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Sample records for solenopsis invicta viruses

  1. Positive-Strand RNA Viruses Infecting the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta

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    Steven M. Valles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri were introduced into the USA between 1918 and 1945. Since that time, they have expanded their USA range to include some 138 million hectares. Their introduction has had significant economic consequences with costs associated with damage and control efforts estimated at 6 billion dollars annually in the USA. The general consensus of entomologists and myrmecologists is that permanent, sustainable control of these ants in the USA will likely depend on self-sustaining biological control agents. A metagenomics approach successfully resulted in discovery of three viruses infecting S. invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1, SINV-2, and SINV-3 are all positive, single-stranded RNA viruses and represent the first viral discoveries in any ant species. Molecular characterization, host relationships, and potential development and use of SINV-1, SINV-2, and SINV-3 as biopesticides are discussed.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, Steven M.; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus discovered from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 was sequenced in entirety (GenBank accession number (FJ528584)), comprised of 10,386 nucleotides, and polyadenylated at the 3' terminus. This genome size was confirmed by Northern analysis. The genome revealed 2 large open reading frames (ORFs) in the sense orientation with an untranslated region (UTR) at each end and between the two ORFs. The 5' proximal ORF (ORF 1) encoded a predicted protein of 299.1 kDa (2580 amino acids). The 3' proximal ORF (ORF 2) encoded a predicted protein of 73.2 kDa (651 amino acids). RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and protease domains were recognized in ORF 1. SDS-PAGE separation of purified SINV-3 particles yielded 2 bands (ostensibly capsid proteins) with a combined molecular mass of 77.3 kDa which was similar to the mass predicted by ORF 2 (73.2 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved amino acid sequences containing domains I to VIII of the RdRp from dicistroviruses, iflaviruses, plant small RNA viruses, picornaviruses, and 4 unassigned positive-strand RNA viruses revealed a trichotomous phenogram with SINV-3 and Kelp fly virus comprising a unique cluster. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained samples of SINV-3 revealed isometric particles with apparent projections and a diameter of 27.3 ± 1.3 nm. SINV-3 was successfully transmitted to uninfected workers by feeding. The minus (replicative) strand of SINV-3 was detected in worker ants indicating replication of the virus. The possibility of using SINV-3 as a microbial control agent for fire ants is discussed.

  3. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.

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    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV, an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.

  4. [Trapping techniques for Solenopsis invicta].

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    Liang, Xiao-song; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Yiong-lin; Li, Gui-wen; Ji, Lin-peng; Wang, Jian-guo; Dai, Hua-guo

    2007-06-01

    A field study was made to investigate the trapping effects of different attractants, traps, and wind directions on Solenopsis invicta. The results showed that among the test attractants, TB1 (50 g fishmeal, 40 g peptone, 10 ml 10% sucrose water solution and 20 ml soybean oil) had the best effect, followed by TB2 (ham), TB6 (100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB4 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g sugarcane powder and 20 ml soybean oil), with a mean capture efficiency being 77.6, 58.7, 29 and 7.7 individuals per trap, respectively. No S. invicta was trapped with TB3 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB5 (honey). Tube trap was superior to dish trap, with a trapping efficiency of 75.2 and 35 individuals per trap, respectively. The attractants had better effects in leeward than in windward.

  5. A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, Steven M.; Strong, Charles A.; Dang, Phat M.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Pereira, Roberto M.; Oi, David H.; Shapiro, Alexandra M.; Williams, David F.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first discovery and genome sequence of a virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The 8026 nucleotide, polyadenylated, RNA genome encoded two large open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), flanked and separated by 27, 223, and 171 nucleotide untranslated regions, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 5' proximal ORF1 (nucleotides 28 to 4218) exhibited significant identity and possessed consensus sequences characteristic of the helicase, cysteine protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence motifs from picornaviruses, picorna-like viruses, comoviruses, caliciviruses, and sequiviruses. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 3' proximal ORF2 (nucleotides 4390-7803) showed similarity to structural proteins in picorna-like viruses, especially the acute bee paralysis virus. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained samples from virus-infected fire ants revealed isometric particles with a diameter of 31 nm, consistent with Picornaviridae. A survey for the fire ant virus from areas around Florida revealed a pattern of fairly widespread distribution. Among 168 nests surveyed, 22.9% were infected. The virus was found to infect all fire ant caste members and developmental stages, including eggs, early (1st-2nd) and late (3rd-4th) instars, worker pupae, workers, sexual pupae, alates ( male and female ), and queens. The virus, tentatively named S. invicta virus (SINV-1), appears to belong to the picorna-like viruses. We did not observe any perceptible symptoms among infected nests in the field. However, in every case where an SINV-1-infected colony was excavated from the field with an inseminated queen and held in the laboratory, all of the brood in these colonies died within 3 months

  6. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina

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    Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide nat...

  7. Interspecific competition between Solenopsis invicta and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens and Monomorium chinense.

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    Chen, Yin-Cheng; Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of the interspecific competition between red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens Smith and Monomorium chinense Santschi, by conducting colony interference and individual confrontation tests under laboratory conditions. The colony interference test showed that both native ant species, owing to their numerical advantage, killed the Solenopsis invicta virus-1 (SINV-1)-infected or healthy queens of S. invicta. Significantly less time was required for M. chinense to kill all SINV-1-infected S. invicta compared with the time required to kill the healthy S. invicta. Compared with healthy S. invicta, SINV-1-infected S. invicta spent a longer time eliminating the P. fervens colonies. In confrontation tests, M. chinense killed a significantly higher number of infected S. invicta minors than they did healthy minors, but the number of S. invicta majors (either infected or healthy) killed was substantially less. This study found that the viral infection weakened the competitive ability of S. invicta and made them prone to be eliminated by M. chinense but not by P. fervens.

  8. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina.

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    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Calcaterra, Luis A

    2018-01-01

    Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology. After a series of winnowing methods to remove S. invicta genes, known S. invicta virus genes, and all other non-virus gene sequences, 61,944 unique singletons were identified with virus identity. These were assembled de novo yielding 171 contiguous sequences with significant identity to non-plant virus genes. Fifteen contiguous sequences exhibited very high expression rates and were detected in all four gene libraries. One contig (Contig_29) exhibited the highest expression level overall and across all four gene libraries. Random amplification of cDNA ends analyses expanded this contiguous sequence yielding a complete virus genome, which we have provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 5 (SINV-5). SINV-5 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with genome characteristics consistent with insect-infecting viruses from the family Dicistroviridae. Moreover, the replicative genome strand of SINV-5 was detected in worker ants indicating that S. invicta serves as host for the virus. Many additional sequences were identified that are likely of viral origin. These sequences await further investigation to determine their origins and relationship with S. invicta. This study expands knowledge of the RNA virome diversity found within S. invicta populations.

  9. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology. After a series of winnowing methods to remove S. invicta genes, known S. invicta virus genes, and all other non-virus gene sequences, 61,944 unique singletons were identified with virus identity. These were assembled de novo yielding 171 contiguous sequences with significant identity to non-plant virus genes. Fifteen contiguous sequences exhibited very high expression rates and were detected in all four gene libraries. One contig (Contig_29 exhibited the highest expression level overall and across all four gene libraries. Random amplification of cDNA ends analyses expanded this contiguous sequence yielding a complete virus genome, which we have provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 5 (SINV-5. SINV-5 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with genome characteristics consistent with insect-infecting viruses from the family Dicistroviridae. Moreover, the replicative genome strand of SINV-5 was detected in worker ants indicating that S. invicta serves as host for the virus. Many additional sequences were identified that are likely of viral origin. These sequences await further investigation to determine their origins and relationship with S. invicta. This study expands knowledge of the RNA virome diversity found within S. invicta populations.

  10. A comparative study between Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri on tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses.

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    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two very closely related invasive ant species; however, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. Physiological tolerance to abiotic stress has been hypothesized to be important to the success of an invasive species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that S. invicta is more tolerant to heat and desiccation stress than S. richteri. The data strongly support our hypothesis. S. invicta was found to be significantly less vulnerable than S. richteri to both heat and desiccation stress. Despite S. richteri having significantly higher body water content, S. invicta was less sensitive to desiccation stress due to its significantly lower water loss rate (higher desiccation resistance. After the cuticular lipid was removed, S. invicta still had a significantly lower water loss rate than S. richteri, indicating that cuticular lipids were not the only factors accounting for difference in the desiccation resistance between these two species. Since multiple biological and/or ecological traits can contribute to the invasion success of a particular species, whether the observed difference in tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses is indeed associated with the variation in invasion success between these two species can only be confirmed by further extensive comparative study.

  11. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest ants, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicot...

  12. The genome of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Yannick; Wang, John; Riba-Grognuz, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Ants have evolved very complex societies and are key ecosystem members. Some ants, such as the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, are also major pests. Here, we present a draft genome of S. invicta, assembled from Roche 454 and Illumina sequencing reads obtained from a focal haploid male and his brothe...

  13. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

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    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  14. Ingested boric acid effect on the venom chemistry of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    During a field evaluation of a boric acid bait against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, it was observed that workers of intoxicated colonies produced stings with less toxic effects compared to workers from healthy colonies. In this study, the effect of boric acid on the levels o...

  15. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

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    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  16. Histiostoma Blomquisti N. SP. (Acari: Histiostomatidae) A phoretic mite of the red imported ant, Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Stefan Wirth; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    The new species Histiostoma bJol1lquisti n. sp., associated with the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, is described by its deutonymph. A putative adult female is depicted. The deutonymphs only attach to female alates, dealates and queens of S. invicta. While queens may be covered by more than 200 deutonymphs over their entire bodies, the numbers of deutonymphs...

  17. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

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    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  18. Validation of reference genes in Solenopsis invicta in different developmental stages, castes and tissues.

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    Daifeng Cheng

    Full Text Available To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta.

  19. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr

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    Michael T. Bentley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nylanderia fulva (Mayr, the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren. In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C. Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  20. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren) but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr).

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    Bentley, Michael T; Oi, Faith M; Gezan, Salvador A; Hahn, Daniel A

    2015-07-23

    Nylanderia fulva (Mayr), the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren). In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C). Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  1. Expression analysis of vitellogenins in the workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta

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    Chloe Hawkings

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin has been proposed to regulate division of labor and social organization in social insects. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta harbors four distinct, adjacent vitellogenin genes (Vg1, Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4. Contrary to honey bees that have a single Vg ortholog as well as potentially fertile nurses, and to other ant species that lay trophic eggs, S. invicta workers completely lack ovaries or the ability to lay eggs. This provides a unique model to investigate whether Vg duplication in S. invicta was followed by subfunctionalization to acquire non-reproductive functions and whether Vg was co-opted to regulate behavior within the worker caste. To investigate these questions, we compared the expression patterns of S. invicta Vg genes among workers from different morphological subcastes or performing different tasks. RT-qPCRs revealed higher relative expression of Vg1 in major workers compared to both medium and minor workers, and of Vg2 in major workers when compared to minor workers. Relative expression of Vg1 was also higher in carbohydrate foragers when compared to nurses and protein foragers. By contrast, the level of expression of Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4 were not significantly different among the workers performing the specific tasks. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the expression of the Vg genes and S-hydroprene, a juvenile hormone analog. No changes in Vg expression were recorded in workers 12 h after application of the analog. Our results suggest that in S. invicta the Vg gene underwent subfunctionalization after duplication to new functions based on the expression bias observed in these data. This may suggest an alternative and still unknown function for Vg in the workers that needs to be investigated further.

  2. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

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    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

    2010-02-01

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone.

  3. Sampling efficacy for the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Stringer, Lloyd D; Suckling, David Maxwell; Baird, David; Vander Meer, Robert K; Christian, Sheree J; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-01

    Cost-effective detection of invasive ant colonies before establishment in new ranges is imperative for the protection of national borders and reducing their global impact. We examined the sampling efficiency of food-baits and pitfall traps (baited and nonbaited) in detecting isolated red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) nests in multiple environments in Gainesville, FL. Fire ants demonstrated a significantly higher preference for a mixed protein food type (hotdog or ground meat combined with sweet peanut butter) than for the sugar or water baits offered. Foraging distance success was a function of colony size, detection trap used, and surveillance duration. Colony gyne number did not influence detection success. Workers from small nests (0- to 15-cm mound diameter) traveled no >3 m to a food source, whereas large colonies (>30-cm mound diameter) traveled up to 17 m. Baited pitfall traps performed best at detecting incipient ant colonies followed by nonbaited pitfall traps then food baits, whereas food baits performed well when trying to detect large colonies. These results were used to create an interactive model in Microsoft Excel, whereby surveillance managers can alter trap type, density, and duration parameters to estimate the probability of detecting specified or unknown S. invicta colony sizes. This model will support decision makers who need to balance the sampling cost and risk of failure to detect fire ant colonies.

  4. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

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    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  5. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

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    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  6. Contact toxicities of anuran skin alkaloids against the fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta)

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    Weldon, Paul J.; Cardoza, Yasmin J.; Vander Meer, Robert K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint; Daly, John W.; Spande, Thomas F.

    2013-02-01

    Nearly 500 alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These cutaneous compounds, which are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, generally are believed to deter predators. We tested the red imported fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta) for toxicosis following contact with 20 alkaloids (12 structural classes) identified from dendrobatids or other anurans. Individual ants forced to contact the dried residues of 13 compounds exhibited convulsions and/or reduced ambulation. We estimated the cutaneous concentrations of several compounds based on their reported recoveries from skin extracts of free-ranging frogs and our measurements of the skin surface areas of museum specimens. Pumiliotoxin 251D exhibited contact toxicity below its estimated cutaneous concentration in the Ecuadorian frog, Epipedobates anthonyi, an observation consistent with the hypothesized role of this compound in anuran chemical defense. Our results and those of a previous study of mosquitoes indicate that some anuran skin compounds function defensively as contact toxins against arthropods, permeating their exoskeleton.

  7. Genetic transformation of midgut bacteria from the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta).

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    Medina, Freder; Li, Haiwen; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Coates, Craig J

    2009-05-01

    In our previous study we isolated 10 bacterial species from fourth-instar larval midguts of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Here we report the genetic transformation and reintroduction of three species (Kluyvera cryocrescens, Serratia marcescens, and isolate 38) into the fire ant host. All three species were transformed with the plasmid vector, pZeoDsRed. High expression levels of DsRed were observed and the plasmid is maintained in these bacteria at 37 degrees C in the absence of antibiotic selection for at least 9 days of subculturing. The transformed bacteria were successfully reintroduced into fire ant larvae and survived in the fire ant gut for at least 7 days. Upon pupal emergence, 7 days after reintroduction, transformed bacteria can still be isolated, however, most were passed out in the meconium. We further demonstrated that the engineered bacteria could be spread within the colony by feeding this meconium to naive larvae with the aid of worker fire ants.

  8. An empirical test of Lanchester's square law: mortality during battles of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

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    Plowes, Nicola J.R; Adams, Eldridge S

    2005-01-01

    Lanchester's models of attrition describe casualty rates during battles between groups as functions of the numbers of individuals and their fighting abilities. Originally developed to describe human warfare, Lanchester's square law has been hypothesized to apply broadly to social animals as well, with important consequences for their aggressive behaviour and social structure. According to the square law, the fighting ability of a group is proportional to the square of the number of individuals, but rises only linearly with fighting ability of individuals within the group. By analyzing mortality rates of fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) fighting in different numerical ratios, we provide the first quantitative test of Lanchester's model for a non-human animal. Casualty rates of fire ants were not consistent with the square law; instead, group fighting ability was an approximately linear function of group size. This implies that the relative numbers of casualties incurred by two fighting groups are not strongly affected by relative group sizes and that battles do not disproportionately favour group size over individual prowess. PMID:16096093

  9. Gaeolaelaps Invictianus, a new and unusual species of Hypoaspidine Mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) phoretic on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana, USA

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    David Walter; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    A new species ofhypoaspidine laelapid mite, Gaeolaelaps invictianus, associated with the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren in the southern United States of America is described. This new species is unusual among the gamasine Mesostigmata in lacking a postanal seta in adults of both sexes and among species of Gaeolaelaps in being phoretic on dispersing male...

  10. Effect of irradiation on queen survivorship and reproduction in the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta,(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and a generic phytosanitary irradiation treatment for ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants are common hitchhiker pests on traded agricultural commodities that could be controlled by postharvest irradiation treatment. We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren to determine the dose sufficient for its control. Virgin or fertile queens...

  11. Wolbachia wSinvictaA infections in natural populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta: testing for phenotypic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwma, Andrew M; Shoemaker, Dewayne

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that commonly infect many arthropods and some nematodes. In arthropods, these maternally transmitted bacteria often induce a variety of phenotypic effects to enhance their own spread within host populations. Wolbachia phenotypic effects generally either provide benefits to infected host females (cytoplasmic incompatibility, positive fitness effects) or bias host sex ratio in favor of females (male-killing, parthenogenesis, feminization), all of which increase the relative production of infected females in host populations. Wolbachia surveys have found infections to be exceedingly common in ants, but little is known at this juncture as to what phenotypic effects, if any, they induce in this group. Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals from native populations of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta commonly harbor one or more of three Wolbachia variants. One of the variants, wSinvictaA, typically occurs at low prevalence in S. invicta populations, appears to have been transmitted horizontally into S. invicta three or more times, and has been lost repeatedly from host lineages over time. In order to determine the phenotypic effects and likely population dynamics of wSinvictaA infections in these ants, brood production patterns of newly mated fire ant queens were studied during simulated claustral founding and measured wSinvictaA transmission fidelity within mature single-queen families. No clear evidence was found for Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, significant fitness effects, or male-killing. Maternal transmission was perfect to both virgin queens and males. Possible mechanisms for how this variant could be maintained in host populations are discussed.

  12. AN UNUSUAL PATTERN OF GENE FLOW BETWEEN THE TWO SOCIAL FORMS OF THE FIRE ANT SOLENOPSIS INVICTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth G; Shoemaker, D DeWayne

    1993-10-01

    Uncertainty over the role of shifts in social behavior in the process of speciation in social insects has stimulated interest in determining the extent of gene flow between conspecific populations differing in colony social organization. Allele and genotype frequencies at 12 neutral polymorphic protein markers, as well as the numbers of alleles at the sex-determining locus (loci), are shown here to be consistent with significant ongoing gene flow between two geographically adjacent populations of Solenopsis invicta that differ in colony queen number. Data from a thirteenth protein marker that is under strong differential selection in the two social forms confirm that such gene flow occurs. Data from this selected locus, combined with knowledge of the reproductive biology of the two social forms, further suggest that interform gene flow is largely unidirectional and mediated through males only. This unusual pattern of gene flow results from the influence of the unique social enviroments of the two forms on the behavior of workers and on the reproductive physiology of sexuals. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  15. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren kept Y not F: predicted sNPY endogenous ligands deorphanize the short NPF (sNPF receptor.

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    Prati Bajracharya

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides and their receptors play vital roles in controlling the physiology and behavior of animals. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF signaling regulates several physiological processes in insects such as feeding, locomotion, circadian rhythm and reproduction, among others. Previously, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta sNPF receptor (S. invicta sNPFR, a G protein-coupled receptor, was immunolocalized in queen and worker brain and queen ovaries. Differential distribution patterns of S. invicta sNPFR protein in fire ant worker brain were associated both with worker subcastes and with presence or absence of brood in the colony. However, the cognate ligand for this sNPFR has not been characterized and attempts to deorphanize the receptor with sNPF peptides from other insect species which ended in the canonical sequence LRLRFamide, failed. Receptor deorphanization is an important step to understand the neuropeptide receptor downstream signaling cascade. We cloned the full length cDNA of the putative S. invicta sNPF prepropeptide and identified the putative "sNPF" ligand within its sequence. The peptide ends with an amidated Tyr residue whereas in other insect species sNPFs have an amidated Phe or Trp residue at the C-terminus. We stably expressed the HA-tagged S. invicta sNPFR in CHO-K1 cells. Two S. invicta sNPFs differing at their N-terminus were synthesized that equally activated the sNPFR, SLRSALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 3.2 nM and SALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 8.6 nM. Both peptides decreased the intracellular cAMP concentration, indicating signaling through the Gαi-subunit. The receptor was not activated by sNPF peptides from other insect species, honey bee long NPF (NPY or mammalian PYY. Further, a synthesized peptide otherwise identical to the fire ant sequence but in which the C-terminal amidated amino acid residue 'Y' was switched to 'F', failed to activate the sNPFR. This discovery will now allow us to investigate the function of sNPY and

  17. Odorant binding proteins of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: an example of the problems facing the analysis of widely divergent proteins.

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    Dietrich Gotzek

    Full Text Available We describe the odorant binding proteins (OBPs of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, obtained from analyses of an EST library and separate 454 sequencing runs of two normalized cDNA libraries. We identified a total of 18 putative functional OBPs in this ant. A third of the fire ant OBPs are orthologs to honey bee OBPs. Another third of the OBPs belong to a lineage-specific expansion, which is a common feature of insect OBP evolution. Like other OBPs, the different fire ant OBPs share little sequence similarity (∼ 20%, rendering evolutionary analyses difficult. We discuss the resulting problems with sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and tests of selection. As previously suggested, our results underscore the importance for careful exploration of the sensitivity to the effects of alignment methods for data comprising widely divergent sequences.

  18. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of light-microscopic techniques and PCR in detecting Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia) infections in red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milks, Maynard L; Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Isakova, Irina A; Fuxa, James R; Mitchell, Forrest; Snowden, Karen F; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three staining techniques (calcofluor white M2R, Giemsa and modified trichrome), and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting the microsporidium Thelohania solenopsae in red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). The effect of the number of ants in a sample on the sensitivity of the staining techniques and the PCR, and the effect of three DNA extraction protocols on the sensitivity of PCR were also examined. In the first protocol, the ants were macerated and the crude homogenate was used immediately in the PCR. In the second protocol, the homogenate was placed on a special membrane (FTA card) that traps DNA, which is subsequently used in the PCR. In the third protocol, the DNA was purified from the homogenate by traditional phenol-chloroform extraction. Except for PCR using FTA cards, the sensitivity (number of samples positive for T. solenopsae) of all detection techniques increased with the number of ants in the sample. Overall, Giemsa was the least sensitive of all detection techniques. Calcofluor was more sensitive than modified trichrome with ants from one site and was equally as sensitive as PCR with crude DNA or a FTA card with ants from both sites. Trichrome staining was equally as sensitive as PCR with a FTA card at both sites, but it was less sensitive than PCR with crude DNA at one site. PCR on FTA cards was less sensitive than PCR with crude DNA for ants from one site but not the other. There was no difference whether crude or phenol-chloroform purified DNA was used as template. In summary, the results of this study show that PCR based on a crude DNA solution is equal to or more sensitive in detecting T. solenopsae than the other detection techniques investigated, and that it can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for screening field samples of S. invicta for T. solenopsae. Nevertheless, ant smear stained with calcofluor or modified trichrome should be used to buttress findings

  20. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

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    Walter S Leal

    Full Text Available The red imported fire ant (RIFA, Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species, accidentally introduced in the United States that can cause painful (sometimes life-threatening stings to human, pets, and livestock. Their colonies have two social forms: monogyne and polygyne that have a single and multiple functional queens, respectively. A major gene (Gp-9, identified as a putative pheromone-binding protein on the basis of a modest amino acid sequence identity, has been suggested to influence the expression of colony social organization. Monogyne queens are reported to possess only the GP-9B alleles, whereas polygyne queens possess both GP-9B and GP-9b. Thus, both social forms are reported to express GP-9B, with GP-9b being a marker expressed in polygynes but it is absent in monogynes. Here, we report two types of polygyne colonies, one that does not express GP-9b (monogyne-like and the other expressing both proteins, GP-9B and GP-9b. Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel. GP-9B existed in two forms, one of them is phosphorylated. The helical-rich content of the protein resembles the secondary structures of a beetle hemolymph protein and moth pheromone-binding proteins. An olfactory role is unlikely given the lack of specific expression in the sensillar lymph. In marked contrast to GP-9s, a chemosensory protein, SinvCSP, is demonstrated to be specifically expressed in the antennae. Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla.

  1. Immunolocalization of the short neuropeptide F receptor in queen brains and ovaries of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren

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    Pietrantonio Patricia V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect neuropeptides are involved in diverse physiological functions and can be released as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators acting within the central nervous system, and as circulating neurohormones in insect hemolymph. The insect short neuropeptide F (sNPF peptides, related to the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY peptides, have been implicated in the regulation of food intake and body size, and play a gonadotropic role in the ovaries of some insect species. Recently the sNPF peptides were localized in the brain of larval and adult Drosophila. However, the location of the sNPF receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, has not yet been investigated in brains of any adult insect. To elucidate the sites of action of the sNPF peptide(s, the sNPF receptor tissue expression and cellular localization were analyzed in queens of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera, an invasive social insect. Results In the queen brains and subesophageal ganglion about 164 cells distributed in distinctive cell clusters (C1-C9 and C12 or as individual cells (C10, C11 were immuno-positive for the sNPF receptor. Most of these neurons are located in or near important sensory neuropils including the mushroom bodies, the antennal lobes, the central complex, and in different parts of the protocerebrum, as well as in the subesophageal ganglion. The localization of the sNPF receptor broadly links the receptor signaling pathway with circuits regulating learning and feeding behaviors. In ovaries from mated queens, the detection of sNPF receptor signal at the posterior end of oocytes in mid-oogenesis stage suggests that the sNPF signaling pathway may regulate processes at the oocyte pole. Conclusions The analysis of sNPF receptor immunolocalization shows that the sNPF signaling cascade may be involved in diverse functions, and the sNPF peptide(s may act in the brain as neurotransmitter(s or neuromodulator(s, and in the ovaries

  2. Distribution of 32P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of 32 P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of 32 P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed

  3. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

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    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  4. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  5. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  6. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

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    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  7. Pseudacteon decapitating flies: Potential vectors of a fire ant virus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, S.M.; Porter, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV-1) is a positive-stranded RNA virus recently found to infect all stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV-1 and a second genotype have been tentatively assigned to the Dicistroviridae (Mayo 2002). Infected individuals or colonies did not exhibit any immediate, discernible symptoms in the field. However, under stress from introduction into the laboratory, brood death was often observed among infected colonies, ultimately leading to the death of the entire colony (Valles et al. 2004). These characteristics are consistent with other insect-infecting positive-stranded RNA viruses. They often persist as inapparent, asymptomatic infections that, under certain conditions, induce replication within the host, resulting in observable symptoms and often death (Christian and Scotti 1998; Fernandez et al. 2002). The SINV infection rate among colonies was reported to be around 25% in Gainesville, Florida (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV vertical and horizontal transmission were inferred based on RT-PCR detection of virus genome in eggs and successful colony to colony transfer under lab conditions (Valles et al. 2004). However, the exact mechanisms by which the virus is spread from nest to nest in the field are unknown. Our results indicate that SINV does not replicate within Pseudacteon decapitating flies that parasitize S. invicta. Flies appeared to develop normally from SINV-infected S. invicta workers. Mechanical transmission of SINV to uninfected ants by oviposition appears unlikely

  8. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

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    Qun-Hui eShi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae encompasses ant species commonly called fire ants because of their painful sting. The many physiological effects of the venom are caused by 2-methyl-6-alkyl and/or alkenylpiperidine alkaloids. The variation in piperidine alkaloid structures has useful taxonomic characters. The most well studied Solenopsis species is S. invicta, which was accidentally imported into the USA in the 1930s from South America. It quickly spread throughout the southern USA and is now a major invasive pest ant in the USA and in other parts of the world. Interestingly, the invasive S. invicta has largely displaced a native USA fire ant, S. geminata, from the southern USA. We explore the possibility that differences in venom chemistry could be correlated with this displacement. The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of S. geminata were separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecyl-piperidines, as well as other minor alkaloid components. Imported fire ant, S. invicta, alate queens produce the same alkaloids as S. geminata alate queens, but in contrast S. invicta workers produce piperidine alkaloids with longer side chains, which are purported to be physiologically more effective. These results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary progression of fire ant venom alkaloids and displacement of S. geminata by S. invicta in the USA.

  9. Wolbachia infections in native and introduced populations of fire ants (Solenopsis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, D D; Ross, K G; Keller, L; Vargo, E L; Werren, J H

    2000-12-01

    Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that induce a variety of effects with fitness consequences on host arthropods, including cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, male-killing and feminization. We report here the presence of Wolbachia in native South American populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, but the apparent absence of the bacteria in introduced populations of this pest species in the USA. The Wolbachia strains in native S. invicta are of two divergent types (A and B), and the frequency of infection varies dramatically between geographical regions and social forms of this host. Survey data reveal that Wolbachia also are found in other native fire ant species within the Solenopsis saevissima species complex from South America, including S. richteri. This latter species also has been introduced in the USA, where it lacks Wolbachia. Sequence data reveal complete phylogenetic concordance between mtDNA haplotype in S. invicta and Wolbachia infection type (A or B). In addition, the mtDNA and associated group A Wolbachia strain in S. invicta are more closely related to the mtDNA and Wolbachia strain found in S. richteri than they are to the mtDNA and associated group B Wolbachia in S. invicta. These data are consistent with historical introgression of S. richteri cytoplasmic elements into S. invicta populations, resulting in enhanced infection and mtDNA polymorphisms in S. invicta. Wolbachia may have significant fitness effects on these hosts (either directly or by cytoplasmic incompatibility) and therefore these microbes potentially could be used in biological control programmes to suppress introduced fire ant populations.

  10. Biological Control of Solenopsis Fire Ants by Pseudacteon Parasitoids: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd W. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudacteon parasitoids are potential biocontrol agents of invasive Solenopsis fire ants. Pseudacteon species that parasitize the invasive S. invicta Buren and S. richteri Forel have been introduced to, and naturally dispersed across, the southeastern USA, although there is no evidence yet that Solenopsis host ant populations have decreased. The ability of introduced Pseudacteon species to regulate Solenopsis populations will depend upon the relative importance of top-down effects in the recipient communities. In this paper, I examine the characteristics of the Pseudacteon/Solenopsis parasitoid/host system and evaluate the extent to which research findings are consistent with top-down control. Laboratory and field experiments evaluating Solenopsis population regulation have been equivocal, and overall the available evidence provides little support for strong top-down effects in this system. Competitive exclusion may occur among introduced Pseudacteon species, and future efforts at biological control are likely to be more efficacious if they focus on other types of natural enemies.

  11. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

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    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  12. An empirical test of Lanchester's square law: mortality during battles of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    OpenAIRE

    Plowes, Nicola J.R; Adams, Eldridge S

    2005-01-01

    Lanchester's models of attrition describe casualty rates during battles between groups as functions of the numbers of individuals and their fighting abilities. Originally developed to describe human warfare, Lanchester's square law has been hypothesized to apply broadly to social animals as well, with important consequences for their aggressive behaviour and social structure. According to the square law, the fighting ability of a group is proportional to the square of the number of individual...

  13. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  14. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  15. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug. - Highlights: • Both ‘radiation dose’ and ‘irradiated insect stage’ are important factors. • 100-Gy irradiation could achieve population extinction in two generations. • 200 Gy should be a reasonable dose in the quarantine treatment

  16. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  17. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

  18. Pyrokinin β-neuropeptide affects necrophoretic behavior in fire ants (S. invicta), and expression of β-NP in a mycoinsecticide increases its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Pereira, Roberto M; Kilic, Engin; Casella, George; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2012-01-01

    Fire ants are one of the world's most damaging invasive pests, with few means for their effective control. Although ecologically friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides such as the insecticidal fungus Beauveria bassiana have been suggested for the control of fire ant populations, their use has been limited due to the low virulence of the fungus and the length of time it takes to kill its target. We present a means of increasing the virulence of the fungal agent by expressing a fire ant neuropeptide. Expression of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) pyrokinin β-neuropeptide (β-NP) by B. bassiana increased fungal virulence six-fold towards fire ants, decreased the LT(50), but did not affect virulence towards the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella. Intriguingly, ants killed by the β-NP expressing fungus were disrupted in the removal of dead colony members, i.e. necrophoretic behavior. Furthermore, synthetic C-terminal amidated β-NP but not the non-amidated peptide had a dramatic effect on necrophoretic behavior. These data link chemical sensing of a specific peptide to a complex social behavior. Our results also confirm a new approach to insect control in which expression of host molecules in an insect pathogen can by exploited for target specific augmentation of virulence. The minimization of the development of potential insect resistance by our approach is discussed.

  19. Solenopsis ant magnetic material: statistical and seasonal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraçado, Leida G; Esquivel, Darci M S; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the magnetic material amount in Solenopsis ants using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. We sampled S. interrupta workers from several morphologically indistinguishable castes. Twenty-five oriented samples of each body part of S. interrupta (20 units each) showed that FMR line shapes are reproducible. The relative magnetic material amount was 31 ± 12% (mean ± SD) in the antennae, 27 ± 13% in the head, 21 ± 12% in the thorax and 20 ± 10% in the abdomen. In order to measure variation in the magnetic material from late summer to early winter, ants were collected each month between March and July. The amount of magnetic material was greatest in all four body parts in March and least in all four body parts in June. In addition, S. richteri majors presented more magnetic material than minor workers. Extending these findings to the genera Solenopsis, the reduction in magnetic material found in winter could be explained by our sampling fewer foraging major ants

  20. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  1. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  2. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarin, Mahtab; Zubeda; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N 1 ) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N 1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N 2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N 2 . A dose of 500Gy given to female-N 3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N 3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N 3 and N 4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N 4 . 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of

  3. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum; Danos de Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em Parica, Schizolobium amazonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: amehl@cpatu.embrapa.br; Harada, Ana Y. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Zoologia. Setor de Invertebrados], e-mail: ahara@museu-goeldi.br

    2009-03-15

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  4. Sex Pheromone of the Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, with an Unusual Cyclobutane Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2016-11-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, the distribution of which was formerly limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions, recently invaded many countries in various regions including Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. More recently, P. solenopsis was newly recorded in Japan and is currently an emerging pest of agricultural crops. In this study, we determined the structure of a sex pheromone of P. solenopsis in order to develop an effective lure for monitoring this pest. From volatiles emitted by virgin adult females, we isolated a compound attractive to males. By means of coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified this as (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclobutyl)methyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male P. solenopsis. Analysis by gas chromatography using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the natural pheromone and synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound to be the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. This compound is an ester of maconelliol, which has an unusual cyclobutane structure found in sex pheromones of other mealybug species, and senecioic acid, also found in the pheromones of other mealybug species. However, this is the first example of the ester of maconelliol and senecioic acid as a natural product.

  5. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were successfully separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily...

  6. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  7. [Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Pará State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants.

  8. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S.; Harada, Ana Y.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  9. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  10. Extracted Venom and Cuticular Compounds of Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., and Chemotaxonomic Applications Across a Persistent Hybrid Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of cuticular biomolecular assemblages for imported fire ants permit basic distinctions among colonies of S. invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrids; thus, providing opportunities to investigate details of landscape ecology for this species complex as well as to assess levels of inva...

  11. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  12. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  13. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P . solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P . solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P . solenopsis . The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P . solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P . solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  14. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  15. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    São descritas pela primeira vez injúrias causadas por Solenopsis saevissima F Smith em árvores de paricá, Schizolobium amazonicum, em Dom Eliseu, PA. Essa formiga ataca folhas e o fuste, onde são abertos orifícios e galerias, até a região apical da planta. Brotos terminais e novas brotações também são atacados e destruídos, prejudicando a formação de um tronco retilíneo e uniforme para comercialização. Ninhos arborícolas construídos pelas formigas foram observados em algumas plantas. Injur...

  16. Incidence of a New Pest, the Cotton Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, on Sesame in North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenawi Gebregergis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum is one of the most important cash crops grown extensively for its seeds in Ethiopia. Production of sesame in the country is very crucial in many aspects, but the invasion of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is becoming a big deal in its production. A survey for mealybug infestation was conducted during 2016 production season in 15 localities of “Kafta Humera” district so as to assess the incidence and severity of the pest. In each locality 2 sesame farms have been selected and 6 samples per farm (2 samples from the road sides, 2 from camp surrounding, and 2 from the central part of the farms have been checked. During the survey, “Bowal” and “Sherif Hamad” have scored the higher incidence and severity of mealybugs. Road sides and camp surrounding of the farms were shown to have severe infestation. Stony and oxen plowed farms were also intensively invaded with cotton mealybugs. The pest has different natural means to infest new areas; thus its control measure has to be developing timely.

  17. Active insecticides for Diaphania hyalinata selective for the natural enemy Solenopsis saevissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alex R; Alvarenga, Elson S; Lopes, Mayara C; Santos, Izailda B Dos; Galdino, Tarcisio V; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the nine synthetic dienamides against the insect pest Diaphania hyalinata (melonworm) and the selectivity of these substances for the predator Solenopsis saevissima (fire ant). Four bioassays were conducted. To begin with, the dienamides that caused high mortality of D. hyalinata have been selected. In the second bioassay the dose-mortality curves of the selected dienamides have been constructed. In the third bioassay, the survival curves for D. hyalinata and the elapsed time to kill 50% of their population have been determined. In the fourth biological test, the selectivity of the substances to the predator S. saevissima has been evaluated. The most active (2E,4E)-N-butylhexa-2,4-dienamide 3d has killed 95% of the melonworm, D. hyalinata, and less than 10% of the natural enemy S. saevissima. The results presented by this compound are superior to the outcome displayed by the commercial insecticide Malathion®. Three of the dienamides prepared in this manuscript have proven to be selective in killing the pest, but not the beneficial insect.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Two Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase Genes From Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Tianxiang; Zheng, Xiaowen; Han, Na; Chen, Xuexin; Zhang, Dayu

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) are key enzymes involved in fatty alcohol synthesis. Here, we cloned and characterized full-length cDNAs of two FAR genes from the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. The results showed PsFAR I and PsFAR II cDNAs were 1,584 bp and 1,515 bp in length respectively. Both PsFAR I and PsFAR II were predicted to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum by Euk-mPLoc 2.0 approach. Both of them had a Rossmann folding region and a FAR_C region. Two conservative motifs were discovered in Rossmann folding region by sequence alignment including a NADPH combining motif, TGXXGG, and an active site motif, YXXXK. A phylogenetic tree made using MEGA 6.06 indicated that PsFAR I and PsFAR II were placed in two different branches. Gene expression analysis performed at different developmental stages showed that the expression of PsFar I is significantly higher than that of PsFar II in first and second instar nymphs and in male adults. Spirotetramat treatment at 125 mg/liter significantly increased the expression of PsFar I in third instar nymphs, but there was no effect in the expression of PsFar II Our results indicated these two FAR genes showed different expression patterns during insect development and after pesticide treatment, suggesting they play different roles in insect development and detoxification against pesticides. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

  20. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  1. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a serious pest of cotton and other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Arif, M.J.; Aslam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) was first recorded on cultivated cotton from Texas, USA in 1991. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton in Pakistan and India, and is now a serious threat to cotton in China and other cotton-growing countries worldwide. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. So far, it has been reported from 173 species in 54 plant families, and from 26 countries in different ecological zones. The study found that host plant species and meteorological conditions had significant effects, whereas locality had no significant effect on the fecundity of the mealybug. (author)

  2. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties.

  3. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  4. A histochemical and X-ray microanalysis study of calcium changes in insect flight muscle degeneration in Solenopsis, the queen fire ant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.G.; Davis, W.L.; Vinson, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Potassium pyroantimonate histochemistry, coupled with ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA)-chelation and X-ray microprobe analysis, was employed to localize intracellular calcium binding sites in the normal and degenerating flight musculature in queens of Solenopsis, the fire ant. In normal animals, calcium distribution was light to moderate within myofibrils and mitochondria. In the early contracture stages of the insemination-induced degeneration, both myofilament and mitochondrial calcium loading was markedly increased. In the terminal stages of myofibril breakdown, only Z-lines (isolated or in clusters) with an associated filamentous residue persisted. These complexes were also intensely calcium positive. This study further documents the presence of increased sarcoplasmic calcium during muscle necrosis. Surface membrane defects, mitochondrial calcium overload, and calcium-activated proteases may all be involved in this ''normal'' breakdown process

  5. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  6. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum, the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  7. Intraspecific and Intracolonial Variation in the Profile of Venom Alkaloids and Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire ants are aggressive Neotropical ants that are extensively similar in general biology and morphology, making species identification difficult. Some fire ant species are top-rated pests spreading throughout the world by trade vessels. Many researchers attempted to sort between invasive and native species by using chemical characters, including patterns of venom alkaloids. The present study is the first to report intraspecific variation in some chemical characters, namely, cuticular hydrocarbons and venom alkaloids, within the Brazilian fire ant species Solenopsis saevissima and also reports on within-nest variations among members of different castes. Two different haplotypes (cryptic species of S. saevissima were clearly identified, one presenting a predominant combination of the venom alkaloids cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidine with the cuticular hydrocarbons C23, 3-Me-C23, 10-C25 : 1, C25, and 3-Me-C25, and the other a predominant combination of cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-tridecenylpiperidine with predominance of 12-C25 : 1, C25, 11-Me-C25, 3-Me-C25, 13-C27 : 1, C27, and 13-Me-C27. Intranest variations revealed that the proportions among these compounds varied sensibly among workers of different sizes, gynes, and males (no alkaloids were detected in the latter. Larva contained vestiges of the same compounds. The recorded chemical profiles are quite different from previous reports with S. saevissima samples from São Paulo. The finds thus support other recent claims that S. saevissima includes cryptic species; the study, moreover, adds the find that they can occur in the same geographical location.

  8. Significance of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) as part of the natural enemy complex responsible for successful biological control of many tropical irrigated rice pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M J; Heong, K L

    2009-10-01

    The tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) often nests very abundantly in the earthen banks (bunds) around irrigated rice fields in the tropics. Where some farmers habitually drain fields to the mud for about 3-4 days, the ants can quickly spread up to about 20 m into the fields where they collect food, including pest prey such as the eggs and young of the apple snail Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck) and insects such as lepidopterous larvae and hoppers, notably Nilaparvata lugens (Stäl) the brown planthopper (Bph) and green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. Even in drained fields, the activity of S. geminata is restricted by rainfall in the wet season. The relatively few ant workers that forage characteristically into drained fields and on to the transplanted clumps of rice plants (hills) kill the normally few immigrant Bph adults but are initially slower acting than other species of the natural enemy complex. However, larger populations of Bph are fiercely attacked and effectively controlled by rapidly recruited ant workers; whereas, in the absence of the ant, the other natural enemies are inadequate. In normal circumstances, there is no ant recruitment in response to initially small populations of immigrant Bph and no evidence of incompatibility between ant foragers and other natural enemies such as spiders. However, when many ants are quickly and aggressively recruited to attack large populations of Bph, they temporarily displace some spiders from infested hills. It is concluded that, in suitable weather conditions and even when insecticides kill natural enemies within the rice field, periodic drainage that enables S. geminata to join the predator complex is valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails and Lepidoptera, and especially against relatively large populations of Bph. Drainage practices to benefit ants are fully compatible with recent research, which shows that periodic drainage combats problems of 'yield decline' in intensively irrigated

  9. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  10. El caballero de la Invicta

    OpenAIRE

    Torres G, Carlos L.; Docente Departamento de Literatura Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2004-01-01

    «Porque un diamante es casi tan valioso como un libro». Esta frase se extiende al pie de una edición antigua de «El Quijote», abierto en la primera página del capítulo sexto, en medio de las curiosidades de una tienda de antigüedades que sorprenden al profesor arturo manrique avilan, y a su compañero de ciencia, el alemán heimpel en la calle del chocho a la vuelta de palacio. La ciudad de Bogotá es el escenario para narrar la vida de un científico que busca a la manera moderna, a través de la...

  11. A Y-like social chromosome causes alternative colony organization in fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraspecific variability in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known1-3. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, the existence of two divergent forms of social organisation is under the control of a single Mendelian genomic element marked by two variants of an odorant b...

  12. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  13. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  14. EXPLORANDO EL PAPEL DE LA HORMIGA GENERALISTA SOLENOPSIS GEMINATA (FORMICIDAE: MYRMICINAE EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE SENNA SPECTABILIS (FABACEAE: CAESALPINIOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La colonización de los potreros por especies vegetales diferentes a los pastos está limitada por la escasez de dispersores primarios y la poca disponibilidad de sitios adecuados para la germinación de las plantas. Las hormigas generalistas de potrero podrían promover la dispersión secundaria de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica mediante la manipulación y el transporte de semillas hacia sus nidos. En este estudio se examinó la necesidad de la escarificación mecánica para la germinación de semillas de tres especies de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica: Guazuma ulmifolia, Pithecellobium dulce y Senna spectabilis en condiciones de laboratorio. La escarificación potenció la germinación de G. ulmifolia (5% vs. 37% y S. spectabilis (0% vs. 98.5% y disminuyó la germinación de P. dulce (94% vs. 87%. Se concluye que la escarificación mecánica es necesaria para la germinación de S. spectabilis y G. ulmifolia. Con el objeto de explorar si las hormigas inciden en la germinación, en el laboratorio se ofrecieron semillas de S. spectabilis sin escarificar a colonias de la hormiga de fuego Solenopsis geminata. No se obtuvo germinación, lo que sugiere que esta especie de hormiga no realiza escarificación mecánica ni química a las semillas, pero tampoco hubo evidencia de daño físico a las semillas. Finalmente, se comparó la germinación de semillas escarificadas de S. spectabilis en suelo de nidos inactivos de S. geminata y en suelo adyacente al nido, en invernadero y campo. En invernadero la germinación fue mayor en suelo de nidos que en suelo adyacente (98% vs. 86%, respectivamente pero en el campo sucedió lo contrario (24% vs. 43%, respectivamente. No se encontró evidencia que los cambios provocados al suelo por S. geminata favorezcan la germinación de S. spectabilis. Se recomienda evaluar la contribución del suelo de nidos en etapas post-germinación de establecimiento, supervivencia y

  15. Imported fire ants near the edge of their range: disturbance and moisture determine prevalence and impact of an invasive social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Plowes, Robert M; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2012-07-01

    1. Habitat disturbance and species invasions interact in natural systems, making it difficult to isolate the primary cause of ecosystem degradation. A general understanding requires case studies of how disturbance and invasion interact across a variety of ecosystem - invasive species combinations. 2. Dramatic losses in ant diversity followed the invasion of central Texas by red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). However, recent manipulative studies in Florida revealed no effect on ant diversity following the removal of S. invicta from a disturbed pasture habitat, but moderate loss of diversity associated with their introduction into undisturbed habitat and no invasion occurred without disturbance. Thus, the importance of S. invicta in driving diversity loss and its ability to invade undisturbed systems is unresolved. 3. We examine the distribution and abundance of a large monogyne S. invicta population and its association with the co-occurring ant assemblage at a site in south Texas close to the aridity tolerance limit of S. invicta. 4. We document that moisture modulates S. invicta densities. Further, soil disturbing habitat manipulations greatly increase S. invicta population densities. However, S. invicta penetrates all habitats regardless of soil disturbance history. In contrast, controlled burns depress S. invicta densities. 5. In habitats where S. invicta is prevalent, it completely replaces native fire ants. However, S. invicta impacts native ants as a whole less strongly. Intriguingly, native ants responded distinctly to S. invicta in different environments. In wet, undisturbed environments, high S. invicta abundance disrupts the spatial structure of the ant assemblage by increasing clumping and is associated with reduced species density, while in dry-disturbed habitats, sites with high S. invicta abundance possess high numbers of native species. Analyses of co-occurrence indicate that reduced species density in wet

  16. Habitat alteration increases invasive fire ant abundance to the detriment of amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.D.; Rothermel, B.B.; Reed, R.N.; Luhring, T.M.; Schlatter, K.; Trenkamp, L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Altered habitats have been suggested to facilitate red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) colonization and dispersal, possibly compounding effects of habitat alteration on native wildlife. In this study, we compared colonization intensity of wood cover boards by S. invicta among four forest management treatments in South Carolina, USA: an unharvested control (>30 years old); a partially thinned stand; a clearcut with coarse woody debris retained; and a clearcut with coarse woody debris removed. Additionally, we compared dehydration rates and survival of recently metamorphosed salamanders (marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, and mole salamanders, A. talpoideum) among treatments. We found that the number of wood cover boards colonized by S. invicta differed significantly among treatments, being lowest in the unharvested forest treatments and increasing with the degree of habitat alteration. Salamanders that were maintained in experimental field enclosures to study water loss were unexpectedly subjected to high levels of S. invicta predation that differed among forest treatments. All known predation by S. invicta was restricted to salamanders in clearcuts. The amount of vegetative ground cover was inversely related to the likelihood of S. invicta predation of salamanders. Our results show that S. invicta abundance increases with habitat disturbance and that this increased abundance has negative consequences for amphibians that remain in altered habitats. Our findings also suggest that the presence of invasive S. invicta may compromise the utility of cover boards and other techniques commonly used in herpetological studies in the Southeast. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  18. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  19. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  20. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  2. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  3. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  4. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  5. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  6. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  7. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  8. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  14. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  15. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  16. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  17. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  18. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  19. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  20. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  1. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  2. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  3. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  4. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  5. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  9. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  10. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  12. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  15. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  16. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  17. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  18. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  19. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  20. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  1. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  3. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  4. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  5. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  6. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  10. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  11. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  13. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  14. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  15. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  16. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  18. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  19. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  20. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  1. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  2. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  3. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  4. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  5. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  6. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  7. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  8. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  9. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  10. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  12. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  13. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  1. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  3. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  6. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  7. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  10. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  11. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  12. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  13. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  14. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. A revision of the genus Kaszabister Mazur (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Degallier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise the four species of Kaszabister Mazur, 1972, one of which, Kaszabister barrigai sp. n., is described as new. The other species in the genus are K. rubellus (Erichson, 1834, K. ferrugineus (Kirsch, 1873 and K. carinatus (Lewis, 1888. The species are principally known from the subtropics of South America, with one in Central America. Lectotypes are designated for K. rubellus and K. ferrugineus, and a key is provided for all the species. Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood, mainly S. invicta Buren and S. saevissima (Smith, are documented as hosts of three of the four species.

  16. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  18. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  19. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  20. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  1. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  2. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  3. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  4. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  6. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  7. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  8. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  9. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  10. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  11. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  12. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  13. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  15. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  16. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  17. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  18. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  19. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  20. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  2. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  3. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  4. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  5. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  6. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  7. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  8. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  9. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  10. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  11. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  12. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  13. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  14. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  15. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  16. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  17. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  18. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  19. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  1. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  2. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  3. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  4. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  6. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  7. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  8. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  9. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  10. Virus Information Update CIAC-2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    a tune through a sound card. Byway is reported to be in the wild internationally, especially in Venezuela, Mexico , Bulgaria, UK and USA. REMOVAL NOTE...1482, Varicella Type: Program. Disk Location: Features: Damage: Size: See Also: Notes: v6-146: This virus was written to hurt users of the TBCLEAN...antivirus package. If you have a file infected with the Varicella virus, and if you tried to clean this virus infected file with tbclean, what would

  11. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses

  12. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  13. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and ...

  14. Red imported fire ant impacts on upland arthropods in Southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, D.M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) have negative impacts on a broad array of invertebrate species. We investigated the impacts of fire ants on the upland arthropod community on 20???40 ha study sites in southern Mississippi. Study sites were sampled from 19972000 before, during, and after fire ant bait treatments to reduce fire ant populations. Fire ant abundance was assessed with bait transects on all sites, and fire ant population indices were estimated on a subset of study sites. Species richness and diversity of other ant species was also assessed from bait transects. Insect biomass and diversity was determined from light trap samples. Following treatments, fire ant abundance and population indices were significantly reduced, and ant species diversity and richness were greater on treated sites. Arthropod biomass, species diversity and species richness estimated from light trap samples were negatively correlated with fire ant abundance, but there were no observable treatment effects. Solenopsis invicta has the potential to negatively impact native arthropod communities resulting in a potential loss of both species and function.

  15. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  16. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  17. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  20. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...

  1. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  2. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  3. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    171. 5. Celum, C. L. The Interaction between Herpes Sim- plex Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Her- pes, 2004; 1: 36A-44A. 6. Brown, Z.A., Selke, S., Zeh, J., Kopelman, J., Maslow,. A., Ashley, R.L., Watts, D.H., Berry, S., Herd, M. and.

  4. Crenarchaeal Viruses: Morphotypes and Genomes,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, P.; Basta, P.; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present our current knowledge about double-stranded (dsDNA) viruses infecting hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeaota, the organisms which predominate in hot terrestrial springs with temperatures over 80 °C. These viruses exhibit extraordinary diversity of morphotypes most of which have...

  5. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  6. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  7. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Yú, Shu Qìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Hensley, Lisa E; Chiu, Charles Y; O'Connor, David H; Kuhn, Jens H

    2015-03-19

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. Copyright © 2015 Lauck et al.

  9. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  10. Sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. [Cauliflower mosaic virus, lettuce mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, S A; Shepherd, R J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA); California Univ., Davis (USA))

    1980-06-01

    A simple and highly sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of plant viruses is described. The RISA procedure is a microplate method based on the principle of 'double-antibody sandwich' and follows essentially the protocol of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Clark and Adams, 1977), with the exception that /sup 125/I-labelled ..gamma..-globulin is substituted for the ..gamma..-globulin enzyme conjugate; the bound /sup 125/I-..gamma..-globulin is dissociated by acidification from the double-antibody sandwich. The radioactivity is proportional to virus concentration, and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 and 2 ng/ml, respectively. Direct evidence of the adverse effects of conjugation with enzyme on the binding abilities of antibodies is presented. The RISA procedure should prove valuable with viruses for which the ELISA values are too low to be dependable.

  11. Plant virus sensitivity to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergyne Czeck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary experiments for prevention were conducted with weakened plant viruses, namely with Arabis mosaic virus isolated from strawberries and tobacco mosaic virus. Treatment 24 hours prior to the infection with the radiation-weakened virus resulted in a 60-70% infection prevention. (author)

  12. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  13. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  14. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  15. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  16. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  17. A new looming of Zika virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav R Soni

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples.

  18. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  19. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  20. "The evil virus cell": Students‘ knowledge and beliefs about viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzinger, Sonja M.; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  1. "The evil virus cell": Students' knowledge and beliefs about viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K; Enzinger, Sonja M; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  2. Das Epstein-Barr-Virus ( = Epstein-Barr virus)

    OpenAIRE

    Niller, H. H.; Wolf, Hans J.

    1993-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is an ubiquitous humanpathogenic herpesvirus. It has been identified as the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis. In addition it is associated with the cancers nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Like other herpesviruses it infects cells in a lytic way or it persists in a latent state. Classically, the serologic diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infections is done by the agglutination of sheep erythrocytes according to Paul and Bunnell as a rapid testing m...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  4. A REVIEW ON ZIKA VIRUS (ZIKV) -A DREADFUL MEMBER OF THE VIRUS FAMILY FLAVIVIRIDAE

    OpenAIRE

    1Rafiya Begum, 2 Raafia Aseena, 3Nuha Rasheed and 4 Abdul Saleem Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Research on zika virus examine the virus that is spread to humans through a mosquito bite, with symptoms that include fever, rash, joint pain, and conjuctivities. For most people zika virus is not necessarily anything to worry, as it is not fatal and symptoms are generally mild for period up to a week. Hospitalization because of zika virus is almost always not necessary. However, the zika virus can be extremely dangerous to pregnant womes. Key Words: Zika, virus, transmission, fatal, flavivir...

  5. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  6. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  7. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  8. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  10. Mayaro virus: the jungle flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izurieta RO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo O Izurieta,1 David A DeLacure,1 Andres Izurieta,2 Ismael A Hoare,1 Miguel Reina Ortiz,1,3 1Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Fundación Raíces, Esmeraldas, Ecuador Abstract: Mayaro fever is an emerging acute viral disease endemic in Central and South America. Mayaro virus (MAYV is classified in the Semliki Forest virus antigenic complex and shares similarities with the alphavirus Chikungunya virus and the flavivirus Dengue virus. MAYV is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus janthinomys, with competence also demonstrated in Aedes aegypti, Aedes scapularis, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Outbreaks and small epidemics of Mayaro fever have occurred in several countries in northern South America and the Caribbean. In addition, travel-associated cases have been reported in European nationals returning from endemic areas. Clinical features of Mayaro fever include fever, chills, persistent arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, maculopapular rash, itching, dizziness, and, rarely, lymphadenopathy. Methods of control for MAYV are similar to those used for other sylvatic arboviruses. Although MAYV was discovered as long ago as the 1950s and continues to be prevalent in the tropical areas of the Americas, it remains neglected and under-studied. This paper provides a thorough and current review of the published MAYV literature ranging from its original description to modern outbreaks, and from the basic virus characteristics to the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease. Keywords: Mayaro virus, emerging arbovirus, dengue-like virus, arthrogenic virus

  11. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  12. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Snyder, Jamie C; Young, Mark J

    2018-02-27

    Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  13. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Munson-McGee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  16. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Dragnea, Bogdan; Ma, Xiang; van der Schoot, Paul; Zandi, Roya

    2017-07-01

    A virus binding to a surface causes stress of the virus cage near the contact area. Here, we investigate the potential role of substrate-induced structural perturbation in the mechanical response of virus particles to adsorption. This is particularly relevant to the broad category of viruses stabilized by weak noncovalent interactions. We utilize atomic force microscopy to measure height distributions of the brome mosaic virus upon adsorption from solution on atomically flat substrates and present a continuum model that captures our observations and provides estimates of elastic properties and of the interfacial energy of the virus, without recourse to indentation.

  17. Structure of viruses: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction

  18. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  20. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  1. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  2. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  4. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  5. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Peters

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity.

  6. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  7. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  8. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lošdorfer Božič, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martín, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-07

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.

  9. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  10. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  11. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  12. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  13. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  14. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  15. Archaeal Viruses: Diversity, Replication, and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Bolduc, Benjamin; Young, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    The Archaea-and their viruses-remain the most enigmatic of life's three domains. Once thought to inhabit only extreme environments, archaea are now known to inhabit diverse environments. Even though the first archaeal virus was described over 40 years ago, only 117 archaeal viruses have been discovered to date. Despite this small number, these viruses have painted a portrait of enormous morphological and genetic diversity. For example, research centered around the various steps of the archaeal virus life cycle has led to the discovery of unique mechanisms employed by archaeal viruses during replication, maturation, and virion release. In many instances, archaeal virus proteins display very low levels of sequence homology to other proteins listed in the public database, and therefore, structural characterization of these proteins has played an integral role in functional assignment. These structural studies have not only provided insights into structure-function relationships but have also identified links between viruses across all three domains of life.

  16. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M.; Davis, William G.; Klena, John D.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W.U.; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S.; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T.; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute

    2018-01-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo. PMID:29460758

  17. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  18. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.

  19. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  20. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    including measles virus (MeV), mumps virus, Sendai virus (SeV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), human...Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD. Hut 102, MT2, MT4, and CEM human T cell lines were provided by Chou-Zen Giam, USUHS, Bethesda, MD. The human osteosarcoma

  1. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  3. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  4. Viruses, Vaccines and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles

    Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information.

  5. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA. PMID:19013331

  6. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  7. RNAi suppressors encoded by pathogenic human viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Walter; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses

  8. Characterization of pseudorabies viruses produced in mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... for influenza A and B viruses (Govorkova et al., 1996). In addition, the propagation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a porcine coronavirus had been unsuccessful until serial passage of the virus in Vero cells. (Hofmann and Wyler, 1988; Song et al., 2003). There- fore, this cell line is being widely ...

  9. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Ma, Xiang; Schoot, Paul van der; Zandi, Roya; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Virus binding to a surface results at least locally, at the contact area, in stress and potential structural perturbation of the virus cage. Here we address the question of the role of substrate-induced deformation in the overall virus mechanical response to the adsorption event. This question may

  10. Emerging viruses in the genus Comovirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 290-292 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Capsid proteins * plant virus * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2010

  11. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  12. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  13. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  14. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  15. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: ŠŠ A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. ŠŠ A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  16. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  17. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  18. Characterization of Ebola Virus Entry by Using Pseudotyped Viruses: Identification of Receptor-Deficient Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wool-Lewis, Rouven J.; Bates, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Studies analyzing Ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. To permit analysis of the host range and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ebo-GP), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (MLV). This pseudotyped virus, MLV(Ebola), can be readily concentrated to titers which exceed 5 × 106 infectious units/ml and is effectively neutralized by antibodies specific for Ebo-GP. Analysis of ...

  19. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  20. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  1. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  2. [Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

    2006-01-01

    In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated.

  3. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years ...

  5. Citrus Tristeza Virus: An Increasing Trend in the Virus Occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution ...

  6. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  8. Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Viruses as Novel Nanoplatforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth, and with an estimated 1031 virus-like particles in the biosphere, viruses are virtually everywhere. Traditionally, the study of viruses has focused on their roles as infectious agents. However, over the last decades with the development...... presents an in depth investigation of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SMV. Decisive steps in the viral life-cycle are studied with focus on the early stages of infection. TEM observations suggest that SMV1 virions enter into host cells via a fusion entry mechanism, involving three distinct stages...

  9. A new looming of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease were conjunctivitis (red eyes, back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples.

  10. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  11. Zika virus en seksuele transmissie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, J W; Brandwagt, D A H; Timen, A; van der Eijk, A A; Vennema, H; Te Wierik, M J M

    2017-01-01

    - More evidence has become available concerning the sexual transmission of Zika virus and viral shedding in semen, which has led to the expansion of international guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission; Dutch guidelines have not been altered.- Internationally, the use of condoms during sex

  12. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, I.; Palus, Martin; Alves, M. J.; Gould, E. A.; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 5 (2016), s. 707-711 ISSN 0022-1899 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * flavivirus * nucleoside analogue * antiviral * therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 6.273, year: 2016

  13. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Baculoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baculoviridae is a family of large viruses with circular dsDNA genomes ranging from 80 to 180 kbp. Virions consist of enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsids and are embedded in distinctive occlusion bodies measuring 0.15 to 15 µm. The occlusion bodies consist of a matrix composed of a single viral...

  14. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  15. A Case of Ebola Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses Ebola virus.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  16. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  17. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  18. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  19. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  20. Recombination in hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

  1. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Nel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Duvenhage virus (DUVV constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

  3. Oncolytic viruses as anticancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman eWoller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  4. Tetraspanin Assemblies in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Florin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins (Tspans are a family of four-span transmembrane proteins, known as plasma membrane “master organizers.” They form Tspan-enriched microdomains (TEMs or TERMs through lateral association with one another and other membrane proteins. If multiple microdomains associate with each other, larger platforms can form. For infection, viruses interact with multiple cell surface components, including receptors, activating proteases, and signaling molecules. It appears that Tspans, such as CD151, CD82, CD81, CD63, CD9, Tspan9, and Tspan7, coordinate these associations by concentrating the interacting partners into Tspan platforms. In addition to mediating viral attachment and entry, these platforms may also be involved in intracellular trafficking of internalized viruses and assist in defining virus assembly and exit sites. In conclusion, Tspans play a role in viral infection at different stages of the virus replication cycle. The present review highlights recently published data on this topic, with a focus on events at the plasma membrane. In light of these findings, we propose a model for how Tspan interactions may organize cofactors for viral infection into distinct molecular platforms.

  5. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  6. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  7. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Pneumoviridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Rima (Bert); Collins, P. (Peter); Easton, A. (Andrew); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); Kurath, G. (Gael); Lamb, R.A. (Robert A.); Lee, B. (Benhur); A. Maisner (Andrea); P.A. Rota (Paul); Wang, L. (Linfa); Lefkowitz, E.J. (Elliot J.); Davison, A.J. (Andrew J.); Simmonds, P. (Peter); Sabanadzovic, S. (Sead); Smith, D.B. (Donald B.); Orton, R.J. (Richard J.); Siddell, S.G. (Stuart G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian

  8. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  9. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  10. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  11. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Literature Review of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus’s vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  13. COMPOSITION OF FOWLPOX VIRUS AND INCLUSION MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDALL, C C; GAFFORD, L G; DARLINGTON, R W; HYDE, J

    1964-04-01

    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  14. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Competitive virus assay method for titration of noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (END⁺ and END⁻ viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio

    2013-03-01

    A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  17. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  18. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors?

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  20. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  1. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  2. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared...

  3. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies...

  4. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  5. Application of artificial intelligence for detecting derived viruses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Asiru, OF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available they infect files and systems is still the same. Hence, such viruses cannot be argued to be new. In this paper, the authors refer to such viruses as derived viruses. Just like new viruses, derived viruses are hard to detect with current scanning...

  6. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  7. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Schriewer, Jill [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Evans, David H. [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Buller, R. Mark [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Barry, Michele, E-mail: michele.barry@ualberta.ca [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  8. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  9. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  10. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampar, B.; Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-01-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing

  11. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  12. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, S.; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea.

  13. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampar, B. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD); Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-02-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing.

  14. New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundstrom K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Lundstrom PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland Abstract: Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses – adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses – have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses. Most encouragingly, the first cancer gene-therapy drug – Gendicine, based on oncolytic adenovirus type 5 – was approved in China. Likewise, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based drug for the treatment of melanoma has been registered in the US and Europe as talimogene laherparepvec. Keywords: immunotherapy, viral vectors, clinical trials, drug approval

  15. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  16. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  17. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  18. Configuring Symantec AntiVirus

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This is the only book that will teach system administrators how to configure, deploy, and troubleshoot Symantec Enterprise Edition in an enterprise network. The book will reflect Symantec''s philosophy of "Centralized Antivirus Management." For the same reasons that Symantec bundled together these previously separate products, the book will provide system administrators with a holistic approach to defending their networks from malicious viruses. This book will also serve as a Study Guide for those pursuing Symantec Product Specialist Certifications.Configuring Symantec AntiVirus Enterprise Edition contains step-by-step instructions on how to Design, implement and leverage the Symantec Suite of products in the enterprise.ØFirst book published on market leading product and fast-growing certification. Despite the popularity of Symantec''s products and Symantec Product Specialist certifications, there are no other books published or announced.ØLess expensive substitute for costly on-sight training. Symantec off...

  19. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, R; Delwart, E; Gorbalenya, A E; Hovi, T; King, A M Q; Knowles, N J; Lindberg, A M; Pallansch, M A; Palmenberg, A C; Reuter, G; Simmonds, P; Skern, T; Stanway, G; Yamashita, T; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/picornaviridae.

  20. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  1. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  2. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  3. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Waheed; Mehreen Tahir; Hasnain Waheed; Sher Zaman Safi

    2017-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production ...

  4. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and t...

  5. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  6. Tunable protease-activatable virus nanonodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Justin; Ho, Michelle L; Tiwari, Abhinav; Gomez, Eric J; Dempsey, Christopher; Van Vliet, Kim; Igoshin, Oleg A; Silberg, Jonathan J; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Suh, Junghae

    2014-05-27

    We explored the unique signal integration properties of the self-assembling 60-mer protein capsid of adeno-associated virus (AAV), a clinically proven human gene therapy vector, by engineering proteolytic regulation of virus-receptor interactions such that processing of the capsid by proteases is required for infection. We find the transfer function of our engineered protease-activatable viruses (PAVs), relating the degree of proteolysis (input) to PAV activity (output), is highly nonlinear, likely due to increased polyvalency. By exploiting this dynamic polyvalency, in combination with the self-assembly properties of the virus capsid, we show that mosaic PAVs can be constructed that operate under a digital AND gate regime, where two different protease inputs are required for virus activation. These results show viruses can be engineered as signal-integrating nanoscale nodes whose functional properties are regulated by multiple proteolytic signals with easily tunable and predictable response surfaces, a promising development toward advanced control of gene delivery.

  7. Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Robert; Georgi, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. PMID:29670029

  8. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  9. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in foetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis and public health.

  10. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  11. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Mattoscio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses known to be the primary cause of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence has now established their role in non-melanoma skin cancers, head and neck cancer (HNC, and the development of other anogenital malignancies. The prevalence of HPV-related HNC, in particular oropharyngeal cancers, is rapidly increasing, foreseeing that HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers will outnumber uterine cervical cancers in the next 15–20 years. Therefore, despite the successful advent of vaccines originally licensed for cervical cancer prevention, HPV burden is still very high, and a better understanding of HPV biology is urgently needed. Autophagy is the physiological cellular route that accounts for removal, degradation, and recycling of damaged organelles, proteins, and lipids in lysosomal vacuoles. In addition to this scavenger function, autophagy plays a fundamental role during viral infections and cancers and is, therefore, frequently exploited by viruses to their own benefit. Recently, a link between HPV and autophagy has clearly emerged, leading to the conceivable development of novel anti-viral strategies aimed at restraining HPV infectivity. Here, recent findings on how oncogenic HPV16 usurp autophagy are described, highlighting similarities and differences with mechanisms adopted by other oncoviruses.

  13. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production or by glycoprotein-based immune diversion. Individuals who survived from the Ebola virus are facing different health issues after the infection. The rate of miscarriage is also high in Ebola survivors while there are variable reports of the presence of Ebola virus in semen of Ebola survivors. There are many asymptomatic Ebola patients under consideration. West African countries lack the basic healthcare system, for which the actual number of deaths by the Ebola outbreak are much more than the deaths caused by the direct viral infection. The hospitals were empty due to fear and death of nurses and doctors. Millions of children missed the vaccine against measles. Hundreds of thousands of people could not get food. The Ebola epidemic also affected the mental health of people living in endemic countries. The families affected by Ebola are facing discrimination in the society. There is a dire need to adopt United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, which stresses to prepare ourselves to face any national or global health risk.

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  15. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  16. Zika Virus: An Emergent Neuropathological Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martyn K.; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain–Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013–2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. PMID:27464346

  17. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  18. Measles virus: Background and oncolytic virotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sankhajit Bhattacharjee; Pramod Kumar Yadava

    2018-01-01

    Measles is a highly transmissible disease caused by measles virus and remains a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Measles virus nucleoprotein (N) encapsidates the RNA genome of the virus for providing protection from host cell endonucleases and for specific recognition of viral RNA as template for transcription and replication. This protein is over-expressed at the time of viral replication. The C-terminal of N protein is intrinsically disordered, which enables this prot...

  19. Varicella zoster virus infection causing urinary retention in a child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Varicella zoster virus (VZV) of the human herpes virus family .... VZV, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Radiculomyelitis causing transient urinary retention and sensory lumbosacral symptoms is known as Elsberg ...

  20. Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water. ... the resistance of human viruses to water treatment and disinfection processes. ... highly sensitive molecular techniques viruses have been detected in drinking water ...

  1. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  2. survey of the symptoms and viruses associated with cowpea (vigna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-29

    Oct 29, 2012 ... of the prevalence of virus disease symptoms and to specifically identify the viruses infecting cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata . ... 1Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of ..... emerging viruses. This will ...

  3. Tomato ringspot virus and Tobacco ringspot virus in Highbush Blueberry in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars Patriot and Bluecrop showing virus-like symptoms and decline in vigor in New York was conducted to assess the occurrence of viruses. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic bushes reacted positively to Tobacco ringspot virus ...

  4. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited...

  5. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  6. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  7. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  8. Monitoring virus entry into living cells using DiD-labeled dengue virus particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala Nunez, Vanesa; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of approaches can be applied to investigate the multiple steps and interactions that occur during virus entry into the host cell. Single-virus tracking is a powerful real-time imaging technique that offers the possibility to monitor virus-cell binding, internalization, intracellular

  9. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Charles; Lauck, M; Yú, SQ; Caì, Y; Hensley, LE; Chiu, CY; O'Connor, DH; Kuhn, JH

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm vi

  10. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  11. Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D. T.; van der Wel, N. N.; Jansen, K. A.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, for which there has been no evidence of a

  12. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  14. Molecular characterization of pea enation mosaic virus and bean leafroll virus from the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapati, B; Druffel, K L; Eigenbrode, S D; Karasev, A; Pappu, H R

    2010-10-01

    The family Luteoviridae consists of eight viruses assigned to three different genera, Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. The complete genomic sequences of pea enation mosaic virus (genus Enamovirus) and bean leafroll virus (genus Luteovirus) from the Pacific Northwest, USA, were determined. Annotation, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes together with those of known polero- and enamoviruses were conducted.

  15. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  17. 2016, the year of Zika virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the literature on neurological infections was, understandably, dominated by Zika virus. However, we should not overlook important publications on the treatment of cryptococcal and bacterial meningitis

  18. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  19. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  20. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  2. Incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenfels, Stefan; Krassmann, Miriam; Al-Masri, Ahmed N; Verhagen, Willem; Leonhardt, Johannes; Kuebler, Joachim F; Petersen, Claus

    2009-04-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent indication for paediatric liver transplantation. We tested the hypothesis of a viral aetiology of this disease by screening liver samples of a large number of BA patients for the common human hepatotropic viruses. Moreover, we correlated our findings to the expression of Mx protein, which has been shown to be significantly up-regulated during viral infections. Seventy-four liver biopsies (taken during Kasai portoenterostomy) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus [HSV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], varicella zoster virus [VZV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus, parvovirus B19 and polyoma BK) and RNA viruses (enteroviruses, rotavirus and reovirus 3). Mx protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Virus DNA/RNA was found in less than half of the biopsies (8/74 CMV, 1/74 adenovirus; 21/64 reovirus, 1/64 enterovirus). A limited number presented with double infection. Patients that had detectable viral RNA/DNA in their liver biopsies were significantly older than virus-free patients (P = 0.037). The majority (54/59) of the liver biopsies showed expression of Mx proteins in hepatocytes, bile ducts and epithelium. Our data suggest that the known hepatotropic viruses do not play a major role in the aetiology and progression of BA. Their incidence appears to be, rather, a secondary phenomenon. Nonetheless, the inflammatory response in the livers of BA patients mimics that observed during viral infections.

  3. Examination of suspicious objects by virus analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananin, E. V.; Ananina, I. S.; Nikishova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents data on virus threats urgency. But in order for antiviruses to work properly, all data on new implementations of viruses should be added to its database. For that to be done, all suspicious objects should be investigated. It is a dangerous process and should be done in the virtual system. However, it is not secure for the main system as well. So the diagram of a secure workplace for a virus analyst is proposed. It contains software for its protection. Also all kinds of setting to ensure security of the process of investigating suspicious objects are proposed. The proposed approach allows minimizing risks caused by the virus.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 μg of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells. (Auth.)

  5. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G A; Salmi, A A [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  6. Biomedical nanotechnology using virus-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destito, G; Schneemann, A; Manchester, M

    2009-01-01

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and flock house virus (FHV) nanoparticle-based strategies hold great promise for the design of targeted therapeutics, as well as for structure-based vaccine approaches.

  7. Script-viruses Attacks on UNIX OS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article attacks on UNIX OS are considered. Currently antivirus developers are concentrated on protecting systems from viruses that are most common and attack popular operating systems. If the system or its components are not often attacked then the antivirus products are not protecting these components as it is not profitable. The same situation is with script-viruses for UNIX OS as most experts consider that it is impossible for such viruses to get enough rights to attack. Nevertheless the main conclusion of this article is the fact that such viruses can be very powerful and can attack systems and get enough rights.

  8. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view

    OpenAIRE

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious disease...

  9. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV. Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1. This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2 showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  10. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  11. Virus wars: using one virus to block the spread of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Paff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure of traditional interventions to block and cure HIV infections has led to novel proposals that involve treating infections with therapeutic viruses–infectious viruses that specifically inhibit HIV propagation in the host. Early efforts in evaluating these proposals have been limited chiefly to mathematical models of dynamics, for lack of suitable empirical systems. Here we propose, develop and analyze an empirical system of a therapeutic virus that protects a host cell population against a lethal virus. The empirical system uses E. coli bacteria as the host cell population, an RNA phage as the lethal virus and a filamentous phage as the therapeutic virus. Basic dynamic properties are established for each virus alone and then together. Observed dynamics broadly agree with those predicted by a computer simulation model, although some differences are noted. Two cases of dynamics are contrasted, differing in whether the therapeutic virus is introduced before the lethal virus or after the lethal virus. The therapeutic virus increases in both cases but by different mechanisms. With the therapeutic virus introduced first, it spreads infectiously without any appreciable change in host dynamics. With the therapeutic virus introduced second, host abundance is depressed at the time therapy is applied; following an initial period of therapeutic virus spread by infection, the subsequent rise of protection is through reproduction by hosts already protected. This latter outcome is due to inheritance of the therapeutic virus state when the protected cell divides. Overall, the work establishes the feasibility and robustness to details of a viral interference using a therapeutic virus.

  12. Protecting Anti-virus Programs From Viral Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    During a fight between viruses and anti-viruses it is not always predictable that the anti-virus is going to win. There are many malicious viruses which target to attack and paralyze the anti-viruses. It is necessary for an anti-virus to detect and destroy the malware before its own files are detected and destroyed by the malware. The anti-virus may follow thorough testing and auditing procedures to fix all its bugs before releasing the software in the market. Besides the anti-virus may use a...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  14. Genomic characterisation of Almpiwar virus, Harrison Dam virus and Walkabout Creek virus; three novel rhabdoviruses from northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAllister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviridae represent a diverse group of viruses with the potential to cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Currently there are nine genera in the family; however a large number of rhabdoviruses remain unassigned. Here we characterise three novel rhabdoviruses genomes. Almpiwar virus (ALMV, isolated from skinks in northern Queensland, is the first completely sequenced rhabdovirus from squamates, with serological studies indicating multiple animal host species. Harrison Dam virus (HARDV and Walkabout Creek virus (WACV were isolated from mosquitoes in the Northern Territory and biting midges in southern Queensland respectively and their vertebrate hosts remain unknown. Serological cross-neutralisation tests with other Australian rhabdoviruses indicate that ALMV, WACV and HARDV are distinct viruses with little antigenic cross-reactivity. Next-generation sequencing revealed that all viruses encode the core proteins common to rhabdoviruses (N, P, M, G and L, plus additional ORFs between the M and G genes. HARDV also contains a small ORF between the G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L proteins suggests that HARDV and WACV share a common lineage with the tupaviruses and Sandjimba group, whereas ALMV is a distinct and divergent virus showing no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except the recently characterised Niahka virus (NIAV.

  15. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and

  16. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  17. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  18. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  19. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H.; Murray, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia

  20. Laboratory biosafety for handling emerging viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Made Artika

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging viruses are viruses whose occurrence has risen within the past twenty years, or whose presence is likely to increase in the near future. Diseases caused by emerging viruses are a major threat to global public health. In spite of greater awareness of safety and containment procedures, the handling of pathogenic viruses remains a likely source of infection, and mortality, among laboratory workers. There is a steady increase in both the number of laboratories and scientist handling emerging viruses for diagnostics and research. The potential for harm associated to work with these infectious agents can be minimized through the application of sound biosafety concepts and practices. The main factors to the prevention of laboratory-acquired infection are well-trained personnel who are knowledgable and biohazard aware, who are perceptive of the various ways of transmission, and who are professional in safe laboratory practice management. In addition, we should emphasize that appropriate facilities, practices and procedures are to be used by the laboratory workers for the handling of emerging viruses in a safe and secure manner. This review is aimed at providing researchers and laboratory personnel with basic biosafety principles to protect themselves from exposure to emerging viruses while working in the laboratory. This paper focuses on what emerging viruses are, why emerging viruses can cause laboratory-acquired infection, how to assess the risk of working with emerging viruses, and how laboratory-acquired infection can be prevented. Control measures used in the laboratory designed as such that they protect workers from emerging viruses and safeguard the public through the safe disposal of infectious wastes are also addressed.

  1. Do Mound Disturbance and Bait Placement Affect Bait Removal and Treatment Efficacy in Red Imported Fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Different Seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing P. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides empirical evidence that disturbing mound immediately before application, as opposed to label recommendation, did not reduce foraging activity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, except for about 10-min delay in foraging. Despite the delayed foraging, there was no significant difference in the amount of baits foraged between disturbed and undisturbed colonies. Eventually, >96% of the baits were foraged, with the maximum removal occurred by 2 and 3 h, respectively, in summer and spring trial. The fastest and great amount of bait removal 1 h post-treatment occurred to baits placed on mound, followed by 0.18–0.3-m from mound base, and the slowest 1.08–1.2-m from mound base. All treatment gave 100% control 1 mo later, regardless of the season, without colony relocation or new colony invasion in the test plots.

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHD642 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD642 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11361-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) VHD642F 629 - - - - - - Show VHD642 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHD642 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11361-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...us erato cDNA clone He_wd2a1_74D09 5' similar to UniRef90_UPI000051A2A9 Cluster related to UPI000051A2A9; PREDICT...DNA, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-12 4 EE133491 |EE133491.1 SiJWH07ADU Lausanne fire ant library Solenopsis invicta

  3. Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuble, Katharine L.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    and cases in which non-native species become established in intact (lacking extensive anthropogenic soil disturbance) communities and subsequently diminish the abundance and richness of native species is challenging on the basis of observation alone. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta......), an invasive species that occurs throughout much of the southeastern United States, is such an example. Rather than competitively displacing native species, fire ants may become established only in disturbed areas in which native species richness and abundance are already reduced. We used insecticide to reduce......, the abundance of native ants increased to levels comparable to those in control plots after 1 year. Our findings suggest that factors other than large reductions in ant abundance and species density (number of species per unit area) may affect the establishment of fire ants and that the response of native ants...

  4. Distribution, spread, and ecological associations of the introduced ant Pheidole obscurithorax in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonna R. Storz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of the southeastern United States showed that Pheidole obscurithorax Naves, an ant introduced from South America, inhabits a 80-km-wide band along the coast between Mobile, Alabama, and Tallahassee, Florida, and is continuing to increase its range. In Tallahassee P. obscurithorax is rapidly spreading, and its nest density increased by a factor of 6.4 over a two-year period. Evidence suggests that P. obscurithorax has spread gradually by natural means. It coexists with the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren, appears to be part of a largely exotic community of ants that are tolerant of highly disturbed habitats, and seems to have little negative effect on the ant communities that it invades.

  5. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  6. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  8. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between...

  9. Propagation Effect of a Virus Outbreak on a Network with Limited Anti-Virus Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Xu

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new computer virus spreading model which takes into account the possibility of a virus outbreak on a network with limited anti-virus ability. Then, the model is investigated for the existence of equilibria and their stabilities are proved and illustrated. Moreover, it is found that these two factors are not only relative to the threshold value determining whether the virus becomes extinct or not, but that they are also relative to the virus epidemic levels. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that, in some ways, it would be practically possible to eradicate the virus or suppress its prevalence below a suitable level. Consequently, some suggestions are proposed that may help eradicate or suppress virus propagation over a real computer network.

  10. Efficient production of infectious viruses requires enzymatic activity of Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takayuki; Isomura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Toyama, Shigenori; Sato, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2009-06-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 gene product is the only protein kinase encoded by the virus genome. In order to elucidate its physiological roles in viral productive replication, we here established a BGLF4-knockout mutant and a revertant virus. While the levels of viral DNA replication of the deficient mutant were equivalent to those of the wild-type and the revertant, virus production was significantly impaired. Expression of the BGLF4 protein in trans fully complemented the low yield of the mutant virus, while expression of a kinase-dead (K102I) form of the protein failed to restore the virus titer. These results demonstrate that BGLF4 plays a significant role in production of infectious viruses and that the kinase activity is crucial.

  11. The Drosophila Nora virus is an enteric virus, transmitted via feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habayeb, Mazen S; Cantera, Rafael; Casanova, Gabriela; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Albright, Shannon; Hultmark, Dan

    2009-04-01

    The biology of the Drosophila viruses has not been intensely investigated. Here we have investigated the biology of the Nora virus, a persistent Drosophila virus. We find that injected Nora virus is able to replicate in the files, reaching a high titer that is maintained in the next generation. There is a remarkable variation in the viral loads of individual flies in persistently infected stocks; the titers can differ by three orders of magnitude. The Nora virus is mainly found in the intestine of infected flies, and the histology of these infected intestines show increased vacuolization. The virus is excreted in the feces and is horizontally transmitted. The Nora virus infection has a very mild effect on the longevity of the flies, and no significant effect on the number of eggs laid and the percent of eggs that develop to adults.

  12. Influenza virus inactivated by artificial ribonucleases as a prospective killed virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Antonina A; Goncharova, Elena P; Kovpak, Mikhail P; Vlassov, Valentin V; Zenkova, Marina A

    2012-04-19

    The inactivation of viral particles with agents causing minimal damage to the structure of surface epitopes is a well-established approach for the production of killed virus vaccines. Here, we describe new agents for the inactivation of influenza virus, artificial ribonucleases (aRNases), which are chemical compounds capable of cleaving RNA molecules. Several aRNases were identified, exhibiting significant virucidal activity against the influenza A virus and causing a minimal effect on the affinity of monoclonal antibodies for the inactivated virus. Using a murine model of the influenza virus infection, a high protective activity of the aRNase-inactivated virus as a vaccine was demonstrated. The results of the experiments demonstrate the efficacy of novel chemical agents in the preparation of vaccines against influenza and, perhaps, against other infections caused by RNA viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traktinskiy, Igor; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Frid, Maria G.; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Pathologic changes in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)–infected arteries include inflammation, thickened intima, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. Since no criteria have been established for early vs late VZV vasculopathy, we examined inflammatory cells and their distribution in 6 normal arteries, and 2 VZV-infected arteries 3 days after onset of disease (early) and 10 months after protracted neurologic disease (late). Methods: VZV-infected temporal artery obtained 3 days after onset of ischemic optic neuropathy from an 80-year-old man, VZV-infected middle cerebral artery (MCA) obtained 10 months after protracted disease from a 73-year-old man, and 5 MCAs and 1 temporal artery from normal subjects, age 22–60 years, were examined histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies against VZV and inflammatory cell subsets. Results: In both early and late VZV vasculopathy, T cells, activated macrophages, and rare B cells were found in adventitia and intima. In adventitia of early VZV vasculopathy, neutrophils and VZV antigen were abundant and a thickened intima was associated with inflammatory cells in vaso vasorum vessels. In media of late VZV vasculopathy, viral antigen, but not leukocytes, was found. VZV was not seen in inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells were absent in control arteries. Conclusions: Both VZV and neutrophils exclusively in adventitia in early VZV vasculopathy indicate that disease begins there. Late VZV vasculopathy is distinguished by viral antigen without inflammation in media, revealing a human virus in an immunoprivileged arterial media. Association of thickened intima and inflammation in vaso vasorum vessels in early VZV vasculopathy support the role of virus-induced inflammation in vessel wall remodeling. PMID:23243076

  14. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, ...

  15. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  16. Experimental fossilisation of viruses from extremophilic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Orange

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of viruses at different stages of the origin of life has recently been reconsidered. It appears that viruses may have accompanied the earliest forms of life, allowing the transition from an RNA to a DNA world and possibly being involved in the shaping of tree of life in the three domains that we know presently. In addition, a large variety of viruses has been recently identified in extreme environments, hosted by extremophilic microorganisms, in ecosystems considered as analogues to those of the early Earth. Traces of life on the early Earth were preserved by the precipitation of silica on the organic structures. We present the results of the first experimental fossilisation by silica of viruses from extremophilic Archaea (SIRV2 – Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2, TPV1 – Thermococcus prieurii virus 1, and PAV1 – Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1. Our results confirm that viruses can be fossilised, with silica precipitating on the different viral structures (proteins, envelope over several months in a manner similar to that of other experimentally and naturally fossilised microorganisms. This study thus suggests that viral remains or traces could be preserved in the rock record although their identification may be challenging due to the small size of the viral particles.

  17. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  19. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  20. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  1. Jagten på virus i Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Johansen, Maria Vang; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    Succesfuld feltafprøvning af ny metode til indsamling og påvisning af afrikansk svinepest viser, at virus gemmer sig i klinisk raske svin af dansk afstamning.......Succesfuld feltafprøvning af ny metode til indsamling og påvisning af afrikansk svinepest viser, at virus gemmer sig i klinisk raske svin af dansk afstamning....

  2. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  3. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. In furtherance of these goals, we have developed the hepatitis C virus protein interaction database (HCVpro) by integrating manually verified hepatitis C virus-virus and virus-human protein interactions curated from literature and databases. HCVpro is a comprehensive and integrated HCV-specific knowledgebase housing consolidated information on PPIs, functional genomics and molecular data obtained from a variety of virus databases (VirHostNet, VirusMint, HCVdb and euHCVdb), and from BIND and other relevant biology repositories. HCVpro is further populated with information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related genes that are mapped onto their encoded cellular proteins. Incorporated proteins have been mapped onto Gene Ontologies, canonical pathways, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and extensively cross-referenced to other essential annotations. The database is enriched with exhaustive reviews on structure and functions of HCV proteins, current state of drug and vaccine development and links to recommended journal articles. Users can query the database using specific protein identifiers (IDs), chromosomal locations of a gene, interaction detection methods, indexed PubMed sources as well as HCVpro, BIND and VirusMint IDs. The use of HCVpro is free and the resource can be accessed via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/hcvpro/ or http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hcvpro/. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  5. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  6. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric M. Hamelin; Linda J.S. Allen; Holly R. Prendeville; M. Reza Hajimorad; Michael J. Jeger

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, oravector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which...

  7. Nipah Virus: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siddique

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus, a member of the genus Henipavirus, a new class of virus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has drawn attention as an emerging zoonotic virus in South-East and South Asian region. Case fatality rate of Nipah virus infection ranges from 40–70% although it has been as high as 100% in some outbreaks. Many of the outbreaks were attributed to pigs consuming fruits, partially eaten by fruit bats, and transmission of infection to humans. In Bangladesh, Nipah virus infection was associated with contact with a sick cow, consumption of fresh date palm sap (potentially contaminated with pteropid bat saliva, and person-to-person transmission. In 2014, 18 cases of Nipah virus infection have been reported in Bangladesh, of which 9 cases died. In the most recent epidemic at least 6 people died out of nine cases due to Nipah virus infection in the remote northern Bangladesh in 2015. Human infections range from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Some people can also experience atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems. The virus is detected by ELISA, PCR, immunofluoroscence assay and isolation by cell culture. Treatment is mostly symptomatic and supportive as the effect of antiviral drugs is not satisfactory, and an effective vaccine is yet to be developed. So the very high case fatality addresses the need for adequate and strict control and preventive measures.

  8. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  9. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.

  10. Functional RNA during Zika virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, Giel P.; Abbo, Sandra R.; Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including

  11. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  12. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  13. Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Irogue I; Rabe, Ingrid B; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2017-04-15

    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms; hospitalizations and deaths are rare. When symptoms are present, maculopapular rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis are most common. Zika virus testing is recommended for persons with possible exposure (those who have traveled to or live in an area with active transmission, or persons who had sex without a condom with a person with possible exposure) if they have symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease. Testing is also recommended for pregnant women with possible exposure, regardless of whether symptoms are present. Treatment is supportive, and no vaccine is currently available. The primary methods of prevention include avoiding bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes and reducing the risk of sexual transmission. Pregnant women should not travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission, and men and women who are planning to conceive in the near future should consider avoiding nonessential travel to these areas. Condoms can reduce the risk of sexual transmission.

  14. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia; Coutard, Bruno; Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest; Canard, Bruno; Mattevi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3 1 21 (or P3 2 21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å

  15. Rainfall and Development of Zika Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... between rainfall and incidence of arbovirus disease such as dengue is well demonstrated (2). For Zika virus an infection, a similar observation can be expected. A recent report from Thailand can also show the expected pattern of the prevalence of Zika virus infection in the areas with high rainfall (3).

  16. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  17. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  19. KARAKTERISASICYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV PADA TANAMAN ANGGREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization ofCymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV on Orchid Plant Orchids are affected by more virus disease problems than most crops, reducing their commercial values considerably. Orchid viruses are widespread in cultivated orchids, withCymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV being the most prevalent. CymMV high incidence in cultivated orchids has been attributed to the stability and ease of transmission of this virus through cultural practices. CymMV induces floral and foliar necrosis. The virus also reduce plant vigor and lower flower quality, which affect their economic value. The objective of the research is to characterize the virus causing mosaic or chlorotic and necrotic on orchids in West Java. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR assays using oligonucleotide primers specific to CymMV were also successfully amplified the regions of the coat protein (CP gene of the virus. Analysis by using sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that the virus have a major structural protein with an estimated molecular weight of 28 kDa. Aligments of partial nucleotide sequences of the CP gene displayed 86 to 92% homology to CymMV isolates from other countries.

  20. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Coutard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (formerly Institute of Virology), Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Canard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Mattevi, Andrea, E-mail: mattevi@ipvgen.unipv.it [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 (or P3{sub 2}21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.