study thin films, of hexadecane, octamethyltetrasiloxane (OMCTS), 1-undecanol and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers consisting of zinc stearate, zinc arachidate and zinc behenate, all at the solid-solid interface. This thesis contains the first unenhanced Raman spectrum of an organic monolayer confined in the contact between two solid surfaces. The LB monolayers were also investigated with sum-frequency spectroscopy in order that comparisons could be made between results from the two techniques. Thin films were confined between an optical prism and an optical lens at pressures ranging from 30 MPa to 200 MPa. I have shown that the deposited LB monolayers were conformationally ordered and that this high degree of order was retained at applied pressures of up to 200 MPa. However, the application of pressure caused the hydrocarbon chains to tilt from the surface normal. The changes observed in the overall intensity of the Raman spectra on formation of the solid-solid contact can be ex...

  20. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M


    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  1. Calcidiol deficiency in end-stage organ failure and after solid organ transplantation: status quo.

    Thiem, Ursula; Olbramski, Bartosz; Borchhardt, Kyra


    Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  2. Calcidiol Deficiency in End-Stage Organ Failure and after Solid Organ Transplantation: Status quo

    Bartosz Olbramski


    Full Text Available Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  3. Risk for transmission of Naegleria fowleri from solid organ transplantation.

    Roy, S L; Metzger, R; Chen, J G; Laham, F R; Martin, M; Kipper, S W; Smith, L E; Lyon, G M; Haffner, J; Ross, J E; Rye, A K; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, D J; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, B J; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, S R; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, G S


    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments.

  4. Travel to High Altitude Following Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Luks, Andrew M


    Luks, Andrew M. Clinician's corner: travel to high altitude following solid organ transplantation. High Alt Med Biol. 17:147-156, 2016.-As they regain active lifestyles following successful organ transplantation, transplant recipients may travel to high altitude for a variety of activities, including skiing, climbing, and trekking. This review is intended to provide information for medical providers who may encounter transplant patients seeking advice before planned high altitude travel or care for medical issues that develop during the actual sojourn. There is currently limited information in the literature about outcomes during high-altitude travel following solid organ transplantation, but the available evidence suggests that the physiologic responses to hypobaric hypoxia are comparable to those seen in nontransplanted individuals and well-selected transplant recipients with no evidence of organ rejection can tolerate ascents as high as 6200 m. All transplant recipients planning high-altitude travel should undergo pretravel assessment and counseling with an emphasis on the recognition, prevention, and treatment of altitude illness, as well as the importance of preventing infection and limiting sun exposure. Transplant recipients can use the standard medications for altitude illness prophylaxis and treatment, but the choice and dose of medication should take into account the patient's preexisting medication regimen and current renal function. With careful attention to these and other details, the healthy transplant recipient can safely experience the rewards of traveling in the mountains.

  5. Objective Assessment of the Severity of Patients Suffering from Fall from Height with Combined Injuries of the Abdominal Parenchymal Organs

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev


    Full Text Available In recent years, fall from a height (FFH has been a relatively frequent cause of injury and death in the urban environment. The purpose of this study was to optimize the risk stratification of FFH victims with combined injuries of the abdominal organs by using Injury Severity Score (ISS scale. The study included 111 patients (aged between 15 and 80 years injured by FFH. All the falls were accidental and occurred mainly among males (82%. The height of the fall ranged from 2 to 5 meters. Combined injuries were found in 98 patients and isolated injuries in 13 patients. The combination of the 6 injured body regions was identified in 5 patients, 5 regions in 17, 4 in 35, 3 in 23, and 2 in 18. The abdomen trauma was most commonly associated with the following injured body regions: head and neck-chest-extremities and pelvis (13.3%, head and neck-chest-extremities (12.2%, and head and neck-chest-pelvis (9.2%. Among the combined injuries of the abdomen, ruptures of parenchymal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys were predominant. To assess the severity of the injury, the ISS scale was applied. The injuries of abdominal parenchymal organs were evaluated according to the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification. Comparative analysis of the assessment of the severity of a patient's condition according to the traditional scale and the ISS scale showed that the ISS scale promotes the active and timely detection of the extremely severe and terminal condition in patients with injuries due to FFH with combined trauma of the abdominal organs. Objective assessment of the severity of trauma and the dominant injury region allows determining the optimal treatment algorithm and predicting the outcome of the injury.

  6. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    Rubio, T.; M. T. Gaztelu; Calvo, A.; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría


    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ.

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Byon, Jung Hee; Jin, Gong Yong


    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of upper abdominal organs acquired at different time points, and to investigate the usefulness of normalization. We retrospectively evaluated 58 patients who underwent three rounds of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging of the upper abdomen. MR examinations were performed using three different 3.0 Tesla (T) and one 1.5T systems, with variable b value combinations and respiratory motion compensation techniques. The ADC values of the upper abdominal organs from three different time points were analyzed, using the ADC values of the paraspinal muscle (ADCpsm ) and spleen (ADCspleen ) for normalization. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and comparison of dependent ICCs were used for statistical analysis. The ICCs of the original ADC and ADCpsm showed fair to substantial agreement, while ADCspleen showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The ICC of ADCspleen of all anatomical regions showed less variability compared with that of the original ADC (P measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies. 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1494-1501. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Closed-suction drain placement at laparotomy in isolated solid organ injury is not associated with decreased risk of deep surgical site infection.

    Mohseni, Shahin; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Kim, Dennis; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Chan, Linda S; Coimbra, Raul; Demetriades, Demetrios


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of intra-abdominal closed-suction drainage after emergent trauma laparotomy for isolated solid organ injuries (iSOI) and to determine its association with deep surgical site infections (DSSI). All patients subjected to trauma laparotomy between January 2006 and December 2008 for an iSOI at two Level I urban trauma centers were identified. Patients with isolated hepatic, splenic, or renal injuries were included. Study variables extracted included demographics, clinical characteristics, intra-abdominal injuries, drain placement, DSSI, septic events, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Diagnosis of DSSI was based on abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrating an intra-abdominal collection combined with fever and elevated white blood cell count. For the analysis, patients were stratified based on injury severity. To identify an independent association between closed-suction drain placement and DSSI, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 142 patients met the inclusion criteria with 80 per cent (n=114) having severe iSOI. In 47 per cent (n=53) of the patients with a severe injury, an intra-abdominal drain was placed. A drain was placed more often in patients with a blunt trauma with more severe injury defined by Injury Severity Score and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale Score and those who underwent splenectomy (Pdrain placement (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 8.2; P=0.046). Subgroup analysis demonstrated those who sustained severe hepatic injury receiving a drain had a significantly increase risk of DSSI (P=0.02). There was no statistical difference in the rate of DSSI based on the presence or absence of an intra-abdominal drain after severe splenic injury (17 vs 18%, P=0.88). The use of intra-abdominal closed-suction drains after iSOI is not associated with decreased risk of DSSI.

  9. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.


    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  10. [Systemic inflammatory reaction and indices of the organ hepatic dysfunction in patients with abdominal sepsis].

    Veliev, N A; Ismailov, V F


    In 26 patients in complex of treatment of abdominal sepsis there was applied a 1.5% solution of reamberin intravenously in 400 ml dose during 5 days. The results of treatment were estimated, studying indices of systemic inflammatory reaction (SIR) and hepatic tests. Reamberin application have promoted rapid normalization of the parameters studied. The authors consider, that efficacy of reamberin is caused not only by positive impact on the SIR course, but by hepatoprotective action of the preparation as well.

  11. Theories on Frustrated Electrons in Two-Dimensional Organic Solids

    Chisa Hotta


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional quarter-filled organic solids are a promising class of materials to realize the strongly correlated insulating states called dimer Mott insulator and charge order. In their conducting layer, the molecules form anisotropic triangular lattices, harboring geometrical frustration effect, which could give rise to many interesting states of matter in the two insulators and in the metals adjacent to them. This review is concerned with the theoretical studies on such issue over the past ten years, and provides the systematic understanding on exotic metals, dielectrics, and spin liquids, which are the consequences of the competing correlation and fluctuation under frustration.

  12. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    reduction, nutrient concentration and hygienization of the final product. However, thermal treatment of ammonium rich organic wastes such as digestate solids has been linked with relative high volatilization of NH3 and therefore decrease in N fertilizing value of the final product. Temperature and air...... manure stabilizing treatments i.e. composting. Finally, the energy cost associated with thermal drying of bio-wastes is expected to largely determine the degree implementation in different areas...... digestate, are acknowledged for their potential to serve as organic amendments and fertilizers however, their characteristics constitutes them prone to N losses, and their management (handling, storage, transportation) costly. Thermal drying of manures is known to facilitate transportation by volume...

  13. Challenging Issues in Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Horne, David J.; Narita, Masahiro; Spitters, Christopher L.; Parimi, Soumya; Dodson, Sherry; Limaye, Ajit P.


    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for opportunistic infections including tuberculosis. Although guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis are available, there remain a number of clinical areas with limited guidance. We discuss challenges in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in SOT candidates and recipients who reside in low-tuberculosis-prevalence areas. We discuss the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in SOT candidates/recipients using tuberculin skin tests and interferon-γ release assays and risk stratification of SOT candidates/recipients that would identify individuals at high risk for latent tuberculosis despite negative test results. Through a careful review of posttransplant tuberculosis cases, we identify a history of treated tuberculosis in SOT recipients as a risk factor for development of posttransplant active tuberculosis. Finally, we include comparisons of recommendations by several large transplant organizations and identify areas for future research. PMID:23899676

  14. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Zhao, Zhuang; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien


    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  15. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien


    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  16. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Asghar Waseem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  17. Prospective evaluation of new 22 gauge endoscopic ultrasound core needle using capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull technique for intra-abdominal solid masses.

    Paik, Woo Hyun; Park, Yangsoon; Park, Do Hyun; Hong, Seung-Mo; Lee, Byung Uk; Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy and diagnostic yield of the histologic core obtained with a 22 G endoscopic ultrasound histology needle using capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull technique without on-site cytopathologist. No standard technique for new EUS histology needle has been established. A total of 125 consecutive patients with intra-abdominal solid masses were enrolled prospectively between October 2011 and March 2013. EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with a 22 G histology needle using capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull technique was performed. A total of 133 EUS-FNB procedures targeting the pancreas, lymph node, retroperitoneal mass, ampulla of Vater, gallbladder, common bile duct, duodenum, and liver were performed in 125 patients. EUS-FNB was technically feasible in all cases, and a visible core was obtained in 128 cases (96%). Histologic core specimens suitable for pathologic assessment were reported in 111 cases (83%). There were no procedure-related adverse events. According to the determinants of malignancy with EUS-FNB, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 85%, 98%, 99%, 77%, and 89%, respectively. In addition, histologic architecture with or without immunohistochemical staining of the core biopsy specimens was useful for pathologic confirmation in 101 cases (76%). A 22 G EUS-FNB using capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull technique showed a high diagnostic yield and histologic core acquisition for the histologic diagnosis of various intra-abdominal masses without an on-site cytopathologist. Furthermore, a histologic core with or without immunohistochemical staining was helpful for clinical decision making in 76% of the intra-abdominal solid masses.

  18. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    J. Chiaka Ejike


    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.

  19. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Catalysis: Some Recent Strategies Using Alumina, Silica, and Polyionic Resins

    Basudeb Basu; Susmita Paul


    Solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) and catalysis have gained impetus after the seminal discovery of Merrifield’s solid-phase peptide synthesis and also because of wide applicability in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry. A large number of organic, inorganic, or organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been employed as polymeric solid supports to promote or catalyze various organic reactions. This review article provides a concise account on our approaches involving the use of (i) al...

  20. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles

    Kuga, Maïa; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Bernard, Sylvain; Rigaudier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Tissandier, Laurent


    The formation of organic compounds is generally assumed to result from abiotic processes in the Solar System, with the exception of biogenic organics on Earth. Nitrogen-bearing organics are of particular interest, notably for prebiotic perspectives but also for overall comprehension of organic formation in the young Solar System and in planetary atmospheres. We have investigated abiotic synthesis of organics upon plasma discharge, with special attention to N isotope fractionation. Organic aerosols were synthesized from N2-CH4 and N2-CO gaseous mixtures using low-pressure plasma discharge experiments, aimed at simulating chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere and in the protosolar nebula, respectively. The nitrogen content, the N speciation and the N isotopic composition were analyzed in the resulting organic aerosols. Nitrogen is efficiently incorporated into the synthesized solids, independently of the oxidation degree, of the N2 content of the starting gas mixture, and of the nitrogen speciation in the aerosols. The aerosols are depleted in 15N by 15-25‰ relative to the initial N2 gas, whatever the experimental setup is. Such an isotopic fractionation is attributed to mass-dependent kinetic effect(s). Nitrogen isotope fractionation upon electric discharge cannot account for the large N isotope variations observed among Solar System objects and reservoirs. Extreme N isotope signatures in the Solar System are more likely the result of self-shielding during N2 photodissociation, exotic effect during photodissociation of N2 and/or low temperature ion-molecule isotope exchange. Kinetic N isotope fractionation may play a significant role in the Titan's atmosphere. On the Titan's night side, 15N-depletion resulting from electron driven reactions may counterbalance photo-induced 15N enrichments occurring on the day's side. We also suggest that the low δ15N values of Archaean organic matter (Beaumont and Robert, 1999) are partly the result of abiotic synthesis of

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu


    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  2. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles


    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  3. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S


    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update

    Hallvard Holdaas


    Full Text Available Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi’s sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

  5. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Conn, Kathleen G. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Rheingold, Arnold L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Rotkina, Lolita [Regional Nanotechnology Facility, Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter, University of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6202 (United States); Wang, Xianlong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China)


    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  6. Predictors of persistent diarrhea in norovirus enteritis after solid organ transplantation.

    Chong, Pearlie P; van Duin, David; Sonderup, Jessica L; Grant, Wendy J; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F


    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may develop protracted diarrheal illness from norovirus. We performed a retrospective chart review between January 2010 and April 2014 to identify predictors of persistent diarrhea in transplant recipients with norovirus enteritis. A total of 152 SOT recipients with mean age of 31.5 years (SD 23.1) were included: 43.4% male, 34.2% pediatric patients. Allograft types were abdominal 136 (89.5%) (kidney [39.5%], liver-small bowel [23%], other [27%]) and thoracic 16 (10.5%). The median time to diagnosis of first norovirus enteritis episode from date of transplantation was 1.7 (0.3-5.3) years. At time of presentation, diarrhea was present in 141 (93%). Thirty percent had persistent diarrhea at 2 weeks. Hospitalization was required for treatment in 121 (80%) of episodes with the mean length of stay of 10±15.2 days. Most (91%) infections were due to norovirus genogroup II, and gastrointestinal coinfections were seen in 23 (19%) norovirus enteritis episodes. Nausea at time of diagnosis (P=.002) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the preceding 90 days (P=.036) were identified as independent risk factors for persistent diarrhea using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Our study shows that nausea on presentation and prior CMV infection were associated with persistent diarrhea in patients with norovirus enteritis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is intra-abdominal hypertension a missing factor that drives multiple organ dysfunction syndrome?

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; De Waele, Jan; Laupland, Kevin


    In a recent issue of Critical Care, Cheng and colleagues conducted a rabbit model study that demonstrated that intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may damage both gut anatomy and function. With only 6 hours of IAH at 25 mmHg, these authors observed an 80% reduction in mucosal blood flow, an exponential increase in mucosal permeability, and erosion and necrosis of the jejunal villi. Such dramatic findings should remind all caring for the critically ill that IAH may severely damage the normal gut barrier functions and thus may be reasonably expected to facilitate bacterial and mediator translocation. The potential contribution of IAH as a confounding factor in the efficacy of selective decontamination of the digestive tract should be considered.

  8. Metal Organic Frameworks as Solid Catalysts in Condensation Reactions of Carbonyl Groups

    Dhakshina Moorthy, Amarajothi; Opanasenko, Maksym; Cejka, Jirí; García Gómez, Hermenegildo


    This review summarizes the use of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as solid catalysts for condensation reactions. After an introductory section, in which condensation reactions are generally presented, a list of the MOFs employed as condensation catalyst is given. The main part of the present review is organized according to the use of MOFs as solid acids, solid bases or as bi-functional solids containing both acid and basic sites. Throughout the review, the emphasis has been made on discussin...

  9. Organic solid solution composed of two structurally similar porphyrins for organic solar cells.

    Zhen, Yonggang; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Harano, Koji; Okada, Satoshi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi


    A solid solution of a 75:25 mixture of tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) and dichloroacenaphtho[q]tribenzo[b,g,l]porphyrin (CABP) forms when they are generated in a matrix of (dimethyl(o-anisyl)silylmethyl)(dimethylphenylsilylmethyl)[60]fullerene. This solid solution provides structural and optoelectronic properties entirely different from those of either pristine compounds or a mixture at other blending ratios. The use of this BP:CABP solid solution for organic solar cell (OSC) devices resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value higher by 16 and 300% than the PCE values obtained for the devices using the single donor BP and CABP, respectively, in a planar heterojunction architecture. This increase originates largely from the increase in short circuit current density, and hence by enhanced charge carrier separation at the donor/acceptor interface, which was probably caused by suitable energy level for the solid solution state, where electronic coupling between the two porphyrins occurred. The results suggest that physical and chemical modulation in solid solution is beneficial as an operationally simple method to enhance OSC performance.

  10. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Myronenko, A; Jordan, P [Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, United States. (United States)


    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto

  11. Exchange of Best Practices Within the European Union : Surgery Standardization of Abdominal Organ Retrieval

    de Graauw, J. A.; Mihaly, S.; Deme, O.; Hofker, H. S.; Baranski, A. G.; Gobee, O. P.; Krikke, C.; Fehervari, I.; Langer, R. M.; Ploeg, R. J.; Marazuela, R.; Dominguez-Gil, B.; Haase-Kromwijk, B. J. J. M.; Font-Sala, C.


    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in

  12. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos


    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  13. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Bruna Batista Padilha


    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  14. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.


    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  15. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.


    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  16. [Correlation of cytologic and pathohistologic findings in ultrasonically-guided thin-needle biopsy of abdominal and retroperitoneal organs].

    Bokun, R; Tatomirović, Z; Lakić-Trajković, Z; Lisanin, L; Pesić, V; Zica, D; Lukac, S; Kupresanin, S; Spasić, V; Ilić, S; Dimitrijević, J


    The ultrasonically guided fine needle biopsy is cheap, very sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of nonpalpable deep-seated lesions. During 1992 in the institute of Radiology of Military Medical Academy in Belgrade 87 biopsies of abdominal and 81 biopsies of retroperitoneal organs were performed for the cytological and histopathologic analysis. Deficient material was obtained in 15.4% of the cases. A good correlation between cytologic and histopathologic findings was observed, with diagnostic concordance in 90.8%. In 9 cases with falsely positive cytological diagnosis at the first examination, the diagnosis of malignancy was later confirmed by other diagnosis procedures. Diagnostic difficulties and the significance of adequate biopsy were particularly stressed.

  17. Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System in Immunocompromised Patients: HIV Infection and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Christina A. Nelson; Joseph R. Zunt


    .... Immunosuppression, due to either human immunodeficiency virus infection or solid organ transplantation, increases susceptibility for acquiring or reactivating TB and complicates the management...

  18. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C


    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  19. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C


    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, ploss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (ploss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants.

    Ramsey, G


    RBC antibodies arising from transplanted organs and directed against recipient RBCs represent a well-established immunohematologic complication of solid organ transplantation. In ABO-unmatched organs, the frequency and severity of graft antibodies and hemolysis generally increase with the size (lymphoid content) of the organ, from kidney to liver to heart-lung transplants. In the cases reviewed here, the frequency of hemolysis increased in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients and O-to-A liver transplant recipients and decreased in group AB liver transplant recipients and kidney transplant recipients receiving azathioprine or low-dose postoperative graft irradiation. Available data cannot otherwise distinguish which cyclosporine-treated recipients of ABO-unmatched kidneys and livers (30-40% of total) will develop graft antibody. There has been no conclusive effect to date of the age, race, or gender of the donor or the recipient, of cadaver versus living kidney donors, or of patients' A2 or secretor status. In a few cases of living-donor kidney grafts, the donor was the patient's mother or wife who had been exposed to the recipient's RBC antigens via pregnancy. The ABO antibodies are typically IgG, appear 7 to 10 days after transplantation, and last for about a month. If immediate-spin crossmatching is done routinely, DATs are recommended in compatibility testing after ABO-unmatched transplants. Changes in the immunosuppressive regimen, such as a change from cyclosporine therapy, have not affected the duration of these antibodies. Most patients require only transfusions for this self-limited process, but six cases of hemolysis-induced acute renal failure have been reported, and one death was attributed to complications of hemolysis. RBC or plasma exchange has been performed in a few fulminant cases. RBCs of the donor's blood type are given when antibody appears. Some workers recommend such transfusion as prophylaxis at the time of surgery, although in

  1. Exchange of best practices within the European Union: surgery standardization of abdominal organ retrieval.

    de Graauw, J A; Mihály, S; Deme, O; Hofker, H S; Baranski, A G; Gobée, O P; Krikke, C; Fehérvari, I; Langer, R M; Ploeg, R J; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Haase-Kromwijk, B J J M; Font-Sala, C


    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in procurement surgery to the quality assessment of the procured organs was implemented in 2010. This mandatory trajectory comprises training and certification modules: E-learning, training on the job, and a practical session. Thanks to the ACCORD (Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation) Joint Action coordinated by Spain and co-funded under the European Commission Health Programme, 3 twinning activities (led by France) were set to exchange best practices between countries. The Dutch trajectory is being adapted and implemented in Hungary as one of these twinning activities. The E-learning platform was modified, tested by a panel of Hungarian and UK surgeons, and was awarded in July 2013 by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education of the European Union of Medical Specialists. As a pilot phase for future national training, 6 Hungarian surgeons from Semmelweis University are being trained; E-learning platform was fulfilled, and practical sessions, training-on-the-job activities, and evaluations of technical skills are ongoing. The first national practical session was recently organized in Budapest, and the new series of nationwide selected candidates completed the E-learning platform before the practical. There is great potential for sharing best practices and for direct transfer of expertise at the European level, and especially to export this standardized training in organ retrieval to other European countries and even broader. The final goal was to not only provide a national training to all countries lacking such a program but also to improve the quality and safety criteria of organs to be transplanted.

  2. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  3. Management of Bladder Cancer following Solid Organ Transplantation

    Jeffrey J. Tomaszewski


    Full Text Available Objective. Present our experience managing bladder cancer following liver and renal transplantation. Methods. Single institution retrospective review of patients diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC following solid organ transplantation between January 1992 and December 2007. Results. Of the 2,925 renal and 2,761 liver transplant recipients reviewed, we identified eleven patients (0.2% following transplant diagnosed with BUC. Two patients with low grade T1 TCC were managed by TURBT. Three patients with CIS and one patient with T1 low grade BUC were treated by TURBT and adjuvant BCG. All four are alive and free of recurrence at a mean follow-up of 51 ± 22 months. One patient with T1 high grade BUC underwent radical cystectomy and remains disease free with a follow-up of 98 months. Muscle invasive TCC was diagnosed in four patients at a median of 3.6 years following transplantation. Two patients are recurrence free at 24 and 36 months following radical cystectomy. Urinary diversion and palliative XRT were performed in one patient with un-resectable disease. Conclusions. Bladder cancer is uncommon following renal and liver transplantation, but it can be managed successfully with local and/or extirpative therapy. The use of intravesical BCG is possible in select immunosuppressed patients.

  4. Infectious complications of antilymphocyte therapies in solid organ transplantation.

    Issa, Nicolas C; Fishman, Jay A


    Antilymphocyte therapies are widely used for immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. These agents have varied mechanisms of action, with resulting differences in the intensity and duration of immunosuppression and in associated infectious complications. Induction therapy with antithymocyte globulins is associated with a greater incidence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and BK polyomavirus infections, compared with therapy with interleukin (IL)-2a receptor antagonists. However, long-term experience with the IL-2a receptor antagonists is lacking. By contrast, the treatment of graft rejection with T cell-depleting antibodies is associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. This is likely a reflection of the intensification of immunosuppression in the treatment of graft rejection and, often, a failure to link the use of antilymphocyte agents to prophylaxis for infection. The use of T cell-depleting agents, especially in the treatment of acute graft rejection, must be linked to monitoring and risk-adjusted prophylaxis for Pneumocystis, other fungi, Epstein-Barr virus, BK polyomavirus, and cytomegalovirus infection.

  5. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F


    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  7. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... Overview The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large ...

  8. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants in relation to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by abdominal MRI.

    Roos, Vendela; Rönn, Monika; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, Lars; van Bavel, Bert; Kullberg, Joel; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Lind, P Monica


    We and others have shown relationships between circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and different measures of obesity in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Since viscerally located fat seems to be the most harmful type, we investigated whether plasma POP levels were more closely related to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Thousand hundred and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study; 23 POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, measuring VAT and SAT, respectively, was performed in a representative subsample of 287 subjects. The less chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (105 and 118), and the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trans-nonachlordane (TNC) were positively related to both VAT and SAT, whereas the more highly chlorinated PCBs (153, 156, 157, 169, 170, 180, 194, 206, and 209) were inversely related to both VAT and SAT. PCB189 was related to the VAT/SAT ratio in an inverted U-shaped manner (P = 0.0008). In conclusion, the results were in accordance with our previous studies using waist circumference and fat mass as obesity measure. However, the novel finding that PCB189 was related to the VAT/SAT ratio deserves further investigation since exposure to this PCB congener, which has previously been linked to diabetes development, might thereby play a role in the distribution of abdominal adipose tissue. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  9. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.


    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  10. Severe Spasm of the Renal Artery after Blunt Abdominal Trauma Simulating End-Organ Infarction

    Adem Ucar


    Full Text Available Traumatic occlusion of the renal artery is a serious injury. Management differs according to the grade of injury. In most circumstances, emergency surgical revascularization or endovascular intervention is required. We describe the case of a child with multiorgan injuries and spasm of the main renal artery after blunt trauma simulating arterial occlusion or end-organ infarction.

  11. Near-infrared monitoring of perfusion and oxygen availability in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle during hypoxia

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Vari, Sandor G.; Marcu, Laura; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Pergadia, Vani R.; Snyder, Wendy J.; Grundfest, Warren S.


    Near-IR spectroscopy was used to quantify blood content and oxygenation dynamics in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle of 18 anesthetized rabbits during hypoxic hypoxia. Liver, kidney, and hindlimb muscle were exposed surgically. Laser diode pulses transmitted across the tissues were detected by means of a photomultiplier. The amount and redox level of tissue hemoglobin were estimated from the near-IR signals and monitored during 5- min-long hypoxic challenges and subsequent recovery periods. In the kidney, exposure to 10% FiO2 resulted in rapid and symmetrical changes in oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin with 50% of the variations occurring within 1 min and a plateau after 3 min. Total hemoglobin did not change and hemoglobin oxygenation returned to baseline within 1 min of hypoxia cessation. Exposure to 6% FiO2 doubled the decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and induced a sustained vasoconstriction which decreased total hemoglobin content 2 min after initiation of hypoxia. Comparable patterns were observed in the liver and skeletal muscle with the following exceptions: local vasoconstriction was generally not observed at 6% FiO2, return to baseline oxygen availability was much slower in skeletal muscle than in the other organs.

  12. Abdominal pediatric cancer surveillance using serial computed tomography: evaluation of organ absorbed dose and effective dose.

    Lam, Diana; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; McGahan, John P; Stern, Robin; Boone, John M


    Computed tomography (CT) is used extensively in cancer diagnosis, staging, evaluation of response to treatment, and in active surveillance for cancer reoccurrence. A review of CT technology is provided, at a level of detail appropriate for a busy clinician to review. The basis of x-ray CT dosimetry is also discussed, and concepts of absorbed dose and effective dose (ED) are distinguished. Absorbed dose is a physical quantity (measured in milligray [mGy]) equal to the x-ray energy deposited in a mass of tissue, whereas ED uses an organ-specific weighting method that converts organ doses to ED measured in millisieverts (mSv). The organ weighting values carry with them a measure of radiation risk, and so ED (in mSv) is not a physical dose metric but rather is one that conveys radiation risk. The use of CT in a cancer surveillance protocol was used as an example of a pediatric patient who had kidney cancer, with surgery and radiation therapy. The active use of CT for cancer surveillance along with diagnostic CT scans led to a total of 50 CT scans performed on this child in a 7-year period. It was estimated that the patient received an average organ dose of 431 mGy from these CT scans. By comparison, the radiation therapy was performed and delivered 50.4 Gy to the patient's abdomen. Thus, the total dose from CT represented only 0.8% of the patient's radiation dose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van der Waals Solid for Tunable Light-Matter Interactions.

    Niu, Lin; Liu, Xinfeng; Cong, Chunxiao; Wu, Chunyang; Wu, Di; Chang, Tay Rong; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Wang, Xingli; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Fu, Qundong; Najmaei, Sina; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I; Tay, Beng Kang; Zhou, Wu; Jeng, Horng Tay; Lin, Hsin; Sum, Tze Chien; Jin, Chuanhong; He, Haiyong; Yu, Ting; Liu, Zheng


    High-quality organic and inorganic van der Waals (vdW) solids are realized using methylammonium lead halide (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D inorganic monolayers as counterparts. By stacking on various 2D monolayers, the vdW solids exhibit dramatically different light emissions. Futhermore, organic/h-BN vdW solid arrays are patterned for red-light emission. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto


    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  15. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt


    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  16. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C


    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels wou

  17. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  18. Food safety for the solid organ transplant patient: preventing foodborne illness while on chronic immunosuppressive drugs.

    Obayashi, Patricia A C


    Issues regarding food safety are seen increasingly in the news; outbreaks of foodborne illness have been associated with public health concerns ranging from mild illness to death. For the solid organ transplant patient, immunosuppressive and antibacterial drugs, which maintain transplant organ function, can expose the transplant patient to increased risk of foodborne illness from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This review article describes the clinical consequences, sources of foodborne illness, and food safety practices needed to minimize risks to the solid organ transplant patient who must take lifelong immunosuppressive drugs. All members of the transplant team share responsibility for education of the solid organ transplant patient in preventing infections. The registered dietitian, as part of the transplant team, is the recognized expert in providing food safety education in the context of medical nutrition therapy to solid organ transplant patients, the patients' caregivers, and other healthcare providers.

  19. Parametric Evaluation of Digestability of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste for Biogas Production

    Monoj Kumar Mondal


    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste was collected from Varanasi’s municipal solid waste dumpsite and sorted for organic fraction present in it. Current work showed the consequences of calcium hydroxide or lime digestion on organic fraction of municipal solid waste of Varanasi, India. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste sample was digested with desired amount of calcium hydroxide. The different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 % of calcium hydroxide was blended separately to substrates (10 % total solid at 30-35 ºC in 3 different beakers denoted by A1, A2 and A3, respectively of 2 L capacity. Experiments of hydrolysis step were conducted on all three samples for evaluation of chemical oxygen demand, pH and volatile fatty acids content in sample. The parameters measured during experiments were chemical oxygen demand, biogas production, total solid, volatile solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon. Rate enhancement of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were occurred for calcium hydroxide digested samples. Therefore calcium hydroxide can be used as an effective alkali for the digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  20. Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Lind, Lars; Jacobs, David R; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica


    In animal experiments, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have induced visceral obesity. To address this possibility in humans, we evaluated associations between POPs and abdominal obesity both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Twenty-one plasma POPs (16 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE), and 1 dioxin) were measured at baseline in 970 participants aged 70 years of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), with prospective analyses in 511 participants re-examined after 5 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by an increased waist circumference. In the cross-sectional analyses, concentrations of the less chlorinated PCBs, OC pesticides such as p,p'-DDE and dioxin had adjusted odds ratios of 2 to 3 for abdominal obesity. Many relations had inverted U-shapes rather than being linear, particularly in women. In contrast, concentrations of highly chlorinated PCBs were strongly inversely associated with abdominal obesity. In a single model including summary measures of the less chlorinated PCBs, highly chlorinated PCBs, and OC pesticides, both the positive associations and inverse associations strengthened. Similar but somewhat weaker associations were seen between POPs and risk of development of abdominal obesity in the prospective analyses. Using both a cross-sectional and a prospective design, low-dose exposure to less chlorinated PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and dioxin, were associated with existence or development of abdominal obesity, while highly chlorinated PCBs had an opposite association in an elderly population, despite the previous observation of higher incident diabetes associated with these same PCBs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms.

    Domene, Xavier; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar


    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids.

  2. [Combustion temperature measurement of solid propellant and the effect of organic compound on combustion temperature].

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Li, Yan; Chen, Zuo-ru; Wang, Jun-de


    The FTIR emission spectra in the spectral range of 4,500-300 cm-1 for the solid propellants were measured by a remote sensing FTIR system. The P-branch of fine structure of HCl fundamental band lying at 3.46 microns was used for precise combustion temperature measurement of the solid propellant. The effect of the organic compound in the solid propellant on the combustion temperature was discussed.

  3. Diagnostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT evaluating solid pancreatic lesions versus endosonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with intraductal ultrasonography and abdominal ultrasound

    Schick, Verena; Beyna, Torsten; Schnekenburger, Juergen; Domschke, Wolfram [Muenster University Hospital, Department of Medicine B, Muenster (Germany); Franzius, Christiane; Weckesser, Matthias; Schober, Otmar [Muenster University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Oei, May Lin; Heindel, Walter; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Muenster University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Pohle, Thorsten [Muenster University Hospital, Department of Medicine B, Muenster (Germany); Herford Klinikum - Academic Teaching Hospital, Department of Medicine I, Herford (Germany)


    This prospective single-centre phase II trial assessed the diagnostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT in the evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions ({>=}10 mm) compared to endosonography (EUS), endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) with intraductal ultrasound (IDUS), abdominal ultrasound (US) and histopathological reference. Forty-six patients (32 men/14 women, 61.7 years) with suspected pancreatic neoplasms underwent PET-CT with contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector CT of the upper abdomen followed by a diagnostic work-up with EUS, ERCP with IDUS and US within 3 weeks. PET-CT data sets were analysed by two expert readers in a consensus reading. Histology from surgery, biopsy/fine-needle aspiration and/or clinical follow-up {>=}12 months served as standard of reference. Twenty-seven pancreatic malignancies were histopathologically proven; 19 patients had benign diseases: 36/46 lesions (78%) were detected in the head of the pancreas, 7/46 and 3/46 in the body and tail region, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT were 89% and 74%, respectively; positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 83% and 82%, respectively. Sensitivity (81-89%), specificity (74-88%), PPV (83-90%) and NPV (77-82%) achieved by EUS, ERCP and US were not significantly different. PET analysis revealed significantly higher maximum mean standardised uptake values (SUV{sub max}6.5{+-}4.6) in patients with pancreatic malignancy (benign lesions: SUV{sub max}4.2{+-}1.5; p<0.05). PET-CT revealed cervical lymphonodal metastasis from occult bronchogenic carcinoma and a tubular colon adenoma with intermediate dysplasia on polypectomy, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT achieves a comparably high diagnostic impact evaluating small solid pancreatic lesions versus conventional reference imaging modalities. Additional clinical diagnoses are derived from concomitant whole-body PET-CT imaging. (orig.)

  4. Objective evaluation of the correction by non-rigid registration of abdominal organ motion in low-dose 4D dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    Piper, Jim; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; O'Neil, Alison; Poole, Ian


    We objectively evaluate a straightforward registration method for correcting respiration-induced movement of abdominal organs in CT perfusion studies by measuring the distributions of alignment errors between corresponding landmark pairs. We introduce the concept and describe the advantages of using the surface-normal component of distance between pairs of corresponding landmarks selected so that their surface normal is in one of the three coordinate axis directions, and show that such landmarks can be precisely placed with respect to the surface normal. Using a large population of landmark pairs on a substantial quantity of 4D dynamic contrast-enhanced CT volume data, we quantify the average alignment errors of abdominal organs that remain uncorrected by registration.

  5. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Brummeler, ten E.


    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- c

  6. An acid-stable tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker for solid-phase organic synthesis.

    Diblasi, Christine M; Macks, Daniel E; Tan, Derek S


    [reaction: see text] A new, robust tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker has been developed for solid-phase organic synthesis. This linker is stable to both protic and Lewis acidic reaction conditions, overcoming a significant limitation of previously reported silyl linkers. Solid-phase acetal deprotection, olefination, asymmetric allylation, and silyl protecting group deblocking reactions have been demonstrated with TBDAS-linked substrates.

  7. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    Maverick, Andrew W


    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  8. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    ten Brummeler, E.


    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIO

  9. A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R.


    An experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory that involves a template-controlled solid-state reaction is described. The experiment utilizes a template to direct the assembly of an olefin in the solid state that undergoes a [2 + 2] photodimerization.

  10. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Brummeler, ten E.


    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  11. Retinal changes in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Teixeira, Sergio Henrique; Hirai, Luis Gustavo Gondo; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro


    To evaluate retinal changes in patients who underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients evaluated from February 2009 to December 2016. All patients included underwent funduscopy. Clinical and demographic data regarding transplantation and ophthalmological changes were collected. A total of 126 patients were analyzed; of these, 108 underwent transplantation and 18 were in the waiting list. Transplantation modalities were heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, combined pancreas and kidney and bone marrow transplantation. The main pre-transplantation comorbidities were diabetes and arterial hypertension. Of the 108 transplanted patients, 82 (76%) had retinal changes. All patients who underwent pancreas or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation had diabetic retinopathy. The main retinal changes found were diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, chorioretinal infections and central serous chorioretinopathy. Retinal changes were either related to preexisting conditions, mainly diabetic retinopathy, or developed postoperatively as a complication of the surgical procedure, or as an infection related to the immunosuppressive status, or due to drug toxicity. These patients may present with complex ophthalmological changes and should be carefully evaluated prior to surgery and further followed by an ophthalmologist skilled in the management of diabetic retinopathy and posterior pole infections. Analisar as alterações retinianas de pacientes submetidos a transplantes de órgãos sólidos ou de medula óssea. Análise de prontuário dos pacientes avaliados no período de fevereiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2016. Todos os pacientes incluídos foram submetidos à avaliação fundoscópica. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos, referentes ao transplante e às alterações oftalmológicas encontradas. Foram avaliados 126 pacientes, sendo 108 submetidos a transplantes

  12. Comparative study on clinical and evolutionary aspects of children with abdominal trauma in intensive therapy unity

    Sapolnik, Roberto; Vieira, Camilo; Rocha, Isa; Mota, Larissa; Chaves,Marta; Torreão,Lara de Araújo; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues


    p. 139-145 Abdominal trauma by accidents may induce life risk, because of the bleeding of solid organs or the development of sepsis due to perforation of empty viscera. Spleen and liver lesions in children are more frequent. The aim was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with abdominal trauma. A retrospective study was conducted in a general hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. This retrospective profile study with collected data describes the...

  13. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A


    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  14. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T


    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  15. Generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Molnar, Amber O; Fergusson, Dean; Tsampalieros, Anne K.; Bennett, Alexandria; Fergusson, Nicholas; Ramsay, Timothy; Knoll, Greg A.


    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and bioequivalence of generic immunosuppressive drugs in patients with solid organ transplants. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies comparing generic with innovator immunosuppressive drugs. Data sources Medline and Embase from 1980 to September 2014. Review methods A literature search was performed for all studies comparing a generic to an innovator immunosuppressive drug in solid organ transplantation. Two reviewers independent...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  17. Abdominal organs (image)

    ... mixes the food and begins the breakdown of proteins. The stomach propels the food then into the small intestine. The small intestine further digests food and begins the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the pancreas in the ...

  18. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manures has been proposed as a process with twofold advantage. The production of biogas, a renewable source of energy, and the treatment of animal manures to increase their agronomic value and reduce their environmental impact. However, the residual of anaerobic...... velocity during thermal treatment influence the evaporation rate of water from the manure solids. At the same time, they also influence the ammonia emission rates, Lowering manure pH (controlling the NH4+ - NH3 equilibrium) can potentially reduce the loss rate. Furthermore, the changes occurring...... digestate nitrogen content (Paper I), ii) determine their C and N dynamics after soil incorporation (Paper II) and iii) assess the plant N and P uptake of ryegrass amended with different thermochemical treatments of the solids (Paper III). For a more mechanistic understanding of the processes involved...

  19. Composting Assessment for Organic Solid Waste at Fort Polk, Louisiana


    disadvantage is that the compost would not be available for use at Ft. Polk. 7.1.2 Partnerships with Local Communities Ms. Lorna Hanes is the Ft...Ecosystem biomass , carbon, and nitrogen five years after restoration with municipal solid waste. Agronomy Journal 104:1305-1311. Watts, D. B., F. J...are capable of decomposing into carbon dioxide, methane, water and inorganic compounds or biomass in which the primary mechanism is the enzymatic

  20. Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Different process strategies for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) are reviewed weighing high-solids versus low-solids, mesophilic versus thermophilic and single-stage versus multi-stage processes. The influence of different waste characteristics......-stage systems show in some investigations a higher reduction of recalcitrant organic matter compared to single-stage systems, but they are seldom applied in full-scale. An extended cost benefit calculation shows that the highest overall benefit of the process is achieved at an OLR that is lower and a hydraulic...

  1. Solid-State Fermentation as a Novel Paradigm for Organic Waste Valorization: A Review

    Noraziah Abu Yazid


    Full Text Available The abundance of organic solid waste throughout the world has become a common issue that needs complete management at every level. Also, the scarcity of fuel and the competition between food and substance as an alternative to a petroleum-based product has become a major problem that needs to be properly handled. An urge to find renewable substances for sustainable development results in a strategy to valorize organic solid waste using solid state fermentation (SSF and to manage the issue of solid wastes in a green approach. This paper reviews management of solid wastes using SSF, with regard to its current application, advantages and challenges, downstream processing in SSF, economic viewpoint, and future perspectives.

  2. Positioning Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation within the Spectrum of Solid Organ Transplantation


    within the Spectrum of Solid Organ Transplantation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christina L. Kaufman PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Kleinert...up for hand transplant recipients that are not covered by insurance. Organization Name: Kleinert Kutz Hand Care Center Location of Organization ...Spectrum of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER the Spectrum of Transplantation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0057 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Catalysis: Some Recent Strategies Using Alumina, Silica, and Polyionic Resins

    Basudeb Basu


    Full Text Available Solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS and catalysis have gained impetus after the seminal discovery of Merrifield’s solid-phase peptide synthesis and also because of wide applicability in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry. A large number of organic, inorganic, or organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been employed as polymeric solid supports to promote or catalyze various organic reactions. This review article provides a concise account on our approaches involving the use of (i alumina or silica, either having doped with metal salts or directly, and (ii polyionic resins to either promote various organic reactions or to immobilize reagents/metal catalysts for subsequent use in hydrogenation and cross-coupling reactions. The reaction parameters, scopes, and limitations, particularly in the context of green chemistry, have been highlighted with pertinent approaches by other groups.

  4. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A


    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  5. Sorption of toxic organic compounds on wastewater solids: Mechanism and modeling

    Wang, L.; Govind, R.; Dobbs, R.A.


    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on wastewater solids is an important process in conventional biological wastewater treatment systems. The extent of accumulation of toxic organic compounds by sorption onto wastewater solids not only affects the efficiency of the treatment system, but also impacts the management of wastewater solids. The study is an attempt to propose a mechanism for understanding the sorption phenomenon and to develop a model for sorption on wastewater solids based on the proposed mechanism. It was postulated that sorption was a combination of two processes: adsorption and partitioning. A sorption model was developed for both single component and multicomponent systems. The model was tested using single component experimental isotherm data of eight toxic organic compounds.

  6. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis


    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics.

  7. Model of sustainable utilization of organic solids waste in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Solanyi Castañeda Torres


    Full Text Available Introduction: This article considers a proposal of a model of use of organic solids waste for the department of Cundinamarca, which responds to the need for a tool to support decision-making for the planning and management of organic solids waste. Objective: To perform an approximation of a conceptual technical and mathematician optimization model to support decision-making in order to minimize environmental impacts. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was applied due to the fact that some fundamental characteristics of the studied homogeneous phenomenon are presented and it is also considered to be quasi experimental. The calculation of the model for plants of the department is based on three axes (environmental, economic and social, that are present in the general equation of optimization. Results: A model of harnessing organic solids waste in the techniques of biological treatment of composting aerobic and worm cultivation is obtained, optimizing the system with the emissions savings of greenhouse gases spread into the atmosphere, and in the reduction of the overall cost of final disposal of organic solids waste in sanitary landfill. Based on the economic principle of utility that determines the environmental feasibility and sustainability in the plants of harnessing organic solids waste to the department, organic fertilizers such as compost and humus capture carbon and nitrogen that reduce the tons of CO2.

  8. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim


    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.

  9. Abdominal pain

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  10. Abdominal actinomycosis.

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Mohren, B; Naber, K G; Männl, H F K


    Intra-abdominal and extraperitoneal actinomycosis are rare infections, caused by different Actinomyces species. However, they have been diagnosed more frequently in the last ten years. We report three cases of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review of the last eight years. All three patients were diagnosed by means of histopathologic examination only. In one case, an intrauterine device (IUD) was associated with the infection. Therapy consisted of surgical resection of the inflammatory, infected tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. All patients are free of recurrence. Abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal pathology of insidious onset, especially when an IUD is in place. Even when infection had spread extensively, combined operative and antibiotic therapy cured most of the cases.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of the shredded organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Traverso, P.G.; Cecchi, Franco


    Anaerobic digestion of the shredded organic fraction of municipal solid waste has been investigated in a pilot-scale completely mixed digester, under mesophilic conditions. Detailed comparisons of the size distributions of the particles in the feed and in the digester effluent are reported under varying organic loading rates and hydraulic retention times. About 20% of the particulate matter in the organic feed is refractory and resists hydrolysis. Hence the maximum removal of total volatile solids attainable under hydraulic retention times of practical interest is about 70%. The optimum hydraulic retention time is around 14 to 15 days.

  12. Solid organ transplantation: the Italian experience in the international context.

    Nanni Costa, A; De Cillia, C; Di Ciaccio, P; Rizzato, L; Venettoni, S


    The Italian experience in the organization of transplantation procedures could represent a relevant example of an internal development at a national level, combined with a strengthening of international collaborations. These results can be attributed first to the creation of the Italian National Transplant Centre (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]), and then to an ongoing European process that is leading to a greater awareness of the importance of closer collaboration between the organizations already existing and operating in the field of transplantation. This article summarizes the role and the most significant achievements of the CNT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Solid organ transplants following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in children.

    Bunin, Nancy; Guzikowski, Virginia; Rand, Elizabeth R; Goldfarb, Samuel; Baluarte, Jorge; Meyers, Kevin; Olthoff, Kim M


    SOT may be indicated for a select group of pediatric patients who experience permanent organ failure following HSCT. However, there is limited information available about outcomes. We identified eight children at our center who received an SOT following an HSCT. Patients were six months to 18 yr at HSCT. Diseases for which children underwent HSCT included thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Shwachman-Diamond/bone marrow failure, sickle cell disease (SCD), erythropoietic porphyria (EP), ALL, chronic granulomatous disease, and neuroblastoma. Time from HSCT to SOT was 13 days to seven yr (median, 27 months. Lung SOT was performed for two patients with BO, kidney transplants for three patients, and liver transplants for three patients (VOD, chronic GVHD). Seven patients are alive with functioning allografts 6-180 months from SOT. Advances in organ procurement, operative technique, immunosuppressant therapy, and infection control may allow SOT for a select group of patients post-HSCT. However, scarcity of donor organs available in a timely fashion continues to be a limiting factor. Children who have undergone HSCT and develop single organ failure should be considered for an SOT if there is a high likelihood of cure of the primary disease.

  14. Ceria-based solid catalysts for organic chemistry.

    Vivier, Laurence; Duprez, Daniel


    Ceria has been the subject of thorough investigations, mainly because of its use as an active component of catalytic converters for the treatment of exhaust gases. However, ceria-based catalysts have also been developed for different applications in organic chemistry. The redox and acid-base properties of ceria, either alone or in the presence of transition metals, are important parameters that allow to activate complex organic molecules and to selectively orient their transformation. Pure ceria is used in several organic reactions, such as the dehydration of alcohols, the alkylation of aromatic compounds, ketone formation, and aldolization, and in redox reactions. Ceria-supported metal catalysts allow the hydrogenation of many unsaturated compounds. They can also be used for coupling or ring-opening reactions. Cerium atoms can be added as dopants to catalytic system or impregnated onto zeolites and mesoporous catalyst materials to improve their performances. This Review demonstrates that the exceptional surface (and sometimes bulk) properties of ceria make cerium-based catalysts very effective for a broad range of organic reactions.

  15. Superconductivity in an Organic Solid at Zero Pressure

    Bechgaard, Klaus; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Jacobsen, C.S.;


    Resistance measurements in the organic conductor (TMTSF)2C104 have given evidence of superconductivity in the absence of applied pressure. Transition temperatures were between 1.2 and 1.4 K for different crystals. A transverse magnetic field of 25 mT nearly restores normal resistance at 0.9 K...




    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at advanced diagnostics and institute of imaging , Amritsar. The study comprised of 50 patients who were stable enough to undergo both US and CT scans.US was preceded by MSCT in most of the patients and the time gap between the imaging modalities was less than 1 hour to make the study comparable. TECHNIQUES ADOPTED : 1. US was performed on Versa plus (Siemens and Xario (Toshiba with Cardiac , 3.5 - 5 Mhz - Convex and 5 - 7.5 Mhz - Line ar probes. Particular attention was paid to the amount of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. 2. MSCT was performed with MSCT Volume Zoom (Siemens Forchheim Germany AG. 500 - 1000cc of water orally or through nasogastric tube was given 15 - 20 minutes before the study , followed by 120cc I/V contrast at the rate of 2 - 3ml/second using power injector. Parameters used: Single breath hold ; A. 165 mAs . B. 120 kvp . C. Scan delay - 40 seconds . D. Collimation - 4x2.5mm . E. Pitch - 5mm . Following findings were observed : a. Presence of peritoneal fluid. B. Any tear or hematoma in the solid abdominal organs like spleen and liver. C. Status of hollow viscera like small bowel , large bowel and urinary bladder. Hemoperitoneum was scored on both US and MSCT. Visceral injuries were graded according to O.I.S grading system. Score was correlated with the underlying organ injury and the management of the patient. US scoring (Table A and MSCT quantification of hemoperitoneum was done. (Table B Location of hemoperitoneum . A

  17. From Polymer to Small Organic Molecules: A Tight Relationship between Radical Chemistry and Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis

    Danilo Mirizzi


    Full Text Available Since Gomberg’s discovery of radicals as chemical entities, the interest around them has increased through the years. Nowadays, radical chemistry is used in the synthesis of 75% of all polymers, inevitably establishing a close relationship with Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis. More recently, the interest of organic chemists has shifted towards the application of usual “in-solution” radical chemistry to the solid-phase, ranging from the use of supported reagents for radical reactions, to the development of methodologies for the synthesis of small molecules or potential libraries. The aim of this review is to put in perspective radical chemistry, moving it away from its origin as a synthetic means for solid supports, to becoming a useful tool for the synthesis of small molecules.

  18. From polymer to small organic molecules: a tight relationship between radical chemistry and solid-phase organic synthesis.

    Mirizzi, Danilo; Pulici, Maurizio


    Since Gomberg's discovery of radicals as chemical entities, the interest around them has increased through the years. Nowadays, radical chemistry is used in the synthesis of 75% of all polymers, inevitably establishing a close relationship with Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis. More recently, the interest of organic chemists has shifted towards the application of usual "in-solution" radical chemistry to the solid-phase, ranging from the use of supported reagents for radical reactions, to the development of methodologies for the synthesis of small molecules or potential libraries. The aim of this review is to put in perspective radical chemistry, moving it away from its origin as a synthetic means for solid supports, to becoming a useful tool for the synthesis of small molecules.

  19. 供体腹部器官簇的切取及血管分配策略%Harvesting and trimming strategies of abdominal organ cluster

    蔡金贞; 魏林; 崔子林; 褚志强; 沈中阳; 朱志军; 郑虹; 邓永林; 潘澄; 张玮晔; 郭庆军; 冯钢; 田大志


    Objective To investigate the harvesting, trimming and allocation stratgies of abdomined organ cluster including liver, kidney, small intestine, pancreas, spleen etc. Methods Abdominal organ cluster were harvested by abdominal aorta perfusion with or without portal vein/perfusion in 13 cases of donor, and 23 cases of recipients were treated by organ transplantation operation according to their disease. Results 13 cases of abdominal organ cluster were harvested. In 6 cases of abdominal organ clusters: 3 cases successfully liver transplantation were performed, and the small intestine was used for experimental research, one case was performed liver and intestine transplantation respectively; one case was scheduled for liver and small intestine combined transplantation, during operation portal vein bypass was adopted and intestine was abandoned. The other one was scheduled for liver, duodenum and pancreas combined transplantation, but has been cancelled because of the complexity of the operation. The other organ clusters of 7 cases were used for liver transplantation and pancreas-kidney combined transplantation, the 8 cases of liver transplantation were all recovered after operation. Two patients pancreatectomy were performed because of intestinal fistula and bleeding in the 7 cases of combined pancreas and renal transplantation. Conclusion Reasonable harvesting and trimming strategies of abdominal organ cluster can safely make fill] use of the limited donor resources.%[目的]探讨器官移植中供体肝、肾、小肠、胰腺、脾等腹部器官簇的切取、修整及分配策略.[方法]13例供者通过原位腹主动脉灌注、联合肠系膜下静脉或肝门部门 静脉灌注插管或单纯腹主动脉插管,进行腹部器官簇(肝胰脾肾小肠)切取,并分别对23例受者进行器官移植手术.[结果]完成13例供体腹部器官簇切取.6例为包含小肠的腹部器官簇,其中3例肝脏成功地应用于肝移

  20. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others


    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    Martín Esteban, A.


    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  2. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.


    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  3. Photo-physical Characterisation of Novel Organic Dye-doped Solid-state Laser Materials

    A.Penzkofer; A.Tyagi; T.Susdorf; D.del; Agua; O.García; R.Sastre; A.Costela; I.García-Moreno


    1 Results The development of tuneable solid-state organic dye lasers is a subject of considerable interest and research activity.Compared to conventional liquid dye lasers they have the advantage of being free of solvent handling,having small size,and being easy to operate.For high-performance solid-state dye lasers highly photo-stable dyes with low quantum yield of triplet formation and low triplet-triplet absorption cross-section in the lasing wavelength region are required.For solid state dye lasers ...

  4. "Occult" rib fractures diagnosed on computed tomography scan only are still a risk factor for solid organ injury.

    Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Fieber, Jennifer; Schuster, Kevin; Davis, Kimberly; Maung, Adrian


    Prior to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) scan imaging, lower rib fractures diagnosed on chest X-rays (CXRs) were considered a risk factor for abdominal solid organ injury (ASOI). However, CXRs miss about 50% of the rib fractures that are detected on CT scans. We hypothesized that these "occult" rib fractures would not be predictive for ASOI. Retrospective review of a level I trauma center's database identified all adult blunt trauma patients (n = 11,170) over a 5-year period. Data were abstracted for demographics, injury severity score, presence of ASOI, extremity, pelvic and spine fractures as well as presence and location of rib fractures. Rib fractures correlated with the presence of ASOI, regardless of whether they were diagnosed by CXR or CT scan alone (P rib fractures, especially, correlated with the presence of ipsilateral ASOI (P rib fractures than CXR, rib fractures remain a marker for increased likelihood of ASOI regardless of the modality by which they are diagnosed. Patients with rib fractures also have a greater incidence of spine and pelvic fractures. As the trauma community debates moving away from routine whole-body CT imaging towards a more selective approach, these results suggest that any clinical suspicion of rib fractures, despite a negative CXR, may warrant further investigation.

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  6. Penetrating abdominal trauma


    inal trauma (PAT) in our area, and to try to identify a pattern of organ-specific injury ... laparotomy due to persistent abdominal pain, after a period of observation of about .... in the ini- tial assessment who turned out to be free of visceral injuries.

  7. Effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on blood flow vol-ume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hem-orrhagic shock and liver impact injuries

    ZHANG Lian-yang; ZHAO Song; LI Yong; MA Xiao-lin


    Objective: To investigate the effects of CO2 pneumo-peritoneum on blood flow volume of abdominal organs of rabbits with controlled hemorrhagic shock model and liver impact injuries.Methods: After controlled hemorrhagic shock and liver impact injuries, the rabbit model was established. Eighteen rabbits subjected to hemorrhagic shock and liver impact inju-ries were divided into 3 groups randomly according to the volume of lost blood: light hemorrhagic shock (blood loss volume was 10%, 6 ml/kg), moderate hemorrhagic shock (20%, 12 ml/kg) and severe hemorrhagic shock (40%, 22 ml/kg). Intraabdominal pressures of CO2 pneumoperitoneum was 10 mmHg. Color-labeled microspheres were used to mea-sure the blood flow volume of the liver, kidney and stomach before pneumoperitoneum at 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum and 30 minutes after deflation. And the mortality and hepatic traumatic condition of rabbits were recorded.Results: Of the 18 rabbits, there were 9 with liver impact injuries at Grade Ⅰ, 8 at Grade Ⅱ and Ⅰ at Grade Ⅲ (according to AIS-2005). The mortality rate in light hemorrhagic shock group was 33.33%, and that in moderate or severe hemor-rhagic shock group was 100% within 30 minutes and 2 hours after pneumoperitoneum, respectively. The blood flow vol-ume in the organs detected decreased at 30 minutes under pneumoperitoneum in light and moderate hemorrhagic shock groups. At the same time, the blood flow volume of the liver in moderate hemorrhagic shock group decreased more sig-nificantly than that in light hemorrhagic shock group.Conclusions: The blood flow volume of abdominal organs in rabbits is decreased obviously under CO2 pneumoperitoneum, with fairly high mortality rate. It is be-lieved that CO2 pneumoperitoneum should cautiously be used in abdominal injury accompanied with hemorrhagic shock, especially under non-resuscitation conditions.

  8. Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells

    Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.


    Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

  9. Solid- and solution-phase organics dictate copper distribution and speciation in multicomponent systems containing ferrihydrite, organic matter, and montmorillonite.

    Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid


    Copper retention by ferrihydrite, leaf compost, and montmorillonite was studied over 8 months in systems that emulate a natural soil where different solid phases compete for Cu through a common solution in a compartmentalized batch reactor. Copper speciation in solution (total dissolved, DPASV-labile, and free) and exchangeable and total Cu in individual solid phases were determined. Organic carbon in solution (DOC) and that retained by the mineral phases were also determined. Cu sorption reached steady-state after 4 months and accounted for 80% of the Cu initially added to the system (0.15 mg L(-1)). The remaining 20% stayed in solution as nonlabile (82.8%), labile (17%), and free (0.2%) Cu species. Copper sorption followed the order organic matter > silicate clays > iron oxides. Within each solid phase, exchangeable Cu was < or = 10% of the total Cu sorbed. DOC reached steady state (22 mg L(-1)) after 4 months and seemed to control Cu solubility and sorption behavior by the formation of soluble Cu-DOC complexes and by sorbing onto the mineral phases. DOC sorption onto ferrihydrite prevented Cu retention by this solid phase. Using a multicomponent system and 8 months equilibrations, we were able to capture some of the more important aspects of the complexity of soil environments bytaking into account diffusion processes and competition among solid- and solution-phase soil constituents in the retention of a metal cation.

  10. [The diagnosis of the types of automobile-caused trauma by the nature of the injuries to the internal abdominal organs].

    Solokhin, A A; Tkhakakhov, A A


    A total of 307 cases of fatal car injuries with traumas of the abdominal organs are analyzed. There were three types of injuries: those caused by collision of a pedestrian with a moving car (96 cases) injuries inflicted inside a car cabin (n = 157), and inflicted by a car wheel crossing the body (n = 54). Differences in the injuries inflicted in different types of car traumas are described. The authors demonstrate the possibility of differential diagnosis of these types of traumas in cases when the circumstances of the accident are unknown. They offer a differential diagnostic table for practical use, based on their findings.

  11. In-Vitro Characterization and Oral Bioavailability of Organic Solvent-free Solid Dispersions Containing Telmisartan

    Cao, Yue; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Qing-Ri


    Poorly water-soluble drugs often suffer from limited or irreproducible clinical response due to their low solubility and dissolution rate. In this study, organic solvent-free solid dispersions (OSF-SDs) containing telmisartan (TEL) were prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) and polyet......Poorly water-soluble drugs often suffer from limited or irreproducible clinical response due to their low solubility and dissolution rate. In this study, organic solvent-free solid dispersions (OSF-SDs) containing telmisartan (TEL) were prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30...

  12. Abdominal Sepsis.

    De Waele, Jan J


    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  13. A case report: Giant intra-abdominal liposarcoma presenting acute renal failure

    Kazim Duman


    Conclusion: A detailed history should be obtained other abdominal solid organs should also be considered while performing a careful physical examination, the amount of urinary output in particular should be questioned and this sytemic questioning should be supported by specific laboratory tests.

  14. Similar Device Architectures for Inverted Organic Solar Cell and Laminated Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Ishwor Khatri; Jianfeng Bao; Naoki Kishi; Tetsuo Soga


    Here, we examine the device architecture of two different types of solar cells mainly inverted organic solar cells and solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use organic materials as hole transportation. The inverted organic solar cells structure is dominated by work on titanium dioxide ( T i O 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO). These layers are sensitized with dye in solid state DSSCs. Because of the similar device architecture, it becomes possible to fabricate laminated solid-state DSSC...

  15. Similar Device Architectures for Inverted Organic Solar Cell and Laminated Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Ishwor Khatri; Jianfeng Bao; Naoki Kishi; Tetsuo Soga


    Here, we examine the device architecture of two different types of solar cells mainly inverted organic solar cells and solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use organic materials as hole transportation. The inverted organic solar cells structure is dominated by work on titanium dioxide ( T i O 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO). These layers are sensitized with dye in solid state DSSCs. Because of the similar device architecture, it becomes possible to fabricate laminated solid-state DSSC...

  16. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    Mhibik, Oussama; Forget, Sébastien; Defranoux, Christophe; Sanaur, Sébastien


    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically-emitting thin-film organic lasers, and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 uJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several um thicknesses are realized thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm-1 at 550-680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size " printed pixels " of 50 mm 2 present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50um x 50um AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet pri...

  17. HLA Mismatching Strategies for Solid Organ Transplantation - a Balancing Act

    Andrea A. Zachary


    Full Text Available HLA matching provides numerous benefits in organ transplantation including better graft function, fewer rejection episodes, longer graft survival, and the possibility of reduced immunosuppression. Mismatches are attended by more frequent rejection episodes that require increased immunosuppression that, in turn, can increase the risk of infection and malignancy. HLA mismatches also incur the risk of sensitization, which can reduce the opportunity and increase waiting time for a subsequent transplant. However, other factors such as donor age, donor type, and immunosuppression protocol, can affect the benefit derived from matching. Further, finding a well matched donor may not be possible for all patients and usually prolongs waiting time. Strategies to optimize transplantation for patients without a well matched donor should take into account the immunologic barrier represented by different mismatches: what are the least immunogenic mismatches considering the patient’s HLA phenotype; should repeated mismatches be avoided; is the patient sensitized to HLA and, if so, what are the strengths of the patient’s antibodies? This information can then be used to define the HLA type of an immunologically optimal donor and the probability of such a donor occurring. A probability that is considered to be too low, may require expanding the donor population through paired donation or modifying what is acceptable which may require employing treatment to overcome immunologic barriers such as increased immunosuppression or desensitization. Thus, transplantation must strike a balance between the risk associated with waiting for the optimal donor and the risk associated with a less than optimal donor.

  18. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    Mhibik, Oussama; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien; Defranoux, Christophe; Sanaur, Sébastien


    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically emitting thin-film organic lasers and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 μJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several μm thicknesses are realized, thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm-1 at 550-680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyrromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size "printed pixels" of 50 mm2 present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50 μm × 50 μm AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet printing are simple and do not incorporate any tuning or cavity element, they are simple to make, have a negligible fabrication cost, and can be used as fully disposable items. This work opens the way towards the fabrication of really low-cost tunable visible lasers with an affordable technology that has the potential to be widely disseminated.

  19. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅰ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  20. Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System(Ⅱ)


    The author puts forward the proposition of "Complexity and Self-Organized Criticality of Solid Earth System" in the light of: (1) the science of complexity studies the mechanisms of emergence of complexity and is the science of the 21st century, (2) the study of complexity of the earth system would be one of the growing points occupying a strategic position in the development of geosciences in the 21st century. By the proposition we try to cogitate from a new viewpoint the ancient yet ever-new solid earth system. The author abstracts the fundamental problem of the solid earth system from the essence of the generalized geological systems and processes which reads: "the complexity and self-organized criticality of the global nature, structure and dynamical behavior of the whole solid earth system emerging from the multiple coupling and superposition of non-linear interactions among the multicomponents of the earths material and the multiple generalized geological (geological, geophysical, and geochemical) processes". Starting from this cognizance, the author proposes eight major themes and the methodology of researches on the complexity and self-organized criticality of the solid earth system.

  1. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia


    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ∼1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (∼1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.

  2. Donor-derived tuberculosis after solid organ transplantation in two patients and a staff member.

    Bucher, J N; Schoenberg, M B; Freytag, I; Lange, U; Hofmann-Thiel, S; Guba, M O; Werner, J; Eder, A; Schelling, G; Stangl, M


    Because of global mobility and migration resulting in a growing diversity of the donor pool, the risk for donor-derived tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients becomes more and more relevant, even in countries with a low overall tuberculosis incidence. Here, we describe a case series of donor-derived tuberculosis in 2 of 3 solid organ transplant recipients and one medical staff member in Germany resulting in the death of one recipient. This case series highlights the relevance of this topic to clinicians. It advocates for a better communication between organ procurement organizations and transplant centers regarding donor information and transplant recipient outcome. Furthermore, it underpins the necessity for a standardized critical incident reporting system in the german transplant system to improve short- and long-term recipient's safety, health and survival.

  3. Fluorescence characteristic changes of dissolved organic matter during municipal solid waste composting

    WEI Zi-min; XI Bei-dou; WANG Shi-ping; XU Jing-gang; ZHOU Yu-yan; LIU Hong-liang


    Dissolved organic matter(DOM) of municipal solid waste(MSW) consists of minerals, water, ash and humic substances, and is known to enhance plant growth. In this study, inoculating microbes (Z J, MS) were used in municipal solid wastes composting, and composting implemented a industrialized technology. During composting, dissolved organic matter was extracted from the compost and purified. The spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter was determined by fluorescence emission, excitation, and synchronous spectroscopy. Fluorescence emission, excitation, and synchronous spectra characterized by different relative fluorescent intensities and peaks over time. Fluorescence spectra were similar to that of fulvic acid in sewage sludge, indicating the presence of dissolved organic matter with aromatic structures and a high degree of molecular polymerization. Compared with the controls with no microbial inoculation,the microbe-inoculated treatments exhibited the increase of aromatic polycondensation, in the following order: MS + ZJ > ZJ > MS >CK.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine ... places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling ...

  6. Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Different process strategies for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) are reviewed weighing high-solids versus low-solids, mesophilic versus thermophilic and single-stage versus multi-stage processes. The influence of different waste characteristics...... such as composition of biodegradable fractions, C:N ratio and particle size is described. Generally, source sorting of OFMSW and a high content of food waste leads to higher biogas yields than the use of mechanically sorted OFMSW. Thermophilic processes are more efficient than mesophilic processes in terms of higher......-stage systems show in some investigations a higher reduction of recalcitrant organic matter compared to single-stage systems, but they are seldom applied in full-scale. An extended cost benefit calculation shows that the highest overall benefit of the process is achieved at an OLR that is lower and a hydraulic...

  7. Factors associated with the development of cytomegalovirus infection following solid organ transplantation

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Sørensen, Søren S; Iversen, Martin


    Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a potentially serious complication in transplant patients. In this study we explored the risk factors for CMV infection in the 12 months following a solid organ transplantation (n = 242) in patients monitored for CMV infection from 2004 to 2007....

  8. Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops

    Angelidaki, Irini; Alves, M.; Bolzonella, D.;


    The application of anaerobic digestion technology is growing worldwide because of its economic and environmental benefits. As a consequence, a number of studies and research activities dealing with the determination of the biogas potential of solid organic substrates have been carrying out in the...... Specialist Group of the International Water Association. This is the first step for the definition of a standard protocol....

  9. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.


    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  10. A Long Chain Alcohol as Support in Solid Phase Organic Synthesis

    Nurlela, Yeni; Minnaard, Adrian J.; Achmad, Sadijah; Wahyuningrum, Deana


    The solid phase synthesis is a method by which organic compound synthesis are performed on a support. With this method, the purification can be carried out easily by simple filtration and washing procedures. Long-chain alcohol (C-100 alcohol) can be used as a support because of its insolubility in o

  11. Solid organ transplantation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT

    Koenecke, C; Hertenstein, B; Schetelig, J;


    To analyze the outcome of solid organ transplantation (SOT) in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a questionnaire survey was carried out within 107 European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers. This study covered HSCT between 1984...

  12. Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van de Waals Solid for Tunable Light-matter Interactions

    Niu, Lin; Cong, Chunxiao; Wu, Chunyang; Wu, Di; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Wang, Xingli; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Fu, Qundong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I; Tay, Beng Kang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Sum, Tze Chien; Jin, Chuanhong; He, Haiyong; Yu, Ting; Liu, Zheng


    Van de Waals (vdW) solids, as a new type of artificial materials that consisting of alternative layers bonded by weak interactions, have shed light on fantastic optoelectronic devices. As a result, a large variety of shining vdW devices have been engineered via layer-by-layer stacking of two-dimensional materials, although shadowed by the difficulties of fabrication. Alternatively, direct growth of vdW solids have been proved a scalable and swift way towards vdW solids, reflected by the successful synthesis of graphene/h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) vertical heterostructures from controlled vapor deposition. Enlightened by it, with a three-step deposition and reaction, we realize high-quality organic and inorganic vdW solids, using methylammonium lead halide as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D monolayers inorganic as counterpart. Being a perfect light absorbent, the electrons and holes generated in organic perovskite couple with its inorganic 2D companions, and behave dramaticall...

  13. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of simulated organic fraction of municipal solid waste: process modeling.

    Fdez-Güelfo, L A; Álvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I


    Solid retention time (SRT) is a very important operational variable in continuous and semicontinuous waste treatment processes since the organic matter removal efficiency--expressed in terms of percentage of Dissolved Organic Carbon (% DOC) or Volatile Solids (% VS) removed--and the biogas or methane production are closely related with the SRT imposed. Optimum SRT is depending on the waste characteristics and the microorganisms involved in the process and, hence, it should be determined specifically in each case. In this work a series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of SRT, from 40 to 8 days, on the performance of the dry (30% Total Solids) thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (OFMSW) operating at semicontinuous regime of feeding. The experimental results show than 15days is the optimum SRT (the best between all proved) for this process. Besides, data of organic matter concentration and methane production versus SRT have been used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the kinetic model of Romero García (1991): the maximum specific growth rate of the microorganisms (μmax=0.580 days(-1)) and the fraction of substrate non-biodegradable (α=0.268).

  14. Effect of pH and VFA on hydrolysis of organic solid waste

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Scharff, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.


    The anaerobic hydrolysis rate of organic solid waste was studied at fixed volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations ranging from 3 to 30 g COD/L and fixed pH values between 5 and 7. For separate control of both VFA and pH, a special completely mixed reactor was designed. In this way, it was possible

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  16. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    Cheatham Michael L


    Abstract "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous ...

  17. Relationship of abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organs failure in patients underwent abdominal surgery%腹部手术患者并发腹腔间室综合征与多脏器功能衰竭的关系

    王林; 李丰


    Objective To analyze the correlation between abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organ failure in the patients underwent abdominal surgery. Methods Data of 344 patients underwent abdominal surgery were analyzed retrospectively,who were divided into 2 groups of A(66 cases,with abdominal compartment syndrome) and B(278 cases, without abdominal compartment syndrome). The correlation between abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organ failure was analyzed. Results Of 66 patients in group A,40 cases were complicated with abdominal compartment syndrome with the incidence rate of 60.61% ,which was significantly higher than 23. 02%(64/278) in group B(P<0.01). The incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome was positively correlated with multiple organ failure (r=0.322, P<0.01). Conclusion The incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome is closely related with multiple organ failure in the patients underwent abdominal surgery.%目的 分析腹部手术患者并发腹腔间室综合征与多脏器功能衰竭的相关性.方法 回顾性分析344例腹部手术患者资料,其中,并发腹腔间室综合征66例(A组),无腹腔间室综合征278例(B组).比较两组患者并发多脏器功能衰竭的发生情况.结果 A组患者有40例发生多脏器功能衰竭,发生率为60.61%(40/66),明显高于B组的23.02%(64/278)(P<0.01).Spearman相关分析显示,腹部手术患者并发腹腔间室综合征与多脏器功能衰竭具正相关(r=0.322,P<0.01).结论 腹部手术患者并发腹腔间室综合征患者容易发生多脏器功能衰竭.

  18. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... an abdominal aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  19. Second sphere coordination of hybrid metal-organic materials: solid state reactivity.

    Guo, Fang; Martí-Rujas, Javier


    When compared to other hybrid metal organic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, hydrogen bonded materials self-assembled by metals and organic molecules using second sphere interactions have been poorly investigated. Consequently, their solid-sate properties are also scarce. In this perspective, earlier research mainly on host-guest chemistry and its evolution towards more extended structures by applying crystal engineering principles using second sphere coordination is described. Crystal-to-crystal guest exchange reactions, permanently porous hybrid metal organic materials, mechanochemical reactivity, thermally induced phase transformations as well as some examples of functional technological applications using second sphere adducts such as gas adsorption, separation and non-linear optical phenomena are also reported. Although some tutorial reviews on second sphere adducts have been conducted mainly in the solution state focusing on metal based anion receptors, to the best of our knowledge, an overview on relevant works that focus on the solid-state properties has not been carried out. The aim of this article is to highlight from some of the early fundamental work to the latest reports on hybrid metal-organic materials self-assembled via second sphere interactions with a focus on solid-state chemistry.

  20. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Takeru Ito


    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  1. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri


    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  2. Asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ transplantation: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Mueller, N J; Fishman, J A


    Cryptococcus neoformans is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. The infection generally presents as disseminated disease, involving multiple sites including the central nervous system, lungs, and skin. An increase in the incidence of primary pulmonary cryptococcal infections has been reported recently in solid organ recipients; these infections were generally symptomatic with an accelerated clinical course. We report four cases of asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ recipients (kidney, n=2, heart, n=2). In each case, an incidental finding on a routine chest radiograph led to the microbiological or histopathological diagnosis of invasive pulmonary C. neoformans infection. In these patients, cryptococcosis occurred a median of 25 months (range 7-36 months) after organ transplantation. All patients had a calcineurin inhibitor, prednisone, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil as part of their immunosuppressive therapy at the time of diagnosis. Serum cryptococcal antigen was available and positive in the three patients studied; assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all four patients revealed no organisms by smear or culture. Therapy consisted of oral fluconazole in all cases, with flucytosine in one case, combined with resection of lung tissue in two individuals. All patients have remained free of cryptococcal disease (follow-up median 42 months, from 18 to 88 months). Cryptococcal disease in solid organ recipients may present as asymptomatic, localized pulmonary disease. The natural history of such infections is unknown. New pulmonary radiographic findings should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation including serum and CSF cryptococcal antigen assays, and a biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Prolonged therapy may be used to reduce the risk of progression and dissemination during periods of intensified immune suppression.


    Okram Pusparani Devi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma usually has low sensitivity on physical examination and also subtle clinical manifestations. Improved resolution of the ultrasound machines and availability of multiple frequency probes has improved the specificity of ultrasound evaluation in blunt abdominal trauma. Despite this about 50% of the solid organ injuries are missed. Computed tomography has been used with better specificity to evaluate patients with blunt abdominal trauma who are FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma positive as well as indeterminate and clinically suspicious cases of solid organ, hollow viscera, spine and pelvic injury. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and MDCT and compare the efficacy of the two imaging modalities in blunt abdominal trauma. METHOD A prospective observational study of 100 patients was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Bharati Hospital, Pune. All patients with blunt abdominal trauma were included. FAST screening was done with ANTARES ACUSON SIEMENS followed by MDCT on 16-Slice Philips Brilliance. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and CT were determined by comparing with laparotomy findings. RESULTS Although USG was sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting free fluid in abdomen, CT was found better and also superior in detecting solid organ injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an efficient modality in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. But CT is the superior diagnostic modality and must be performed in symptomatic patient with ultrasound negative report and suboptimal ultrasound examination. CT scan thoroughly scrutinizes entire abdomen including retroperitoneum with additional assessment of thoracic trauma and bony pelvic trauma. Hence, CT increases diagnostic confidence and influences management decision.

  4. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid organ transplant among elderly adults

    Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Engels, Eric A.


    Immunosuppression may be etiologic for some skin cancers. We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and solid organ transplantation on skin cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study among elderly U.S. adults (non-Hispanic whites, age 67 years or older), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare linked data. The study comprised 29,926 skin cancer cases (excluding basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) and 119,704 controls, frequency-matched by gender, age, and calendar year (1987–2002). Medicare claims identified solid organ transplantation or HIV infection before cancer diagnosis/control selection. As negative controls, we evaluated other medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, depression) and cancers (breast, colon, prostate) not linked to immunosuppression. Odds ratios (ORs) compared prevalence in cases and controls, adjusted for matching factors and number of prior physician claims. Risks of Kaposi sarcoma (N=602) and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1,836) were increased with solid organ transplantation (OR [95%CI]: 11.06 [5.27–23.23] and 2.27 [1.00–5.15], respectively) and HIV infection (21.58 [11.94–38.99] and 2.41 [1.05–5.52], respectively). Solid organ transplantation was also associated with increased risks of Merkel cell carcinoma (N=1286; OR [95%CI] 4.95 [2.62–9.34]) and other cutaneous sarcomas (N=972; 4.19 [1.83–9.56]). Solid organ transplantation was non-significantly associated with melanoma (N=23,974; (OR 1.36 [95%CI 0.98–1.88]). Null or weak associations were observed for negative control medical conditions and cancers. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection were followed by increased risk for some skin cancer subtypes among elderly adults. These results highlight the potential role of immunity in development of skin cancers. PMID:19810102

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco


    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed.

  6. Solid organ transplant patients experience high rates of infection and other complications after total knee arthroplasty.

    Klatt, Brian A; Steele, G Daxton; Fedorka, Catherine J; Sánchez, Alvaro I; Chen, Antonia F; Crossett, Lawrence S


    Survival after solid organ transplants in the United States is increasing, and there is a need to understand the complications in knee arthroplasty patients who underwent organ transplantation. A retrospective study was conducted from 1993-2008 on 19 patients (23 knee arthroplasties) with previous successful solid organ transplants. Eleven knee arthroplasties were performed after renal transplantation, and 12 after nonrenal solid organ transplant (seven liver, four heart, one lung). Complications occurred in 9/23 patients (39.1%) and infections occurred in 4/23 patients (17.3%). Of the infected knees, two had MRSA, one had MSSA, and one Escherichia coli. Noninfectious complications (5/24, 21.7%) include aseptic loosening, quadriceps rupture, femoral fracture, hemarthrosis, and arthrofibrosis. All patients with complications were on immunosuppressant medications at the time of arthroplasty. There was a significantly higher rate of infection in the renal group compared to the non-renal group (P = 0.022). There was also a higher overall complication rate in the renal group however this did not reach significance.

  7. Contraceptive options for women with a history of solid-organ transplantation.

    Krajewski, Colleen M; Geetha, Duvuru; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica


    Women of reproductive age who have received a solid-organ transplant are at risk for unplanned pregnancy. Fertility can return as soon as 1 month after transplantation, and the baseline unplanned pregnancy rate in the United States is approximately 50%. Pregnancy, although not absolutely contraindicated in this population, carries risk greater than the general population and should be timed with regard to medication regimen and organ function. The Centers for Disease Control categorizes every form of contraception as Category 2-benefits outweigh risks-in women with an uncomplicated transplantation. There is a large range of contraceptive options, varying in drug formulation, route of delivery, and discrepancy between "perfect" and "typical" use. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal implants and show great promise for women with solid-organ transplant. These methods have excellent efficacy, eliminate user error, and, in the case of IUDs, have extremely low or no systemic drug absorption. Providers have historical concerns regarding the association of IUD and infection; however, modern studies have shown their safety in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Women with a history of solid-organ transplantation can be safely offered a wide range of contraceptive options to suit their individualized needs.

  8. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)


    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  9. Regional Differences in Communication Process and Outcomes of Requests for Solid Organ Donation.

    Traino, H M; Molisani, A J; Siminoff, L A


    Although federal mandate prohibits the allocation of solid organs for transplantation based on "accidents of geography," geographic variation of transplantable organs is well documented. This study explores regional differences in communication in requests for organ donation. Administrative data from nine partnering organ procurement organizations and interview data from 1339 family decision makers (FDMs) were compared across eight geographically distinct US donor service areas (DSAs). Authorization for organ donation ranged from 60.4% to 98.1% across DSAs. FDMs from the three regions with the lowest authorization rates reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with the time spent discussing donation and with the request process, discussion of the least donation-related topics, the highest levels of pressure to donate, and the least comfort with the donation decision. Organ procurement organization region predicted authorization (odds ratios ranged from 8.14 to 0.24), as did time spent discussing donation (OR = 2.11), the number of donation-related topics discussed (OR = 1.14), and requesters' communication skill (OR = 1.14). Standardized training for organ donation request staff is needed to ensure the highest quality communication during requests, optimize rates of family authorization to donation in all regions, and increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.

  10. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro


    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes.

  11. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I


    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Sorption of toxic organic compounds on waste-water solids: Correlation with fundamental properties

    Dobbs, R.A.; Wang, L.; Govind, R.


    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal waste-water treatment plants was correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients and with modified Randic indexes. The correlations developed are useful for assessing the role of sorption in the treatment of toxic or hazardous compounds in conventional biological waste-water treatment plants. Correlations developed provide a basis for predicting the concentration of toxic compounds associated with waste-water solids at a given equilibrium concentration in the aqueous phase. Organics in sludge can impact anaerobic digestion, land spreading, incineration and ocean dumping of sludges. Estimates of the concentration of toxics in sludge allows assessment of the impact of toxics on sludge-disposal options.

  13. Impact of Participation on a Solid Organ Transplant Team on Student Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Interprofessional Roles

    Bray, Brenda S.; Woodard, Lisa J.; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hardinger, Karen L.; Wu, Vivian; Hayney, Mary S.


    Objective. To examine student pharmacists’ perceptions of interprofessional roles before and after completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience on solid organ transplantation. Methods. Student pharmacists across the United States participating in an APPE on a solid organ transplant team completed an online pre- and post-APPE survey instrument examining perceptions of interprofessional roles, communication, and teamwork. Results. Student pharmacists’ scores on interprofessionalism increased significantly on 17 of 22 items. Positive changes were seen in the interprofessional education core competency areas of roles and responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork. Conclusion. Student pharmacist participation in interprofessional clinical APPEs can positively influence their professional development as they prepare to become members of multi-disciplinary teams in the healthcare workforce. PMID:23716742

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca


    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel.

  15. Improving medication administration safety in solid organ transplant patients through barcode-assisted medication administration.

    Bonkowski, Josesph; Weber, Robert J; Melucci, Joseph; Pesavento, Todd; Henry, Mitchell; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan


    Solid organ transplant recipients are prescribed a high number of medications, increasing the potential for medication errors. Barcode-assisted medication administration (BCMA) is technology that reduces medication administration errors. An observational study was conducted at an academic medical center solid organ transplant unit before and after BMCA implementation. Medication accuracy was determined and administration errors were categorized by type and therapeutic class of medication. A baseline medication administration error rate of 4.8% was observed with wrong dose errors representing 78% of the errors. During the post-BCMA period the medication administration error rate was reduced by 68% to 1.5% (P = .0001). Wrong dose errors were reduced by 67% (P = .001), and unauthorized medication administrations were reduced by 73%. Steroids were associated with the highest error rate. The results of this study suggest that routinely adopting BCMA has the potential to reduce medication administration errors in transplant patients.

  16. Preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote conditioning in solid organ transplantation: basic mechanisms and translational applications.

    Selzner, Nazia; Boehnert, Markus; Selzner, Markus


    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/Rp) injury is inherent to solid organ transplantation and can result in primary nonfunction or delayed function of grafts, which is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality posttransplantation. It is also a major obstacle for the use of marginal grafts to increase the donor pool, as these grafts are prone to a higher degree of I/Rp injury. Pre-, post-, and remote conditioning are protective strategies against I/Rp injury, which can be applied in the transplant setting. These strategies hold the potential to reduce graft injury and to safely expand the donor pool. However, despite convincing experimental data, the protective effects of the "conditioning" protocols remain unclear, and only few have translated to clinical practice. This review summarizes pre-, post-, and remote conditioning strategies in clinical use in solid organ transplantation and discusses an overview of the mechanistic pathways involved in each strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid organ transplant recipients: clinical considerations in the application of exercise.

    McKenzie, K-J L; McKenzie, D C; Yoshida, E M


    Over 100 000 solid organ transplants are performed worldwide each year and this has a significant impact on physical function and quality of life. However, the capacity for exercise in solid-organ recipients is reduced. Regular physical activity improves most of the indices of fitness in these patients but, with few exceptions, they do not reach the values seen in healthy controls. The reason for the 40-60% reduction in maximal exercise capacity is not clear; the disease process, need for life long immunosuppression and sedentary lifestyle all contribute. The interaction between exercise and immunosuppressing medication merits research as does the specifics of the exercise prescription for these patients. This paper reviews important features of this rapidly expanding group of patients and suggests clinical considerations in the application of exercise in this population.

  18. Organic fraction of solid waste in biodigester; Fracao organica de lixo urbano como substrato para biodigestor

    Gorgati, Claudia Q. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural


    The study of the anaerobic digestion was accomplished with the organic fraction of urban solid waste collected at the composting plant - CONSTRUFERT- from the municipal district of Sao Jose do Rio Preto - SP. The essay was conducted in six bio digesters at the Rural Engineering Department of the Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, in Jaboticabal/SP, three of them with fresh urban organic waste and remaining ones with dried and ground material. With regard to the anaerobic digestion the biogas production was monitored and the data indicated the energetic potential of urban waste, which was found to be 0.1034 - 0.1395 m{sup 3}/Kg of raw urban waste with reduction of volatile solids between 56 and 66.50%. (author)

  19. Peculiarities of the submicroscopic organization of chlorella cells cultivated on a solid medium in microgravity

    Sytnik, K. M.; Popova, A. F.; Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.

    The submicroscopic organization of Chlorella vulgaris cells (strain LARG-1) growing over 30 days on a solid agarized medium aboard the orbital station ``Mir'' was studied. A number of differences in the ultrastructure of cells of the experimental population compared to the control has been revealed. Thus, changes in the membrane system of plastids, in particular, appearance of numerous vesicles of different diameter and outgrowths of the plastids and their contact with the plasmalemma as well as a considerable decrease of reserve polysaccharide number in the plastids. Moreover, an increase in the size of mitochondria, their cristae and lipid drops in cytoplasm, the formation of more complicated configuration folding of plasmalemma and appearance of small-granular material of mean electron density in the periplasmic space of Chlorella cells grown during space flight, are demonstrated. Comparative cytological analysis has revealed general regularities of rearrangements of the submicroscopic organization in Chlorella cells cultivated on both solid and semiliquid agarized nutrient media.

  20. Use of hematopoietic cell transplants to achieve tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants.

    Strober, Samuel


    The goals of tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants are to eliminate the lifelong need for immunosuppressive (IS) drugs and to prevent graft loss due to rejection or drug toxicity. Tolerance with complete withdrawal of IS drugs has been achieved in recipients of HLA-matched and mismatched living donor kidney transplants in 3 medical centers using hematopoietic cell transplants to establish mixed or complete chimerism.

  1. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis of Aryl Vinyl Ethers Using Sulfone-Linking Strategy

    余腊妹; 汤妮; 盛寿日; 陈茹冰; 刘晓玲; 蔡明中


    A novel facile solid-phase organic synthesis of aryl vinyl ethers by reaction of polystyrene-supported 2-phenylsulfonylethanol with phenols under Mitsunobu conditions and subsequent elimination reaction with DBU has been developed. The advantages of this method include straightforward operation, good yield and high purity of the products. Alternatively, a typical example of Suzuki coupling reaction on-resin was further applied to prepare 4-phenylphenyl vinyl ether for extending this method.

  2. Re-fermentation of washed spent solids from batch hydrogenogenic fermentation for additional production of biohydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M


    In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6 mmol H(2)/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N(2) allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H(2) could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H(2) was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H(2) production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4 mmol H(2)/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis.

  3. Long-term dietary habits and interventions in solid-organ transplantation.

    Zeltzer, Stuart M; Taylor, David O; Tang, W H Wilson


    Diet and nutrition are moving to the forefront of modern primary and preventive care to help address the rising burden of chronic diseases among the general population. Such a movement has yet to occur formally across the field of transplantation. We therefore looked to establish the current base of knowledge regarding diet, nutrition and solid-organ transplantation. A limited number of focused studies looking into the dietary habits of solid-organ transplant patients have been performed and many of the available studies have detailed the nutritional status in the peri-operative period. Frequently described, however, is the heavy incidence of metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes, occurring after solid-organ transplantation. Optimistically, several studies have noted improvement in several metabolic abnormalities with the use of dietary interventions in the post-transplant period. Despite these positive results, few consensus guidelines for post-transplant diet have been established and nutritional support among transplant programs remains limited. Although there are many hurdles to implementation of detailed dietary recommendations and nutritional support for transplant patients, creating such programs and guidelines could dramatically impact long-term outcomes and burden of chronic metabolic disease for transplant recipients.

  4. Research achievements and application in anaerobic treatment of organic solid wastes--A review

    ZHOU Fuchun; XIONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu; XU Longjun


    Anaerobic digestion is a good method, which possesses the optimal combination of volume reduction, probability of success and potential for resource and energy recovery. However, relatively little research has been done on the anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes ( OSW ), especially in China.However, different substrates, start-up conditions, micro-organisms, processing technologies, pre-treatment methods could influence the result of anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic treatment of municipal OSW is less than that of wastewaters because some problems and obstructions need to be solved. Meanwhile, the application of anaerobic digestion of OSW is also discussed in the present paper.

  5. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumour: multiphase CT findings in two children

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Poongnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea)


    We report the multiphase CT findings of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumour (DSRCT) in two children. CT showed a huge heterogeneous intraperitoneal mass with or without direct invasion into solid organs such as liver or kidney, extensive intraperitoneal seeding, intratumoural calcification, ascites, and lymphadenopathy. DSRCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of malignant intraperitoneal neoplasm in children. Multiphase CT may be helpful in delineating tumour extent, vascularity and direct invasion into adjacent organs. (orig.)

  6. Literature survey and documentation on organic solid deposition problem. Status report

    Chung, Ting-Horng


    Organic solid deposition is often a major problem in petroleum production and processing. Recently, this problem has attracted more attention because operating costs have become more critical to the profit of oil production. Also, in miscible gas flooding, asphaltene deposition often occurs in the wellbore region after gas breakthrough and causes plugging. The organic deposition problem is particularly serious in offshore oil production. Cooling of crude oil when it flows through long-distance pipelines under sea water may cause organic deposition in the pipeline and result in plugging. NIPER`s Gas EOR Research Project has been devoted to the study of the organic solid deposition problem for three years. NIPER has received many requests for technical support. Recently, the DeepStar project committee on thermo-technology development and standardization has asked NIPER to provide them with NIPER`s expertise and experience. To assist the oil industry, NIPER is preparing a state-of-the-art review on the technical development for the organic deposition problem. In the first quarter, this project has completed a literature survey and documentation. total of 258 publications (114 for wax, 124 for asphaltene, and 20 for related subjects) were collected and categorized. This literature survey was focused on the two subjects: wax and asphaltene. The subjects of bitumen, asphalt, and heavy oil are not included. Also, the collected publications are mostly related to production problems.

  7. Aqueous liquid feed organic fuel cell using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)


    A liquid organic fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  8. A quasimechanism of melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids

    Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    It has been know for half a century that many crystalline organic solids undergo an acceleration in the rate of thermal decomposition as the melting temperature is approached. This acceleration terminates at the melting point, exhibiting an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence in the faster decomposition rate from the liquid phase. This observation has been modeled previously using various premelting behaviors based on e.g. freezing point depression induced by decomposition products or solvent impurities. These models do not, however, indicate a mechanism for liquid formation and acceleration which is an inherent function of the bulk thermodynamics of the molecule. Here we show that such an inherent thermodynamic mechanism for liquid formation exists in the form of the so-called quasi-liquid layer at the solid surface. We explore a kinetic mechanism which describes the acceleration of rate and is a function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We construct a differential rate law from these thermodynamic free energies and a normalized progress variable. We further construct a reduced variable formulation of the model which is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and show that it is applicable to the observed melt acceleration in several common organic crystalline solids. A component of the differential rate law, zero order in the progress variable, is shown to be proportional to the thickness of the quasiliquid layer predicted by a recent thermodynamic theory for this phenomenon. This work therefore serves not only to provide new insight into thermal decomposition in a broad class or organic crystalline solids, but also further validates the underlying thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon of liquid formation on the molecular surface at temperatures below the melting point.

  9. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit


    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  10. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang


    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart.

  11. Effects of Exercise and Sport in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Review.

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C; Bishop, Nicolette C


    Solid organ transplantation is the criterion standard treatment for many with end-organ failure and can offer a new independence from the burden of disease. However solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) remain at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, and poor quality of life and physical functioning. Increasing physical activity and exercise can improve the health of the general population; however, the effects on those with a transplant remain unclear. Intensive exercise and sporting activity has the potential to be beneficial, although there remain concerns particularly around the effects on immune function and the CV system. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of exercise on determinants of health in SOTRs and then collates the available literature investigating the consequences of intensive exercise and sport on the health of SOTR. There is a paucity of high-quality research, with most evidence being case studies or anecdotal; this is understandable given the relatively few numbers of SOTRs who are performing sport and exercise at a high level. However, if suitable evidence-based guidelines are to be formed and SOTRs are to be given reassurances that their activity levels are not detrimental to their transplanted organ and overall health, then more high-quality studies are required.

  12. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.


    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  13. Self-Supporting Metal-Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Peng, Fei; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Ruiyun; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jiawei; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Teng; Long, Lasheng; Sun, Junliang; Lin, Wenbin (StockholmU); (UC); (Xiamen)


    Metal–organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4'-(4-benzoate)-(2,2',2''-terpyridine)-5,5''-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal–organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities.

  14. Rheology of sludge from double phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Battistoni, P; Pavan, P; Mata-Alvarez, J; Prisciandaro, M; Cecchi, F


    In this paper experimental results on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by using a double phase process are reported. The long-term experiment has been carried out on a pilot scale plant, performed in different sets of operative conditions, during which granulometric distributions of particles in sludges and rheological properties of sludges were monitored. A significant fluidification of sludge was evidenced in the meso-thermo process, especially taking into account the variation in sludge behaviour from the first to the second phase. In the thermo-thermo process a fluidification higher than that shown in meso-thermo conditions is not observed, this suggesting that better results in terms of sludge conditioning can be obtained in a long time spent in thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Total volatile solids (TVS) and total fixed solids (TFS) become the most important parameters when mathematical modelling is applied to these processes. In the acidogenic phase, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature are used to determine rigidity coefficient (RC), while only temperature is needed for yield stress (YC). Organic loading rate (OLR) and specific gas production (SGP) exert an important role in methanogenic phase description.

  15. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun


    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  16. Novel bioconversion of wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer in a solid-state bioreactor.

    Chen, Hongzhang; Sun, Fubao


    In order to increase the eco-efficiency and overall availability of naturally renewable resource, the novel bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw to bio-organic fertilizer containing N(2)-fixer, P and K solubilizers was investigated. The conversion was performed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) with periodic air-forced pressure oscillation (PAPO). The results showed that SSF-PAPO was competitive with the conventional solid-state fermentation (cSSF) in biomass accumulation and wheat straw digestion. With solid-liquid ratio 1:3, microbial biomass production at 72 h was high up to 2 x 10(11) cfu g(-1), nearly twice as that in cSSF. The degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after fermentation in SSF-PAPO reached 48.57 +/- 10.66, 84.77 +/- 2.75 and 2.15 +/- 10.11, respectively, which was greater than that of 29.30 +/- 10.28%, 33.47 +/- 4.85% and 0.53 +/- 9.07% in cSSF, correspondingly. The SSF-PAPO system displayed unique advantage, by a novel gas phase control strategy on gas concentration and heat gradient, on the bioconversion of wheat straw to the bio-organic fertilizer.

  17. Identification of in-sewer sources of organic solids contributing to combined sewer overflows.

    Ahyerre, M; Chebbo, G


    Previous research has shown that combined sewer systems are the main source of particle and organic pollution during rainfall events contributing to combined sewer overflow. The aim of this article is to identify in an urban catchment area called "Le Marais", in the center of Paris, the types of sediments that are eroded and contribute to the pollution of combined sewer overflow. Three sediment types are considered: granular material found in the inverts of pipes, organic biofilms and organic sediment at the water bed interface, identified as an immobile layer in the "Le Marais" catchment area. The method used consist, firstly, of sampling and assessing the organic pollutant loads and metallic loads of the particles in each type of sediment. Then, the mass of each type of sediment is assessed. The mass and the characteristics of each type of sediment is finally compared to the mass and characteristics of the particles eroded in the catchment area, estimated by mass balances, in order to find the source of eroded particles. The only identified type of deposit that can contribute to combined sewer overflows is the organic layer. Indeed, the solids of this layer have mean and metallic loads that are of the same order of magnitude as the eroded particles. Moreover, the mass of the organic layer considered over different time scales is of the same order of magnitude as the eroded masses during rainfall events and an erosion experiment showed that the organic layer is actually eroded.

  18. Clostridium difficile colitis: increasing incidence, risk factors, and outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Boutros, Marylise; Al-Shaibi, Maha; Chan, Gabriel; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Rahme, Elham; Paraskevas, Steven; Deschenes, Marc; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Fernandez, Myriam; Giannetti, Nadia; Cecere, Renzo; Hassanain, Mazen; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Metrakos, Peter; Tchervenkov, Jean; Barkun, Jeffrey S


    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is an increasingly important diagnosis in solid organ transplant recipients, with rising incidence and mortality. We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of colectomy for CDAD after solid organ transplantation. Patients with CDAD were identified from a prospective transplant database. Complicated Clostridium difficile colitis (CCDC) was defined as CDAD associated with graft loss, total colectomy, or death. From 1999 to 2010, we performed solid organ transplants for 1331 recipients at our institution. The incidence of CDAD was 12.4% (165 patients); it increased from 4.5% (1999) to 21.1% (2005) and finally 9.5% (2010). The peak frequency of CDAD was between 6 and 10 days posttransplantation. Age more than 55 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.16-1.81), induction with antithymocyte globulin (HR: 1.43, 95% CI=1.075-1.94), and transplant other than kidney alone (liver, heart, pancreas, or combined kidney organ) (HR: 1.41, 95% CI=1.05-1.92) were significant independent risk factors for CDAD. CCDC occurred in 15.8% of CDAD cases. Independent predictors of CCDC were white blood cell count more than 25,000/μL (HR: 1.08, 95% CI=1.025-1.15) and evidence of pancolitis on computed tomography scan (HR: 2.52, 95% CI=1.195-5.35). Six patients with CCDC underwent colectomy with 83% patient survival and 20% graft loss. Of the medically treated patients with CCDC (n=20), the patient survival was 35% with 100% graft loss. We have identified significant risk factors for CDAD and predictors of progression to CCDC. Furthermore, we found that colectomy can be performed with excellent survival in selected patients.

  19. Ethanol production from the organic fraction obtained after thermal pretreatment of municipal solid waste.

    Ballesteros, Mercedes; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Manzanares, Paloma; Negro, Maria Jose; Martínez, Jose Maria; Castañeda, Rafael; Oliva Dominguez, Jose Miguel


    In this work, the use of organic fraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) as substrate for ethanol production based on enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. MSW was subjected to a thermal pretreatment (active hygienization) at 160 degrees C from 5 to 50 min. The organic fiber obtained after 30 min was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and fed-batch SSF process using cellulases and amylases. In a fed-batch mode with 25% (w/w) substrate loading, final ethanol concentration of 30 g/L was achieved (60% of theoretical). In these conditions, more than 160 L of ethanol per ton of dry matter could be produced from the organic fraction of MSW.

  20. A novel hybrid metal-organic framework-polymeric monolith for solid-phase microextraction.

    Lin, Chen-Lan; Lirio, Stephen; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya


    This study describes the fabrication of a novel hybrid metal-organic framework- organic polymer (MOF-polymer) for use as a stationary phase in fritless solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for validating analytical methods. The MOF-polymer was prepared by using ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as porogenic solvent followed by microwave-assisted polymerization with the addition of 25 % MOF. This novel hybrid MOF-polymer was used to extract penicillin (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin) under different conditions. Quantitative analysis of the extracted penicillin samples using the MOF-organic polymer for SPME was conducted by using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) coupled with UV analysis. The penicillin recovery was 63-96.2 % with high reproducibility, sensitivity, and reusability. The extraction time with the proposed fabricated SPME was only 34 min.

  1. Approach to optimizing growth, rehabilitation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children after solid-organ transplantation.

    Mohammad, Saeed; Alonso, Estella M


    One of the most critical differences between the posttransplant care of children and adults is the requirement in children to maintain a state of health that supports normal physical and psychological growth and development. Most children with organ failure have some degree of growth failure and developmental delay, which is not quickly reversed after successful transplantation. The challenge for clinicians caring for these children is to use strategies that minimize these deficits before transplantation and provide maximal opportunity for recovery of normal developmental processes during posttransplant rehabilitation. The effect of chronic organ failure, frequently complicated by malnutrition, on growth potential and cognitive development is poorly understood. This review presents a summary of what is known regarding risk factors for suboptimal growth and development following solid-organ transplant and describe possible strategies to improve these outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electricity production in membrane-less microbial fuel cell fed with livestock organic solid waste.

    Lee, Yunhee; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany


    Two different MFC configurations designed for handling solid wastes as a feedstock were evaluated in batch mode: a single compartment combined membrane-electrodes (SCME) design; and a twin-compartment brush-type anode electrodes (TBE) design (reversed T-shape MFC with two-air cathode) without a proton exchange membrane (PEM). Cattle manure was tested as a model livestock organic solid waste feedstock. Under steady conditions, voltage of 0.38 V was recorded with an external resistance of 470Ω. When digested anaerobic sludge was used as the seed in the SCME design, a maximum power density of 36.6 mW/m(2) was recorded. When hydrogen-generating bacteria (HGB) were used as the seed used in the TBE design, a higher power density of 67 mW/m(2) was recorded.

  3. Extraction of soluble substances from organic solid municipal waste to increase methane production.

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón


    This work deals with the analysis of the methane production from Mexico City's urban organic wastes after separating soluble from suspended substances. Water was used to extract soluble substances under three different water to waste ratios and after three extraction procedures. Methane production was measured at 35 °C during 21 days using a commercial methane potential testing device. Results indicate that volatile solids extraction increases with dilution rate to a maximum of 40% at 20 °C and to 43% at 93 °C. The extracts methane production increases with the dilution rate as a result of enhanced dissolved solids extraction. The combined (extract and bagasse) methane production reached, in 6 days, 66% of the total methane produced in 21 days. The highest methane production rates were measured during the first six days.

  4. Solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte for all solid state flexible lithium battery

    Baek, Seung-Wook; Honma, Itaru; Kim, Jedeok; Rangappa, Dinesh


    Solidified lithium conducting hybrid electrolyte is designed and processed to realize the large scale and flexible solid state Li battery satisfying energy capability and safety issue. This paper presents a solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte to obtain commercially-acceptable ionic conductivity and a stable electrochemical window to prevent electrolyte decomposition in Li ion batteries. Li3PO4 coated with solidified [Li][EMI][TFSI] ionic liquid is developed as hybrid electrolyte material. The material has high electrochemical stability on a high-voltage cathode and metallic anode, and the solid electrolyte has high ionic conductivity. This Li3PO4-[Li][EMI][TFSI] hybrid electrolyte has the advantages of long-term operation, safety and flexibility, so it may be suitable for use in high-voltage cathodes and Li anode.

  5. Flexible, Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Synergistic Solid-Solution Effects on Porosity and Sensitivity.

    Liu, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Dong; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Cheng, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Yan-Tong; Ye, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming


    Mixing molecular building blocks in the solid solution manner is a valuable strategy to obtain structures and properties in between the isostructural parent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report nonlinear/synergistic solid-solution effects using highly related yet non-isostructural, phosphorescent Cu(I) triazolate frameworks as parent phases. Near the phase boundaries associated with conformational diversity and ligand heterogeneity, the porosity (+150 %) and optical O2 sensitivity (410 times, limit of detection 0.07 ppm) can be drastically improved from the best-performing parent MOFs and even exceeds the records hold by precious-metal complexes (3 ppm) and C70 (0.2 ppm).

  6. Tunable catalytic activity of solid solution metal-organic frameworks in one-pot multicomponent reactions.

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina María; Gándara, Felipe; Iglesias, Marta; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles


    The aim of this research is to establish how metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) composed of more than one metal in equivalent crystallographic sites (solid solution MOFs) exhibit catalytic activity, which is tunable by virtue of the metal ions ratio. New MOFs with general formula [InxGa1-x(O2C2H4)0.5(hfipbb)] were prepared by the combination of Ga and In. They are isostructural with their monometal counterparts, synthesized with Al, Ga, and In. Differences in their behavior as heterogeneous catalysts in the three-component, one pot Strecker reaction illustrate the potential of solid solution MOFs to provide the ability to address the various stages involved in the reaction mechanism.

  7. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko


    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia.

  8. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Sajeena Beevi, B., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala 680 009 (India); Madhu, G., E-mail: [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India); Sahoo, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India)


    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients

    Wang Jianglin; Guo Ren; Liu Shikun; Chen Qingjie; Zuo Shanru; Yang Meng; Zuo Xiaocong


    Objective Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug,which is widely used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.However,chronic administration of FK506 leads to hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients,and its molecular mechanisms are much more complicated.In this review,we will discuss the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed.The terms "FK506" or "tacrolimus" and "hypertension"were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results There are several molecular mechanisms attributed to FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.First,FK506 binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and removes them from intracellular ryanodine receptors that induce a calcium ion leakage from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.The conventional protein kinase C beta II (cPKCβⅡ)-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase at Thr495,which reduces the production of NO,was activated by calcium ion leakage.Second,transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.Third,the activation of with-no-K(Lys) kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase/thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (WNKs/SPAK/NCC) pathway has a central role in tacrolimus-induced hypertension.Finally,the enhanced activity of renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a crucial role in

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G


    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields.

  11. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  12. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  13. Exophiala jeanselmei infection in solid organ transplant recipients: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Lief, M H; Caplivski, D; Bottone, E J; Lerner, S; Vidal, C; Huprikar, S


    Dematiaceous fungi are an opportunistic pathogen seen in solid organ transplant recipients. We report 2 cases of Exophiala infection and review the medical literature to summarize the spectrum of disease this pathogen can cause in this patient population.

  14. Disparities in solid organ transplantation for ethnic minorities: facts and solutions.

    Higgins, R S D; Fishman, J A


    The Diversity and Minority Affairs Committee of the American Society of Transplantation (AST) convened a symposium to examine organ transplantation in underserved and minority populations. The goals of the meeting included 'benchmarking' of solid organ transplantation among minority populations, review of the epidemiology of end-organ damage, exploration of barriers to transplantation services and development of approaches to eliminate disparities. Participants noted that minority populations were more likely to be adversely affected by limited preventive medical care, lack of counseling regarding transplant options, and delays in transplant referrals for organ transplantation. These features largely reflect economic disadvantage as well as the reduced presence of minority professionals with training in transplant-related specialties. Participants in the conference noted that recent changes in organ allocation policies had improved access to minority individuals once listed for renal transplantation. Similar advances will be needed for other organs to address inequities in pretransplant care and underrepresentation of minorities among transplant professionals. The biologic basis of differences in transplant outcomes for minority recipients has not been adequately studied. Research funds must be targeted to address biologic mechanisms underlying disparate transplant outcomes including the impacts of environment, education, poverty and lifestyle choices.

  15. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients.

  16. Some considerations on the current debate about typing resolution in solid organ transplantation.

    Vogiatzi, Paraskevi


    The shortage of suitable organs and achieved tolerance are uncontested main concerns in transplantation. Long waiting lists for deceased donors and limited numbers of living donors are the current scenarios. Kidney grafts from living donors have better overall survival compared to cadaveric and require less aggressive immunosuppressive regimens. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) labs have the key role to test the recipient and donors compatibility based on typing and antibody profile. The current standard molecular procedure in solid organ transplantation is low-resolution typing, at the antigen level. In this commentary, the merits of high versus low degree of typing resolution in solid organ transplantation are discussed. Critical questions and reasons to bring high-resolution typing as a routine test in health system are considered. Specifically, with the introduction of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) in HLA, the pros and cons in living donation and benefits after deceased donation are critically evaluated. NGS has the potential to improve the transplant rates and the overall graft survival. Alternative strategies to increase in demanding the number of transplants are briefly highlighted.

  17. Crystallization of organically templated phosphomolybdate cluster-based solids from aqueous solution

    Minakshi Asnani; Dinesh Kumar; T Duraisamy; Arunachalam Ramanan


    The paper reports the synthesis and structural characterization of several organic-inorganic solids involving phosphomolybdate clusters. The Strandberg-type {P2Mo$^{\\text{VI}}_{5}$O23} and the lower-valent {P4Mo$^{V}_{6$O31} cluster based solids were isolated in the presence of (ethylenediamine) by controlling pH of the reaction medium. The lower-valent cluster invariably requires the presence of a suitable metal cation for further stabilization. A detailed investigation of the system was carried out where three different weak acids viz. oxalic acid, succinic acid and glycine were used in the entire pH range (1-12). Our results establish that the organic amine () is alone capable of reducing the molybdenum core in the absence of an organic acid at a suitable pH. Hence, pH of the reaction medium combined with suitable temperature favours the formation of lower-valent phosphomolybdate cluster. Higher pH favours the precipitation of a new sodium hydrogen phosphate.

  18. Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery in Patients With Previous Solid Organ Transplantation (Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas).

    Vargo, Patrick R; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Johnston, Douglas R; Smedira, Nicholas G; Moazami, Nader; Blackstone, Eugene H; Soltesz, Edward G


    A growing number of solid organ transplant survivors require surgery for cardiac disease. We examined the effect of having a previous transplant on outcomes after cardiac surgery in these patients from a population-based perspective. Of 1,709,735 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, or thoracic aorta surgery from 2004 to 2008 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 3,535 patients (0.21%) had a previous organ transplant (2,712 kidney, 738 liver, 300 pancreas). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to determine the effect of a previous solid organ transplant on outcomes. In-hospital mortality rate was 7% for patients who underwent transplantation versus 4% for patients who did not undergo transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 2.38). Patients who underwent transplantation were at an increased risk for acute renal failure (OR 1.62, CI 1.36 to 1.94) and blood transfusions (OR 1.63, CI 1.36 to 1.95). Median length of stay was longer (10 vs 9 days), with greater median total charges ($111,362 vs $102,221; both p mortality after cardiac surgery. Renal protective strategies and bleeding control should be stressed to mitigate complications.

  19. The Use of Statins in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Schlösser, Hans; Kisner, Tulay; Stippel, Dirk L; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael


    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and solid organ transplantation have become established treatments offered to patients for whom there are otherwise no curative treatment options. Unfortunately, these therapeutic modalities are associated with severe complications that limit its applicability. Alloimmunity is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after both organ transplantation and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and represents a major barrier to the more wide-spread use of these treatment modalities. Statins are a class of lipid-lowering drugs, which also posses immunomodulatory effects. Results from preclinial research and early-stage clinical studies indicate that treatment with statins could be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease and transplant rejection. In addition to preventing graft-versus-host disease or graft rejection statins possess several other effects that might prove beneficial in the setting of transplantation, such as cardiovascular protection and antineoplastic activity. Here we summarize the current knowledge about the immunomodulatory effects of statins and discuss the clinical implications for their use in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation or solid organ transplantation.

  20. Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection among Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Donnelly, John P.; Wang, Henry E.; Locke, Jayme E.; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Safford, Monika M.; Baddley, John W.


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a considerable health issue in the United States, and represents the most common healthcare-associated infection. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of CDI, which can impact graft as well as patient survival. However, little is known about the impact of CDI on health services utilization post-transplant. We examined hospital-onset CDI from 2012-2014 among transplant recipients in the University HealthSystem Consortium, which includes academic medical center-affiliated hospitals in the US. Infection was five times more common among transplant recipients compared to general inpatients (209 vs. 40 per 10,000 discharges) and factors associated with CDI among transplant recipients included transplant type, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and inpatient complications. Institutional risk-standardized CDI varied more than three-fold across high-volume hospitals (infection ratio 0.54-1.82; median 1.04; interquartile range 0.78-1.28). CDI was associated with increased 30-day readmission, transplant organ complications and cytomegalovirus infection, inpatient costs, and lengths of stay. Total observed inpatient days and direct costs for those with CDI were substantially higher than risk-standardized expected values (40,094 vs. 22,843 days; $198,728,368 vs. $154,020,528 costs). Further efforts to detect, prevent, and manage CDI among solid organ transplant recipients are warranted. PMID:26484839

  1. Solid-Phase Organic Chemistry: Synthesis of 2β-(HeterocyclylthiomethylPenam Derivatives on Solid Support

    Ernesto G. Mata


    Full Text Available The synthesis of 2β-(heterocyclylthiomethylpenam derivatives on solid support has been developed. Compounds are obtained in good to high yields (based on loading of the original resin. The key step is the solid-phase double rearrangement of the corresponding penicillin sulfoxide.

  2. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino


    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (γ), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low γ values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched

  3. Radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary aspergillosis following solid organ transplant

    Park, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.B. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Lee, Y.K. [Department of Radiology, Bundang CHA Hospital, University of Pocheon Jungmoon College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Do, K.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.-W.; Song, K.S. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)


    Aim: To evaluate the radiological and clinical findings in patients with pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation. Materials and methods: This study included 13 consecutive patients (five liver, four kidney, and four heart transplant; 10 male and three female; median age 54 years; range 13-63 years) with histologically confirmed pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation at a tertiary referral hospital. Chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for diagnosis were available in all patients. Radiological findings, such as lesion characteristics, location, and associated findings, were assessed retrospectively by two radiologists. The changes in radiological findings and clinical response after treatment were also assessed. Clinical findings, such as time of onset, initial symptoms, clinical course, and laboratory findings, were reviewed. Results: The most common radiographic and CT findings were pulmonary nodules or masses (n = 12). The number of nodules or masses was less than 10 in eight patients. Associated findings were surrounding ground-glass opacity (n = 4), central low density (n = 8), central air cavity (n = 5), and air bronchogram (n = 3). Follow-up radiographs and/or CT after treatment showed improvement in eight patients, persistence in two, and deterioration in three. The onset time of pulmonary aspergillosis was a median of 32 days (range 15-165 days). The most common symptom at diagnosis was fever (n = 6). Ten of 13 patients did not have leucopaenia. There were two aspergillosis-associated deaths during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The most common radiological finding of pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation is multiple nodules or masses, which commonly appear within 1 month following transplantation.

  4. Race, Calcineurin Inhibitor Exposure, and Renal Function After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Yessayan, L; Shafiq, A; Peterson, E; Wells, K; Hu, Y; Williams, L K; Lanfear, D


    Calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity frequently complicates transplantation. African-Americans are at a greater risk of renal failure than the general population. We investigated whether race was an effect modifier of the relationship between CNI exposure and kidney function after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This is a retrospective cohort study of 1609 patients who underwent initial nonrenal solid organ transplantation between January 2000 and June 2012. A central repository administrative database was queried electronically for demographics, comorbidities, and serial levels of tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and serum creatinine. Predictors of interest were total drug exposure of tacrolimus and cyclosporine (area under the concentration-time curve) and self-reported race. The outcome of interest was cumulative change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There were 1109 patients treated with tacrolimus (271 African-Americans) and 500 patients treated with cyclosporine (113 African Americans). A decline in GFR over time was seen with total tacrolimus exposure (-1.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for every 5 ng/mL·year increase in tacrolimus) and total cyclosporine exposure (-1.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for every 50 ng/mL·year increase in cyclosporine). However, total CNI exposure effect on estimated GFR changes did not vary by race (P interaction was 0.9 for tacrolimus and 0.6 for cyclosporine). Total CNI exposure is associated with worsening kidney function among patients with nonrenal solid organ transplantation. However, African-American patients are not more vulnerable to chronic CNI-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to white patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan


    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...... was to determine the seasonal (summer and winter) variation and human health risk assessment of VCs in the ambient air of different processing units in MSOF at composting plant in China. Average concentration of VCs was 58.50 and 138.03 mg/m3 in summer and winter respectively. Oxygenated compounds were found...

  6. Influenza A H1N1/2009 Infection in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Cabral Galeano, Evelyn; Gavaldà i Santapau, Joan


    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection. A retrospective study was performed in pediatric patients with solid organ transplantation and confirmed influenza A H1N1/2009 infection from June to December 2009, diagnosed in two Spanish teaching. Forty-nine patients were included. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 4 patients (8.2%), and 3 of them required respiratory support. There were no related deaths. Antiviral treatment within 48 hours...

  7. BK polyoma virus infection and renal disease in non-renal solid organ transplantation.

    Kuppachi, Sarat; Kaur, Deepkamal; Holanda, Danniele G; Thomas, Christie P


    BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options.

  8. The Development of Equipment for the Disposal of Solid Organic Waste and Optimization of Its Operation

    Sadrtdinov, Almaz R.; Safin, Rushan G.; Timerbaev, Nail F.; Ziatdinova, Dilyara F.; Saprykina, Natalya A.


    The paper describes the developed system for the thermal utilization of solid organic waste, which can simultaneously process the paper, wood, rubber, plastic, etc. A method for improving the efficiency of the equipment, due to optimization of the gas extraction system was proposed. The influence of the characteristics of installed equipment and modes of their work on energy savings and efficiency of the gas extraction system was also determined. Optimization work which includes the introduction into the exhauster control system of the frequency converter, can save up to 70% of electricity and increases the life of the equipment.

  9. Canadian society of transplantation consensus workshop on cytomegalovirus management in solid organ transplantation final report.

    Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Brennan, Daniel C; Fishman, Jay; Allen, Upton


    The Canadian Society of Transplantation sponsored a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Consensus Working Group that met on March 19, 2003. The objectives of this group were to determine the current burden of CMV-associated disease in the setting of solid organ transplantation in Canada, make recommendations regarding optimal strategies for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CMV infection and disease, highlight gaps in knowledge and outline priorities for research and other initiatives that might further reduce the burden of CMV-associated effects in this setting. This report summarizes the recommendations of the working group including ratings of the strength of evidence supporting the recommendations.

  10. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis associated with solid organ transplantation--review of cases.

    LaFleur, Matthew; Joyner, David; Schlakman, Bruce; Orozco-Castillo, Ludwig; Khan, Majid


    We report the first identified transmission of Balamuthia mandrillaris through solid organ transplantation. Kidneys were transplanted from a donor with presumptive diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Shortly after, the recipients developed neurologic symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain from the donor and both kidney recipients demonstrated multiple ring enhancing lesions with surrounding edema and adjacent leptomeningeal extension. In addition most of the lesions demonstrated signal changes suggesting central hemorrhagic foci. Specimens were tested locally and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Histopathology revealed B. mandrillaris in either brain tissue and/or cerebral spinal fluid in the donor and recipients.

  11. Principles and Applications of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactors for Electrochemical Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants

    Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    The ability to re-cycle halogenated liquid wastes, based on electrochemical hydrodehalogenation (EHDH), will provide a significant economic advantage and will reduce the environmental burden in a number of processes. The use of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) reactor is very attractive for this purpose. Principles and features of electrochemical HDH technology and SPE EHDH reactors are described. The SPE reactor enables selective dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in both aqueous and non-aqueous media with high current efficiency and low energy consumption. The influence of operating conditions, including cathode material, current density, reactant concentration and temperature on the HDH process and its stability are examined.

  12. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Metal–Organic Framework Compounds (MOFs

    Stefan Kaskel


    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy is a well-established method for the investigation of various types of porous materials. During the past decade, metal–organic frameworks have attracted increasing research interest. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has rapidly evolved into an important tool for the study of the structure, dynamics and flexibility of these materials, as well as for the characterization of host–guest interactions with adsorbed species such as xenon, carbon dioxide, water, and many others. The present review introduces and highlights recent developments in this rapidly growing field.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of pediatric abdominal masses

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Gyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [Chonnam University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of clinically suspicious abdominal masses in infants and children, especially in assessing their existence, size, location, origin and internal consistency. Authors analyzed and present ultrasonographic findings of 92 pathologically and/or clinically proven pediatric abdominal masses that were studied and treated in Chonnam University Hospital during recent 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. The most common originating site was kidney (26 cases: 28.3%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (21 cases: 22.8%), genital organ (17 cases: 18.5%), non-renal retroperitoneum (13 cases: 18.5%), hepatobiliary tract (12 cases: 13.0%), and anterior abdominal wall (3 cases: 3.3%) in order to frequency. 2. The most common mass was hydronephrosis (18 cases: 19.6%). Neuroblastoma (7 cases: 7.6%), hepatoblatoma, ovarian teratoma, periappendiceal abscess and abdominal tuberculosis (6 cases: 6.5%, respectively), Wilms tumor (5 cases: 5.4%) were next in order of frequency. 3. The sex distribution is rather similar, that is, male 42 (45.7%) and female 50 (54.3%), but characteristically choledochal cyst (2 cases) and genital mass (17 cases) were found only in females. Considering age distribution, 78 cases (84.8%) were found within the range of one to 15 years of age. The rest, 14 cases (15.2%), were under the age of one year. 4. With ultrasonography, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis could be made easily in every case and we could evaluate its severity and level of obstruction with high accuracy. 5. All Wilms tumor were large, round or oval, sharply marinated and relatively homogeneous solid masses. 6. All neuroblastomas were irregular shaped, poorly defined, heterogeneous solid masses. Tumor calcification and extension across the midline were noted in 6 cases (85.7%) and 5 cases (71.4%), respectively. 7. All periappendiceal abscess had irregular thickened wall and posterior acoustic enhancement; 4 cases (66

  14. A Highly Selective Sensor for Cyanide in Organic Media and on Solid Surfaces

    Belygona Barare


    Full Text Available The application of IR 786 perchlorate (IR-786 as a selective optical sensor for cyanide anion in both organic solution (acetonitrile (MeCN, 100% and solvent-free solid surfaces was demonstrated. In MeCN, IR-786 was selective to two anions in the following order: CN− > OH−. A significant change in the characteristic dark green color of IR-786 in MeCN to yellow was observed as a result of nucleophilic addition of CN− to the fluorophore, i.e., formation of IR 786-(CN, which was also verified by a blue shift in the 775 nm absorbance peak to 430 nm. A distinct green fluorescence emission from the IR-786-(CN in MeCN was also observed, which demonstrated the selectivity of IR-786 towards CN− in MeCN. Fluorescence emission studies of IR-786 showed that the lower detection limit and the sensitivity of IR-786 for CN− in MeCN was 0.5 μM and 0.5 to 8 μM, respectively. The potential use of IR-786 as a solvent-free solid state sensor for the selective sensing and monitoring of CN− in the environment was also demonstrated. On solvent-free solid state surfaces, the sensitivity of the IR-786 to CN− in water samples was in the range of 50–300 μM with minimal interference by OH−.

  15. Removal of organic load and suspended solids from water by electrocoagulation method

    Ilie Pisoi


    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique involving in-situ generation ofcoagulation agents from sacrificial anodes by type of aluminium and iron. In the present study EC hasbeen evaluated as a treatment technology for organic load and suspended solids removal from a realwastewater proceeded from pulp and paper industry, which was characterized by high content of organicload and suspended solids. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process was assessed by monitoringChemical Oxygen Demand (COD and suspended solids (s.s. parameters. Laboratory- scale experimentswere conducted with aluminum anode to assess its efficiency under galvanostatic regime. To establishthe optimum operational parameter selected as current density, the electrolysis was carried out at 50,100 and 200 Am-2. The electrocoagulation process performance was assessed based on the efficiencies ofCOD and s.s. removal correlated with the specific electrical energy consumption. Applying EC processallowed to achieve the COD removal efficiencies ranged between 83.80 and 94.00 % and s.s. removalefficiencies between 87.77 and 95.47 %.

  16. Preparation of fluorescent DNA probe by solid-phase organic synthesis


    Full Text Available Fluorescent DNA probe based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET was prepared by solid-phase organic synthesis when CdTe quantum dots (QDs were as energy donors and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs were as energy accepters. The poly(divinylbenzene core/poly(4-vinylpyridine shell microspheres, as solid-phase carriers, were prepared by seeds distillation-precipitation polymerization with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator in neat acetonitrile. The CdTe QDs and AuNPs were self-assembled on the surface of core/shell microspheres, and then the linkage of CdTe QDs with oligonucleotides (CdTe-DNA and AuNPs with complementary single-stranded DNA (Au-DNA was on the solid-phase carriers instead of in aqueous solution. The hybridization of complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA bonded to the QDs and AuNPs (CdTe-dsDNA-Au determined the FRET distance of CdTe QDs and AuNPs. Compared with the fluorescence of CdTe-DNA, the fluorescence of CdTe-dsDNA-Au conjugates (DNA probes decreased extremely, which indicated that the FRET occurred between CdTe QDs and AuNPs. The probe system would have a certain degree recovery of fluorescence when the complementary single stranded DNA was introduced into this system, which showed that the distance between CdTe QDs and AuNPs was increased.

  17. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea


    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion.

  18. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro


    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  19. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    Carlos José Alvarez-Gallego


    Full Text Available The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC. The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  20. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc; Mircea Beuran


    Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different com-binations of the keywords of“abdominal trauma”,“liver”,“spleen”,“renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  1. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Ionut Negoi


    Full Text Available Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different combinations of the keywords of “abdominal trauma”, “liver”, “spleen”, “renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  2. Cu Binding to Iron Oxide-Organic Matter Coprecipitates in Solid and Dissolved Phases

    Vadas, T. M.; Koenigsmark, F.


    Recent studies indicate that Cu is released from wetlands following storm events. Assymetrical field flow field fractionation (AF4) analyses as well as total and dissolved metal concentration measurements suggest iron oxide-organic matter complexes control Cu retention and release. Coprecipitation products of Fe oxide and organic matter were prepared under conditions similar to the wetland to assess Cu partitioning to and availability from solid phases that settle from solution as well as phases remaining suspended. Cu coprecipitation and sorption to organomineral precipitation solids formed at different Fe:organic carbon (OC) ratios were compared for net Cu removal and extractability. As more humic acid was present during precipitation of Fe, TEM images indicated smaller Fe oxide particles formed within an organic matrix as expected. In coprecipitation reactions, as the ratio of Fe:OC decreased, more Cu was removed from solution at pH 5.5 and below. However, in sorption reactions, there was an inhibition of Cu removal at low OC concentrations. As the pH increased from 5.5 to 7 and as solution phase OC concentration increased, more Cu remained dissolved in both coprecipitation and sorption reactions. The addition of Ca2+, glycine, histidine and citric acid or lowering the pH resulted in more extractable Cu from the coprecipitation compared with the sorption reactions. The variations in Cu extraction were likely due to a combination of a more amorphous structure in CPT products, and the relative abundance of available Fe oxide or OC binding sites. Suspended Fe oxide-organic matter coprecipitates were assessed using AF4 coupled to online TOC analysis and ICP-MS. In laboratory prepared samples, Cu was observed in a mixture of small 1-5 nm colloids of Fe oxide-organic matter precipitates, but the majority was observed in larger organic matter colloids and were not UV absorbing, suggesting more aliphatic carbon materials. In field samples, up to 60% of the dissolved Cu

  3. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisolone and prednisone in solid organ transplantation

    Bergmann, Troels K; Barraclough, Katherine A; Lee, Katie J


    Prednisolone and prednisone are integral components of induction and maintenance immunosuppressive regimens in solid organ transplantation. The pharmacokinetics of these agents are extremely complex. Prednisolone is the active drug moiety while prednisone is both a pro-drug and inactive metabolite...... of prednisolone. Within the dosage range used in transplantation, prednisolone and prednisone exhibit concentration-dependent non-linear pharmacokinetics when parameters are measured with reference to total drug concentration. Dose dependency disappears when free (unbound) prednisolone is measured. Altered organ...... function, changing biochemistry and use of a number of concomitant medicines in transplantation appear to lead to pharmacokinetic differences in transplant recipients compared with other patient groups. Greater than threefold variability in dose-adjusted exposure to total prednisolone in transplant...

  4. Supporting Innovation in Organic Agriculture: A European Perspective Using Experience from the SOLID Project

    Padel, Susanne; Vaarst, Mette; Zaralis, K.


    the alternative framework of innovation systems describing innovation as the outcome of stakeholder interaction and examples from the SOLID (Sustainable Organic Low-Input Dairying) project to discuss the role of farmers, researchers and knowledge exchange for innovation. We used a farmer-led participatory...... quality forage is vitally important, but farmers showed a lack of confidence in the reliability of forage production both in quantity and quality. We conclude that the systems framework improves the understanding of innovation processes in organic agriculture. Farmer-led research is an effective way...... to bring together the scientific approach with the farmers’ practical and context knowledge in finding solutions to problems experienced by farmers and to develop sustainability....

  5. Chemical Hydrolysis and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste

    Yosvany Díaz Domínguez


    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of the macromolecules that compose the organic fraction of municipal solid waste canbe taken for chemical, physical and biological methods, having all as aim the unfolding of the complexmolecules in simplier monomer. Thereby the degradation of organic matter is enhanced and resultsmore efficient the process of biogas via anaerobic. Chemical pretreatments were employed in the workusing sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as reagents.The soluble chemicaloxygen demand (COD, the maximum methane yield and the methane rates production were used toevaluate the pretreatment actions. The degradation of the waste was able to be increased by allowinga comparative analysis to determine the best working conditions for this stage and subsequently itsimpact in the generation of biogas, methane specifically.

  6. Characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and methane production: A review.

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón


    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a viable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. Biogas production mainly depends on the type and amount of organic macromolecules. Based on results from different authors analysing OFMSW from different cities, this paper presents the importance of knowing the OFMSW composition to understand how anaerobic digestion can be used to produce methane. This analysis describes and discusses physical, chemical and bromatological characteristics of OFMSW reported by several authors from different countries and cities and their relationship to methane production. The main conclusion is that the differences are country and not city dependant. Cultural habits and OFMSW management systems do not allow a generalisation but the individual analysis for specific cities allow understanding the general characteristics for a better methane production. Not only are the OFMSW characteristics important but also the conditions under which the methane production tests were performed.

  7. Combination antiviral therapy for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Kallas, Wendy M; Fishman, Jay A


    The resistance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) to ganciclovir is a factor in therapeutic failure and disease progression. The clinical significance of such resistance in solid-organ transplantation has not been completely established. Six patients who developed persistent infection due to ganciclovir-resistant CMV were treated with a combination of ganciclovir (50% of the therapeutic dose) and a daily dose of intravenous foscarnet that gradually increased to a maximum of 125 mg/kg. All patients responded clinically within 72-96 hours. Magnesium depletion occurred in all patients. No clinical or laboratory relapses have been observed in 6-30 months of follow-up. Gradually increasing doses of foscarnet combined with half-dose regimens of ganciclovir are safe and can be beneficial in organ transplant recipients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection. Larger studies are needed to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from this regimen.

  8. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F


    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. State transformations and ice nucleation in glassy or (semi-solid amorphous organic aerosol

    K. J. Baustian


    Full Text Available Glassy or amorphous (semi-solid organic aerosol particles have the potential to serve as surfaces for heterogeneous ice nucleation in cirrus clouds. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy have been used in conjunction with a cold stage to examine water uptake and ice nucleation on individual aqueous organic glass particles at atmospherically relevant temperatures (200–273 K. Three organic compounds considered proxies for atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA were used in this investigation: sucrose, citric acid and glucose. Internally mixed particles consisting of each organic species and ammonium sulfate were also investigated.

    Results from water uptake experiments were used to construct glass transition curves and state diagrams for each organic and corresponding mixture. A unique glass transition point on each state diagram, Tg', was used to quantify and compare results from this study to previous works. Values of Tg' determined for aqueous sucrose, glucose and citric acid glasses were 236 K, 230 K and 220 K, respectively. Values of Tg' for internally mixed organic/sulfate particles were always significantly lower; 210 K, 207 K and 215 K for sucrose/sulfate, glucose/sulfate and citric acid/sulfate, respectively.

    All investigated organic species were observed to serve as heterogeneous ice nuclei at tropospheric temperatures. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on pure organic particles occurred at Sice=1.1–1.4 for temperatures between 235 K and 200 K. Particles consisting of 1:1 organic-sulfate mixtures remained liquid over a greater range of conditions but were in some cases also observed to depositionally nucleate ice at temperatures below 202 K (Sice=1.25–1.38.

    Glass transition curves constructed from experimental data were incorporated into the Community Aerosol Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA along with the

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B


    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  11. Native kidney function after renal transplantation combined with other solid organs in preemptive patients.

    Mosconi, G; Panicali, L; Persici, E; Conte, D; Cappuccilli, M L; Cuna, V; Capelli, I; Todeschini, P; D'Arcangelo, G Liviano; Stefoni, S


    Kidney transplantations combined with other solid organs are progressively increasing in number. There are no guidelines regarding the nephrologic indications for combined transplantations, namely liver-kidney (LKT), or heart-kidney (HKT), in preemptive patients with chronic kidney failure who are not on regular dialysis therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the functional contribution of the native kidneys after preemptive kidney transplantation combined with other solid organs. From 2004, 9 patients (aged 50.3 +/- 8.5 years) with chronic kidney failure (creatinine 2.5 +/- 1.0 mg/dL) caused by polycystic kidney disease (n = 4), vascular nephropathy (n = 2), interstitial nephropathy (n = 1), glomerulonephritis (n = 1), or end-stage kidney disease (n = 1), underwent combined transplantations (8 LKT, 1 HKT). A scintigraphic functional study (Tc-99DMSA or Tc-99mMAG3), was performed at 4 +/- 3 months after transplantation to evaluate the functional contribution of both the native kidneys and the graft. All patients were given immunosuppressive drugs, including a calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus/or cyclosporine). At the time of scintigraphy, renal function in all patients was 1.3 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. The functional contribution of the transplanted kidneys was on average 77 +/- 18%. Only in 1 patient was the contribution of the graft organic nephropathy. In light of our experience, a creatinine clearance transplantation. Close clinical and instrumental assessment pretransplant is essential before proceeding with a combined transplant program to exclude functional forms and to optimize the use of organs.

  12. Impact of Organic Loading Rate on Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Dairy Manure

    Noori M. Cata Saady


    Full Text Available Increasing the feed total solids to anaerobic digester improves the process economics and decreases the volume of liquid effluent from current wet anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to develop a novel psychrophilic (20 °C anaerobic digestion technology of undiluted cow feces (total solids of 11%–16%. Two sets of duplicate laboratory-scale sequence batch bioreactors have been operated at organic loading rates (OLR of 6.0 to 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 (d−1 during 210 days. The results demonstrated that the process is feasible at treatment cycle length (TCL of 21 days; however, the quality of cow feces rather than the OLR had a direct influence on the specific methane yield (SMY. The SMY ranged between 124.5 ± 1.4 and 227.9 ± 4.8 normalized liter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS fed d−1. Substrate-to-inoculum mass ratio (SIR was 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.09, and 1.06 ± 0.07 at OLR of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum d−1, respectively. No volatile fatty acids (VFAs accumulation has been observed which indicated that hydrolysis was the rate limiting step and VFAs have been consumed immediately. Bioreactors performance consistency in terms of the level of SMYs, VFAs concentrations at end of the TCL, pH stability and volatile solids reduction indicates a stable and reproducible process during the entire operation.

  13. Trinuclear Metal Chalcogenide Clusters as Precursors for Superatomic Solids and Cluster Organic Frameworks

    Shott, Jessica Lauren

    Inorganic molecular clusters Ni3(mu3-I) 2(mu2-dppm)3 (1), Ni3(mu 3-Te)2(mu2-dppm)3 (2), Ni3(mu3-Se)2(mu2-dppm) 3 (3), Ni3(mu3-S)2(mu 2-dppm)3 (4), Co4(mu3-S) 4(PPri3)4 (5), and Mo3(mu3-S)2(mu2-S)3(PMe 3)6 (6) have been used as building block precursors in the formation of binary superatomic solids with fullerenes (1-6•C 60). These solids are crystallized from solution and charge transfer from the electron-rich molecular cluster precursors to fullerene was confirmed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Structural data for these superatomic solids was obtained using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and suggests that their assembly is directed by noncovalent interactions. Close-contacts, reminiscent of halogen bonds, between cluster capping ligands and fulleride anions are observed in the solid state. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and two-probe conductivity measurements indicate that compounds 1•C60 and 2•C 60 are paramagnetic and one hundred times more conductive than the constituent cluster precursors. Additionally, derivatives of molecular clusters 5 and 6 have been synthesized and investigated for use as superatomic secondary building units for 2D and 3D cluster organic frameworks. Characterization of these novel building blocks was accomplished using NMR spectroscopy as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and XRD analysis.

  14. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro


    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  15. DNA display III. Solid-phase organic synthesis on unprotected DNA.

    David R Halpin


    Full Text Available DNA-directed synthesis represents a powerful new tool for molecular discovery. Its ultimate utility, however, hinges upon the diversity of chemical reactions that can be executed in the presence of unprotected DNA. We present a solid-phase reaction format that makes possible the use of standard organic reaction conditions and common reagents to facilitate chemical transformations on unprotected DNA supports. We demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy by comprehensively adapting solid-phase 9-fluorenylmethyoxycarbonyl-based peptide synthesis to be DNA-compatible, and we describe a set of tools for the adaptation of other chemistries. Efficient peptide coupling to DNA was observed for all 33 amino acids tested, and polypeptides as long as 12 amino acids were synthesized on DNA supports. Beyond the direct implications for synthesis of peptide-DNA conjugates, the methods described offer a general strategy for organic synthesis on unprotected DNA. Their employment can facilitate the generation of chemically diverse DNA-encoded molecular populations amenable to in vitro evolution and genetic manipulation.

  16. Systematic review of melanoma incidence and prognosis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Dahlke, Erin; Murray, Christian Alexander; Kitchen, Jessica; Chan, An-Wen


    Cutaneous melanoma carries the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality in the solid organ transplant population. We systematically reviewed the literature published from January 1995 to January 2012 to determine the overall relative risk and prognosis of melanoma in transplant recipients. Our search identified 7,512 citations. Twelve unique non-overlapping studies reported the population-based incidence of melanoma in an inception cohort of solid organ transplant recipients. Compared to the general population, there is a 2.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 2.9) increased incidence of melanoma after transplantation. No population-based outcome data were identified for melanoma arising post-transplant. Data from non-population based cohort studies suggest a worse prognosis for late-stage melanoma developing after transplantation compared with the general population. For patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma, one population-based study reported a local recurrence rate of 11% (2/19) after transplantation, although staging and survival information was lacking. There is a need for population-based data on the prognosis of melanoma arising pre- and post-transplantation. Increased incidence and potentially worse melanoma outcomes in this high-risk population have implications for clinical care in terms of prevention, screening and reduction of immunosuppression after melanoma development post-transplant, as well as transplantation decisions in patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma.

  17. Hydrolysis and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Del Borghi, A.; Converti, A.; Palazzi, E.; Del Borghi, M. [Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Genoa University, Via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)


    An attempt is presented and discussed to adapt a well-known process successfully employed in the U.S.A. for the simultaneous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSWOF) and sewage sludge to the particular situation of water works in Italy. It consists of preliminary domestic grinding of MSWOF, its discharge into the sewer, screening, and final digestion of the resulting residue together with sewage sludge. In order to avoid extension work of the present activated sludge sections necessary to face the organic load increase, a fine screening is necessary, while the efficiency of anaerobic digestion can be improved by shifting the system from mesophilic (37 C) to thermophilic (55 C) conditions. The effects of thermal, chemical, and biological pretreatments of both MSWOF and sewage sludge on methane, carbon dioxide, and biogas productions are investigated either separately or jointly. During these pretreatments, volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentration remarkably decreased while soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased as the result of the progressive hydrolysis of the polymeric materials present in the feed. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis of these materials are estimated and compared in order to provide useful information on the factors limiting the anaerobic digestion as well as to suggest the best way to carry out the process on a large scale. (orig.) With 8 figs., 7 tabs., 20 refs.

  18. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N


    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  19. Effect of blood components, abdominal distension, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of posterior midgut epithelial cells and perimicrovillar membranes in Rhodnius prolixus

    JM Albuquerque-Cunha


    Full Text Available The effects of blood components, nerve-cord severance, and ecdysone therapy on the posterior midgut epithelial cells of 5th-instar Rhodnius prolixus nymphs 10 days after feeding were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Cutting the nerve-cord of the blood-fed insects partially reduced the development of microvilli and perimicrovillar membranes (PMM, and produced large vacuoles and small electrondense granules; insects fed on Ringer's saline diet exhibited well developed microvilli and low PMM production; swolled rough endoplasmatic reticulum and electrondense granules; Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone led to PMM development, glycogen particles, and several mitochondria in the cytoplasm; epithelial cells of the insects fed on Ringer's saline meal whose nerve-cord was severed showed heterogeneously distributed microvilli with reduced PMM production and a great quantity of mitochondria and glycogen in the cytoplasm; well developed microvilli and PMM were observed in nerve-cord severed insects fed on Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone; Ringer's saline diet containing hemoglobin recovered the release of PMM; and insects fed on human plasma showed slightly reduced PMM production, although the addition of ecdysone in the plasma led to a normal midgut ultrastructural organization. We suggest that the full development of microvilli and PMM in the epithelial cells depends on the abdominal distension in addition to ingestion of hemoglobin, and the release of ecdysone.

  20. Blunt abdominal trauma in adults: role of CT in the diagnosis and management of visceral injuries. Part 2: Gastrointestinal tract and retroperitoneal organs

    Becker, C.D.; Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, Division of Abdominal Surgery, Geneva University Hospital, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Schmidlin, F. [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Geneva University Hospital, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)


    Computed tomography plays an important role in the detection and management of blunt visceral injuries in adults. Current standard examination techniques enable detection of the majority of perforating or devascularizing bowel injuries, although diagnostic findings are often subtle and meticulous inspection is required. Computed tomography may demonstrate pancreatic contusions and lacerations and help in distinguishing minor traumatic lesions without involvement of the pancreatic duct (organ injury scale, grades I and II) from deep lacerations with ductal involvement (grades III and V). Computed tomography enables distinguishing renal contusions and minor cortical lacerations that can usually be managed conservatively (injuries of grades I-III) from corticomedullary lacerations and injuries of the major renal vessels (grades IV and V) that have a less favorable prognosis and more commonly require surgical repair. In addition, CT is well suited for the detection of active renal hemorrhage and guidance of transcatheter embolization treatment and delineation of preexisting benign or malignant pathologies that may predispose to posttraumatic hemorrhage. The radiologist`s awareness of the diagnostic CT findings of abdominal visceral injuries as well as their clinical and surgical implications are important prerequisites for optimal patient management. (orig.) With 11 figs., 5 tabs., 56 refs.

  1. Co-composting solid swine manure with pine sawdust as organic substrate.

    Zhang, Yun; He, Yong


    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the evolution of the principal physicochemical properties, i.e., bulk temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content, total organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, in co-composting pine sawdust with increasing percentages of fresh solid swine manure, and thus to evaluate the most desirable manure proportion for producing organic substrates in consideration of the quality of the resulted compost. The composting was in four identical 100.5l lab vessels, using 5% each tea leaves and herb residues as conditioners. The swine manure was added in the trials at 20%, 30%, 40%, respectively, and was substituted in the control with 30% lake sludge corrected by 0.5% urea. The initial humidity of each treatment was 60+/-2%. While being aerated actively at approximately 0.3m(3)/min at intervals of 10 min/h, the mixture was composted for 29 days. The results indicated that N and P decomposition primarily occurred in the mesophilic phase, while organic carbon decomposed in the thermophilic phase and 30% swine manure with initial C/N ratio of about 40 was more desirable for composting organic substrates.

  2. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Sajeena Beevi, B; Madhu, G; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day(-1).




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 1. to evaluate the impact of blunt abdominal trauma on the Solid abdominal viscera’s, hollow viscera’s, mesentery and Retroperitoneal structures and various modes of presentation in early diagnosis. 2. To evaluate various modalities of management and complications. BACKGROUND DATA: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the most common injuries caused mainly by road traffic accidents. They are usually not obvious. Hence, often missed unless, strong suspicion. In view of increasing number of motor vehicles and consequently road traffic accidents, this study has been chosen to study the cases of injury to solid organs in blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of blunt injury abdomen during the period from September 2010 to September 2013. Number of cases studied is 100. Data were collected from the Patients by their clinical history, examination and appropriate investigations. Post-operative follow-up was done to note for complications. Documentation of patients, which included, identification, history, clinical findings, diagnostic test, operative findings, operative procedures, complications during the stay in the hospital and during subsequent follow-up period, were all recorded on a proforma specially prepared. The decision for operative or non-operative management depended on the outcome of the Hemodynamic status and Computed Tomography. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to 11 to 20 years age group, followed by 21-30 years age group. 91 cases were males, with females accounting for only about 9 cases. 74 patients were operated and 26 patients were subjected for non- operative management. Road traffic accident was responsible for 62% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, while fall from heights accounted for 27% of cases and blow with blunt object was responsible for 11% of injuries. Majority of the patients presented with abdominal pain (90% and abdominal tenderness (82%. Average latent

  4. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  5. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    Although over the past decade the management of invasive fungal infection has improved, considerable controversy persists regarding antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. To identify the key clinical knowledge and make by consensus the high level recommendations required for antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously and by e-mail with 30 national multidisciplinary experts, specialists in invasive fungal infections from six national scientific societies, including intensivists, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases that responded to 12 questions prepared by the coordination group, after an exhaustive review of the literature in the last few years. The level of agreement achieved among experts in each of the categories should be equal to or greater than 70% in order to make a clinical recommendation. In a second term, after extracting the recommendations of the selected topics, a face-to-face meeting was held with more than 60 specialists who were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations and derived algorithm. Echinocandin antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant with major risk factors (retransplantation, renal failure requiring dialysis after transplantation, pretransplant liver failure, not early reoperation, or MELD>30); heart transplant with hemodialysis, and surgical re-exploration after transplantation; environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; and pancreas and intestinal transplant in case of acute graft rejection, hemodialysis, initial graft dysfunction, post-perfusion pancreatitis with anastomotic problems or need for laparotomy after transplantation. Antifungal fluconazole prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant without major risk factors and MELD 20-30, split or living

  6. Outcomes of Foot and Ankle Surgery in Diabetic Patients Who Have Undergone Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Zou, Richard H; Wukich, Dane K


    Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Increased rates of surgical site infections and noninfectious complications, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, and hardware failure, have also been more commonly observed in diabetic patients who undergo foot and ankle surgery. DM is a substantial contributor of perioperative morbidity in patients with solid organ transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, postoperative foot and ankle complications have not been studied in a cohort of diabetic patients who previously underwent solid organ transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery in a cohort of diabetic transplant patients and to compare these outcomes with those of diabetic patients without a history of transplantation. We compared the rates of infectious and noninfectious complications after foot and ankle surgery in 28 diabetic transplant patients and 56 diabetic patients without previous transplantation and calculated the odds ratios (OR) for significant findings. The diabetic transplant patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery in the present cohort were not at an increased risk of overall complications (OR 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33 to 2.08, p = .67), infectious complications (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.09, p = .49), or noninfectious complications (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.41 to 3.15, p = .81). Four transplant patients (14.3%) died of non-orthopedic surgery-related events during the follow-up period; however, no deaths occurred in the control group. Diabetic patients with previous solid organ transplantation were not at an increased risk of developing postoperative complications after foot and ankle surgery, despite being immunocompromised. The transplant patients had a greater mortality rate, but their premature death was unrelated to their foot and ankle surgery. Surgeons treating transplant patients can recommend foot and ankle surgery when

  7. The activation energy of conductivity in organic solids and liquids in relation to the cohesive energy density

    Vijh, A. K.

    The study of Gutmann and Keyzer (1980) of the possible existence of a relationship between solid-state cohesion and the band gaps of binary organic semiconductors is pursued. It is found that Vijh's equation for inorganic semiconductors has an analog that is valid for all organic semiconductors (molecular solids, liquids, monomeric polymers and molten crystals) except those in which either protonic conduction predominates or some structural/configurational considerations leading to anomalously low solid-state cohesion are present. For the data reported by Gutmann and Keyzer, a relation is given for the activation energy for dark conduction. It is pointed out that the conceptual foundation for Vijh's equation and this relation is the same; that is, higher solid-state cohesion is reflected in high magnitudes of the band gap and the activation energy for dark conduction.

  8. Effects of Total Dissolved Solids on Aquatic Organisms: A Review of Literature and Recommendation for Salmonid Species

    P. K. Weber-Scannell; Duffy, L K; Phyllis K. Weber-Scannell; Duffy, Lawrence K.


    Total dissolves solids (TDS) are naturally present in water or are the result of mining or some industrial treatment of water. TDS contain minerals and organic molecules that provide benefits such as nutrients or contaminants such as toxic metals and organic pollutants. Current regulations require the periodic monitoring of TDS, which is a measurement of inorganic salts, organic matter and other dissolved materials in water. Measurements of TDS do not differentiate among ions. The amount of T...

  9. Management of various organic fractions of municipal solid waste via recourse to VFA and biogas generation.

    Khardenavis, Anshuman Arun; Wang, Jing Yuan; Ng, Wun Jern; Purohit, Hemant J


    A hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system was used for anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) consisting of mixed food + fruit waste and vegetable waste. Hydrolysis and acidogenesis potential of the above wastes were evaluated with the aim of producing value-added products in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas recovery. Efficient hydrolysis and acidogenesis of mixed food + fruit waste was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1-3 d with a five-fold increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) followed by VFA production consisting of 50-75% acetic acid. Longer time was required for hydrolysis of vegetable waste with optimum hydrolysis and SCOD generation at 9 d HRT followed by VFA synthesis consisting of 45% acetic acid. Higher inoculum:substrate ratios resulted in improved hydrolysis and acidogenesis rates for vegetable waste in shorter time of 6 d with higher VFA production and increase in acetic acid content to 70%. When acidogenic leachate was fed into methanogenic reactors, detectable biogas production was observed after 25 d with 37-53% SCOD removal from leachate from mixed food + fruit waste and methane production of 0.066-0.1 L g(-1) SCOD removed and methane content of 38%. Though biogas yield from acidogenic leachate from vegetable waste was lower, nearly 94% volatile solids (VS) removal was observed in the reactors thereby providing methane yield of 0.13-0.21 L g(-1) VS consumed. Thus, the study provided a method for generation of value-added products from an otherwise misplaced resource in the form of OFMSW.

  10. Rationing life-saving resources--how should allocation policies be assessed in solid organ transplantation.

    Neuberger, James


    Because the demand for solid organ transplantation exceeds the availability of donated grafts, there needs to be rationing for this life-saving procedures. Criteria for selection of patients to a national transplant list and allocation of donated organs should be transparent yet there is no consistent approach to the development of such guidelines. It is suggested that selection and allocation policies should comply with minimum standards including defining of aims of the allocation process and desired outcome (whether maximizing benefit or utility or ensuring equity of access), inclusion and exclusion criteria, criteria for futility and suspension and removal from the transplant list, appeals processes, arrangements for monitoring and auditing outcomes and processes for dealing with noncompliance. Furthermore, guidelines must be consistent with legislation even though this may compete with public preference. Guidelines must be supported by all stakeholders (including health-care professionals, donor families and potential transplant candidates). However, there must also be flexibility to allow for exceptions and to support innovation and development. © 2011 The Author. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  11. Organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors by ion chromatography after solid-phase extraction

    ZHONG Fu-jin; CHEN Xiao-qing; ZHANG Shu-chao; LI Yue-ping


    A method for the simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors was developed by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, succinate,glutarate, fluoride, chloride and sulfate were separated and determined in 33 min. The samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction, which has high selectivity for removing a large number of metallic ions in the Bayer liquors, and filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane before being injected into the ion chromatographic system. The separation of six organic acids and three inorganic anions was achieved on an IonPac AS11-HC column with KOH as the eluent, and the detection was performed by a conductivity detection mode. No interference is found in the presence of fluorate, chlorate and sulphate when organic acids are determined. The calibration graphs of peak area for all the analytes are linear over a wide range. The relative standard derivation of the peak area of analytes is less than 2.14%. Under optimum conditions the detection ranges from 0.2 to 100.0 mg/L. The average recoveries of the added standards are between 94.3% and 102.8%.

  12. Focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction for the determination of organic biomarkers in beachrocks.

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, L; Arrieta, N; Iturregui, A; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olivares, M; Castro, K; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M


    Beachrocks are consolidated coastal sedimentary formations resulting mainly from the relative rapid cementation of beach sediments by different calcium carbonate polymorphs. Although previous works have already studied the elemental composition and the mineral phases composing these cements, few of them have focused their attention on the organic matter present therein. This work describes an extraction methodology based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE), followed by analysis using large volume injection (LVI) in a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers (hopanes), which can increase and confirm the information obtained so far. This goal has been achieved after the optimization of the main parameters affecting the extraction procedure, such as, extraction solvent, FUSLE variables (amplitude, extraction time and pulse time) and also variables affecting the LVI-PTV (vent time, injection speed and cryo-focusing temperature). The developed method rendered results comparable to traditional extraction methods in terms of accuracy (77-109%) and repeatability (RSD<23%). Finally, the analyses performed over real beachrock samples from the Bay of Biscay (Northern Spain) revealed the presence of the 16 EPA priority PAHs, as well as some organic biomarkers which could increase the knowledge about such beachrock formation.

  13. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Neofytos, D; Fishman, J A; Horn, D; Anaissie, E; Chang, C-H; Olyaei, A; Pfaller, M; Steinbach, W J; Webster, K M; Marr, K A


    Contemporary epidemiology and outcomes of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are not well described. From March 2004 through September 2007, proven and probable IFIs were prospectively identified in 17 transplant centers in the United States. A total 429 adult SOT recipients with 515 IFIs were identified; 362 patients received a single and 67 patients received >or=2 organs. Most IFIs were caused by Candida species (59.0%), followed by Aspergillus species (24.8%), Cryptococcus species (7.0%), and other molds (5.8%). Invasive candidiasis (IC) was the most frequently observed IFI in all groups, except for lung recipients where invasive aspergillosis (IA) was the most common IFI (Ptransplant recipients occurred during the first 100 days post transplant. Over half of IA cases in lung recipients occurred >1 year post transplant. Overall 12-week mortality was 29.6%; liver recipients had the highest mortality (P=0.05). Organ damage, neutropenia, and administration of corticosteroids were predictors of death. These results extend our knowledge on the epidemiology of IFI in SOT recipients, emphasizing the occurrence of IC early after non-lung transplant, and late complications with molds after lung transplant. Overall survival appears to have improved compared with historical reports.

  14. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun


    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I(-), monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I(-), MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixing effect on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.


    This paper examines the effect of mixing on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the start-up phase and in the absence of an acclimated seed. For this purpose, two digesters were used under similar starting conditions and operated for 235days with different mixing schemes. While both digesters exhibited a successful startup with comparable specific methane yield of 0.327 and 0.314l CH 4/gVS, continuous slow stirring improved stability by reducing average VFA accumulation from 2890 to 825mg HAc/l, propionate content from 2073 to 488mg/l, and VFA-to-alkalinity ratio from 0.32 to 0.07. As a result, the startup with slow mixing was faster and smoother accomplishing a higher loading capacity of 2.5gVS/l/d in comparison to 1.9gVS/l/d for non-mixing. Mixing equally improved microbial abundance from 6.6 to 10gVSS/l and enhanced solids and soluble COD removal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Co-digestion of the hydromechanically separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste with sewage sludge.

    Borowski, Sebastian


    This study investigates the anaerobic digestion of the hydromechanically sorted organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (HS-OFMSW) co-digested with sewage sludge (SS). Eight laboratory-scale experiments were conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 15 and 20 days of solids retention time (SRT). The biogas yield from the waste reached 309 to 315 dm(3)/kgVS and 320 to 361 dm(3)/kgVS under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The addition of SS to HS-OFMSW (1:1 by weight) improved the C/N balance of the mixture, and the production of biogas through anaerobic mesophilic digestion increased to 494 dm(3)/kgVS, which corresponded to 316 dm(3)CH4/kgVS. However, when SS and HS-OFMSW were treated under thermophilic conditions, methanogenesis was inhibited by volatile fatty acids and free ammonia, which concentrations reached 5744 gCH3COOH/m(3) and 1009 gNH3/m(3), respectively.

  17. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)


    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  18. Symptomatic chronic strongyloidiasis in children following treatment for solid organ malignancies: case reports and literature review.

    Norsarwany, M; Abdelrahman, Z; Rahmah, N; Ariffin, N; Norsyahida, A; Madihah, B; Zeehaida, M


    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.

  19. Solid organ transplantation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT

    Koenecke, C; Hertenstein, B; Schetelig, J


    To analyze the outcome of solid organ transplantation (SOT) in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a questionnaire survey was carried out within 107 European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers. This study covered HSCT between 1984...... and 2007 in Europe. Forty-five SOT in 40 patients were reported. Fifteen liver, 15 renal, 13 lung, 1 heart and 1 skin transplantations were performed in 28 centers. Overall survival (OS) of patients after SOT was 78% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 64% to 92%). OS at 5 years was 100% for renal......, 71% (95% CI, 46% to 96%) for liver and 63% (95% CI, 23% to 100%) for lung transplant recipients. The 2-year-incidence of SOT failure was 20% (95% CI, 4% to 36%) in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and 7% (95% CI, 0% to 21%) in patients without GvHD before SOT. The relapse incidence...

  20. Broadly tunable (440-670 nm) solid-state organic laser with disposable capsules

    Mhibik, Oussama; Siove, Alain; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sébastien


    An innovative concept of thin-film organic solid-state laser is proposed, with diffraction-limited output and a broad tuning range covering the visible spectrum under UV optical pumping. The laser beam is tunable over 230 nm, from 440 to 670 nm, with a 3 nm full width at half maximum typical spectral width. The structure consists of a compact fixed bulk optical cavity, a polymeric intracavity etalon for wavelength tuning, as well as five different disposable glass slides coated with a dye-doped polymer film, forming a very simple and low-cost gain medium. The use of interchangeable/disposable "gain capsules" is an alternative solution to photodegradation issues, since gain chips can be replaced without realignment of the cavity. The laser lifetime of a single chip in ambient conditions and without encapsulation was extrapolated to be around 107 pulses at a microjoule energy-per-pulse level.

  1. Efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: collection and pretreatment

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Møller, H.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    of the principles of the anaerobic digestion process and to an optimization of its large-scale implementation. In order to get an overview of the current situation concerning the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in Denmark, interviews were carried out with operators of the biogas...... plants where OFMSW is treated and the municipality staff responsible for waste management. With the aim of fulfilling the governmental goal to treat 150 000 tons of OFMSW by the year 2004 mainly by anaerobic digestion, the different municipalities are investigating different concepts of waste collection...... and treatment. The quality of the OFMSW treated is the key to smooth operation of the biogas process including a high biogas yield and production of an effluent that is feasible for use as fertilizer on agricultural land. Comparison of the different concepts leads to the conclusion that source-sorting of OFMSW...

  2. Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenomic Differences between Adults and Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Amy Lu


    Full Text Available Tacrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant that has seen considerable use in both adult and pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Though there is much pharmacokinetic data available for tacrolimus in the adult population, the literature available for children is limited. Furthermore, very little is known about the pharmacogenomic differences in the two patient groups. Based on what information is currently available, clinically significant differences may exist between the two populations in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. In addition, inherent physiological differences exist in the young child including: less effective plasma binding proteins, altered expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein, and increased expression of phase 1 metabolizing enzymes, therefore one would expect to see clinically significant differences when administering tacrolimus to a child. This paper examines available literature in an attempt to summarize the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic variability that exists between the two populations.

  3. Nocardia thailandica Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a Post-Solid Organ Transplant Patient.

    Canterino, Joseph; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vientos, Wilson; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wallace, Richard J; Campbell, Sheldon


    Nocardia thailandica is a rare pathogen related to Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia neocaledoniensis, and Nocardia caishijiensis that, since its original description in 2004, has only been reported to cause wound and ocular infections in humans. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia thailandica in a 66-year-old solid organ transplant patient from Connecticut, which was identified at the molecular taxonomic level by secA1 analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of N. thailandica in the United States and the first report of pulmonary infection by this pathogen in the literature.

  4. Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Clostridium difficile colitis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Friedman-Moraco, R J; Mehta, A K; Lyon, G M; Kraft, C S


    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be safe and efficacious in individuals with refractory Clostridium difficile. It has not been widely studied in individuals with immunosuppression due to concerns about infectious complications. We describe two solid organ transplant recipients, one lung and one renal, in this case report that both had resolution of their diarrhea caused by C. difficile after FMT. Both recipients required two FMTs to achieve resolution of their symptoms and neither had infectious complications. Immunosuppressed individuals are at high risk for acquisition of C. difficile and close monitoring for infectious complications after FMT is necessary, but should not preclude its use in patients with refractory disease due to C. difficile. Sequential FMT may be used to achieve cure in these patients with damaged microbiota from antibiotic use and immunosuppression. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Influence of temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal organic solid waste


    A laboratory-scale experiment was carried out to assess the influence of temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal organic solid waste (MOSW). Heating failure was simulated by decreasing temperature suddenly from 55 ℃ to 20 ℃ suddenly; 2 h time is needed for temperature decrease and recovery. Under the conditions ofS.0 g/(L·d) and 15 d respectively for MOSW load and retention time, following results were noted: (1) biogas production almost stopped and VFA (volatile fatty acid) accumulated rapidly, accompanied by pH decrease; (2) with low temperature (20 ℃) duration of 1, 5, 12 and 24 h, it took 3, 11, 56 and 72 h for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion system to reproduce methane after temperature fluctuation;(3) the longer the low temperature interval lasted, the more the methanogenic bacteria would decay; hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis were all influenced by temperature fluctuation; (4) the thermophilic microorganisms were highly resilient to temperature fluctuation.

  6. Separation of inerts by differential sedimentation as previous stage to anaerobic digestion of organic fraction from municipal solid waste

    Gonzalez, C.; Martinez, V.; Esplugas, P.


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants have as main function the valuation of municipal waste by means of materials recovery and valuation of organic fraction. In this type of facilities, the anaerobic digestion is a biological treatment of the organic matter collected in origin or mechanically separated from the mixed MSM. The objective is its valuation under the form of biogas and organic compost. Anaerobic digestion has high energy efficiency and a good range or organic matter elimination. Nevertheless, treatment of organic matter recovered from mixed MSW presents serious operation problems due to sedimentation of heavy improper materials (sands, glasses, metals) and flotation of light materials inside the digestors and piping. (Author)

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Sosnowski, P.; Wieczorek, A.; Ledakowicz, S. [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering


    The paper presents the results of investigation of methane fermentation of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) as well as the co-fermentation of both substrates under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. In the first experiment the primary sludge and thickened excess activated sludge were fed into a 40 dm{sup 3} bioreactor operated thermophilically. The second co-fermentation experiment was conducted with the mixture of sewage sludge (75%) and OFMSW (25%) in the same bioreactor arrangement. The other three experiments (III and IV, V) were carried out in quasi-continuous mode in two separated stages: acidogenic digestion in the continuous stirred tank bioreactor under thermophilic conditions (56{sup o}C) and mesophilic methane fermentation (36{sup o}C). The third experiment was conducted with the substrate-OFMSW only, in the fourth run sewage sludge from a municipal water treatment plant was used. In the fifth experiment a mixture of sewage sludge and OFMSW was used. In all experiments the following data were determined: biogas content and productivity, pH, total suspended and volatile solids, elemental content (C, H, N, S) of sludge, OFMSW and inoculum, total organic carbon, total alkalinity and volatile fatty acid content. Comparing the elemental analysis of sewage sludge and OFMSW it is evident that N content is higher in the sludge than in the OFMSW, however, the carbon content relation is the opposite, which may be beneficial to methane yield of co-digestion. Methane concentration in the biogas was above 60% in all cases. Biogas productivity varied between 0.4 and 0.6 dm{sup 3}/g VSS{sub add} depending on substrate added to the digester. The obtained results are generally consistent with literature data. (author)

  8. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression

    Turner LD


    Full Text Available Liam Daniel Turner,1 Peter Beckingsale1,2,31Princess Alexandra Hospital; 2Terrace Eye Centre; 3Laser Sight, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.Methods: A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL. The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following week.Results: The patient showed resolution of the epithelial defect, but did have significant corneal toxicity associated with the use of the trifluridine. At 8 weeks, the patient had some stromal shadowing associated with the recent active infection, but symptoms had settled.Conclusion: This case documents the effective use of topical trifluridine in proven acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis. It highlights three things: (1 the importance of considering topical trifluridine as an alternative to topical acyclovir in unresponsive disease; (2 the need to consider solid-organ transplant recipients in the immunocompromised population with resistant herpetic disease, and (3 the need to look for alternatives to treatment of resistant herpetic disease.Keywords: acyclovir resistance, herpetic keratitis, trifluridine

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Solid Organ Transplantation1

    Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Subramanian, Aruna K.; Cameron, Andrew M.; Engels, Eric A.


    Background Solid organ transplant recipients commonly are infected with hepatitis viruses, are immunosuppressed, and have other potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors. Methods We studied de novo HCC incidence arising after transplant using U.S. registry data (223,660 recipients, 1987–2005). We used proportional hazards regression to identify HCC risk factors and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare HCC risk to that in the general population. Results Based on 74 cases reported by transplant centers to the registry, HCC incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 person-years among kidney, heart, and lung (non-liver) recipients and 25 per 100,000 person-years among liver recipients. HCC incidence among non-liver recipients was independently associated with hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) (hazard ratio [HR] 9.7, 95%CI 2.8–33), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR 6.9, 95%CI 2.5–19), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.8, 1.2–6.6). Among liver recipients, HCC incidence was associated with advancing age (p<0.001), male sex (HR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4–16), HCV infection (HR 3.1, 1.3–7.2), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.7, 1.2–6.2). Among non-liver recipients, overall HCC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR 0.8) but elevated among those with HCV (3.4) or HBsAg (6.5). HCC incidence among liver transplant recipients was elevated overall (SIR 3.4) and especially among those with HCV (5.0) or diabetes mellitus (6.2). Conclusions HCC incidence is elevated among liver transplant recipients and subsets of non-liver recipients. These risk factors indicate the need for improved control of viral hepatitis following solid organ transplantation. PMID:18813102

  10. Microwave-Assisted Solid Phase Organic Synthesis.Application to Indole Library Construction

    DAI Wei-Min; SUN Li-Ping; GUO Dian-Shun; HUANG Xiang-Hong


    Microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has attained increasing popularity due to recent advancement in the instrumentation of microwave technology. Now, MAOS can be performed under controlled temperature and pressure to yield reproducible results. For combinatorial chemistry,the dramatically increased reaction rate under microwave irradiation at high temperature provides an ideal solution to those sluggish reactions, in particular the combinatorial reactions carried out on solid supports. In this presentation, we describe our results on microwave-assisted solid-phase organic synthesis (MASPOS) applied to the construction of indole libraries such as 5. Compounds 4 were synthesized on the Rink amide resins using IRORI MicroKanTM reactors encoded with a radio-frequency (Rf) tag. The resin-bound terminal alkynes 2, prepared via the amide bond, were cross-coupled with the nitroaryl triflate under the conditions adopted from the solution reactions developed by us1,2. The nitro group of 3 was then reduced and sulfonylated to give 4. Ring closure reactions within 4 with Cu(OAc)2 were examined initially in refluxing DCE for 24 h, but no indole product was detected after cleavage from the resin. Therefore, the same reactions were carried out under microwave irradiation at 200 ℃ for 10 min on a Personal Chemistry Emrys Creator, the desired indoles 5 were obtained in 60-95% overall yields calculated from 1 and in >90% purities in most cases3. It is necessary to mention that the IRORI microreactors cannot tolerate the high temperature and the resin-bound 4 must be transferred to the reaction vials for the microwave-assisted ring closure reactions. A traceless synthesis of an indole library via MASPOS will be discussed as well.4

  11. A review of computerized tomography in blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital

    Bohmer, R.D.; Cowan, I [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand)


    A review was undertaken of computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen, performed between March 1993 and December 1994 for blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital. CT findings were correlated with the clinical outcome. The outcome was either recovery from an abdominal point of view with or without laparotomy, or post mortem. A total of 116 CTs were reviewed, of which 76 were normal. CT was highly sensitive and specific for a variety of abdominal traumatic lesions. there were 1 false positive and 4 false negatives (only 2 of these significant). There was 1 non-therapeutic laparotomy based on CT findings. There was only 1 case of delayed treatment based on CT results. Three patients had unexplained findings of pneumoperitoneum. Care should be taken when interpreting the presence of free intraperitoneal air on CT scan. The possibility of missed bowel perforation should be considered, especially in the presence of free intra-abdominal fluid and no solid organ injury to account for it. CT scans are useful in the conservative management of solid organ injuries. 15 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review


    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  13. Co-digestion of organic solid waste and sludge from sewage treatment.

    Edelmann, W; Engeli, H; Gradenecker, M


    Solid organic wastes were codigested together with sludge of a sewage treatment plant (STP). In the practical part of the study, a plant to pretreat the organic solid wastes provided by local super markets was constructed at the STP of Frutigen, Switzerland. Up to more than 1 cubic metre of wastes was added to the fermenter of the STP every day. Data collected during 14 months of practical works, showed that for raw fruit and vegetable wastes a two step pretreatment is necessary: First the wastes were chopped and afterwards reduced to a size of 1-2 millimetres, in order to get a homogeneous suspension together with the primary sludge. The vegetable wastes showed excellent digestibility: They seemed to accelerate the digestion process as well as to increase the degree of the anaerobic degradation of the sludge. The energy demand for both, pretreatment and digestion, was 85 kWh/ton of fresh wastes. 20% of the energy was used for the hygienization, a step which does not seem to be necessary for this kind of waste in most of the cases, however. After using the gas for energy conversion, a net yield of 65 kWh/ton of electricity and 166 kWh/ton of heat was measured. Treating cooked kitchen wastes, the net energy production will be higher, because in this case a one step pretreatment will be sufficient. The pretreatment and treatment costs for codigestion on STP's were calculated to be in the range of 55 US$/ton treating half a ton per day and 39 US$/ton treating one ton, respectively. A theoretical feasibility study showed that in Switzerland there is a short term potential on STP's for the codigestion of about 120,000 tons of biogenic wastes per year without big investments. Economic studies about codigestion on agricultural biogas plants showed that the codigestion is a must at the current energy prices, which are far too low for agricultural AD without an additional income by treating solid wastes for third parties.

  14. Energy production through organic fraction of municipal solid waste-A multiple regression modeling approach.

    Ramesh, N; Ramesh, S; Vennila, G; Abdul Bari, J; MageshKumar, P


    In the 21st century, people migrated from rural to urban areas for several reasons. As a result, the populations of Indian cities are increasing day by day. On one hand, the country is developing in the field of science and technology and on the other hand, it is encountering a serious problem called 'Environmental degradation'. Due to increase in population, the generation of solid waste is also increased and is being disposed in open dumps and landfills which lead to air and land pollution. This study is attempted to generate energy out of organic solid waste by the bio- fermentation process. The study was conducted for a period of 7 months at Erode, Tamilnadu and the reading on various parameters like Hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, sludge loading rate, influent pH, effluent pH, inlet volatile acids, out let volatile fatty acids, inlet VSS/TS ratio, outlet VSS/TS ratio, influent COD, effluent COD and % of COD removal are recorded for every 10 days. The aim of the present study is to develop a model through multiple linear regression analysis with COD as dependent variable and various parameters like HRT, OLR, SLR, influent, effluent, VSS/TS ratio, influent COD, effluent COD, etc as independent variables and to analyze the impact of these parameters on COD. The results of the model developed through step-wise regression method revealed that only four parameters Influent COD, effluent COD, VSS/TS and Influent/pH were main influencers of COD removal. The parameters influent COD and VSS/TS have positive impact on COD removal and the parameters effluent COD and Influent/pH have negative impact. The parameter Influent COD has the highest order of impact, followed by effluent COD, VSS/TS and influent pH. The other parameters HRT, OLR, SLR, INLET VFA and OUTLET VFA were not significantly contributing to the removal of COD. The implementation of the process suggested through this study might bring in dual benefit to the community, viz treatment of solid

  15. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt


    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  16. Enhancement of abdominal structures on MRI at 1.5 and 3 T: a retrospective intraindividual crossover comparison

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Department of Radiology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Ramalho, Miguel; Velloni, Fernanda; Matos, Antonio P.; Herman, Kevin; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    To quantitatively compare the extent of enhancement of abdominal structures on MRI in an intraindividual fashion at 1.5 and 3 T. HIPAA-compliant, retrospective, longitudinal, intraindividual, crossover study, with waived informed consent, of consecutive individuals scanned at both 1.5 and 3 T closed-bore magnets using gadobenate dimeglumine during different phases of enhancement at tightly controlled arterial phase timing. Quantitative ROI measurements and qualitative sub-phase arterial phase assignments were independently performed by two radiologists. Qualitative discrepancies were resolved by a senior radiologist. Final population included 60 patients [41 female and 19 male; age, 49.35 ± 18.31 years (range 16-81); weight, 78.88 ± 20.3 kg (range 44.5-136)]. Similar enhancement peak patterns were noted at both field strengths. Interobserver agreement of quantitative evaluations was substantial. Significantly higher amplitudes of enhancement peaks were noted for all abdominal solid organs during all phases at 3 T, except for the pancreas (p = 0.17-0.30). Significantly higher amplitudes of enhancement peaks of the abdominal aorta at 1.5 T were noted. Similar peak patterns of enhancement for abdominal structures were observed at 1.5 and 3 T, with solid abdominal organs showing a higher percentage enhancement at 3 T, while unexpectedly higher aortic higher percentage enhancement was observed at 1.5 T. (orig.)

  17. 49 CFR 176.400 - Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides...


    ...) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides) materials. 176.400 Section 176.400 Transportation Other... Solids), Class 5 (Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides), and Division 1.5 Materials § 176.400 Stowage of Division 1.5, Class 4 (flammable solids) and Class 5 (oxidizers and organic peroxides) materials. (a)...

  18. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total dissolve

  19. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    ... this page: // Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  1. The Epidemiology of Intra-Abdominal Flora in Critically III Patients with Secondary and Tertiary Abdominal Sepsis

    de Ruiter, J.; Weel, J.; Manusama, E.; Kingma, W. P.; van der Voort, P. H. J.


    Background: Different micro-organisms can be cultured from abdominal fluid obtained from patients with intra-abdominal infection resulting from a perforated digestive tract. We evaluated a cohort of patients with abdominal sepsis admitted to the intensive care with the aim of obtaining more insight

  2. The Epidemiology of Intra-Abdominal Flora in Critically III Patients with Secondary and Tertiary Abdominal Sepsis

    de Ruiter, J.; Weel, J.; Manusama, E.; Kingma, W. P.; van der Voort, P. H. J.


    Background: Different micro-organisms can be cultured from abdominal fluid obtained from patients with intra-abdominal infection resulting from a perforated digestive tract. We evaluated a cohort of patients with abdominal sepsis admitted to the intensive care with the aim of obtaining more insight

  3. An insight into polarization states of solid-state organic lasers

    Gozhyk, I; Meallet-Renault, R; Dvorko, M; Pansu, R; Audibert, J -F; Brosseau, A; Lafargue, C; Tsvirkun, V; Lozenko, S; Forget, S; Chenais, S; Ulysse, C; Zyss, J; Lebental, M


    The polarization states of lasers are crucial issues both for practical applications and fundamental research. In general, they depend in a combined manner on the properties of the gain material and on the structure of the electromagnetic modes. In this paper, we address this issue in the case of solid-state organic lasers, a technology which enables to vary independently gain and mode properties. Different kinds of resonators are investigated: in-plane micro-resonators with Fabry-Perot, square, pentagon, stadium, disk, and kite shapes, and external vertical resonators. The degree of polarization P is measured in each case. It is shown that although TE modes prevail generally (P>0), kite-shaped micro-laser generates negative values for P, i.e. a flip of the dominant polarization which becomes mostly TM polarized. We at last investigated two degrees of freedom that are available to tailor the polarization of organic lasers, in addition to the pump polarization and the resonator geometry: upon using resonant en...

  4. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from mechanical selection: biological stabilization and recovery options.

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Russo, Lara; Farina, Anna; Belgiorno, Vincenzo


    Although current trends address towards prevention strategies, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is greatly produced, especially in high-income contexts. Its recovery-oriented collection is a common practice, but a relevant portion of the biodegradable waste is not source selected. Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT) are the most common option to sort and stabilize the biodegradable matter ending in residual waste stream. Following the changes of the framework around waste management, this paper aimed at analyzing the quality of the mechanically selected organic waste produced in MBT plants, in order to discuss its recovery options. The material performance was obtained by its composition as well as by its main chemical and physical parameters; biological stability was also assessed by both aerobic and anaerobic methods. On this basis, the effectiveness of an aerobic biostabilization process was assessed at pilot scale. After 21 days of treatment, results proved that the biomass had reached an acceptable biostabilization level, with a potential Dynamic Respirometric Index (DRIP) value lower than the limit required for its use as daily or final landfill cover material. However, the final stabilization level was seen to be influenced by scaling factors and the 21 days of treatment turned to be not so adequate when applied in the existing full-scale facility.

  5. Looking Outside: Summer Camp for Children Who Have Undergone a Solid-Organ Transplant.

    Bilhartz, Jacob L; Drayton, Amy K; Shieck, Victoria L


    A high-quality critical care team is an essential component of any successful organ transplant program. From pretransplant care to the crucial postoperative period, its importance cannot be discounted. However, because of the focused nature of work in an intensive care unit (ICU), all too often members of the ICU team are not able to see and appreciate the ultimate fruits of their labor. These are factors that can contribute to the high rates of burnout and turnover among ICU teams. This article presents the concept of a summer camp for children who have received a solid-organ transplant. We discuss a vehicle by which ICU staff as well as other members of a patient's care team can gain a better appreciation of the full nature of both medical and, perhaps more importantly in this situation, nonmedical goals and outcomes in pediatric transplantation. We review our institutional experience running a summer camp for these children, discuss some of the important points in making such a camp successful, and discuss potential benefits to the campers as well as those taking care of them.

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles for encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs by an organic solvent free double emulsion technique.

    Becker Peres, Luana; Becker Peres, Laize; de Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes; Sayer, Claudia


    Encapsulation of hydrophilic compounds for drug delivery systems with high loading efficiency is not easily feasible and remains a challenge, mainly due to the leaking of the drug to the outer aqueous phase during nanoparticle production. Usually, encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs is achieved by using double emulsion or inverse miniemulsion systems that often require the use of organic solvents, which may generate toxicological issues arising from solvent residues. Herein, we present the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with a hydrophilic compound by a novel organic solvent free double emulsion/melt dispersion technique. The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of important process and formulation variables, such as lipid composition, surfactant type, sonication parameters and lipid solidification conditions over physicochemical characteristics of SLN dispersion. Particle size and dispersity, as well as dispersion stability were used as responses. SLN dispersions with average size ranging from 277 to 550 nm were obtained, showing stability for over 60 days at 4 °C depending on the chosen emulsifying system. Entrapment efficiency of fluorescent dyes used as model markers was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry and results suggest that the obtained lipid based nanoparticles could be potentially applied as a delivery system of water soluble drugs.

  7. Imaging spectrum of central nervous system complications of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

    Server, Andres [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Bargallo, Nuria [Universitat de Barcelona, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Resonance Magnetic Image Core Facility, Barcelona (Spain); Floeisand, Yngvar [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Department of Hematology, Oslo (Norway); Sponheim, Jon [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Graus, Francesc [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Neurology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Neuroimmunology Program, Barcelona (Spain); Hald, John K. [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)


    Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months. Further differentiation will be based on etiology: infections, drug toxicity, metabolic derangements, cerebrovascular complications, and posttransplantation malignancies. In addition, differentiation will be based on complications specific to the type of transplantation: allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), heart, lung, kidney, pancreas, and liver. Thus, in this article we emphasize the strategic role of neuroradiology in the diagnosis and response to treatment by utilizing a methodical approach in the work up of patients with neurologic complications after transplantation. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of multiplex meta analysis techniques for understanding the acute rejection of solid organ transplants

    Khatri Purvesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining the results of studies using highly parallelized measurements of gene expression such as microarrays and RNAseq offer unique challenges in meta analysis. Motivated by a need for a deeper understanding of organ transplant rejection, we combine the data from five separate studies to compare acute rejection versus stability after solid organ transplantation, and use this data to examine approaches to multiplex meta analysis. Results We demonstrate that a commonly used parametric effect size estimate approach and a commonly used non-parametric method give very different results in prioritizing genes. The parametric method providing a meta effect estimate was superior at ranking genes based on our gold-standard of identifying immune response genes in the transplant rejection datasets. Conclusion Different methods of multiplex analysis can give substantially different results. The method which is best for any given application will likely depend on the particular domain, and it remains for future work to see if any one method is consistently better at identifying important biological signal across gene expression experiments.

  9. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    Doucette, Karen; Fishman, Jay A


    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms. In immunocompetent hosts, they are a rare cause of disease. In immunocompromised hosts, disease due to NTM is well documented. Reports of NTM disease have increased in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. This increase may reflect increased numbers of transplants, intensification of immune suppressive regimens, prolonged survival of transplant recipients, and/or improved diagnostic techniques. The difficulty of diagnosis and the impact associated with infections due to NTM in HSCT and SOT recipients necessitates that, to ensure prompt diagnosis and early initiation of therapy, a high level of suspicion for NTM disease be maintained. The most common manifestations of NTM infection in SOT recipients include cutaneous and pleuropulmonary disease, and, in HSCT recipients, catheter-related infection. Skin and pulmonary lesions should be biopsied for histologic examination, special staining, and microbiologic cultures, including cultures for bacteria, Nocardia species, fungi, and mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections associated with catheters may be documented by tunnel or blood (isolator) cultures. Susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates is an essential component of optimal care. The frequent isolation of NTM other than Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from transplant recipients limits the extrapolation of therapeutic data from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals to the population of transplant recipients. Issues involved in the management of NTM disease in transplant recipients are characterized by a case of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex in a lung transplant recipient, with a review of the relevant literature.

  10. Use of organic acids in the composting of municipal solid waste: a pilot-scale study.

    Rosal, A; Chica, A F; Arcos, M A; Dios, M


    Compost made from municipal solid waste (MSW) contains heavy metals that can interfere with the use of organic amendment in soil. In order to find effective ways to reduce the potential risk of heavy metals, we have investigated a novel approach by use of organic acid during MSW composting. Citric and oxalic acid dissolutions (0.25 mol x (-1)) were used at determined ratios (kg dried MSW: cm(3) acid). Cr and Ni concentrations were similar in compost, independent of acid contribution. By contrast, Cu concentrations decreased by 63% (at citric acid ratio 1:15), 65% (at citric acid ratios 1:20 and 1:40) and 83% (at oxalic acid ratio 1:40); furthermore, Pb concentrations reduced by 71% (at citric acid ratios 1:20 and 1:40 and at oxalic acid ratio 1:40) and Zn concentrations reduced by 67% (at citric acid ratios 1:10 and 1:20) and 70% (at oxalic acid ratio 1:40). The total metal mass decreased by an average of 12% in the compost fraction, whereas the total percentage of the residual fraction increased by an average of 20%. The acid addition in the studied ratios improved compost quality without negatively influencing biostabilization.

  11. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-Related A (MICA) Molecules: Relevance in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Baranwal, Ajay Kumar; Mehra, Narinder K.


    solid organ transplantation is yet to be explored. This review summarizes the currently available information on MICA antibodies, soluble MICA, and MICA-129 dimorphism in a setting of solid organ transplantation. PMID:28293239

  12. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Celik Atilla


    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  13. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Amerigo Beneduci


    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  14. Post trauma abdominal cocoon.

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev


    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  15. Heat impact caused molecular level changes in solid and dissolved soil organic matter

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Leinweber, Peter


    The ubiquitous abundance of pyrolysed, highly aromatic organic matter, called "Black Carbon" (BC), in all environmental compartments became increasingly important in different fields of research beyond intensive investigated atmospheric aerosol due to climatic relevance. Its predominant high resistance to abiotic and biotic degradation resulted in turnover times from less than a century to several millennia. This recalcitrance led to the enrichment of BC in soils, accounting for 1-6% (European forest soils) to 60% (Chernozems) of total soil organic matter (SOM). Hence, soil BC acts an important sink in the global carbon cycle. In contrast, consequences for the nitrogen cycle up to date are rather inconsistently discussed. Soil related dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major controlling factor in soil formation, an important pathway of organic matter transport and one of the largest active carbon reservoirs on earth, if considering oceans and other bodies of water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificially simulated wildfire by thermal treatment on the molecular composition of water extractable soil organic matter (DOM). Soils from two outdoor lysimeters with different management history were investigated. Soil samples, non-heated and heated up to 350°C were analyzed for elemental composition (carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) and for bulk molecular composition by Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) at the C- and N K-edges. DOM-samples obtained by hot water extraction, desalting and concentration by solid phase extraction were subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass

  16. Surfactant-Free Solid Dispersions of Hydrophobic Drugs in an Amorphous Sugar Matrix Dried from an Organic Solvent.

    Takeda, Koji; Gotoda, Yuto; Hirota, Daichi; Hidaka, Fumihiro; Sato, Tomo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi


    The technique for homogeneously dispersing hydrophobic drugs in a water-soluble solid matrix (solid dispersion) is a subject that has been extensively investigated in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein, a novel technique for dispersing a solid, without the need to use a surfactant, is reported. A freeze-dried amorphous sugar sample was dissolved in an organic solvent, which contained a soluble model hydrophobic component. The suspension of the sugar and the model hydrophobic component was vacuum foam dried to give a solid powder. Four types of sugars and methanol were used as representative sugars and the organic medium. Four model drugs (indomethacin, ibuprofen, gliclazide, and nifedipine) were employed. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that the sugar and model drug (100:1) did not undergo segregation during the drying process. The dissolution of the hydrophobic drugs in water from the solid dispersion was then evaluated, and the results indicated that the Cmax and AUC0-60 min of the hydrophobic drug in water were increased when the surfactant-free solid dispersion was used. Palatinose and/or α-maltose were superior to the other tested carbohydrates in increasing Cmax and AUC0-60 min for all tested model drugs, and the model drug with a lower water solubility tended to exhibit a greater extent of over-dissolution.

  17. The CT features of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Andronikou, Savvas; Welman, Chris J.; Kader, Ebrahim [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town (South Africa)


    Background: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the incidence and clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB). Little data exist in the paediatric age group regarding abdominal tuberculosis (ATB) and limited reports of its CT features have been published. Purpose: To elucidate the CT features of ATB in children. Materials and methods: The medical records of 22 patients with ATB were reviewed. Data were extracted regarding the methods of diagnosis and HIV status. The plain chest films were examined and the CT scans were assessed for adenopathy, solid organ involvement, ascites, bowel wall and omental thickening and inflammatory masses. Results: Ten patients had biopsy-proven ATB, 11 had extra-abdominal TB with clinical suspicion of ATB and 1 had a positive trial of therapy. Five patients were tested for HIV and one tested positive. Thirteen patients had abnormal chest radiographs. The commonest CT finding was lymphadenopathy (n=17), followed by solid organ involvement (n=12), ascites (n=5), bowel wall thickening (n=5), inflammatory masses (n=2) and omental thickening (n=1). Conclusions: The clinical features of ATB are protean. This usually results in a delay in diagnosis and impacts negatively on patient morbidity and mortality. On CT, the constellation of findings is highly suggestive of the diagnosis of ATB and, used in conjunction with clinical and laboratory data, should narrow the differential considerably. Unique findings include histologically proven active TB in calcified lymph nodes and a pancreatic TB granuloma. (orig.)

  18. Competition Between Organic Matter and Solid Surface for Cation Sorption: Ce and Rare Earth Element as Proxy

    Davranche, M.; Pourret, O.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.


    Aquatic or soil organic matter are well-known to be strong adsorbent of many cations due to their adsorption capacity. Among these cations, the trivalent rare earth element (REE) and particularly Ce seem to be promising tools to investigate the impact of competition in between organic or inorganic ligands. Ce (III) is oxidized into Ce (IV) by oxidative surface such as Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. Since Ce (IV) is preferentially adsorbed (as compared to other REE), a positive and negative Ce anomaly is developed respectively onto the solid and within the solution. Previous studies (Davranche et al., 2004, 2005) highlighted the suppression of this feature when Ce occurs to be complexed with organic matter (as humate species). Recent experiments were designed to evaluate the competition between humate and Mn oxide for REE complexation (each reactant being added simultaneously). Two parameters control the competition: time and pH. While organic matter does adsorb immediately the free REE, a desorption of REE occurs through time. Desorption is marked by the development of a Ce anomaly in the REE pattern that reflects the complexation with Mn oxide surface. Along the time, solid surface becomes thus more competitive than the organic matter. PH still influences the competition since at basic pH, REE and organic matter - probably as REE-organic complexes - are adsorbed onto the solid surface. Ultrafiltration analyses at 5 KD were also performed to separate organic matter and organic complexes from the solution. Results provide evidence that in presence of a solid surface, HREE (high rare earth element) desorption from the organic matter occurs through time. This leads to HREE enrichment in solution. All these results suggest that complexation of organic matter is kinetically favoured as compared to the complexation with solid surfaces. However, the organic complex formed during the first stage of the complexation process involves weak bindings. These bindings are easily broken

  19. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  20. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas; Analise da materia organica presente em residues organicos solidos de origem urbana

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos. E-mail:; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted.

  1. A metal organic framework-polyaniline nanocomposite as a fiber coating for solid phase microextraction.

    Bagheri, Habib; Javanmardi, Hasan; Abbasi, Alireza; Banihashemi, Solmaz


    A metal organic framework-polyaniline (MOF/PANI) nanocomposite was electrodeposited on a stainless steel wire and used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The electropolymerization process was carried out under a constant deposition potential and applied to the corresponding aqueous electrolyte containing aniline and MOF particles. The employment of MOFs with their large and small cages and 3-D structures in synthesizing a nanocomposite was assumed to be efficient constitutes to induce more non-smooth and porous structures, approved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Three different MOFs were incorporated to synthesize the desired nanocomposites and the preliminary experiments showed that all of them, particularly the one containing MOF2, have higher extraction performances in compared with PANI. The applicability of the new fiber coating was examined by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some chlorobenzenes (CBs) from aqueous samples. Influencing parameters on the synthesize and extraction processes including the electrodeposition voltage and its duration time, the weight ratio of PANI and MOF, the ionic strength, desorption temperature and time, and extraction time and temperature were optimized. The developed method was validated by analyzing the spiked distilled water and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under optimum condition, the relative standard deviation (RSD%) values for a double distilled water spiked with the selected CBs at 20ngL(-1) were 5-8% (n=3) and the detection limits were below 0.2ngL(-1). The linear dynamic range (LDR) of the method was in the concentration range of 0.5-1000ngL(-1) (R(2)>0.9994). The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was found to be in the range of 4-7%. Eventually, various real-water samples were analyzed by the MOF/PANI-based HS-SPME and GC-MS and the relative recovery values were found to be in the range of 92-98%.

  2. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Wei Lai


    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  3. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Once-Daily Tacrolimus in Solid-Organ Transplant Patients.

    Staatz, Christine E; Tett, Susan E


    Tacrolimus is a pivotal immunosuppressant agent used in solid-organ transplantation. It was originally formulated for oral administration as Prograf(®), a twice-daily immediate-release capsule. In an attempt to improve patient adherence, retain manufacturer market share and/or reduce health care costs, newer once-daily prolonged-release formulations of tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) and Envarsus(®) XR) and various generic versions of Prograf(®) are becoming available. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index. Small variations in drug exposure due to formulation differences can have a significant impact on patient outcomes. The aim of this review is to critically analyse the published data on the clinical pharmacokinetics of once-daily tacrolimus in solid-organ transplant patients. Forty-three traditional (non-compartmental) and five population pharmacokinetic studies were identified and evaluated. On the basis of the stricter criteria for narrow-therapeutic-index drugs, Prograf(®), Advagraf(®) and Envarsus(®) XR are not bioequivalent [in terms of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) or the minimum concentration (C min)]. Patients may require a daily dosage increase if converted from Prograf(®) to Advagraf(®), while a daily dosage reduction appears necessary for conversion from Prograf(®) to Envarsus(®) XR. Prograf(®) itself, or generic immediate-release tacrolimus, can be administered in a once-daily regimen with a lower than double daily dose being reported to give 24-h exposure equivalent to that of a twice-daily regimen. Intense clinical and concentration monitoring is prudent in the first few months after any conversion to once-daily tacrolimus dosing; however, there is no guarantee that therapeutic drug monitoring strategies applicable to one formulation (or twice-daily dosing) will be equally applicable to another. The correlation between the tacrolimus AUC0-24 and C min is variable and not strong for all three

  4. An investigation of problematic solids in oil sands processing : separation and characterization of organic matter strongly bound to oil sands solids

    McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.

  5. Real-Time Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Imaging of Ultrafast Transient Signals in Solid-State Organic Materials

    Jun Takeda


    Full Text Available In this review, we demonstrate a real-time time-frequency two-dimensional (2D pump-probe imaging spectroscopy implemented on a single shot basis applicable to excited-state dynamics in solid-state organic and biological materials. Using this technique, we could successfully map ultrafast time-frequency 2D transient absorption signals of β-carotene in solid films with wide temporal and spectral ranges having very short accumulation time of 20 ms per unit frame. The results obtained indicate the high potential of this technique as a powerful and unique spectroscopic tool to observe ultrafast excited-state dynamics of organic and biological materials in solid-state, which undergo rapid photodegradation.

  6. Evaluation of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by MRI. Determination of a normal range in signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images and evaluation of diffuse diseases of an organ by using it

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine


    Diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow, were evaluated by using signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in 1.5 T MR system in 203 persons, including 122 controls and 81 patients with a diffuse disease in the upper abdominal organ. In controls, though there was neither sexual nor age difference in signal intensity ratios of the liver and pancreas, those of the spleen and vertebral marrow showed sexual and age difference, respectively. A normal range of signal intensity ratio of each organ in each image was determined in each decade of each sex by using controls. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly low in T1- and T2-weighted images in patients with abundant iron deposit and within normal limits in patients with liver cirrhosis or scant iron deposit. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly high only in a T2-weighted image in patients with fatty deposit in the liver, which was suspected to be due to inflammatory change in the liver with fatty deposit. The signal intensity ratios of the spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow were significantly low only in a T2-weighted image in patients with iron metabolic disturbance. The signal intensity ratio of the pancreas was significantly high in 40% of patients with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, which was more sensitive in detection of pancreatitis than data in other studies. it can be concluded that the signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images is useful for detection of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by using the normal range in each decade of each sex. (S.Y.).

  7. Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar

    Young Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential growth phase, and summarising growth with a simple dynamic model (e.g. the logistic growth model. In order to parametrize such a model, a robust image analysis tool capable of capturing a wide range of cell densities from plate photographs is required. Results Colonyzer is a collection of image analysis algorithms for automatic quantification of the size, granularity, colour and location of micro-organism cultures grown on solid agar. Colonyzer is uniquely sensitive to extremely low cell densities photographed after dilute liquid culture inoculation (spotting due to image segmentation using a mixed Gaussian model for plate-wide thresholding based on pixel intensity. Colonyzer is robust to slight experimental imperfections and corrects for lighting gradients which would otherwise introduce spatial bias to cell density estimates without the need for imaging dummy plates. Colonyzer is general enough to quantify cultures growing in any rectangular array format, either growing after pinning with a dense inoculum or growing with the irregular morphology characteristic of spotted cultures. Colonyzer was developed using the open source packages: Python, RPy and the Python Imaging Library and its source code and documentation are available on SourceForge under GNU General Public License. Colonyzer is adaptable to suit specific requirements: e.g. automatic detection of cultures at irregular locations on streaked plates for robotic picking, or decreasing analysis time by

  8. Use of the levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine system in adolescent and young adult solid organ transplant recipients: a case series.

    Huguelet, P S; Sheehan, C; Spitzer, R F; Scott, S


    This case series reports on the safety and efficacy of the levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine system in adolescent and young adult solid organ transplant recipients. All patients used the device for contraception, with no documented cases of disseminated pelvic infection or unplanned pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight gain, overweight and obesity in solid organ transplantation--a study protocol for a systematic literature review

    Beckmann, Sonja; Ivanović, Nataša; Drent, Gerda; Ruppar, Todd; De Geest, Sabina


    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity, which have a substantial impact on health in the general population, have similar prevalence in solid organ transplant recipients but carry even more serious ramifications. As this group's use of immunosuppressive medication increases the risk for comorbidities,

  10. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17 c

  11. Comparing urban sanitation and solid waste management in East African metropolises: The role of civil society organizations

    Tukahirwa, J.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.


    Sanitation and solid waste management systems have recently received major attention through the United Nation Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Increasingly, the role of civil society organizations – most notably Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) – in

  12. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17

  13. Drug-Drug Interactions Between Antiretroviral and Immunosuppressive Agents in HIV-Infected Patients After Solid Organ Transplantation : A Review

    van Maarseveen, Erik M.; Rogers, Christin C.; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Mudrikova, Tania


    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) resulting in the prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients, HIV infection is no longer considered to be a contraindication for solid organ transplantation (SOT). The combined management of antiretroviral and immunosuppressive ther

  14. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Aromatic Oligoamides: A Research-Based Laboratory Module for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Fuller, Amelia A.


    A five-week, research-based experiment suitable for second-semester introductory organic laboratory students is described. Each student designs, prepares, and analyzes a combinatorial array of six aromatic oligoamides. Molecules are prepared on solid phase via a six-step synthetic sequence, and purities and identities are determined by analysis of…

  15. Enhanced kinetics of solid-phase microextraction and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of dissolved organic matter

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.


    The uptake kinetics of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene by solid-phase microextraction fibers was studied in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from sediment pore water and resulted in increased fiber absorption and desorption rate coefficients. C

  16. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation

    Wojtowicz, A.; Gresnigt, M.S.; Lecompte, T.; Bibert, S.; Manuel, O.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Rueger, S.; Berger, C.; Boggian, K.; Cusini, A.; Garzoni, C.; Hirsch, H.H.; Weisser, M.; Mueller, N.J.; Meylan, P.R.; Steiger, J.; Kutalik, Z.; Pascual, M.; Delden, C. van; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Bochud, P.Y.


    BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHODS: Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped amon

  17. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors

    Angelidaki, Irini; Cui, J.; Chen, X.;


    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor proces...

  18. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : With the change in the pace of life fast , faster , fastest being the motto of the present day , the incidence of trauma and the associated mortality and morbidities is on a continuous rise.Imaging plays a very important role in the management of these injuries in deciding which injuries , in trauma the final verdict of organ injury in abdomen is intra - ope rative findings. AIMS : In view of the above said we considered to study to determine diagnostic accuracy of MDCT (Multi - Detector Computed Tomography in detection of intra - abdominal solid organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma and to highlight the importance of MDCT in evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a prospective study done between over a period of 2 years from between January 2011 to February 2013 on patients who presented with blun t abdominal trauma after excluding patients who were managed conservatively and normal on imaging , the data we compared had 32 patients and the analysis was as follows. RESULTS : Blunt abdominal trauma was common in males , the male to female ratio was 9:1 , road traffic accident is the most common mode of injury in blunt abdominal trauma with 60% of the patients in this mode of injury , single organ injury is 22 patients (76% spleen is the most commonly injured organ 15(47% patients having splenic injury , wi th grade 3 being the commonest splenic injury 8 out of the 15 patients had splenic injury bowel injury was the second common organ injured in blunt trauma abdomen. In this study computed tomography grading correlated well with intra - operative grading with a PPV of= 95.45 % (95% ci: 84.50 % to 99.31 % Asensitivityof 76.36 % (95% ci: 62.98 % to 86.76 % . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography is an important imaging technique for diagnosis of organ injuries in patients with abdominal trauma. It helps in grading of the type of injury and accordingly deciding the management of patient. It is a highly

  20. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden


    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though

  1. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria


    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (σ) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, σ(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (θ) in porous media, with k(θ) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe σ(fm).

  2. Evaluation of the validity of the UN SADT H.4 test for solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances.

    Steensma, M; Schuurman, P; Malow, M; Krause, U; Wehrstedt, K-D


    Many self-accelerating decomposition temperatures (SADTs) of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances have been determined with the UN test method H.4, which is a scaled down test in a small Dewar vessel. For solid organic peroxides and solid self-reactive substances Fierz has questioned this procedure in a recent paper. Fierz concluded that the Dewar test results should not be extrapolated to beyond 8l packages, owing to the thermal insulation value of solids. On the other hand, long term experience with the test, with a great variety of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances show about equal critical temperatures in the small Dewar vessel and on 50 kg scale. In the present work, we first checked, by numerical simulations, the Dewar scale versus the larger scale, in a way comparable with Fierz' method: both scales are simulated by spheres, consisting of a number of annular layers, for the large scale the usual external heat loss term is used but for the small scale the outside heat transfer is strongly limited. The outcome of these simulations, covering a variety of physical parameters, supports the concerns expressed by Fierz. After this, we performed accurate cooling and heating experiments with solid organic peroxide in the usual Dewar vessel, provided with a large set of thermocouples. The results of these experiments showed that the simulation model for the Dewar vessel has to be changed from a spherical analogue to a short cylinder of solid material with heat exchange mainly via its top (U(top) approximately 3.5 W/(m(2)K), overall heat transfer coefficient) and some heat exchange (U(side) approximately 0.29 W/(m(2)K)) through its cylindrical and bottom part. With this "modified cylinder" model (being neither an infinitely long cylinder nor a slab) of the Dewar vessel, we found that the UN method H.4 enables an accurate prediction of the SADT, with small deviations of 0+/-2.5 degrees C. Further, by performing a truly three

  3. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Sukrisno Widyotomo


    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  4. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic complications of solid organ transplantation in patients with preexisting monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    Goebel, Teresa E; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Woodside, Kenneth J; Pillai, Aiswarya Chandran; Caimi, Paolo F; Lazarus, Hillard M; Koroukian, Siran M; Campagnaro, Erica L


    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) occurs in 3-7% of the elderly population, with higher prevalence in renal failure patients, and is associated with a 25-fold increased lifetime risk for plasma cell myeloma (PCM), also known as multiple myeloma. Using the California State Inpatient, Emergency Department, and Ambulatory Surgery Databases components of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), we sought to determine whether patients with MGUS who undergo solid organ allograft (n = 22,062) are at increased adjusted relative risk (aRR) for hematologic malignancy and other complications. Among solid organ transplant patients, patients with preexisting MGUS had higher aRR of PCM (aRR 19.46; 95% CI 7.05, 53.73; p < 0.001), venous thromboembolic events (aRR 1.66; 95% CI 1.15, 2.41; p = 0.007), and infection (aRR 1.24; 95% CI 1.06, 1.45; p = 0.007). However, when comparing MGUS patients with and without solid organ transplant, there was decreased aRR for PCM with transplant (aRR 0.34; 95% CI 0.13, 0.88; p = 0.027), and increased venous thromboembolic events (aRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.58, 3.44; p < 0.001) and infectious risks (aRR 1.44; 95% CI 1.23, 1.70; p < 0.001). While MGUS increased the risk of PCM overall following solid organ transplantation, there was lower risk of PCM development compared to MGUS patients who did not receive a transplant. MGUS should not preclude solid organ transplant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center.

    Freifeld, A G; Iwen, P C; Lesiak, B L; Gilroy, R K; Stevens, R B; Kalil, A C


    Histoplasma capsulatum sporadically causes severe infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients in the Midwest, but it has been an unusual infection among those patients followed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), located at the western edge of the 'histo belt.' Nine SOT patients with histoplasmosis are described (6 renal or renal-pancreas and 3 liver recipients) who developed severe histoplasmosis over a recent 2.5-year period at UNMC. Symptoms started a median of 11 months (range, 1.2-90 months) after organ transplant and consisted primarily of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and malaise or fatigue present for approximately 30 days prior to medical evaluation. All patients had an abnormal chest radiograph and/or computed tomographic scan. Tacrolimus was the main immunosuppressant in all 9 patients, along with prednisone or mycophenolate. Dacluzimab or thymoglobulin had been given around the time of transplant in 6 of 9. None was treated for an episode of acute rejection within 2 months before onset of histoplasmosis, although 2 were on high-dose immunosuppression after recent transplants. Diagnosis was made by culture in 8 of the 9 patients, with positive serum and urine histoplasma antigen tests in all 9 cases. From 1997 to 2001, during a period of relative quiescence of the disease in the general population, the rate of clinical histoplasmosis among SOT patients at UNMC was estimated at 0.11%, whereas during 2002 through the first half of 2004, the rate rose 17-fold to 1.9%. Histoplasmosis can present as a prolonged febrile illness with subacute pulmonary symptoms in a cohort of SOT patients, despite the absence of a regional outbreak.

  6. Dissolved organic matter: Fractional composition and sorbability by the soil solid phase (Review of literature)

    Karavanova, E. I.


    The behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils under varying environmental conditions represents a poorly studied aspect of the problem of organic matter loss from soils. The equilibrium and sustainable development of ecosystems in the northern latitudes are largely determined by the balance between the formation of DOM, its accumulation in the lower soil horizons, and its input with runoff into surface waters. The residence time, retention strength in the soil, and thermodynamic and biochemical stabilities depend on the localization of DOM in the pore space and its chemical structure. Amphiphilic properties represent a valuable diagnostic parameter, which can be used to predict the behavior of DOM in the soil. Acidic components of hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature constitute the major portion of DOM in forest soils of the temperate zone. The hydrophilic fraction includes short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and amino acids and is poorly sorbed by the solid phase. However, the existence of this fraction in soil solution is also limited both in space (in the finest pores) and time because of higher accessibility to microbial degradation. The hydrophilic fraction composes the major portion of labile DOM in soils. The hydrophobic fraction consists of soluble degradation products of lignin; it is enriched in structural ortho-hydroxybenzene fragments, which ensure its selective sorption and strong retention in soils. Sorption is favored by low pH values (3.5-5), the high ionic strength of solution, the heavy texture and fine porous structure of soil, the high contents of oxalate- and dithionite-soluble iron (and aluminum) compounds, and hydrological conditions characterized by slow water movement. The adsorbed DOM is chemically and biochemically recalcitrant and significantly contributes to the humus reserves in the low mineral horizons of soils.

  7. Nitrous oxide production during nitrification from organic solid waste under temperature and oxygen conditions.

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei


    Landfill aeration can accelerate the biological degradation of organic waste and reduce methane production; however, it induces nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Nitrification is one of the pathways of N2O generation as a by-product during aerobic condition. This study was initiated to demonstrate the features of N2O production rate from organic solid waste during nitrification under three different temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C) and three oxygen concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20%) with high moisture content and high substrates' concentration. The experiment was carried out by batch experiment using Erlenmeyer flasks incubated in a shaking water bath for 72 h. A duplicate experiment was carried out in parallel, with addition of 100 Pa of acetylene as a nitrification inhibitor, to investigate nitrifiers' contribution to N2O production. The production rate of N2O ranged between 0.40 × 10(-3) and 1.14 × 10(-3) mg N/g-DM/h under the experimental conditions of this study. The rate of N2O production at 40°C was higher than at 20°C and 30°C. Nitrification was found to be the dominant pathway of N2O production. It was evaluated that optimization of O2 content is one of the crucial parameters in N2O production that may help to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and N turnover during aeration.

  8. Incidence and outcomes of primary central nervous system lymphoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Mahale, Parag; Shiels, Meredith S; Lynch, Charles F; Engels, Eric A


    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) risk is greatly increased in immunosuppressed human immunodeficiency virus-infected people. Using data from the US transplant registry linked with 17 cancer registries (1987-2014), we studied PCNSL and systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in 288 029 solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant recipients had elevated incidence for PCNSL compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio = 65.1; N = 168), and this elevation was stronger than for systemic NHL (standardized incidence ratio=11.5; N = 2043). Compared to kidney recipients, PCNSL incidence was lower in liver recipients (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 0.52), similar in heart and/or lung recipients, and higher in other/multiple organ recipients (aIRR = 2.45). PCNSL incidence was higher in Asians/Pacific Islanders than non-Hispanic whites (aIRR = 2.09); after induction immunosuppression with alemtuzumab (aIRR = 3.12), monoclonal antibodies (aIRR = 1.83), or polyclonal antibodies (aIRR = 2.03); in recipients who were Epstein-Barr virus-seronegative at the time of transplant and at risk of primary infection (aIRR = 1.95); and within the first 1.5 years after transplant. Compared to other recipients, those with PCNSL had increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 11.79) or graft failure/retransplantation (aHR = 3.24). Recipients with PCNSL also had higher mortality than those with systemic NHL (aHR = 1.48). In conclusion, PCNSL risk is highly elevated among transplant recipients, and it carries a poor prognosis. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. HLA and Risk of Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Hussain, Shehnaz K; Makgoeng, Solomon B; Everly, Matthew J; Goodman, Marc T; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Snyder, Jon; Israni, Ajay; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A


    Solid organ transplant recipients have heightened risk for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The role of donor-recipient HLA mismatch and recipient HLA type on DLBCL risk are not well established. We examined 172 231 kidney, heart, pancreas, and lung recipients transplanted in the United States between 1987 and 2010, including 902 with DLBCL. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression for DLBCL risk in relation to HLA mismatch, types, and zygosity, adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, year, organ, and transplant number. Compared with recipients who had 2 HLA-DR mismatches, those with zero or 1 mismatch had reduced DLBCL risk, (zero: IRR, 0.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61-0.95; one: IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-1.00). In stratified analyses, recipients matched at either HLA-A, -B, or -DR had a significantly reduced risk of late-onset (>2 years after transplantation), but not early-onset DLBCL, and there was a trend for decreasing risk with decreasing mismatch across all 3 loci (P = 0.0003). Several individual recipient HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ antigens were also associated with DLBCL risk, including DR13 (IRR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93) and B38 (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.93), confirming prior findings that these 2 antigens are associated with risk of infection-associated cancers. In conclusion, variation in HLA is related to susceptibility to DLBCL, perhaps reflecting intensity of immunosuppression, control of Epstein-Barr virus infection among transplant recipients or chronic immune stimulation.

  10. Solid-phase extraction with metal-organic frameworks for the analysis of chiral compounds.

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xian; Yuan, Li-Ming


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are excellent porous materials with nanoscale cavities and high surface areas, which make them promising as novel adsorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this article we report a new application of the chiral MOF [Zn2 (D-Cam)2 (4,4'-bpy)]n in SPE used for the measurement of the enantiomeric excess (ee) of (±)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol. Several important experimental parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity (R(2)  > 0.999) was found between the ee value and the reciprocal of the peak areas. When compared with the actual ee measured using chiral HPLC, the SPE-based assay also showed good accuracy and precision. The results showed that SPE based on chiral MOFs as adsorbents is a simple and effective method for the determination of the ee values of chiral compounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H


    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation.

  12. Solid-liquid extraction of alkali metals and organic compounds by leaching of food industry residues.

    Yu, Chaowei; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Jenkins, Bryan M; Zhang, Ruihong; VanderGheynst, Jean S


    Leaching was studied for its application in extracting inorganic and organic constituents from fresh fermented grape pomace, air-dried fermented grape pomace and air-dried sugar beet pulp. Samples of each feedstock were leached in water at ambient temperature for 30 or 120 min at dry solid-to-liquid ratios of 1/20 and 1/50 kg/L. Leaching removed 82% of sodium, 86% of potassium, and 76% of chlorine from sugar beet pulp, and reduced total ash concentration in air-dry fermented grape pomace from 8.2% to 2.9% of dry matter, 8.2% to 4.4% in fresh fermented grape pomace, and 12.5% to 5.4% in sugar beet pulp. Glycerol (7-11 mg/dry g), ethanol (131-158 mg/dry g), and acetic acid (24-31 mg/dry g) were also extracted from fermented grape pomace. These results indicate that leaching is a beneficial pretreatment step for improving the quality of food processing residues for thermochemical and biochemical conversion.

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds in river water by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    M. A. Mottaleb; M. Z. Abedin; M. S. Islam


    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method is described employing solid-phase extraction(SPE) using dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography(GC) with flame ionization detection(FID) for determination of volatile organic compound(VOC) from the Buriganga River water of Bangladesh. The method was applied to detect the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and cumene(BTEXC) in the sample collected from the surface or 15 cm depth of water. Two-hundred ml of n-hexane-pretreated and filtered water samples were applied directly to a C18 SPE column. BTEXC were extracted with dichloromethane and average concentrations were obtained as 0.104 to 0.372 (g/ml. The highest concentration of benzene was found as 0.372 (g/ml with a relative standard deviation(RSD) of 6.2%, and cumene was not detected. Factors influencing SPE e.g., adsorbent types, sample load volume, eluting solvent, headspace and temperatures, were investigated. A cartridge containing a C18 adsorbent and using dichloromethane gave better performance for extraction of BTEXC from water.Average recoveries exceeding 90% could be achieved for cumene at 4℃with a 2.7%RSD

  14. In-Vitro Characterization and Oral Bioavailability of Organic Solvent-free Solid Dispersions Containing Telmisartan

    Cao, Yue; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Qing-Ri; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao


    Poorly water-soluble drugs often suffer from limited or irreproducible clinical response due to their low solubility and dissolution rate. In this study, organic solvent-free solid dispersions (OSF-SDs) containing telmisartan (TEL) were prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) as hydrophilic polymers, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 as a surfactant by a lyophilization method. In-vitro dissolution rate and physicochemical properties of the OSF-SDs were characterized using the USP I basket method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In addition, the oral bioavailability of OSF-SDs in rats was evaluated by using TEL bulk powder as a reference. The dissolution rates of the OSF-SDs were significantly enhanced as compared to TEL bulk powder. The results from DSC, XRD showed that TEL was molecularly dispersed in the OSF-SDs as an amorphous form. The FT-IR results suggested that intermolecular hydrogen bonding had formed between TEL and its carriers. The OSF-SDs exhibited significantly higher AUC0–24 h and Cmax, but similar Tmax as compared to the reference. This study demonstrated that OSF-SDs can be a promising method to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of TEL. PMID:27642309

  15. Immunizations in solid organ and hematopoeitic stem cell transplant patients: A comprehensive review

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Kumar, Deepali


    The Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) and Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) population is continuously increasing as a result of broader indications for transplant and improved survival. Infectious diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases, are a significant threat for this population, primarily after but also prior to transplantation. As a consequence, clinicians must ensure that patients are optimally immunized before transplantation, to provide the best protection during the early post-transplantation period, when immunosuppression is the strongest and vaccine responses are poor. After 3–6 months, inactivated vaccines immunization can be resumed. By contrast, live-attenuated vaccines are lifelong contraindicated in SOT patients, but can be considered in HSCT patients at least 2 years after transplantation, if there is no immunosuppression or graft-versus-host-disease. However, because of the advantages of live-attenuated over inactivated vaccines - and also sometimes the absence of an inactivated alternative - an increasing number of prospective studies on live vaccine immunization after transplantation are performed and give new insights about safety and immunogenicity in this population. PMID:26291740

  16. Multi-chamber microbial desalination cell for improved organic matter and dissolved solids removal from wastewater.

    Pradhan, Harapriya; Ghangrekar, M M


    A five-chamber microbial desalination cell (MDC) with anode, cathode, one central desalination chamber and two concentrate chambers separated by ion exchange membranes was operated in batch mode for more than 60 days. The performance of the MDC was evaluated for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, total dissolved solids (TDS) removal and energy production. An average COD removal of 81 ± 2.1% was obtained using acetate-fed wastewater as substrate in the anodic chamber inoculated with mixed anaerobic sludge. TDS removals of 58, 70 and 78% were observed with salt concentration of 8, 20 and 30 g/L, respectively, in the middle desalination chamber. The MDC produced a maximum power output of 16.87 mW/m(2) during polarization. The highest Coulombic efficiency of 12 ± 2.4% was observed in this system using mixed anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The system effectively demonstrated capability for simultaneous organic matter removal and desalination along with power generation.

  17. Integrity of the Oral Tissues in Patients with Solid-Organ Transplants

    Gonzalo Rojas


    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of immunosuppressants in solid-organ transplant patients and oral tissue abnormalities has been recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the state of oral tissue integrity in renal, heart, and liver transplant patients who are on continuous medical and dental control. Forty patients of both sexes were clinically evaluated at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile to identify pathologies of oral mucosa, gingival enlargement (GE, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index, and salivary flow. The average age of the transplant subjects was 49.4 years, and the age range was 19 to 69 years. Most subjects maintained a good level of oral hygiene, and the rate mean of DMFT was 14.7. The degree of involvement of the oral mucosa and GE was low (10%. Unlike other studies, the frequency of oral mucosal diseases and GE was low despite the fact that these patients were immunosuppressed. Care and continuous monitoring seem to be of vital importance in maintaining the oral health of transplant patients.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis in Patients with Selected Solid Organ Cancers: A Case Series and Review of Medical Literature.

    Fitterer, Colin; Berg, Zachary; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Kusne, Shimon; Orenstein, Robert; Seville, Maria Teresa; Blair, Janis E


    Coccidioidomycosis is a common infection in the desert southwestern USA; approximately 3 % of healthy persons in Arizona alone become infected annually. Coccidioidomycosis may be severe in immunocompromised persons, but experience among patients with solid organ cancer has not been fully described. Therefore, we aimed to describe the clinical courses of patients whose cancers were complicated by coccidioidomycosis at our institution, which is located in an area with endemic Coccidioides. To do so, we conducted a retrospective review from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2014, of all patients with breast, colorectal, or ovarian cancer whose cancer courses were complicated by coccidioidomycosis. We identified 17,576 cancer patients; 14 (0.08 %) of these patients met criteria for proven or probable coccidioidomycosis diagnosed within the first 2 years after the cancer diagnosis. All of these patients had primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, none had relapsed prior infection, and 1 had possible extrapulmonary dissemination. Five had active coccidioidal infection during chemotherapy, 1 of whom was hospitalized for coccidioidal pneumonia. All were treated with fluconazole, and all improved clinically. Eleven did not require prolonged courses of fluconazole. There were no clearly demonstrated episodes of relapsed infection. In conclusion, coccidioidomycosis was not a common complication of breast, colorectal, or ovarian cancers in patients treated at our institution, and it was not commonly complicated by severe or disseminated infection.

  19. Knitting aromatic polymers for efficient solid-phase microextraction of trace organic pollutants.

    Liu, Shuqin; Hu, Qingkun; Zheng, Juan; Xie, Lijun; Wei, Songbo; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Yuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    A series of knitting aromatic polymers (KAPs) were successfully synthesized using a simple one-step Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic monomers and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then, as-synthesized KAPs with large surface areas, unique pore structures and high thermal stability were prepared as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings that exhibited good extraction abilities for a series of benzene compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene, which are referred to as BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Under the optimized conditions, the methodologies established for the determination of BTEX and PAHs using the KAPs-triPB and KAPs-B coatings, respectively, possessed wide linear ranges, low limits of detection (LODs, 0.10-1.13ngL(-1) for BTEX and 0.05-0.49ngL(-1) for PAHs) and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of BTEX and PAHs in environmental water samples, and satisfactory recoveries (93.6-124.2% for BTEX and 77.2-113.3% for PAHs) were achieved. This study provides a benchmark for exploiting novel microporous organic polymers (MOPs) for SPME applications.

  20. Start-up performances of dry anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of organic solid wastes

    LU Shu-guang; IMAI Tsuyoshi; UKITA Masao; SEKINE Masahiko


    Two dry anaerobic digestions of organic solid wastes were conducted for 6 weeks in a lab-scale batch experiment for investigating the start-up performances under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The enzymatic activities,i.e., β-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-α -benzoyl-L-argininamide (BAA)-hydrolysing protease, urease and phosphatase activities were analysed. The lower BAA-hydrolysing protease activity during the first 2-3 weeks was due to the inhibition of the low pH, but was enhanced simultaneously later with the pH increase. β-glucosidase activity showed the lowest values in weeks 1-2, and recovered simultaneously with the increase of BAA-hydrolysing protease activity. Acetic acid dominated most of the total VFAs in thermophilic digestion, while propionate and butyrate dominated in mesophilic digestion. Thermophilic digestion is confirmed more feasible for achieving better performance against misbalance, especially during the start-up period in a dry anaerobic digestion process.

  1. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds in stemwood using solid-phase microextraction.

    Wajs, A; Pranovich, A; Reunanen, M; Willför, S; Holmbom, B


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation and dynamic headspace combined with GC and GC-MS were applied and compared for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coniferous wood. The SPME conditions (type of fibre, size of wood sample, temperature and exposure time) were optimised, and more than 100 VOCs and semi-volatile compounds extracted and identified from the sapwood and heartwood of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The total number of mono- and sesquiterpenes eluted and identified was similar for the SPME and hydrodistillation methods, but more semi-volatile compounds were released by hydrodistillation. By applying dynamic headspace at room temperature, it was possible to analyse only the most volatile compounds. The qualitative composition of VOCs was similar in spruce sapwood and heartwood, although Z-beta-ocimene occurred only in sapwood while fenchol was present only in heartwood. SPME sampling coupled with GC, applied here to the analysis of VOCs released from stemwood of firs for the first time, is a convenient, sensitive, fast, solvent-free and simple method for the determination of wood volatiles. The technique requires much smaller sample amounts compared with hydrodistillation, and the total amount of VOCs extracted and identified is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation or dynamic headspace. The relative ratios of the main mono- and sesquiterpenes and -terpenoids were similar using the SPME-GC and hydrodistillation methods.

  2. Biodegradation of olive-mill pomace mixed with organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri


    This study investigated the effects of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) addition on the anaerobic treatment of the olive-mill pomace. Biodegradability of olive-mill pomace mixed with OFMSW was examined in anaerobic bioreactors. Only OFMSW was loaded in the first (control) bioreactor, while run 1 and run 2 bioreactors included different ratio of OFMSW and olive-mill pomace. COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, pH, VFA, CH(4) quantity and percentage in anaerobic bioreactors were regularly monitored. In addition, inert COD and anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) were measured in leachate samples. The results of the study showed that 70% of OFMSW addition to olive-mill pomace has an advantage in terms of pollution parameters and methane generation. Since olive-mill pomace is not easy biodegradable, addition of high proportion of OFMSW promotes biodegradability of olive-mill pomace. Decreasing in BOD(5)/COD ratios in the run 1 and run 2 reactors carried out as 62 and 52%, respectively.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik


    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... of state). A genetic algorithm is employed to select the optimal working fluid and the maximum pressure for the bottoming cycle. Thermodynamic and physical properties, environmental impacts and hazard specifications are also considered in the screening process. The results suggest that efficiencies...

  4. Extended metal-organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids

    R Murugavel; G Anantharaman; D Krishnamurthy; M Sathiyendiran; M G Walawalkar


    This article describes the recent results obtained in our laboratory on the interaction of polyfunctional ligands with divalent alkaline earth metal ions and a few divalent transition metal ions. Treatment of MCl2$\\cdot$ H2O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) with 2-amino benzoic acid leads to the formation of complexes [Mg(2-aba)2] (1), [Ca(2-aba)2(OH2)3]∞ (2), [{Sr(2-aba)2(OH2)2}2$\\cdot$H2O)]∞ (3), [Ba(2-aba)2(OH2)]∞ (4), respectively. While the calcium ions in 2 are hepta-coordinated, the strontium and barium ions in 3 and 4 reveal a coordination number of nine apart from additional metal-metal interactions. Apart from the carboxylate functionality, the amino group also binds to the metal centres in the case of strontium and barium complexes 3 and 4. Complexes [{Mg(H2O)6}(4-aba)2$\\cdot$2H2O] (5), [Ca(4-aba)2(H2O)2] (6) prepared from 4-aminobenzoic acid reveal more open or layered structures. Interaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid with MCl2$\\cdot$6H2O (M = Mg, Ca), however, leads to the.oxidation of the thiol group resulting in the disulphide 2,2'-dithiobis(benzoic acid). New metal-organic framework based hydrogen-bonded porous solids [{M(btec)(OH2)4} $\\cdot$ (C4H12N2) 4H2O] (btec = 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylate) (M = Co 9; Ni 10; Zn 11) have been synthesized from 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid in the presence of piperazine. These compounds are made up of extensively hydrogenbonded alternating layers of anionic M-btec co-ordination polymer and piperazinium cations. Compounds 2-11 described herein form polymeric networks in the solid-state with the aid of different coordinating capabilities of the carboxylate anions hydrogen bonding interactions.

  5. Abdominal epilepsy in chronic recurrent abdominal pain

    V Y Kshirsagar


    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED. We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74% children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26% children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine and 139 (92% children responded to AED out of which 111 (74% children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18% had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74% of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56% were females and 36 (32.43% were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of functional abdominal pain in children: A look beyond the belly

    Korterink, J.J.


    Chronic abdominal pain represents a common problem in children. In almost 90% of children presenting with chronic abdominal pain, no organic cause is found and a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain is made. Initially this condition was referred to as ‘recurrent abdominal pain’ by Apley and Naish

  7. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of functional abdominal pain in children: A look beyond the belly

    Korterink, J.J.


    Chronic abdominal pain represents a common problem in children. In almost 90% of children presenting with chronic abdominal pain, no organic cause is found and a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain is made. Initially this condition was referred to as ‘recurrent abdominal pain’ by Apley and Naish

  8. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)


    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Analysis of Cervical Vaginal Abdominal Fascia Suspension for the Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse%宫颈阴道腹壁筋膜悬吊术治疗盆腔脏器脱垂的临床分析



    Objective To analyze curative effect of cervical vaginal abdominal fascia suspension surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Methods In our hospital from 38 patients with pelvic organ prolapse in January 2013 to December 2013 who were treated as the research object. All patients were given cervical fascia suspension in the treatment of abdominal wall. Observe and record the perioperative clinical indicators and treatment effect, complications. Results All the patients after treatment, the success rate of operation was 100%, no complications occurred after the operation, operation cost is low. Conclusion The application of cervical vaginal abdominal fascia suspension surgery for pelvic organ prolapse patients, a signiifcant clinical effect, low cost, wide clinical application.%目的:探讨宫颈阴道腹壁筋膜悬吊术对盆腔脏器脱垂的疗效分析。方法选取我院从2013年1月至2013年12月门诊收治的38例盆腔脏器脱垂患者作为研究对象。所有患者均给予宫颈阴道腹壁筋膜悬吊术治疗。观察记录患者的围手术期各项临床指标及治疗效果,并发症发生情况。结果所有患者经过治疗,手术成功率为100%,术后无并发症发生,手术费用较低。结论应用宫颈阴道腹壁筋膜悬吊术对盆腔脏器脱垂患者治疗,临床效果显著,费用较低,临床值得广泛推广应用。

  10. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Ovchinnikov V.А.; Sokolov V.А.


    We considered one of the most complicated problems of surgery and intensive care — abdominal compartment syndrome. It is a severe, and in some cases lethal complication developing in major injuries and pathology of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, as well as in extra-abdominal pathology. In addition, compartment syndrome can be the complication of a number of surgical procedures accompanied primarily by laparotomy wound closure with tissue tension. We demonstrated the classificatio...

  11. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    Supreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  12. Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Recipients of Solid Organ Transplantation, a Qualitative Study

    van de Zande, Saskia C.; Dekker, Rienk; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Schans, Cees P.


    Background Sufficient physical activity is important for solid organ transplant recipients (heart, lung, liver, kidney). However, recipients do not meet the recommended amount or required type of physical activity. The perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in this population are largely unknown. Methods Semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with solid organ transplant recipients in order to explore experienced barriers and facilitators. Qualitative methodology with thematic line-by-line analysis was used for analysis, and derived themes were classified into personal and environmental factors. Results The most important indicated barriers were physical limitations, insufficient energy level, fear, and comorbidities. The most frequently mentioned facilitators included motivation, coping, consequences of (in)activity, routine/habit, goals/goal priority, and responsibility for the transplanted organ. Neutral factors acting as a barrier or facilitator were self-efficacy and expertise of personnel. A comparison of barriers and facilitators between transplant recipient groups yielded no overt differences. Conclusion Several personal and environmental factors were indicated that should be considered in intervention development to increase physical activity behavior in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:27622291

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life After Different Types of Solid Organ Transplantation

    Pinson, C. Wright; Feurer, Irene D.; Payne, Jerita L.; Wise, Paul E.; Shockley, Shannon; Speroff, Theodore


    Objective To describe functional health and health-related quality of life (QOL) before and after transplantation; to compare and contrast outcomes among liver, heart, lung, and kidney transplant patients, and compare these outcomes with selected norms; and to explore whether physiologic performance, demographics, and other clinical variables are predictors of posttransplantation overall subjective QOL. Summary Background Data There is increasing demand for outcomes analysis, including health-related QOL, after medical and surgical interventions. Because of the high cost, interest in transplantation outcomes is particularly intense. With technical surgical experience and improved immunosuppression, survival after solid organ transplantation has matured to acceptable levels. More sensitive measures of outcomes are necessary to evaluate further developments in clinical transplantation, including data on objective functional outcome and subjective QOL. Methods The Karnofsky Performance Status was assessed objectively for patients before transplantation and up to 4 years after transplantation, and scores were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance. Subjective evaluation of QOL over time was obtained using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS). These data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analysis of variance. A summary model of health-related QOL was tested by path analysis. Results Tools were administered to 100 liver, 94 heart, 112 kidney, and 65 lung transplant patients. Mean age at transplantation was 48 years; 36% of recipients were female. The Karnofsky Performance Status before transplantation was 37±1 for lung, 38±2 for heart, 53±3 for liver, and 75±1 for kidney recipients. After transplantation, the scores improved to 67±1 at 3 months, 77±1 at 6 months, 82±1 at 12 months, 86±1 at 24 months, 84±2 at 36 months, and 83±3 at 48 months. When patients were stratified by initial

  14. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  15. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André


    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations.

  16. [Nosocomial infection in patients receiving a solid organ transplant or haematopoietic stem cell transplant].

    Moreno Camacho, Asunción; Ruiz Camps, Isabel


    Bacterial infections are the most common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. These infections occur mainly in the first month after transplantation and are hospital-acquired. Nosocomial infections cause significant morbidity and are the most common cause of mortality in this early period of transplantation. These infections are caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, mainly Gram-negative enterobacteria, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, and staphylococci. The patients at risk of developing nosocomial bacterial infections are those previously colonized with MDR bacteria while on the transplant waiting list. Intravascular catheters, the urinary tract, the lungs, and surgical wounds are the most frequent sources of infection. Preventive measures are the same as those applied in non-immunocompromised, hospitalized patients except in patients at high risk for developing fungal infection. These patients need antifungal therapy during their hospitalization, and for preventing some bacterial infections in the early transplant period, patients need vaccinations on the waiting list according to the current recommendations. Although morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases have decreased during the last few years in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, they are still one of the most important complications in this population. Furthermore, as occurs in the general population, the incidence of nosocomial infections has increased during the different phases of transplantation. It is difficult to establish general preventive measures in these patients, as there are many risk factors conditioning these infections. Firstly, they undergo multiple antibiotic treatments and interventions; secondly, there is a wide variability in the degree of neutropenia and immunosuppression among patients, and finally they combine hospital and home stay during the transplant process. However, some simple measures could be

  17. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment.

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia


    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. <20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain in

  18. A preliminary study of a video intervention to inform solid organ transplant recipients about skin cancer.

    Loescher, L J; Hansen, C; Hepworth, J T; Quale, L; Sligh, J


    To obtain preliminary evidence on the effect of a skin cancer prevention video for adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) and informational brochures on outcomes of skin cancer knowledge, beliefs, prevention and detection behaviors, and personal agency (self-confidence/personal control) for behaviors. SOTR have a high risk of skin cancer potentiated by life-long immunosuppressive therapy posttransplantation. Skin cancer in SOTR is aggressive and difficult to treat. Prevention and early detection are important for reducing risk and improving skin cancer outcomes, but methods to inform SOTR about their risk are understudied. A brief, evidence-based skin cancer informational video tailored to SOTR was evaluated using a quasi-experimental design that compared the outcome variables in two groups of SOTR seen in 4 transplantation clinics within 4-6 weeks posttransplantation. The video/brochure group (VBG) viewed the video once and received skin cancer information brochures. The brochure group (BG) received brochures only. Participants completed a survey on sun protection behavior (6 items; alpha = 0.75), personal agency (6 items; alpha = 0.64), beliefs (6 items; alpha = 0.60), skin cancer knowledge (6 items), and skin self-examination (SSE; 1 item) at baseline and 3 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 2 × 2 analysis of variance. Of 113 participants, 90 completed both surveys (VBG, n = 46; BG, n = 44). Both groups had a significant increase in sun protective behavior (P skin cancer knowledge (P skin cancer and sun protection, promoted favorable beliefs, and improved personal agency, but were not differentially effective, suggesting that the addition of the video may not be necessary or that the video may need to be viewed more than once. More in-depth SSE teaching strategies may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste.

    Giudicianni, Paola; Bozza, Pio; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Ragucci, Raffaele


    In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of the common domestic appliances. Finally, the evaluation of the energy recovered in the final product per unit weight of raw material shows that in most cases it is comparable to the energy required from the treatment.

  20. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisolone and prednisone in solid organ transplantation.

    Bergmann, Troels K; Barraclough, Katherine A; Lee, Katie J; Staatz, Christine E


    Prednisolone and prednisone are integral components of induction and maintenance immunosuppressive regimens in solid organ transplantation. The pharmacokinetics of these agents are extremely complex. Prednisolone is the active drug moiety while prednisone is both a pro-drug and inactive metabolite of prednisolone. Within the dosage range used in transplantation, prednisolone and prednisone exhibit concentration-dependent non-linear pharmacokinetics when parameters are measured with reference to total drug concentration. Dose dependency disappears when free (unbound) prednisolone is measured. Altered organ function, changing biochemistry and use of a number of concomitant medicines in transplantation appear to lead to pharmacokinetic differences in transplant recipients compared with other patient groups. Greater than threefold variability in dose-adjusted exposure to total prednisolone in transplant recipients is evident. Time post-transplant, hepatic and renal dysfunction, patient age, sex, bodyweight, serum albumin concentration, concomitant medication exposure, various disease states and genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes and drug transporters have sometimes been associated with prednisolone pharmacokinetic variability. The clinical impact of corticosteroid therapy on the disposition of ciclosporin, tacrolimus and sirolimus and the impact of different immunosuppressant therapy combinations on prednisolone exposure needs to be further elucidated. Patient response patterns to prednisolone are consistent with delayed and indirect mechanisms of corticosteroid action involving modification of nuclear transcription and protein synthesis. Many adverse effects have been linked with prednisolone and prednisone therapy, but not all of these have been investigated thoroughly in transplant populations. Dyslipidaemia, growth restriction, diabetogenesis, hypertension and cataracts are well studied toxicities. Evidence is less clear for prednisolone

  1. SICOD: modification system anatomophysiological relationship of organs and tumors in radiation therapy thoracic-abdominal; SICOD: sistema de modificacion de la relacion anatomofisiologica de organos tumores toracico-abdominales en radioterapia

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Gomez-Millan Barrachina, J.; Ortiz Seidel, M.; Bayo Lozano, E.


    In radiotherapy are used to pursue some distributions tumoricidal and tolerable while the surrounding organs. This is achieved using techniques normally for the modulation of the beams, but few do away shyly and mechanically critical organ tumor: Prone breast treatment or use of belly board. What we want here is more than a diaphragmatic compression or extracranial stereotactic, is a mechanical system to modify the relationship of chest-abdominal organs as proposed in surgery usually operating tables. Want to achieve for example a kidney that may move a synchronously with breathing more than 2 cm in their peri renal fat sack, moves only millimeters embedded in the most closed and close to the backbone of your bag, or we can reduce movement of the diaphragm only on the side of affected lung, making breathing tolerable for patients with low performance status.

  2. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia, Murcia (Spain))

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils.

  3. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Bui Thanh-Tuan


    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  4. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier


    Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...

  5. A "Trapped Heart" in an Octopus Pot: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy; Review of a Rare Clinical Syndrome Following Solid-Organ Transplant.

    Vailas, Michail G; Moris, Demetrios; Papalampros, Alexandros; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Schizas, Demetrios; Davakis, Spiridon; Vernadakis, Spiridon


    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," "apical ballooning syndrome," and "stress-induced cardiomyopathy," was first des cribed in Japanese patients in 1990 by Sato and colleagues. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by transient and reversible systolic dysfunction of the apical and middle segments of the left ventricle. This syndrome resembles acute myocardial infarction in the absence of evident coronary artery occlusion. Although the precise pathophysiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is still unknown, it seems that it is associated with excessive sympathetic stimulation, microvascular dysfunction, coronary artery vasospasm, and abnormal myocardial tissue metabolism. Herein, we sought to recognize and summarize the available literature data on Takotsubo cardiomyopathy regarding solid-organ transplant, in an attempt to provide the demographic and morphologic functional characteristics of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and related clinical implications. Transplant surgeons should maintain a high index of clinical suspicion and never underestimate takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a potential cause of heart failure following solid-organ transplant.

  6. Enhancing biogas production from anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through leachate blending and recirculation.

    Nair, Arjun; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin; Coelho, Nuno M G


    Leachate recirculation has a profound advantage on biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in landfills. Mature leachate from older sections of landfills (>10 years) and young leachate were blended and added to organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a series of biomethane potential assay experiments with different mixing ratios of mature and young leachate and their effect on biogas production was monitored. The improvement in biogas production was in the range of 19%-41% depending on the ratio of mixing old and new leachate. The results are conclusive that the biogas generation could be improved by blending the old and new leachate in a bioreactor landfill system as compared with a conventional system employed in bioreactor landfills today for recirculating the same age leachate.

  7. Graphene-Based Materials as Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Trace Metal Ions, Organic Compounds, and Biological Sample Preparation.

    Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Nodeh, Hamid Rashidi; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin


    Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed.

  8. Prognosis of chronic or recurrent abdominal pain in children

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Passchier, Ban; Berger, Marjolein Y.


    Background: Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) or recurrent abdominal pain is common in childhood and is rarely associated with organic disease. With modern diagnostic technology, new organic abnormalities are found in children with CAP. Thus far a causal relation between these abnormalities and CAP has n

  9. Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water

    Manjula Gopinathan; Meenambal Thirumurthy


    Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along wit...

  10. Noroviruses as a Cause of Diarrhea in Immunocompromised Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Ye, Xunyan; Van, John N.; Munoz, Flor M.; Revell, Paula A; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Krance, Robert A.; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Hoonmo L Koo


    Case reports describe significant norovirus gastroenteritis morbidity in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated norovirus pathogenesis in prospectively enrolled solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with diarrhea who presented to Texas Children’s Hospital and submitted stool for enteric testing. Noroviruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical outcomes of norovirus diarrhea and non-norovirus diarrhea patients...

  11. Thin and flexible solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes for device applications.

    Howlett, Patrick C; Ponzio, Florian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong; Jin, Liyu; Iranipour, Nahid; Efthimiadis, Jim


    All solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes are described for the first time. The new composite materials exhibit enhanced conductivity, excellent thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stability and allow the production of optically transparent, free-standing, flexible, thin film electrolytes (10's μms thick) for application in electrochemical devices. Stable cycling of a lithium cell incorporating the new composite electrolyte is demonstrated, including cycling at lower temperatures than previously possible with the pure material.

  12. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa


    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  13. Functional Versatility of a Series of Zr Metal-Organic Frameworks Probed by Solid-State Photoluminescence Spectroscopy.

    Marshall, Ross J; Kalinovskyy, Yaroslav; Griffin, Sarah L; Wilson, Claire; Blight, Barry A; Forgan, Ross S


    Many of the desirable properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be tuned by chemical functionalization of the organic ligands that connect their metal clusters into multidimensional network solids. When these linker molecules are intrinsically fluorescent, they can pass on this property to the resultant MOF, potentially generating solid-state sensors, as analytes can be bound within their porous interiors. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of 14 interpenetrated Zr and Hf MOFs linked by functionalized 4,4'-[1,4-phenylene-bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl)]-dibenzoate (peb(2-)) ligands, and we analyze the effect of functional group incorporation on their structures and properties. Addition of methyl, fluoro, naphthyl, and benzothiadiazolyl units does not affect the underlying topology, but induces subtle structural changes, such as ligand rotation, and mediates host-guest interactions. Further, we demonstrate that solid-state photoluminescence spectroscopy can be used to probe these effects. For instance, introduction of naphthyl and benzothiadiazolyl units yields MOFs that can act as stable fluorescent water sensors, a dimethyl modified MOF exhibits a temperature dependent phase change controlled by steric clashes between interpenetrated nets, and a tetrafluorinated analogue is found to be superhydrophobic despite only partial fluorination of its organic backbone. These subtle changes in ligand structure coupled with the consistent framework topology give rise to a series of MOFs with a remarkable range of physical properties that are not observed with the ligands alone.

  14. Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water

    Manjula Gopinathan


    Full Text Available Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along with dairy waste water at different C/N ratios. About 50 kg of shredded waste containing dairy waste water, saw dust, and organic fraction of municipal solid waste was placed in static piles of different proportions and 500 ml of effective micro-organisms was added to them. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. Results indicate that co composting of dairy waste water with municipal solid waste produces compost that is more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner.DOI:

  15. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... MSW showed large influence on the environmental impacts. A range of benefits, mainly related to improved soil quality from long-term application of the processed organic waste, could not be generally quantified with respect to the chosen life cycle assessment impact categories and were therefore...

  16. The utilization of solid organs for transplantation in the setting of infection with multidrug-resistant organisms: an expert opinion.

    Bishara, Jihad; Goldberg, Elad; Lev, Shaul; Singer, Pierre; Ashkenazi, Tamar; Cohen, Jonathan


    Organ transplantation remains the optimal treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ disease. Increasing numbers of patients admitted to intensive care units, among them potential heart-beating, brain-dead organ donors, are exposed to infections with multidrug-resistant organisms, in particular carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP). An extensive literature search failed to reveal any information regarding the eligibility for transplantation of organs from such donors. For this reason, in 2009, the Israel Transplant Center, together with the Israeli Society for Infectious Diseases, established a working group with the intention of developing a national-specific approach to the use of these organs. In this viewpoint article, we present an algorithm based on expert opinion and our clinical experience with a donor who was found to be an asymptomatic carrier of CR-KP.

  17. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.


    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  18. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q


    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Recent progress in predicting structural and electronic properties of organic solids with the van der Waals density functional

    Yanagisawa, Susumu, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okuma, Koji; Inaoka, Takeshi [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Hamada, Ikutaro, E-mail: [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Review of theoretical studies on organic solids with the density-functional methods. • van der Waals (vdW)-inclusive methods to predict cohesive properties of oligoacenes. • A variant of the vdW density functional describes the structures accurately. • The molecular configuration and conformation crucially affects the band dispersion. - Abstract: We review recent studies on electronic properties of the organic solids with the first-principles electronic structure methods, with the emphasis on the roles of the intermolecular van der Waals (vdW) interaction in electronic properties of the organic semiconductors. After a brief summary of the recent vdW inclusive first-principle theoretical methods, we discuss their performance in predicting cohesive properties of oligoacene crystals as examples of organic crystals. We show that a variant of the van der Waals density functional describes structure and energetics of organic crystals accurately. In addition, we review our recent study on the zinc phthalocyanine crystal and discuss the importance of the intermolecular distance and orientational angle in the band dispersion. Finally, we draw some general conclusions and the future perspectives.

  20. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)


    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  1. The influence of carbapenem resistance on mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    de Gouvêa Erika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of carbapenem resistance and other potential risk factors on the outcome of A. baumannii infection after kidney and liver transplantation. Methods Retrospective study of a case series of A. baumannii infection among liver and renal transplant recipients. The primary outcome was death associated with A. baumannii infection. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the influence of carbapenem resistance and other covariates on the outcome. Results Forty-nine cases of A. baumannii infection affecting 24 kidney and 25 liver transplant recipients were studied. Eighteen cases (37% were caused by carbapenem-resistant isolates. There were 17 (35% deaths associated with A. baumannii infection. In unadjusted analysis, liver transplantation (p = 0.003, acquisition in intensive care unit (p = 0.001, extra-urinary site of infection (p A. baumannii infection. The number of deaths associated with A. baumannii infection was higher among patients infected with carbapenem-resistant isolates, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.28. In multivariate analysis, the risk of A. baumannii-associated mortality was higher in patients with infection acquired in the intensive care unit (odds ratio [OR] = 34.8, p = 0.01 and on mechanical ventilation (OR = 15.2, p = 0.04. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was associated with significantly lower mortality (OR = 0.04, p = 0.03, but carbapenem resistance had no impact on it (OR = 0.73, p = 0.70. Conclusion These findings suggest that A. baumannii-associated mortality among liver and kidney transplant recipients is influenced by baseline clinical severity and by the early start of appropriate therapy, but not by carbapenem

  2. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    Giudicianni, Paola, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Bozza, Pio, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Sorrentino, Giancarlo, E-mail: [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Ragucci, Raffaele, E-mail: [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione – C.N.R. Napoli (Italy)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  3. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain.

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M


    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  4. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Stagnitti, Franco


    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  5. Electrodeposited ZnO nanowires as photoelectrodes in solid-state organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Muguerra, Hervé; Berthoux, Gaëlle; Yahya, Wan Zaireen Nisa; Kervella, Yann; Ivanova, Valentina; Bouclé, Johann; Demadrille, Renaud


    A new approach for developing solid-state dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) on glass/ITO and plastic substrates (PEN/ITO) is presented in this manuscript. A two step electrodeposition technique has been employed to realize the ZnO photoelectrodes. First a ZnO thin film is deposited on the ITO substrate and subsequently on this buffer layer 650 nm long ZnO nanowires are grown. The different nanostructured electrodes are crystallized and show a transparency close to 80% in the visible spectral range. The electrodes are then sensitized with a new purely organic dye, whose synthesis is presented here, which reveals a wide absorption spectrum and a high molar extinction coefficient. Finally, the sensitized electrodes were employed for the fabrication of liquid and solid-state DSSCs, using, respectively, a liquid iodine/iodide electrolyte and the spiro-OMeTAD hole transporter. These devices represent the first solid-state DSSCs fabricated using electrodeposited zinc oxide nanowires. Their power conversion efficiency is still limited, respectively, 0.18% and 0.03% under standard AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW cm(-2)), nevertheless, these results prove the interest in this low-temperature deposition method for the realization of nanostructured electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates, and open up new perspectives for the development of solid state DSSCs on plastic substrates.

  6. Diagnostic value of ultrasound in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    van der Meer, S B; Forget, P P; Arends, J W; Kuijten, R H; van Engelshoven, J M


    In order to investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in children with recurrent abdominal pain and to estimate the clinical relevance of rare organic causes of abdominal pain in these patients, we prospectively examined 93 children aged between 5.5 and 12 years by means of abdominal ultrasound. In 3 patients (3.2%) an anatomic abnormality was detected, which could not account for the abdominal pain. We conclude that many organic abnormalities, that could be diagnosed by ultrasound, are clinically irrelevant as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children and therefore ultrasound does not significantly contribute to the diagnosis. However, ultrasound can still play a role in the work-up of children with recurrent abdominal pain in avoiding unnecessary radiologic X-ray procedures.

  7. Predictive Potential of Heart Rate Complexity Measurement: An Indication for Laparotomy Following Solid Organ Injury



    Full Text Available Background Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been recently used as a predictor of prognosis in trauma patients. Objectives We applied nonlinear analysis of HRV in patients with blunt trauma and intraperitoneal bleeding to assess our ability to predict the outcome of conservative management. Patients and Methods An analysis of electrocardiography (ECG from 120 patients with blunt trauma was conducted at the onset of admission to the emergency department. ECGs of 65 patients were excluded due to inadequacy of noise-free length. Of the remaining 55 patients, 47 survived (S group and eight patients died in the hospital (Non-S group. Nineteen patients were found to have intra-abdominal bleeding, eight of which ultimately underwent laparotomy to control bleeding (Op group and 11 underwent successful non-operative management (non-Op. Demographic data including vital signs, glasgow coma scale (GCS, arterial blood gas and injury severity scores (ISS were recorded. Heart rate complexity (HRC methods, including entropy, were used to analyze the ECG. Results There were no differences in age, gender, heart rate (HR and blood pressure between the S and Non-S groups. However, approximate entropy, used as a method of HRC measurement, and GCS were significantly higher in S group, compared to the Non-S group. The base deficit and ISS were significantly higher in the Non-S group. Regarding age, sex, ISS, base deficit, vital signs and GCS, no difference was found between Op and Non-Op groups. Approximate entropy was significantly lower in the Op group, compared to the Non-Op group. Conclusions The loss of HRC at the onset of admission may predict mortality in patients with blunt trauma. Lower entropy, in recently admitted patients with intra-abdominal bleeding, may indicate laparotomy when the vital signs are stable.

  8. Fabrication of metal-organic frameworks and graphite oxide hybrid composites for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of luteolin.

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yichun; Ge, Huali; Chen, Huanhuan; Ye, Guiqin; Hu, Xiaoya


    A novel solid-phase extraction sorbent, metal-organic frameworks and graphite oxide hybrid composite, was prepared by a solvothermal technique. The morphology and properties of the resultant material were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the extraction performance of the resultant sorbent, luteolin was chosen as a model analyte. The extraction conditions were optimized. Based on these, a convenient and efficient solid-phase extraction procedure for the determination of luteolin was established and the subsequent quantification step was performed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation current increased linearly with increasing the concentration of luteolin in the range of 5.0 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-7)molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and a detection limit of 7.9 × 10(-10)molL(-1). The relative standard deviation of seven successive scans was 4.20% for 5.0 × 10(-8)molL(-1) luteolin. This work not only proposes a useful method for sample pretreatment, but also reveals the great potential of metal-organic frameworks based hybrid materials as an excellent sorbent in solid-phase extraction.

  9. X-ray CT imaging of normal abdominal and pelvic organs of adult rhesus monkeys%猕猴腹部及盆腔结构的CT影像学观察

    周建华; 范春梅; 李志雄; 俞春英; 王训立


    Objective To obtain X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of abdominal and pelvic organs of healthy adult rhesus monkeys. Methods Six conventional laboratory rhesus monkeys, 3 male and 3 female, in the age of 5-8 yean were included in this study. The monkeys were placed on the CT table-board in supine position and were scanned to get CT images of the abdominal and pelvic organs by enhanced scan techniques. Volumetric data were collected and reconstruction of the original data was conducted. Meaningful anatomical scanning images were observed, identified and selected; 7 images of the abdominal structures and 10 pelvic organs (5 of males and 5 of females), and each layer of the major visceral organs were labeled. Result On the CT images, the subtle changes of most organs and tissues could be distinguished, and the interface of relatively large organs and blood vessels was clear. But the interface of smaller organs, blood vessels, nerves and muscles, etc. Was not distinct. Conclusions CT images of normal abdominal and pelvic structures of healthy adult rhesus monkeys has been obtained in this study. It provides valuable imaging basis for further studies on disease diagnosis and scientific experiments.%目的 应用CT技术对成年猕猴进行断层扫描,建立猕猴腹部及盆腔CT断层扫描图谱.方法 选择普通级实验猕猴6只,雌雄各半,年龄5~8岁,取头前尾后仰卧位,采用增强扫描CT技术,对其腹部及盆腔进行断层扫描,采集容积数据及对原始数据重建.通过观察、确认,精选具有解剖意义的扫描图像:腹部7张、盆腔10张(雌雄各5张),对其每个层面的主要脏器进行标注.结果 CT影像能分辨出大部分组织器官的细微变化,较大器官、大血管界面清晰,但较小器官和细小血管、神经、肌肉组织等界面尚不清晰.结论 获得了健康成年猕猴腹部及盆腔的影像学图谱,为CT技术在猕猴影像学研究、疾病的临床诊断及科学实验方面

  10. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels


    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  11. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S


    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  12. Solution and solid state P-31 NMR characterization of phosphorus in organic and conventional dairy manure

    In the northeastern U.S., organic dairy production has increased rapidly in recent years, as Maine, Vermont, Pennsylvania and New York all rank in the top six U.S. states for the number of cows on organic dairy farms. Organic dairy farms have significant differences from conventional counterparts, i...

  13. Synthesis of a Sulfonated Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Biobased Chemical Conversion.

    Peng, Yongwu; Hu, Zhigang; Gao, Yongjun; Yuan, Daqiang; Kang, Zixi; Qian, Yuhong; Yan, Ning; Zhao, Dan


    Because of limited framework stability tolerance, de novo synthesis of sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging and unexplored. Herein, a sulfonated two-dimensional crystalline COF, termed TFP-DABA, was synthesized directly from 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid through a previously reported Schiff base condensation reaction, followed by irreversible enol-to-keto tautomerization, which strengthened its structural stability. TFP-DABA is a highly efficient solid acid catalyst for fructose conversion with remarkable yields (97 % for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 65 % for 2,5-diformylfuran), good chemoselectivity, and good recyclability. The present study sheds light on the de novo synthesis of sulfonated COFs as novel solid acid catalysts for biobased chemical conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Low-Temperature Positive Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Neat and Argon-Diluted Organic Solids

    Jonkman, Harry T.; Michl, Josef; King, Robert N.; Andrade, Joseph D.


    Secondary ion mass spectrometry of neat solid propane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, and of propane imbedded in an argon matrix were observed at temperatures varying from 10 to 110 K and show fragmentation patterns similar to those known from ordinary electron impact mass spectrometry. The effects of

  15. Low-Temperature Positive Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Neat and Argon-Diluted Organic Solids

    Jonkman, Harry T.; Michl, Josef; King, Robert N.; Andrade, Joseph D.


    Secondary ion mass spectrometry of neat solid propane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, and of propane imbedded in an argon matrix were observed at temperatures varying from 10 to 110 K and show fragmentation patterns similar to those known from ordinary electron impact mass spectrometry. The effects of

  16. Rapid analysis of persistent organic pollutants by solid phase microextraction in serum samples.

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Ortiz-Pérez, M D; Batres-Esquivel, L; Castillo, C G; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, C A; Díaz-Barriga, F


    A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) based method is presented for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in human serum by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass detector (MS) with electron impact ionization (EI). As an outcome of the assessment of several polymer phases; the one with the best result was the PDMS fiber (100 μm). A multivariate analysis of variance by permutations (PERMANOVA) was performed to establish the optimal extraction conditions as a function of temperature and time variables. The results were 1 mL serum+200 µL H2SO4 9M+1 mL of deionized water at 600 rpm with a temperature of 80°C for 50 min to expose the fiber. The limits of detection (LOD) for POPs pesticides fell within the 0.22-5.41 ng/mL interval, and within 0.07-1.79 ng/mL for PCBs; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (15 ng/mL) were 67.8-120.2%, and at high concentrations (75 ng/mL) 80.2-119.2%. Evaluated precision as percentage Relative Standard Deviation (RSD%) of repeatability and reproducibility was within a range of 0.5-9% and 0.3-21%, respectively. This analytical method prevents some of the main problems for quantifying POPs in human serum, such as the elimination of the solvents, sample handling, integration of extraction steps, pre-concentration and introduction of samples; consequently, the time and cost of analyzing the sample can be significantly reduced. The method developed was applied to determine exposure to POPs in samples of children living in different polluted sites in Mexico. In children living in indigenous communities results show exposure to DDE (median 29.2 ng/mL range 17.4-52.2 ng/mL) and HCB (median 2.53 ng/mL range 2.50-2.64 ng/mL); whereas in the industrial scenario, exposure to HCB (median 2.81 ng/mL range 2.61-3.4 ng/mL) and PCBs (median Σ-PCBs 22.2 ng/ml range 8.2-74.6 ng/mL) and finally in petrochemical scenario was


    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  18. EPA Method 525.3 - Determination of Semivolatile Organic Chemicals in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

    Method 525.3 is an analytical method that uses solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the identification and quantitation of 125 selected semi-volatile organic chemicals in drinking water.

  19. Inspiration Was Just Floating in the Natural Air-Research in Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry of CAS


    @@ Sponsored by NSFC,CAS,and Ministry of Science and Technology,the Key Lab of Organic Solids in Institute of Chemistry of CAS developed tungsten oxide "light switch" membrane,which has wetting and discolorment abilities.


    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...