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Sample records for solenopsis invicta buren

  1. Ingested boric acid effect on the venom chemistry of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a field evaluation of a boric acid bait against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, it was observed that workers of intoxicated colonies produced stings with less toxic effects compared to workers from healthy colonies. In this study, the effect of boric acid on the levels o...

  2. Efficacy of three citrus oil formulations against solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the red imported fire ant1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Vogt; Thormas G. Shelton; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L1 water),...

  3. Mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) associated with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from Louisiana and Tennessee, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Ebermann; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Scutacarus and one of Imparipes (Acari: Scutacaridae) are documented as phoretic from alates and workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) in Louisiana and Tennessee, U.S.A. One, Imparipes (Imparipes) louisianae)

  4. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr

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    Michael T. Bentley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nylanderia fulva (Mayr, the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren. In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C. Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  5. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren) but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael T; Oi, Faith M; Gezan, Salvador A; Hahn, Daniel A

    2015-07-23

    Nylanderia fulva (Mayr), the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren). In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C). Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  6. Gaeolaelaps Invictianus, a new and unusual species of Hypoaspidine Mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) phoretic on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana, USA

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    David Walter; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    A new species ofhypoaspidine laelapid mite, Gaeolaelaps invictianus, associated with the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren in the southern United States of America is described. This new species is unusual among the gamasine Mesostigmata in lacking a postanal seta in adults of both sexes and among species of Gaeolaelaps in being phoretic on dispersing male...

  7. Histiostoma Blomquisti N. SP. (Acari: Histiostomatidae) A phoretic mite of the red imported ant, Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Stefan Wirth; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    The new species Histiostoma bJol1lquisti n. sp., associated with the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, is described by its deutonymph. A putative adult female is depicted. The deutonymphs only attach to female alates, dealates and queens of S. invicta. While queens may be covered by more than 200 deutonymphs over their entire bodies, the numbers of deutonymphs...

  8. Toxicity of formic acid to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren.

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    Chen, Jian; Rashid, Tahir; Feng, Guolei

    2012-10-01

    Ants often compete with other ants for resources. Although formic acid is a common defensive chemical of formicine ants, it does not occur in any other subfamilies in Formicidae. No information on toxicity of formic acid to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, is available. This study examined its contact and fumigation toxicity to S. invicta in the laboratory. In a contact toxicity bioassay, 24 h LD50 values of formic acid for workers ranged from 124.54 to 197.71 µg ant(-1) . Female alates and queens were much less sensitive to formic acid than workers. At a concentration of 271.72 µg ant(-1) , which killed 81.09 ± 16.04% of workers, the 24 h mortality was up to 39.64% for female alates and 38.89% for queens. In fumigation bioassays, 24 h LC50 values ranged from 0.26 to 0.50 µg mL(-1) for workers, 0.32 µg mL(-1) for male alates and 0.70 µg mL(-1) for female alates. Complete mortality (100%) in queens occurred 24 h after they had been exposed to 1.57 µg mL(-1) of formic acid. At a concentration of 2.09 µg mL(-1) , KT50 values ranged from 23.03 to 43.85 min for workers, from 37.84 to 58.37 min for male alates, from 86.06 to 121.05 min for female alates and from 68.00 to 85.92 min for queens. When applied topically, formic acid was significantly less toxic than bifenthrin to red imported fire ants. Although its fumigation toxicity was lower than that of dichlorvos, formic acid had about an order of magnitude higher toxicity to S. invicta than to other insects studied so far. It may be worth investigating the use of formic acid for managing imported fire ants. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest ants, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicot...

  10. Implications of stridulation behavior in the red and black imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid

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    Marquess, Jake

    Stridulation elicits a variety of behavioral responses in the Formicidae: distress, alarm and recruitment of nestmates. The intent of my research is to broaden the understanding of stridulation by investigating the morphology, multiple behaviors in which stridulation has been observed, and the behavioral response to the playback of these stridulatory signals in two closely related species, Solenopsis invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrid. A SEM examination of head width and the stridulatory organs of imported fire ant workers found the number of ridges on the "file" ( pars striden) to be positively correlated with body size. The increase in ridge number in relation to body size suggests that the number of pulses in each pulse train of the stridulation signal should increase as body size increases. Stridulation was not correlated with excavation behavior, but grinding, an incidental sound resulting from soil excavation, is a reliable indicator of excavation behavior. Absence of stridulation upon initial discovery of the food source and low amount of stridulation observed with ten or less ants present at the food source indicates that stridulation does not serve as an initial short range recruitment signal to nearby nestmates. Furthermore, over 90% of the total stridulation observed was recorded with 30 or more ants present at the food source. Finally, the time between calls decreased and the number of stridulations increased as more ants arrived at the food source. Stridulation in dyadic encounters between ants occurs almost exclusively during non-nestmate conspecitic interactions. Restrained ants or "defenders" accounted for 92.9% of the total stridulation observed compared to just 3.4% for "attackers." Restraint between the head and thorax or "neck" evoked the highest level of stridulation in majors. Stridulation during non-nestmate interactions is size specific, as trials involving majors had nearly twice as much stridulation (88.3%), than trials with mediums

  11. Differences in sNPF receptor-expressing neurons in brains of fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren worker subcastes: indicators for division of labor and nutritional status?

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    Paula Castillo

    Full Text Available In the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, the neuronal and molecular mechanisms related to worker division of labor are poorly understood. Workers from different subcastes (major, medium and minors perform different tasks, which are loosely associated with their size. We hypothesized that the short neuropeptide F (sNPF signaling system (NPY-like could be involved in mechanisms of worker division of labor and sensing or responding to colony nutritional requirements. Thus, we investigated the expression of the short neuropeptide F receptor (sNPFR in the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SEG of workers from colonies with and without brood. Across worker subcastes a total of 9 clusters of immunoreactive sNPFR cells were localized in the brain and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG; some of these cells were similar to those observed previously in the queen. Worker brain sNPFR cell clusters were found in the protocerebrum near mushroom bodies, in the central complex and in the lateral horn. Other sNPFR immunoreactive cells were found at the edge of the antennal lobes. Across subcastes, we observed both a constant and a differential pattern of sNPFR clusters, with a higher number of sNPFR cells found in minor than in major workers. Those sNPFR cells detected in all worker subcastes appear to be involved in olfaction or SEG functions. The differential expression of clusters in subcastes suggests that sNPFR signaling is involved in regulating behaviors associated with specific subcastes and thus, division of labor. Some sNPFR cells appear to be involved in nutrient sensing and/or brood care, feeding behavior and locomotion. In colonies without brood, workers showed a lower cluster number, and an overall reduced sNPFR signal. Our results suggest the sNPF signaling system is a candidate for the neurobiological control of worker division of labor and sensing brood presence, perhaps correlating with protein requirements and availability.

  12. Immunolocalization of the short neuropeptide F receptor in queen brains and ovaries of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren).

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    Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Pietrantonio, Patricia V

    2011-06-14

    Insect neuropeptides are involved in diverse physiological functions and can be released as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators acting within the central nervous system, and as circulating neurohormones in insect hemolymph. The insect short neuropeptide F (sNPF) peptides, related to the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptides, have been implicated in the regulation of food intake and body size, and play a gonadotropic role in the ovaries of some insect species. Recently the sNPF peptides were localized in the brain of larval and adult Drosophila. However, the location of the sNPF receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has not yet been investigated in brains of any adult insect. To elucidate the sites of action of the sNPF peptide(s), the sNPF receptor tissue expression and cellular localization were analyzed in queens of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera), an invasive social insect. In the queen brains and subesophageal ganglion about 164 cells distributed in distinctive cell clusters (C1-C9 and C12) or as individual cells (C10, C11) were immuno-positive for the sNPF receptor. Most of these neurons are located in or near important sensory neuropils including the mushroom bodies, the antennal lobes, the central complex, and in different parts of the protocerebrum, as well as in the subesophageal ganglion. The localization of the sNPF receptor broadly links the receptor signaling pathway with circuits regulating learning and feeding behaviors. In ovaries from mated queens, the detection of sNPF receptor signal at the posterior end of oocytes in mid-oogenesis stage suggests that the sNPF signaling pathway may regulate processes at the oocyte pole. The analysis of sNPF receptor immunolocalization shows that the sNPF signaling cascade may be involved in diverse functions, and the sNPF peptide(s) may act in the brain as neurotransmitter(s) or neuromodulator(s), and in the ovaries as neurohormone(s). To our knowledge, this is the

  13. Immunolocalization of the short neuropeptide F receptor in queen brains and ovaries of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren

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    Pietrantonio Patricia V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect neuropeptides are involved in diverse physiological functions and can be released as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators acting within the central nervous system, and as circulating neurohormones in insect hemolymph. The insect short neuropeptide F (sNPF peptides, related to the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY peptides, have been implicated in the regulation of food intake and body size, and play a gonadotropic role in the ovaries of some insect species. Recently the sNPF peptides were localized in the brain of larval and adult Drosophila. However, the location of the sNPF receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, has not yet been investigated in brains of any adult insect. To elucidate the sites of action of the sNPF peptide(s, the sNPF receptor tissue expression and cellular localization were analyzed in queens of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera, an invasive social insect. Results In the queen brains and subesophageal ganglion about 164 cells distributed in distinctive cell clusters (C1-C9 and C12 or as individual cells (C10, C11 were immuno-positive for the sNPF receptor. Most of these neurons are located in or near important sensory neuropils including the mushroom bodies, the antennal lobes, the central complex, and in different parts of the protocerebrum, as well as in the subesophageal ganglion. The localization of the sNPF receptor broadly links the receptor signaling pathway with circuits regulating learning and feeding behaviors. In ovaries from mated queens, the detection of sNPF receptor signal at the posterior end of oocytes in mid-oogenesis stage suggests that the sNPF signaling pathway may regulate processes at the oocyte pole. Conclusions The analysis of sNPF receptor immunolocalization shows that the sNPF signaling cascade may be involved in diverse functions, and the sNPF peptide(s may act in the brain as neurotransmitter(s or neuromodulator(s, and in the ovaries

  14. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren kept Y not F: predicted sNPY endogenous ligands deorphanize the short NPF (sNPF receptor.

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    Prati Bajracharya

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides and their receptors play vital roles in controlling the physiology and behavior of animals. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF signaling regulates several physiological processes in insects such as feeding, locomotion, circadian rhythm and reproduction, among others. Previously, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta sNPF receptor (S. invicta sNPFR, a G protein-coupled receptor, was immunolocalized in queen and worker brain and queen ovaries. Differential distribution patterns of S. invicta sNPFR protein in fire ant worker brain were associated both with worker subcastes and with presence or absence of brood in the colony. However, the cognate ligand for this sNPFR has not been characterized and attempts to deorphanize the receptor with sNPF peptides from other insect species which ended in the canonical sequence LRLRFamide, failed. Receptor deorphanization is an important step to understand the neuropeptide receptor downstream signaling cascade. We cloned the full length cDNA of the putative S. invicta sNPF prepropeptide and identified the putative "sNPF" ligand within its sequence. The peptide ends with an amidated Tyr residue whereas in other insect species sNPFs have an amidated Phe or Trp residue at the C-terminus. We stably expressed the HA-tagged S. invicta sNPFR in CHO-K1 cells. Two S. invicta sNPFs differing at their N-terminus were synthesized that equally activated the sNPFR, SLRSALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 3.2 nM and SALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 8.6 nM. Both peptides decreased the intracellular cAMP concentration, indicating signaling through the Gαi-subunit. The receptor was not activated by sNPF peptides from other insect species, honey bee long NPF (NPY or mammalian PYY. Further, a synthesized peptide otherwise identical to the fire ant sequence but in which the C-terminal amidated amino acid residue 'Y' was switched to 'F', failed to activate the sNPFR. This discovery will now allow us to investigate the function of sNPY and

  15. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  17. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations

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    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, c...

  18. Sucessful transmission of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 to field colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single stranded virus that exhibits host specificity toward saevissima complex fire ants. The virus is being considered for release as a biological control agent in areas in which the virus is absent. This study demonstrates that field trans...

  19. Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.

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    Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

    2013-09-01

    An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Wang, Lei; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-08

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest insects, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicotinoids on S. invicta has never been investigated. In this study, the newly mated queens were fed with water containing 0.01 or 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid. Imidacloprid at both concentrations did not cause any increase in queen mortality during the founding stage; however, it significantly reduced queens' brood tending ability. In the 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid treatment, the time to larval emergence was significantly delayed and no pupae or adult workers were produced. This study provides clear evidence that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations has a significant detrimental impact on S. invicta queens and the development of incipient colonies.

  1. Effect of irradiation on queen survivorship and reproduction in the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta,(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and a generic phytosanitary irradiation treatment for ants

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    Ants are common hitchhiker pests on traded agricultural commodities that could be controlled by postharvest irradiation treatment. We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren to determine the dose sufficient for its control. Virgin or fertile queens...

  2. Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, J. T.; Tang, L.; Li, W. S.; Wang, K.; Cheng, D. M.; Zhang, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren causes severe damage to humans and animals as well as the environment. Chemical treatment is the main strategy of RIFA management, which also is potentially toxic to the environment. Plant essential oils (EOs) are considered as potential substance that can be used to control insects. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of camphor EO and investigate the insecticidal activity on RIFAs. The chemical composition of the EO...

  3. The genome of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Yannick; Wang, John; Riba-Grognuz, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Ants have evolved very complex societies and are key ecosystem members. Some ants, such as the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, are also major pests. Here, we present a draft genome of S. invicta, assembled from Roche 454 and Illumina sequencing reads obtained from a focal haploid male and his brothers......, a functional DNA methylation system, and a single putative telomerase ortholog. EST data indicate that this S. invicta telomerase ortholog has at least four spliceforms that differ in their use of two sets of mutually exclusive exons. Some of these and other unique aspects of the fire ant genome are likely...... linked to the complex social behavior of this species....

  4. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Further host-specificity tests with native Solenopsis ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to better define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we collected and exposed colonies of two native fire...

  5. The Organization of Foraging in the Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta

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    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    Although natural selection in ants acts most strongly at the colony, or superorganismal level, foraging patterns have rarely been studied at that level, focusing instead on the behavior of individual foragers or groups of foragers. The experiments and observations in this paper reveal in broad strokes how colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), allocate their available labor to foraging, how they disperse that force within their territory, and how this force changes with colony size, season and worker age. Territory area is positively related to colony size and the number of foragers, more so during the spring than fall. Changes of colony size and territory area are driven by seasonal variation of sexual and worker production, which in turn drive seasonal variation of worker age-distribution. During spring sexual production, colonies shrink because worker production falls below replacement. This loss is proportional to colony size, causing forager density in the spring to be negatively related to colony and territory size. In the fall, colonies emphasize worker production, bringing colony size back up. However, because smaller colonies curtailed spring worker production less than larger ones, their fall forager populations are proportionally greater, causing them to gain territory at the expense of large colonies. Much variation of territory area remains unexplained and can probably be attributed to pressure from neighboring colonies. Boundaries between territories are characterized by “no ants' zones” mostly devoid of fire ants. The forager population can be divided into a younger group of recruitable workers that wait for scouts to activate them to help retrieve large food finds. About one-third of the recruits wait near openings in the foraging tunnels that underlie the entire territory, while two-thirds wait in the nest. Recruitment to food is initially very rapid and local from the foraging tunnels, while sustained

  6. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

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    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  7. Aspectos ecologicos, toxicologicos y agricolas de la hormiga brasileña Solenopsis invicta

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    J. A. Torres

    1990-01-01

    The fire ant Solenopsis invicta recently invaded in Puerto Rico. Its presence has created great alarm among farmers and the public. This work reviews the ecology of this ant in the United States, Brazil and Puerto Rico in order to clarify some misconceptions. Information is provided to separate Solenopsis invicta from S. geminata. Colony foundation, caste...

  8. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: infection tests with adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Solenopsis invicta virus-3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus that has considerable potential as a self-sustaining or classical biocontrol agent against the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, because it can cause substantial mortality in colonies of this species. Based on e...

  9. Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), affect forager size ratios of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Texas.

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    Puckett, R T; Harris, M K

    2010-10-01

    Multiple species of Pseudacteon phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are currently being released throughout the southern United States to aid biological control of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). It is anticipated that these flies will interfere with S. invicta foraging, allowing native ant assemblages to outcompete S. invicta for available resources. Numerous studies have shown a decrease in S. invicta foraging intensity when exposed to phorids. This study documents a behavioral change in phorid-exposed S. invicta colonies at a phorid release site in central Texas. Significant differences in forager size ratios were detected between phorid-exposed and phorid-absent colonies. A similar phenomenon was recently documented in the native range of these insects in South America as well. Experimental manipulation of ratios of S. invicta worker sizes has been shown to have important effects on colony success. This newly documented phorid-mediated S. invicta colony-level effect represents a significant shift in S. invicta foraging dynamics and may provide an additional mechanism by which phorids can influence S. invicta populations in their United States range.

  10. Does Mutualism Drive the Invasion of Two Alien Species? The Case of Solenopsis invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    Although mutualism between ants and honeydew-producing hemipterans has been extensively recognized in ecosystem biology, however few attempts to test the hypothesis that mutualism between two alien species leads to the facilitation of the invasion process. To address this problem, we focus on the conditional mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis by field investigations and indoor experiments. In the laboratory, ant colony growth increased significantly when ants had access to P. solenopsis and animal-based food. Honeydew produced by P. solenopsis also improved the survival of ant workers. In the field, colony density of P. solenopsis was significantly greater on plots with ants than on plots without ants. The number of mealybug mummies on plants without fire ants was almost three times that of plants with fire ants, indicating a strong effect of fire ants on mealybug survival. In addition, the presence of S. invicta successfully contributed to the spread of P. solenopsis. The quantity of honeydew consumption by S. invicta was significantly greater than that of a presumptive native ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum. When compared with the case without ant tending, mealybugs tended by ants matured earlier and their lifespan and reproduction increased. T. melanocephalum workers arrived at honeydew more quickly than S. invicta workers, while the number of foraging S. invicta workers on plants steadily increased, eventually exceeding that number of T. melanocephalum foragers. Overall, these results suggest that the conditional mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis facilitates population growth and fitness of both species. S. invicta tends to acquire much more honeydew and drive away native ants, promoting their predominance. These results suggest that the higher foraging tempo of S. invicta may provide more effective protection of P. solenopsis than native ants. Thus mutualism between these two alien species may facilitate the invasion success of both

  11. Dose response of red imported fire ant colonies to Solenopsis invicta virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D

    2015-10-01

    Baiting tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) dose on fire ant colonies. Actively growing early-stage fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) laboratory colonies were pulse-exposed for 24 hours to six concentrations of SINV-3 (10(1), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), 10(9) genome equivalents/μl) in 1 ml of a 10 % sucrose bait and monitored regularly for two months. SINV-3 concentration had a significant effect on colony health. Brood rating (proportion of brood to worker ants) began to depart from the control group at 19 days for the 10(9) concentration and 26 days for the 10(7) concentration. At 60 days, brood rating was significantly lower among colonies treated with 10(9), 10(7), and 10(5) SINV-3 concentrations. The intermediate concentration, 10(5), appeared to cause a chronic, low-level infection with one colony (n = 9) supporting virus replication. Newly synthesized virus was not detected in any fire ant colonies treated at the 10(1) concentration, indicating that active infections failed to be established at this level of exposure. The highest bait concentration chosen, 10(9), appeared most effective from a control aspect; mean colony brood rating at this concentration (1.1 ± 0.9 at the 60 day time point) indicated poor colony health with minimal brood production. No clear relationship was observed between the quantity of plus genome strand detected and brood rating. Conversely, there was a strong relationship between the presence of the replicative genome strand and declining brood rating, which may serve as a predictor of disease severity. Recommendations for field treatment levels to control fire ants with SINV-3 are discussed.

  12. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate.

  13. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  14. Network growth dynamics of fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2012-02-01

    We study the construction dynamics and topology of fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) nests. Fire ants in colonies of hundreds to hundreds of thousands create subterranean tunnel networks through the excavation of soil. We observed the construction of nests in a laboratory experiment. Workers were isolated from focal colony and placed in a quasi 2D, vertically oriented arena with wetted soil. We monitored nest growth using time-lapse photography. We found that nests grew linearly in time through tunnel lengthening and branching. Tunnel path length followed an extended power law distribution, P (l - l0)^β. Average degree of tunnel nodes was k = 2.17 ±0.40 and networks were cyclical. In simulation we model the nest growth as a branching and annihilating levy-flight process. We study this as a function of dimensionality (2D and 3D space considered) and step length distribution function P(ls). We find that in two-dimensions path length distribution is exponential, independent of the functional form of P(ls) consistent with a poisson spatial process while in three-dimensions P(l) = P(ls). Comparing simulation and experiment we attribute the slower than exponential tail of P(l) in experiment as a result of a behavioral component to the ant digging program.

  15. Invasion history of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Fujian, China based on mitochondrial DNA and its implications in development of a control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Hou, You-Ming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most invasive species worldwide, Solenopsis invicta Buren, has been described in China since 2003. Recent studies have suggested that China populations are the result of introductions from the USA; however, detailed molecular studies need to be performed in order to understand the expansion and potential multiple introductions from other countries into China. As there were populations of red imported fire ant, S. invicta in different areas and with different methods of introduction, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene was used as a marker from 12 populations in four cities in Fujian Province, China, to determine the relationship of invasion among these populations. The three most common haplotypes previously describe in invasive populations of S. invicta: H5, H22 and H36, were found in Fujian. However, frequencies in each city were different. For instance, three populations from Longyan city which invaded with waste plastics, shared haplotype H5. Populations from Xiamen city and Jinjiang city which dispersed with nursery stock, sward and scrap leather, shared haplotype H22. The population from Nanyan village of Xinluo district, Longyan city, bore haplotype H36. Mitochondrial data reveals that the invasion history of S. invicta in Fujian Province is complex, including multiple invasions probably from other provinces within China. Security measures to prevent S. invicta spreading within China are as important as from overseas. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Rashid, T; Feng, G

    2014-11-19

    Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two closely related invasive ants native to South America. Despite their similarity in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a more successful invasive species. Toxic tolerance has been found to be important to the success of some invasive species. Esterases play a crucial role in toxic tolerance of insects. Hence, we hypothesized that the more invasive S. invicta would have a higher esterase activity than S. richteri. Esterase activities were measured for workers and male and female alates of both ant species using α-naphthyl acetate and β-naphthyl acetate as substrates. Esterase activities in S. invicta were always significantly higher than those in S. richteri supporting our hypothesis. In S. invicta, male alates had the highest esterase activities followed by workers then female alates for both substrates. In S. richetri, for α-naphthyl acetate, male alates had the highest activity followed by female alates then workers, while for β-naphthyl acetate, female alates had the highest activity followed by male alates then workers. For workers, S. richteri showed significantly higher levels of variation about the mean esterase activity than S. invicta. However, S. invicta showed significantly higher levels of variation in both female and male alates.

  17. The molecular clockwork of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Krista K; Kutowoi, Alexander; Wurm, Yannick; Shoemaker, Dewayne; Meier, Rudolf; Bloch, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is a core molecular mechanism that allows organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes and adapt the timing of behaviors to maximize efficiency. In social insects, the ability to maintain the appropriate temporal order is thought to improve colony efficiency and fitness. We used the newly sequenced fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) genome to characterize the first ant circadian clock. Our results reveal that the fire ant clock is similar to the clock of the honeybee, a social insect with an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Gene trees for the eight core clock genes, period, cycle, clock, cryptochrome-m, timeout, vrille, par domain protein 1 & clockwork orange, show ant species grouping closely with honeybees and Nasonia wasps as an outgroup to the social Hymenoptera. Expression patterns for these genes suggest that the ant clock functions similar to the honeybee clock, with period and cry-m mRNA levels increasing during the night and cycle and clockwork orange mRNAs cycling approximately anti-phase to period. Gene models for five of these genes also parallel honeybee models. In particular, the single ant cryptochrome is an ortholog of the mammalian-type (cry-m), rather than Drosophila-like protein (cry-d). Additionally, we find a conserved VPIFAL C-tail region in clockwork orange shared by insects but absent in vertebrates. Overall, our characterization of the ant clock demonstrates that two social insect lineages, ants and bees, share a similar, mammalian-like circadian clock. This study represents the first characterization of clock genes in an ant and is a key step towards understanding socially-regulated plasticity in circadian rhythms by facilitating comparative studies on the organization of circadian clockwork.

  18. The molecular clockwork of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista K Ingram

    Full Text Available The circadian clock is a core molecular mechanism that allows organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes and adapt the timing of behaviors to maximize efficiency. In social insects, the ability to maintain the appropriate temporal order is thought to improve colony efficiency and fitness. We used the newly sequenced fire ant (Solenopsis invicta genome to characterize the first ant circadian clock. Our results reveal that the fire ant clock is similar to the clock of the honeybee, a social insect with an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Gene trees for the eight core clock genes, period, cycle, clock, cryptochrome-m, timeout, vrille, par domain protein 1 & clockwork orange, show ant species grouping closely with honeybees and Nasonia wasps as an outgroup to the social Hymenoptera. Expression patterns for these genes suggest that the ant clock functions similar to the honeybee clock, with period and cry-m mRNA levels increasing during the night and cycle and clockwork orange mRNAs cycling approximately anti-phase to period. Gene models for five of these genes also parallel honeybee models. In particular, the single ant cryptochrome is an ortholog of the mammalian-type (cry-m, rather than Drosophila-like protein (cry-d. Additionally, we find a conserved VPIFAL C-tail region in clockwork orange shared by insects but absent in vertebrates. Overall, our characterization of the ant clock demonstrates that two social insect lineages, ants and bees, share a similar, mammalian-like circadian clock. This study represents the first characterization of clock genes in an ant and is a key step towards understanding socially-regulated plasticity in circadian rhythms by facilitating comparative studies on the organization of circadian clockwork.

  19. Evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay for field identification of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to improve surveillance capacity for the exotic red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) was recently evaluated by Biosecurity Queensland staff in Australia. The purpose of the research was to assess the ability of the fire ant LFA to discriminate S. i...

  20. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  1. Bacterial diversity in Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis geminata ant colonies characterized by 16S amplicon 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Heather D; Plowes, Rob; Sen, Ruchira; Kellner, Katrin; Meyer, Eli; Estrada, Dora A; Dowd, Scot E; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-05-01

    Social insects harbor diverse assemblages of bacterial microbes, which may play a crucial role in the success or failure of biological invasions. The invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) is a model system for understanding the dynamics of invasive social insects and their biological control. However, little is known about microbes as biotic factors influencing the success or failure of ant invasions. This pilot study is the first attempt to characterize and compare microbial communities associated with the introduced S. invicta and the native Solenopsis geminata in the USA. Using 16S amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, bacterial communities of workers, brood, and soil from nest walls were compared between neighboring S. invicta and S. geminata colonies at Brackenridge Field Laboratory, Austin, Texas, with the aim of identifying potential pathogenic, commensal, or mutualistic microbial associates. Two samples of S. geminata workers showed high counts of Spiroplasma bacteria, a known pathogen or mutualist of other insects. A subsequent analysis using PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of Spiroplasma in additional colonies of both Solenopsis species. Wolbachia was found in one alate sample of S. geminata, while one brood sample of S. invicta had a high count of Lactococcus. As expected, ant samples from both species showed much lower microbial diversity than the surrounding soil. Both ant species had similar overall bacterial diversities, although little overlap in specific microbes. To properly characterize a single bacterial community associated with a Solenopsis ant sample, rarefaction analyses indicate that it is necessary to obtain 5,000-10,000 sequences. Overall, 16S amplicon 454 pyrosequencing appears to be a cost-effective approach to screen whole microbial diversity associated with invasive ant species.

  2. Positive-Strand RNA Viruses Infecting the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Valles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri were introduced into the USA between 1918 and 1945. Since that time, they have expanded their USA range to include some 138 million hectares. Their introduction has had significant economic consequences with costs associated with damage and control efforts estimated at 6 billion dollars annually in the USA. The general consensus of entomologists and myrmecologists is that permanent, sustainable control of these ants in the USA will likely depend on self-sustaining biological control agents. A metagenomics approach successfully resulted in discovery of three viruses infecting S. invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1, SINV-2, and SINV-3 are all positive, single-stranded RNA viruses and represent the first viral discoveries in any ant species. Molecular characterization, host relationships, and potential development and use of SINV-1, SINV-2, and SINV-3 as biopesticides are discussed.

  3. Procedures to mititgate the impact of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 in fire ant (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) rearing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the initial characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), virus-infected fire ant colonies were retrieved from the field and maintained in the laboratory rearing facility at the USDA, Gainesville, FL. During this time, all S. invicta colonies housed in the facility contracted SINV...

  4. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

  5. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  6. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: pathogenesis and stage specificity in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Firth, Andrew E

    2014-07-01

    Solenopsis invicta colonies were exposed to purified preparations of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) to investigate virus pathogenesis at the colony level. Time course experiments revealed an infection exhibiting specificity for the adult stage (workers). SINV-3 genome and a capsid protein were increasingly present in worker ants with time. Northern blot analysis revealed two bands in RNA preparations from worker ants infected with SINV-3 corresponding to the genomic and sub-genomic species. Conversely, larval RNA preparations from SINV-3-infected colonies showed a near-complete absence of SINV-3 genome or sub-genome. The data confirm that SINV-3 is the etiological agent causing mortality among S. invicta colonies in the laboratory. We propose that SINV-3 infection somehow alters worker ant behavior, which may prevent them from acquiring and/or distributing solid food to the larvae. Consequently, larval mortality and impaired queen health occur as a result of starvation or neglect by the worker caste. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Defensive chemicals of tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their toxicity to red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rashid, Tahir; Feng, Guolei; Zhao, Liming; Oi, David; Drees, Bastiaan Bart M

    2013-12-15

    Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) has been reported as being able to displace Solenopsis invicta Buren, one of the most aggressive invasive ants in the world. Like S. invicta, N. fulva use chemical secretions in their defense/offense, which may contribute to their observed superior competition ability. In this study, the defensive chemicals of N. fulva workers and their toxicity against S. invicta workers were investigated. Like other formicine ants, N. fulva workers produce formic acid in their poison glands and 2-ketones and alkanes in Dufour glands. Of these, undecane and 2-tridecanone are two principal compounds in the Dufour gland. Topical LD50 values of 2-tridecanone and undecane against S. invicta workers ranged from 18.51 to 24.67 μg/ant and 40.39 to 84.82 μg/ant, respectively. Undecane and 2-tridecanone had significantly higher contact toxicity than formic acid, whereas formic acid had significantly higher fumigation toxicity than undecane and 2-tridecanone. The combination of 2-tridecanone as a contact toxin and formic acid as a fumigant significantly decreased KT50 values when compared to those of individual compounds. N. fulva does not seem unique in terms of the chemistry of its defensive secretion as compared to other formicine ants. However, this ant contained more than two orders of magnitude of formic acid (wt/wt) than other formicine ants and one order of magnitude of 2-tridecanone than the common crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille). The quantity, rather than quality, of the chemical secretion may contribute to the superior competition ability of N. fulva. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  9. Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J T; Tang, L; Li, W S; Wang, K; Cheng, D M; Zhang, Z X

    2015-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren causes severe damage to humans and animals as well as the environment. Chemical treatment is the main strategy of RIFA management, which also is potentially toxic to the environment. Plant essential oils (EOs) are considered as potential substance that can be used to control insects. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of camphor EO and investigate the insecticidal activity on RIFAs. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results revealed that 36.61% camphor and 30.05% cineole were the major components. The insecticidal activity of camphor EO was assessed against RIFA workers by conducting two different bioassays: fumigant toxicity and repellence. Fumigant toxicity assay results showed that the lethal dose (LC50) of the EO at 24 h was 1.67 and 4.28 μg/ml for minor and major workers, respectively; knockdown time (KT50) was 10.82 and 14.73 h. At 2.55 μg/ml, the highest average mortality of the ants was 84.89% after 72 h. Camphor EO exhibited fumigant toxicity against minor and major workers as indicated by the effects on attacking, feeding, and climbing behaviors. This EO was also strongly repellent to the two size workers of the colony as observed in their behavior against Tenebrio molitor treated with 5 µl EO. The fumigant toxicity and repellence of camphor EO against RIFA indicated that this substance could be a potential alternative for the development of eco-friendly products used to control pests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the United States to minimize the spread of the ant. There remains an acute ...

  11. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

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    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  12. Identification and expression of capa gene in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

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    Man-Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Recent genome analyses suggested the absence of a number of neuropeptide genes in ants. One of the apparently missing genes was the capa gene. Capa gene expression in insects is typically associated with the neuroendocrine system of abdominal ganglia; mature CAPA peptides are known to regulate diuresis and visceral muscle contraction. The apparent absence of the capa gene raised questions about possible compensation of these functions. In this study, we re-examined this controversial issue and searched for a potentially unrecognized capa gene in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We employed a combination of data mining and a traditional PCR-based strategy using degenerate primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of insect capa genes. Our findings demonstrate that ants possess and express a capa gene. As shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, processed products of the S. invicta capa gene include three CAPA periviscerokinins and low amounts of a pyrokinin which does not have the C-terminal WFGPRLa motif typical of CAPA pyrokinins in other insects. The capa gene was found with two alternative transcripts in the CNS. Within the ventral nerve cord, two capa neurons were immunostained in abdominal neuromeres 2-5, respectively, and projected into ventrally located abdominal perisympathetic organs (PSOs, which are the major hormone release sites of abdominal ganglia. The ventral location of these PSOs is a characteristic feature and was also found in another ant, Atta sexdens.

  13. Assessing genetic structure with multiple classes of molecular markers: a case study involving the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, K. G.; Shoemaker, D. D.; Krieger, M. J.; DeHeer, C. J.; Keller, L.

    1999-01-01

    We used 30 genetic markers of 6 different classes to describe hierarchical genetic structure in introduced populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. These included four classes of presumably neutral nuclear loci (allozymes, codominant random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), microsatellites, and dominant RAPDs), a class comprising two linked protein-coding nuclear loci under selection, and a marker of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Patterns of structure revealed by F statistics and ex...

  14. Effect of Irradiation on Queen Survivorship and Reproduction in the Invasive Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and a Proposed Phytosanitary Irradiation Treatment for Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Porcel, Sol; Calcaterra, Luis A

    2016-12-01

    We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to identify a dose that prevents reproduction. Virgin or fertile queens were collected from Santa Fe and Formosa provinces in Argentina and reared in the laboratory in microcolonies. Virgin queens were irradiated at 0 (control), 70, 90, 120, or 150 Gy, and fertile queens were irradiated at 0, 60, 125, and 190 Gy, and then followed for 11 wk in the microcolonies to evaluate survival and reproduction. Virgin queens lay trophic eggs that do not hatch, whereas fertile queens lay eggs that hatch and develop into brood. In general, queen oviposition and survival decreased with increasing irradiation dose. For virgin queens, no eggs were laid by irradiated queens after the third week, whereas the control queens continued laying eggs throughout the 11-wk experiment. For fertile queens, only one larva and no pupae was observed in the 60 Gy treatment and no larvae or pupae were observed in the 125 and 190 Gy treatments, whereas a total of 431 larvae and 83 pupae were produced by untreated control queens during 11 wks. Survivorship of virgin and fertile queens was similarly reduced by irradiation treatment. These results with S. invicta are consistent with previous findings for three other invasive ants, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), Pheidole megacephala (F.), and Linephithema humile (Mayr), that are hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural commodities. A radiation dose of 150 Gy is proposed as a phytosanitary treatment to prevent reproduction in ants. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum.

  16. Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in workers of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Meer, Robert K.; Preston, Catherine A.; Hefetz, Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. In the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, worker ability to recognize conspecific nonnestmates decreases if the colony queen is removed, such that they do not recognize conspecific nonnestmates as different. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of the colony queen influences the concentration of octopamine, a neuromodulator, in worker ants, which in turn has an effect on nestmate recognition acuity in workers. We demonstrate that queenless workers exhibit reduced brain octopamine levels and reduced discriminatory acuteness; however, feeding queenless workers octopamine restored both. Dopamine levels are influenced by honeybee queen pheromones; however, levels of this biogenic amine were unchanged in our experiments. This is the first demonstration of a link between the presence of the colony queen, a worker biogenic amine, and conspecific nestmate recognition, a powerful expression of colony cohesion and territoriality.

  17. The Thermal Breadth of Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Narrower Than That of Solenopsis invicta at Three Thermal Ramping Rates: 1.0, 0.12, and 0.06°C min-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M T; Hahn, D A; Oi, F M

    2016-08-01

    Determining the upper (CTmax) and lower (CTmin) critical thermal limits of invasive ants provides insight into how temperature could shape their distribution, seasonality, and daily activity. Understanding the potential distribution of invasive ants is imperative to improving quarantine and management efforts. Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (tawny crazy ant) and Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (red imported fire ant) are invasive ants that are established throughout the southeastern United States. Recent studies have found that body size and thermal ramping rate can affect the estimation of critical thermal limits. However, the effects of both variables and their interactions on the thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta have not previously been described. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of body size and ramping rate on the critical thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta Overall, N. fulva had a narrower thermal breadth than S. invicta (Nf CTmin = 7.3°C and Nf CTmax = 41.3°C vs. Si CTmin = 4.1°C and Si CTmax = 45.3°C). For both species, slower ramping rates resulted in lower CTmax values and ants with smaller head capsules had a narrower thermal breadth than ants with larger head capsules. These data improve our understanding of the critical thermal limits of both species and could be useful for developing predictive models that estimate the future spread of these invasive ants in nonnative ranges. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Distribution of 32P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of 32 P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of 32 P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed

  19. Distribution of /sup 32/P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of /sup 32/P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of /sup 32/P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed.

  20. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) in the West Indies: distribution of natural enemies and a possible test bed for release of self-sustaining biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample collections of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were taken from 20 islands of the West Indies and evaluated for the presence of key pathogens and parasites of this invasive pest ant. We hypothesized that bottleneck events during the introduction of this ant species in the West In...

  1. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV, an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.

  2. A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, Steven M.; Strong, Charles A.; Dang, Phat M.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Pereira, Roberto M.; Oi, David H.; Shapiro, Alexandra M.; Williams, David F.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first discovery and genome sequence of a virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The 8026 nucleotide, polyadenylated, RNA genome encoded two large open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), flanked and separated by 27, 223, and 171 nucleotide untranslated regions, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 5' proximal ORF1 (nucleotides 28 to 4218) exhibited significant identity and possessed consensus sequences characteristic of the helicase, cysteine protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence motifs from picornaviruses, picorna-like viruses, comoviruses, caliciviruses, and sequiviruses. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 3' proximal ORF2 (nucleotides 4390-7803) showed similarity to structural proteins in picorna-like viruses, especially the acute bee paralysis virus. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained samples from virus-infected fire ants revealed isometric particles with a diameter of 31 nm, consistent with Picornaviridae. A survey for the fire ant virus from areas around Florida revealed a pattern of fairly widespread distribution. Among 168 nests surveyed, 22.9% were infected. The virus was found to infect all fire ant caste members and developmental stages, including eggs, early (1st-2nd) and late (3rd-4th) instars, worker pupae, workers, sexual pupae, alates ( male and female ), and queens. The virus, tentatively named S. invicta virus (SINV-1), appears to belong to the picorna-like viruses. We did not observe any perceptible symptoms among infected nests in the field. However, in every case where an SINV-1-infected colony was excavated from the field with an inseminated queen and held in the laboratory, all of the brood in these colonies died within 3 months

  3. Sociogenomics of cooperation and conflict during colony foundation in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomic state of an individual results from the interplay between its internal condition and the external environment, which may include the social environment. The link between genes and social environment is clearly visible during the process of colony founding in the fire ant Solenopsis invic...

  4. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily A; Deslippe, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  5. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological Control of Solenopsis Fire Ants by Pseudacteon Parasitoids: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd W. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudacteon parasitoids are potential biocontrol agents of invasive Solenopsis fire ants. Pseudacteon species that parasitize the invasive S. invicta Buren and S. richteri Forel have been introduced to, and naturally dispersed across, the southeastern USA, although there is no evidence yet that Solenopsis host ant populations have decreased. The ability of introduced Pseudacteon species to regulate Solenopsis populations will depend upon the relative importance of top-down effects in the recipient communities. In this paper, I examine the characteristics of the Pseudacteon/Solenopsis parasitoid/host system and evaluate the extent to which research findings are consistent with top-down control. Laboratory and field experiments evaluating Solenopsis population regulation have been equivocal, and overall the available evidence provides little support for strong top-down effects in this system. Competitive exclusion may occur among introduced Pseudacteon species, and future efforts at biological control are likely to be more efficacious if they focus on other types of natural enemies.

  7. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    Full Text Available The red imported fire ant (RIFA, Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species, accidentally introduced in the United States that can cause painful (sometimes life-threatening stings to human, pets, and livestock. Their colonies have two social forms: monogyne and polygyne that have a single and multiple functional queens, respectively. A major gene (Gp-9, identified as a putative pheromone-binding protein on the basis of a modest amino acid sequence identity, has been suggested to influence the expression of colony social organization. Monogyne queens are reported to possess only the GP-9B alleles, whereas polygyne queens possess both GP-9B and GP-9b. Thus, both social forms are reported to express GP-9B, with GP-9b being a marker expressed in polygynes but it is absent in monogynes. Here, we report two types of polygyne colonies, one that does not express GP-9b (monogyne-like and the other expressing both proteins, GP-9B and GP-9b. Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel. GP-9B existed in two forms, one of them is phosphorylated. The helical-rich content of the protein resembles the secondary structures of a beetle hemolymph protein and moth pheromone-binding proteins. An olfactory role is unlikely given the lack of specific expression in the sensillar lymph. In marked contrast to GP-9s, a chemosensory protein, SinvCSP, is demonstrated to be specifically expressed in the antennae. Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla.

  8. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicata and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri, is closely related to the notorious red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Despite being very similar in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. In contrast to S. invicta that has invaded numberous countries and regions,...

  9. Geographical transition zone of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Pseudacteon fly parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquero, M A; Dias, A M P M

    2011-01-01

    Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) and Solenopsis invicta Buren are the most abundant and widely distributed fire ants in Brazil. The occurrence of the two fire ant species and of their parasitoids Pseudacteon spp. is described for a climatic and phytophysiognomic transition area in the state of São Paulo. Both fire ant species have a parapatric distribution, apparently determined by the climate: S. saevissima predominates in the north part of São Paulo (Aw climate), while S. invicta in the south (Cfa climate). A sympatric area is observed between the latitudes 21ºS and 23ºS. Two different communities of parasitic decapitating flies were associated with S. saevissima in the north and with S. invicta in the south, with a sympatric area in the municipality of São Carlos (21º58'S 47º53'W). The possible causes of this biogeographic pattern are discussed. Preference tests with Pseudacteon flies challenge the association of P. litoralis Borgmeier, P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. wasmanni Schmitz, P. pradei Borgmeier and P. obtusus Borgmeier with S. saevissima, and P. dentiger Borgmeier, P. disneyi Pesquero and P. lenkoi Borgmeier & Prado with S. invicta.

  10. Toxicity of newly isolated piperideine alkaloids from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a major insect pest of many agronomic and horticultural crops and is distributed worldwide Aphid management is often based on application of insecticides. However, the aphid is now resistant to many of these and much interest has recently develope...

  11. Confirmation of the genome position and mass of the viral protien, VP3, of Solenopsis Invicta Virus 1 (Picornavirales: Dicistroviridae) infecting the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A predicted peptide sequence corresponding to the capsid protein VP3 of SINV-1 was used to prepare a polyclonal antibody preparation and probe SDS-PAGE separated proteins from SINV-1 particles and S. invicta ants. The SINV-1 VP3 antibody preparation recognized a 24 kDa protein from denatured SINV-1...

  12. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  13. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  14. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  15. Brandmieren Solenopsis in Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Vierbergen, B.; Boer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Tijdens importinspecties worden geregeld brandmieren aangetroffen. Solenopsis invicta, S. geminata en S. richteri zijn notoire invasieve exoten die in grote delen van de wereld voor veel overlast zorgen. Hierdoor besloot het Team Invasieve Exoten van het Ministerie van el&i om een risicoanalyse voor

  16. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  17. Europa’s buren

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dekker; Albert van der Horst; Suzanne Kok; Lonneke van Noije; Charlotte Wennekers

    2008-01-01

    Co-productie van het Centraal Planbureau en het SCP, in opdracht van het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. Wie zijn de nieuwe buren van een uitgebreide EU? En hoe staat met het met de publieke opinie over de Europese Unie in Nederland en elders in Europa?

  18. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Hui eShi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae encompasses ant species commonly called fire ants because of their painful sting. The many physiological effects of the venom are caused by 2-methyl-6-alkyl and/or alkenylpiperidine alkaloids. The variation in piperidine alkaloid structures has useful taxonomic characters. The most well studied Solenopsis species is S. invicta, which was accidentally imported into the USA in the 1930s from South America. It quickly spread throughout the southern USA and is now a major invasive pest ant in the USA and in other parts of the world. Interestingly, the invasive S. invicta has largely displaced a native USA fire ant, S. geminata, from the southern USA. We explore the possibility that differences in venom chemistry could be correlated with this displacement. The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of S. geminata were separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecyl-piperidines, as well as other minor alkaloid components. Imported fire ant, S. invicta, alate queens produce the same alkaloids as S. geminata alate queens, but in contrast S. invicta workers produce piperidine alkaloids with longer side chains, which are purported to be physiologically more effective. These results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary progression of fire ant venom alkaloids and displacement of S. geminata by S. invicta in the USA.

  19. Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

  20. Defensive chemicals of tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva and their toxicity to red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) has been reported as being able to displace Solenopsis invicta Buren, one of the most aggressive invasive ants in the world. Like S. invicta, N. fulva use chemical secretions in their defense/offense, which may contribute to their observed superior competition ability. In t...

  1. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site transportation analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Volpe Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing transportation support to Martin Van Buren National Historic Site's (NHS) first General Management Plan (GMP), which will be complete in 2010 or 2011. Currently, Martin Van Buren NHS...

  2. Book Review: Die internationale Buren- Agitation 1899-1902 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Die internationale Buren- Agitafon 1899-1902. Book Author: Ulrich Kröll. Haitung der Offentlichkeit und Agitation zugunsten der Buren in Deutschland, Frankreich und den Niederlanden während des Burenkrieges. Münster, 1973, pp. 478.

  3. Effect of gland extracts on digging and residing preferences of red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There was evidence that ant-derived chemical stimuli were involved in regulating the digging behavior in Solenopsis invicta Buren. Unfortunately however, the source gland(s) and chemistry of such stimuli have never been revealed. In this study, extracts of mandibular, Dufour, postpharyngeal and po...

  4. Arthropod prey of imported fire ants (Hymenopter: formicidae) in Mississippi sweetpotato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren) are generally considered pests. They have also been viewed as beneficial predators feeding on other insect pests of agricultural and medical importance in various agroecosystems. This study documents the foraging habits of fire ants in sweetpotato. Swee...

  5. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  6. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  7. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  9. Integrated pest management concepts for red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pest management concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  11. The toxicity of Poison Dart Frog alkaloids against the Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These alkaloids are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, and are generally are believed to deter vertebrate predators. We developed a method to put ind...

  12. Water resources of Van Buren County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, P.R.; Hendrickson, G.E.; Stoimenoff, L.E.; Whetstone, G.W.

    1964-01-01

    The water resources of Van Buren County include productive ground-water reservoirs, a network of perennial streams, about 60 major inland lakes, and Lake Michigan. Most water users obtain their supplies from wells. The ground-water reservoirs in the glacial drift can provide several times the amount of water now used, but large withdrawals of ground water may lower the levels of nearby lakes or diminish the flow of nearly streams. Permeable soils and drift account for the relatively high base flows of streams in the southeastern two-thirds of the county. Less permeable surficial materials in the northwest part of the county result in relatively low base flows there. The water from wells is generally hard and high in iron content but is otherwise suitable for most uses. Water from streams and lakes is similar to that from wells except that iron-content is not a problem, and some of the inland lakes have very soft water. The availability of ground water, the base flow of streams, and the chemical character of water in the county are summarized in maps and tables accompanying this report.

  13. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug. - Highlights: • Both ‘radiation dose’ and ‘irradiated insect stage’ are important factors. • 100-Gy irradiation could achieve population extinction in two generations. • 200 Gy should be a reasonable dose in the quarantine treatment

  14. Van Buren Intermediate School District. Common Threads for the Future. Michigan Exemplary Career Guidance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren Intermediate School District, Lawrence, MI.

    The Van Buren Intermediate School District in Michigan has developed a comprehensive guidance program that has been adopted by a number of school districts in the state. The Van Buren model is designed to teach all youth and adults the career development skills of information gathering, decision making, planning, and placement. This document…

  15. Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil." Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Register of Historic Places, Washington, DC. Interagency Resources Div.

    Using primary documents, maps, and visual data, this lesson packet focuses on Martin Van Buren and his retirement home, Lindenwald, which is on the National Register of Historic Places. The lesson materials compliment classroom study of early 19th century politics by tracing the life of Martin Van Buren and his role in the Jacksonian Era. Included…

  16. 78 FR 5867 - West Michigan Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Van Buren County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 1107X] West Michigan Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Van Buren County, MI West Michigan Railroad Co. (WMI) has filed a... Lawrence, Mich.) and milepost 30.55 (east of Kalamazoo Street in Paw Paw, Mich.), in Van Buren County, Mich...

  17. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  18. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  19. Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood 1840 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species, Solenopsis elhawagryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mostafa R; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2012-01-01

    Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula are revised. Six species are treated: Solenopsis elhawagryi Sharaf & Aldawood sp. n., S. geminata (Fabricius, 1804), S. omana Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, S. saudiensis Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011, S. sumara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, and S. zingibara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996. Solenopsis elhawagryi is described from Beljorashi Governorate, Al Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, based on worker castes and the queen with notes on this species biology and ecology. Solenopsis sumara workers are redescribed and illustrated for the first time and a lectotype is designated. An identification key to the Arabian and Egyptian species is provided with scanning electron micrographs to facilitate species recognition.

  20. 75 FR 11939 - Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,714] Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation... Manufacturing, Van Buren, Arkansas. The worker group includes on-site leased workers from TEC. The petitioner...

  1. Easy Suprapubic Tube Placement Using a Van Buren Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Lawrence M

    2018-01-17

    To place a suprapubic tube without using specialized instruments. Suprapubic cystostomy is a straightforward urological procedure, which nevertheless may become complicated if the equipment needed to perform the operation is unavailable. Nowadays, in most operating rooms, control of urological instruments has been taken away from a small cadre of dedicated urology nurses, and instead is delegated to a central sterilization department or is even outsourced, leading to an increased rate of instrument misplacement or breakage. Disposable kits are useful, but may not be stocked at all facilities. Hence, the tools needed by the urologist to perform suprapubic cystostomy may not be readily available when they are needed. This reality was the impetus for the development of the following technique for suprapubic tube placement, which relies only upon ordinary instruments. A simple method is described for placing a suprapubic catheter using a curved Van Buren sound, a cystoscope, and a minor surgical set. Not only is the operation is easy to do, but is also advantageous in that the catheter may be exchanged over a wire, if necessary, before the establishment of a suprapubic tract. The technique depends on the presence of an intact urethra; therefore, it is contraindicated in the setting of pelvic trauma. This suprapubic cystostomy method may be used either as a primary technique or as a back-up procedure if the urologist's preferred instrumentation is not available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The morphometry of solenopsis fire ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available Size-related changes of body shape were explored in 15 polymorphic species of Solenopsis fire ants by analyzing body weight along with linear measurements of 24 body parts. Log regression slopes were used to detect changes of shape with increasing size. Within species, the largest workers weighed from about 5 to 30-fold as much as the smallest. The range of within-species body lengths varied from 1.6 mm to 4 mm. As worker size increased, the gaster tended to make up a larger proportion of body length, usually at the cost of the petiole, and rarely at the cost of head length or mesosoma length. In most, the relative volume of the gaster increased and that of the head and mesosoma decreased. Most also showed an increasingly "humped" mesosoma. For all species, head shape changed from barrel-shaped to heart-shaped as worker size increased. Antennae became relatively shorter as the relative size of the club decreased. Shape changes of the legs were more variable. S. geminata was exceptional in the extreme nature of its head shape change, and was the only species in which relative head volume increased and gaster volume decreased with increasing body size. With the exception of S. geminata, the allometric rules governing shape are remarkably similar across species, suggesting a genus-level developmental scheme that is not easily modified by evolution. It also suggests that the evolution of shape is highly constrained by these conserved growth rules, and that it acts primarily (perhaps only through allometric growth. The results are discussed in light of the growth of imaginal discs in a resource-limited body (the pupa. The substantial variation of allometries within species and across localities is also discussed in relation to using allometric patterns to identify species or to construct phylogenies.

  3. Hydrology and land use in Van Buren County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.; Holtschlag, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of ground and surface water in Van Buren County and to relate these characteristics to the agricultural use of land. Chemical inputs to the hydrologic system, including those from precipitation, animal wastes, septic tanks, and fertilizers, are assessed. Land-use, geologic setting, and hydrologic conditions are given as a necessary framework for interpretations. The land surface in Van Buren county in southwestern Michigan is flat to rolling, and ranges in altitude from 580 to 1,050 feet. About 30,000 acres or 7.4 percent of land is irrigated. Annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 36 inches. Two rivers--the Paw Paw and South Branch Black--drain most of the county. During this study, the maximum discharge of the Paw Paw River was 2,500 cubic feet per second; the minimum discharge was 202 cubic feet per second. The average discharge of the South Branch Black River during a 17- year period of record has been 106 cubic feet per second. Glacial deposits are the principal source of ground-water supplies. These deposits range in thickness from 100 to 600 feet and consist of till, outwash, and materials of lacustrine and eolian origin. In places the deposits fill buried valleys that are as much as 400 feet deep. The Coldwater Shale of Mississippian age, which underlies the glacial deposits, is mostly shale and usually yields only small amounts of salty water. Of the glacial deposits, outwash is the most productive aquifer. Most domestic wells obtain water from outwash at depths ranging from 15 to 160 feet. Irrigation wells capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute generally are about 200 feet deep. In places in the western part of the county, glacial deposits, which are several hundred feet thick, are mostly clay and yield little or no water. Areal variations in the chemical and physical characteristics of ground and surface water are related to land use and

  4. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrare, V S; Kranthi, S; Biradar, V K; Zade, N N; Sangode, V; Kakde, G; Shukla, R M; Shivare, D; Khadi, B M; Kranthi, K R

    2009-10-01

    A survey was conducted in 47 locations in nine cotton-growing states of India to identify the composition of mealybug species occurring on cotton. Results of the taxonomic study showed that two mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), and the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were found to infest cotton plants from all nine cotton growing states of the country. However, P. solenopsis was found to be the predominant mealybug species, comprising 95% of the samples examined. P. solenopsis, which was hitherto not reported to occur in India, now appears to be widespread on cotton in almost all cotton-growing states of the country. P. solenopsis is an exotic species originated from the USA and was reported to damage cotton and crops of 14 families. This report discusses the implications of the introduction of this exotic polyphagous pest species and the necessary steps to mitigate its potential threat to agriculture in India.

  5. A revision of the genus Kaszabister Mazur (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Degallier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise the four species of Kaszabister Mazur, 1972, one of which, Kaszabister barrigai sp. n., is described as new. The other species in the genus are K. rubellus (Erichson, 1834, K. ferrugineus (Kirsch, 1873 and K. carinatus (Lewis, 1888. The species are principally known from the subtropics of South America, with one in Central America. Lectotypes are designated for K. rubellus and K. ferrugineus, and a key is provided for all the species. Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood, mainly S. invicta Buren and S. saevissima (Smith, are documented as hosts of three of the four species.

  6. Solenopsis ant magnetic material: statistical and seasonal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraçado, Leida G; Esquivel, Darci M S; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the magnetic material amount in Solenopsis ants using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. We sampled S. interrupta workers from several morphologically indistinguishable castes. Twenty-five oriented samples of each body part of S. interrupta (20 units each) showed that FMR line shapes are reproducible. The relative magnetic material amount was 31 ± 12% (mean ± SD) in the antennae, 27 ± 13% in the head, 21 ± 12% in the thorax and 20 ± 10% in the abdomen. In order to measure variation in the magnetic material from late summer to early winter, ants were collected each month between March and July. The amount of magnetic material was greatest in all four body parts in March and least in all four body parts in June. In addition, S. richteri majors presented more magnetic material than minor workers. Extending these findings to the genera Solenopsis, the reduction in magnetic material found in winter could be explained by our sampling fewer foraging major ants

  7. Solenopsis ant magnetic material: statistical and seasonal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraçado, Leida G.; Esquivel, Darci M. S.; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we quantify the magnetic material amount in Solenopsis ants using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. We sampled S. interrupta workers from several morphologically indistinguishable castes. Twenty-five oriented samples of each body part of S. interrupta (20 units each) showed that FMR line shapes are reproducible. The relative magnetic material amount was 31 ± 12% (mean ± SD) in the antennae, 27 ± 13% in the head, 21 ± 12% in the thorax and 20 ± 10% in the abdomen. In order to measure variation in the magnetic material from late summer to early winter, ants were collected each month between March and July. The amount of magnetic material was greatest in all four body parts in March and least in all four body parts in June. In addition, S. richteri majors presented more magnetic material than minor workers. Extending these findings to the genera Solenopsis, the reduction in magnetic material found in winter could be explained by our sampling fewer foraging major ants.

  8. Effect of broadcast baiting on abundance patterns of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and key local ant genera at long-term monitoring sites in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, Melinda K; Wylie, F Ross; Harris, Evan J; Alston, Clair L; Burwell, Chris J; Jennings, Craig

    2014-08-01

    In 2001, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) was identified in Brisbane, Australia. An eradication program involving broadcast bait treatment with two insect growth regulators and a metabolic inhibitor began in September of that year and is currently ongoing. To gauge the impacts of these treatments on local ant populations, we examined long-term monitoring data and quantified abundance patterns of S. invicta and common local ant genera using a linear mixed-effects model. For S. invicta, presence in pitfalls reduced over time to zero on every site. Significantly higher numbers of S. invicta workers were collected on high-density polygyne sites, which took longer to disinfest compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. For local ants, nine genus groups of the 10 most common genera analyzed either increased in abundance or showed no significant trend. Five of these genus groups were significantly less abundant at the start of monitoring on high-density polygyne sites compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. The genus Pheidole significantly reduced in abundance over time, suggesting that it was affected by treatment efforts. These results demonstrate that the treatment regime used at the time successfully removed S. invicta from these sites in Brisbane, and that most local ant genera were not seriously impacted by the treatment. These results have important implications for current and future prophylactic treatment efforts, and suggest that native ants remain in treated areas to provide some biological resistance to S. invicta.

  9. Essential Balm: A Strong Repellent Against Foraging and Defending Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuzhen; Ma, Tao; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Zhitao; Zhu, Chengqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Strecker, Rachel; Henderson, Gregg; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the repellent effects of essential balm, a traditional medicine product in China, was tested against foraging and defending red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, under laboratory and field conditions. The laboratory study showed that both band- (width = 1 cm) and patch-smearing of essential balm at each concentration (0.5, 1, or 2 μl/cm(2)) significantly decreased the number of S. invicta foragers within the 6-h observation period. Moreover, band-smearing of 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm and patch-smearing of 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm inhibited most S. invicta foraging activity at 3, 6, 6, and 24 h into the experiment, respectively. The field study showed that after a disturbance was created on the S. invicta mound, there were significantly less defending ants on the substance treated (patch-smeared) with 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm than the controls, but the number of ants on the substance of these three concentrations was similar. Our study suggested that essential balm is a strong repellent against foraging and defending S. invicta and could be applied when temporary protection from S. invicta is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparing electroantennogram and behavioral responses of two Pseudacteon phorid fly species to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Ochieng, Samuel A; He, Xiaofang; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-10-01

    Several phorid fly species were introduced to the southern United States for biological control of the invasive imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (Black), Solenopsis invicta (Red), and their Hybrid S. richteri×S. invicta (Hybrid). It has been previously reported that the Jaguariuna biotype of Pseudacteon tricuspis and the Formosan biotype of Pseudacteon curvatus could distinguish among the three fire ant species with greater preference for Hybrid and Red fire ants. We hypothesized that phorid flies might use host derived chemical cues to differentiate ant species. To determine possible differential olfactory sensitivity of phorid fly species to different fire ant species, we compared electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of both sexes of P. tricuspis and P. curvatus to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid fire ants. As worker sizes of Black and Hybrid fire ants used in this study were much larger than that of Red fire ant (the average weight for Black, Red and Hybrid workers was 1.707, 0.863, 1.223mg per ants, respectively), at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 worker equivalent, body extracts of Black and Hybrid fire ant elicited significantly greater EAG response in both sexes of P. tricuspis than that of Red fire ant. Similarly, the EAG response in female P. curvatus to body extract of Black fire ant was significantly greater than to body extract of Red fire ant. To eliminate worker size influence on EAG response in phorid flies, we conducted a second EAG study using a dose of 1mg ant equivalent (body extract from 1mg of worker). No difference in EAG responses was recorded to body extract obtained from the same amount of workers among the three fire ant species (we consider viable Hybrid fire ant as a species in this paper), suggesting that worker size differences contributed to difference in EAG response in the first EAG study. In both EAG studies, male P. tricuspis showed significantly greater EAG responses than male P. curvatus to all three fire ant

  11. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  12. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  13. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarin, Mahtab; Zubeda; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N 1 ) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N 1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N 2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N 2 . A dose of 500Gy given to female-N 3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N 3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N 3 and N 4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N 4 . 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of

  14. A Chemosensory Protein Gene Si-CSP1 Associated With Necrophoric Behavior in Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Cheng, Dai-Feng

    2017-06-01

    Necrophoric behavior is essential to colony health in social insects. Little is known about the genes that are responsible for necrophoric behavior. Here, we show that a chemosensory protein gene Si-CSP1 was expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues such as the legs and heads of Solenopsis invicta Buren workers. Furthermore, Si-CSP1-silenced workers moved significantly fewer corpses of their nestmates than normal workers. Finally, Si-CSP1-silenced workers exhibited weaker antennal responses to oleic acid and linoleic acid than controls. These results suggest that Si-CSP1 functions by sensing oleic acid and linoleic acid associated with dead colony members and regulating the necrophoric behavior of workers in S. invicta. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The insecticidal activities of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) venoms against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Chuan; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Huang, Rong-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-01

    Although fire ants frequently have negative impacts on agricultural systems and public health, they have additional beneficial insecticidal effects. To evaluate the potential effect of fire ant venoms on agricultural pests, the compositions of the venoms and their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The alkaloids found in Solenopsis geminata (F.) venom are primarily saturated C11, which occur in both cis and trans forms, whereas the venom of S. invicta Buren contains six principal alkaloids (from trans C1, to C17). Moreover, the proportions of unsaturated alkaloids in the venom of polygynous S. invicta were significantly higher than the corresponding proportions in the monogynous S. invicta, as shown by our previous studies. Fire ant venoms were topically applied to the dorsal thoracic region of fourth-instar larvae of P. xylostella. The results of the experiment showed that the larval symptoms induced by fire ant venom include contractile, flaccid paralysis, black coloration and death. P. xylostella larvae were most susceptible to S. geminata venom. The order of the susceptibilities of the larvae to the venoms was as follows: S. geminata > S. invicta (monogyne form) > S. invicta (polygyne form), as measured by the corresponding LT50 values at 24 h.

  16. How do groups of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feed on a droplet of sugar water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai; Chen, Xuan; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M; Strecker, Rachel; Wen, Yu-Zhen; Qin, Wen-Quan; Ma, Tao; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Wen, Xiu-Jun

    2016-12-28

    Many previous studies have focused on the foraging behaviors and strategies of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren on solid food or granular bait; little attention has been paid to how liquid sugar is fed upon. In the present study, behavioral responses of S. invicta to 25% sucrose water droplets were observed. Five foraging patterns were identified in S. invicta colonies under laboratory conditions: (i) no feeding, no sucrose water feeding was observed; (ii) surround feeding, ants surrounded and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (iii) stacked feeding, ants stacked and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (iv) droplet-break feeding, ants broke the liquid droplet and sucked sucrose water that spread on surface of the substance or soil particles previously transported by ants; and (v) cover feeding, whole surface of the sucrose droplet was covered by layers of feeding ants. This is the first time cover feeding in S. invicta has been reported, which obviously requires more ants compared to the other patterns. In addition, individual ants were tracked in videos under laboratory conditions, and behavioral repertoires that led to stacking, covering and droplet-breaking were identified and described. The field investigation showed that surround feeding was most frequently performed by S. invicta foragers; however, cover feeding was not observed under field conditions during this study. Both laboratory and field studies showed colony-level variations in sugar-water feeding. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. [Risk factors for ventricular peritoneal shunt infection in pediatric patients from the hospital Carlos Van Buren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena A, Abigail; Sandia Z, Rodrigo; Riveros P, Rodrigo; Salazar Z, Cristian; Herrera O, Rosa; Vergara F, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common problem in Neurosurgery and Neurology. The usual treatment is the installation of a Ventricular Peritoneal Shunt (VPS). Infection is the most frequent and serious complication. With the aim to identify risk factors associated with infection in the post surgery of VPS in pediatric patients from Carlos Van Buren Hospital a case control study between 1998-2008 was done. Cases were patients with VPS infection reported to the Department of Nosocomial Infections. Results in contingency tables were analyzed to determine Odds Ratio. 264 surgical procedures were studied in 207 patients with 53 infections reported in 26 patients. Significant risk factors were: history of prior ventriculitis, VPS dysfunction and prior external ventricular shunt, concurrent infections at the time of surgery and a neurosurgeon without the specialty of pediatric neurosurgery. We concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis was not an important factor in preventing infection and the neurosurgeon experience is relevant to the development of VPS infections.

  18. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum; Danos de Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em Parica, Schizolobium amazonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: amehl@cpatu.embrapa.br; Harada, Ana Y. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Zoologia. Setor de Invertebrados], e-mail: ahara@museu-goeldi.br

    2009-03-15

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  19. Sex Pheromone of the Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, with an Unusual Cyclobutane Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2016-11-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, the distribution of which was formerly limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions, recently invaded many countries in various regions including Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. More recently, P. solenopsis was newly recorded in Japan and is currently an emerging pest of agricultural crops. In this study, we determined the structure of a sex pheromone of P. solenopsis in order to develop an effective lure for monitoring this pest. From volatiles emitted by virgin adult females, we isolated a compound attractive to males. By means of coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified this as (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclobutyl)methyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male P. solenopsis. Analysis by gas chromatography using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the natural pheromone and synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound to be the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. This compound is an ester of maconelliol, which has an unusual cyclobutane structure found in sex pheromones of other mealybug species, and senecioic acid, also found in the pheromones of other mealybug species. However, this is the first example of the ester of maconelliol and senecioic acid as a natural product.

  20. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were successfully separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily...

  1. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles differentiate tropical fire ant populations (Solenopsis geminata, Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from hexane rinses of workers from two Florida populations (dark and red forms) of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified by GC-MS analysis. Both the dark form and the red form produce similar CHCs with...

  2. Water quality of Indian Creek-Van Buren Watershed, Iowa and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Larry J.; Detroy, Mark G.

    1980-01-01

    Generally, the water quality of Indian Creek-Van Buren watershed is suitable as a source of Municipal, industrial and agricultural water supply and for fish and wildlife. This suitability is based upon comparisons of the existing water quality of Indian Creek to Federal and State water quality standards and criteria developed for the protection of water sources and the fish and wildlife that inhabit these waters. The water in the basin is a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type that is low in dissolved solids. Concentrations of nutrients and metals, except iron, are low. Two pesticides, diazinon and dieldrin were detected in trace aMounts within the stream. Variations in water quality were evident from station to station and from season to season. Water quality was more homogeneous during the period of high flow and generally poorest during the period of least flow.

  3. Geologic map of the Van Buren South quadrangle, Carter County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D.J.; Schindler, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The bedrock exposed in the Van Buren South quadrangle, Missouri, comprises Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician aged dolomite, sandstone, and chert. The sedimentary rocks are nearly flat-lying except where they are adjacent to faults. The carbonate rocks are karstified and the area contains numerous sinkholes, springs, caves, and losing-streams. This map is one of several being produced under the U.S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program to provide geologic data applicable to land-use problems in the Ozarks of south-central Missouri. Ongoing and potential industrial and agricultural development in the Ozarks region has presented issues of ground-water quality in karst areas. A National Park in this region (Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri ) is concerned about the effects of activities in areas outside of their stewardship on the water resources that define the heart of this Park. This task applies geologic mapping and karst investigations to address issues surrounding competing land use in south-central Missouri. This task keeps geologists from the USGS associated with the park and allows the Parks to utilize USGS expertise and aid the NPS on how to effectively use geologic maps for Park management. For more information see: http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/Karst/index.html

  4. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S.; Harada, Ana Y.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  5. [Survival of grafts in the first 100 renal transplants at the Carlos van Buren Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, H; Toro, J; Nicovani, V; Cevallos, M; Orriols, M

    2001-07-01

    Renal transplant is the best therapeutic alternative for chronic renal failure, although it is not exempt of risks. To report the survival of renal transplant recipients and grafts and the main complications at a public hospital in Chile. This is a non experimental, open historical cohort study, with reposition of the first 100 transplants in 94 patients, performed at the Carlos van Buren Hospital between 1984 and 1998. Seventy grafts came from cadaveric donors and 30 from live donors. As immunosuppressive therapy, prednisone + azathioprine was used in 48 transplants and the same regimen plus cyclosporine in 52. Mean age of recipients was 36 +/- 23 years old. Ten years actuarial survival of patients was 80.5% in transplants from cadaveric donors and 86% in transplants from live donors. Ten years graft survival was 57.5% in transplants from cadaveric donors and 42% in transplants from live donors. The period in which the transplant was performed (first or second half of the observation period), type of donor, HLA B-DR compatibility and sensitization (% PRA) had no effect on survival. Twenty five subjects lost their graft, 12 due to acute steroid resistant rejection, 10 due to chronic graft nephropathy and three due to renal artery thrombosis. Fifteen subjects died with a functioning graft, 10 due to infections, two due to an acute myocardial infarction, two due to an acute pancreatitis and one due to a brain tumor. Survival of grafts and renal transplant recipients was not influenced by the type of donor, period of transplantation and immune variables. Main causes of recipient death were infections and the main cause of graft failure was acute rejection.

  6. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-08 to 1977-03-16 (NODC Accession 8100234)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean March 8, 1977 to March 16, 1977. Data...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-24 to 1977-03-06 (NODC Accession 8100232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from February 24, 1977 to March 6, 1977....

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-11 to 1977-03-20 (NODC Accession 8100235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from March 11, 1977 to March 20, 1977....

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-08 to 1977-01-13 (NODC Accession 8100230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from January 8, 1977 to January 13, 1977....

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-20 to 1977-05-28 (NODC Accession 8100218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from May 20, 1977 to May 28, 1977. Data...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-10 to 1976-12-19 (NODC Accession 8100231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from December 10, 1976 to December 19,...

  13. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-27 to 1977-02-06 (NODC Accession 8100233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from January 27, 1977 to February 6,...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT VAN BUREN from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-22 to 1977-04-29 (NODC Accession 8100217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT VAN BUREN in the Pacific Ocean from April 22, 1977 to April 29, 1977....

  15. Extracted Venom and Cuticular Compounds of Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., and Chemotaxonomic Applications Across a Persistent Hybrid Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of cuticular biomolecular assemblages for imported fire ants permit basic distinctions among colonies of S. invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrids; thus, providing opportunities to investigate details of landscape ecology for this species complex as well as to assess levels of inva...

  16. Assessing the combined toxicity of conventional and newer insecticides on the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiq, Bushra; Ejaz, Masood; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Reduced susceptibility to insecticides often results in failure of insect pest control and repetitive use of broad-spectrum insecticides, which could have detrimental effects on beneficial arthropods and surrounding agro-ecosystems. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is a pest of worldwide importance that can be effectively controlled using a number of insecticides. This insect has developed resistance due to injudicious use and repeated exposure to insecticides throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and indoxacarb tested either singly or in combination on laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) and field population (Field Pop) of P. solenopsis. In the Field Pop, combination of chlorpyrifos with either spinosad or emamectin benzoate or indoxacarb showed a synergistic effect at 1:1, 1:10 and 1:20. The combination of deltamethrin with either emamectin benzoate or indoxacarb at all ratios showed synergistic effect, while the combination of deltamethrin with spinosad at 1:1 and 1:20 ratios showed antagonistic effects and that at 1:10 ratio showed synergistic effect against Field Pop. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors, when combined with insecticides against the Field Pop, toxicities of all tested insecticides were significantly increased. The present study suggests that insecticide combinations and synergism could help achieve effective control of less susceptible populations of P. solenopsis. This would contribute to suitably managing resistance of this pest to insecticides with reduced negative impacts on the surrounding environment.

  17. Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis on cotton in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Deshmukh, A J; Pinjarkar, D; Agarwal, M; Ramamurthy, V V; Joshi, S; Kranthi, K R; Bambawale, O M

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been the current topic of research for insect taxonomists and applied entomologists in India due to its invasiveness, rapid spread, morphological and biological variations and the need for establishing an effective control strategy. The biology of the mealybug P. solenopsis was studied on cotton under laboratory conditions between August and October of 2009 with mean temperature and relative humidity of 23.3–30.2° C and 40.5–92.5% RH, respectively, in central India. Neonate crawlers that emerged from a field population were collected and constituted the study population. The developmental period from immature crawler to adult stage was greater for males (18.7 ± 0.9 days) compared to females (13.2 ± 1.8 days), probably due to the additional molt to the pupal stage in males. Survival of second instars was lower (45.5%) than first and third instars (71.4%). Females showed dynamic patterns of fecundity with the number of crawlers produced per female ranging between 128 and 812, with a mean of 344 ± 82. The reproductive period lasted 30.2 ± 8.2 days. Parthenogenesis with ovoviviparity (96.5%) was dominant over the oviparous (3.5%) mode of reproduction. Adult females lived 42.4 ± 5.7 days. Males accounted for less than 5% of the population, and lived 1.5 ± 0.1 days. The life history parameters of P. solenopsis adult females are discussed relative to the appearance of symptoms on the cotton crop, and the importance of making management interventions during the effective reproductive period of the insect.

  18. Pierre-Marie Loizeau, Martin Van Buren : The Little Magician, Hauppauge, NY, Nova History Publ., 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Serme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La biographie de Martin Van Buren par Pierre-Marie Loizeau trouve sa place parmi un nombre non négligeable d’ouvrages en anglais consacrés ces dernières années au huitième président des États-Unis. Ce grand politique d’avant la guerre de Sécession fut méprisé pendant longtemps par les historiens. Il faut dire qu’il paraissait bien frêle entre les deux imposants « noyers » d’Amérique : le Vieux, Andrew Jackson, et le Jeune, James K. Polk. Outre sa réputation de Renard Rusé, son goût immodéré p...

  19. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  20. Do Mound Disturbance and Bait Placement Affect Bait Removal and Treatment Efficacy in Red Imported Fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Different Seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing P. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides empirical evidence that disturbing mound immediately before application, as opposed to label recommendation, did not reduce foraging activity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, except for about 10-min delay in foraging. Despite the delayed foraging, there was no significant difference in the amount of baits foraged between disturbed and undisturbed colonies. Eventually, >96% of the baits were foraged, with the maximum removal occurred by 2 and 3 h, respectively, in summer and spring trial. The fastest and great amount of bait removal 1 h post-treatment occurred to baits placed on mound, followed by 0.18–0.3-m from mound base, and the slowest 1.08–1.2-m from mound base. All treatment gave 100% control 1 mo later, regardless of the season, without colony relocation or new colony invasion in the test plots.

  1. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  2. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A Helms

    Full Text Available In the Found or Fly (FoF hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804 and S. invicta (Buren, 1972. Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  3. The native ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum, improves the survival of an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, by defending it from parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong-Dong; Michaud, J P; Li, Pan; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-10-27

    Mutualistic ants can protect their partners from natural enemies in nature. Aenasius bambawalei is an important parasitoid of the the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. We hypothesized that mutualism between native ants and mealybugs would favor survival of mealybugs. To test this, we examined effects of tending by the native mutualistic ant Tapinoma melanocephalum on growth of P. solenopsis colonies on Chinese hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in a field setting. Ant workers with access to honeydew of mealybugs lived much longer than those provisioned only with water in the laboratory, and number of ant workers foraging increased significantly with growth of mealybug colonies in the field. In later observations, there were significant differences in densities of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded treatments. Survival rate of mealybugs experiencing parasitoid attack was significantly higher on ant-tended plants than on ant-excluded plants. When the parasitoid was excluded, there was no difference in survival rate of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded plants. In most cases, ants directly attacked the parasitoid, causing the parasitoid to take evasive action. We conclude that native ants such as T. melanocephalum have the potential to facilitate invasion and spread of P. solenopsis in China by providing them with protection from parasitoids.

  4. Predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae on different stages of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: a threat to cotton in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators.

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a normalized cDNA library and isolation of EST simple sequence repeats from the invasive cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lang, Kun-Ling; Fu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Chang-Peng; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious and invasive pest. At present, genetic resources for studying P. solenopsis are limited, and this negatively affects genetic research on the organism and, consequently, translational work to improve management of this pest. In the present study, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed from a normalized complementary DNA library of P. solenopsis. In addition, EST-derived microsatellite loci (also known as simple sequence repeats or SSRs) were isolated and characterized. A total of 1107 high-quality ESTs were acquired from the library. Clustering and assembly analysis resulted in 785 unigenes, which were classified functionally into 23 categories according to the Gene Ontology database. Seven EST-based SSR markers were developed in this study and are expected to be useful in characterizing how this invasive species was introduced, as well as providing insights into its genetic microevolution. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Active insecticides for Diaphania hyalinata selective for the natural enemy Solenopsis saevissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alex R; Alvarenga, Elson S; Lopes, Mayara C; Santos, Izailda B Dos; Galdino, Tarcisio V; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the nine synthetic dienamides against the insect pest Diaphania hyalinata (melonworm) and the selectivity of these substances for the predator Solenopsis saevissima (fire ant). Four bioassays were conducted. To begin with, the dienamides that caused high mortality of D. hyalinata have been selected. In the second bioassay the dose-mortality curves of the selected dienamides have been constructed. In the third bioassay, the survival curves for D. hyalinata and the elapsed time to kill 50% of their population have been determined. In the fourth biological test, the selectivity of the substances to the predator S. saevissima has been evaluated. The most active (2E,4E)-N-butylhexa-2,4-dienamide 3d has killed 95% of the melonworm, D. hyalinata, and less than 10% of the natural enemy S. saevissima. The results presented by this compound are superior to the outcome displayed by the commercial insecticide Malathion®. Three of the dienamides prepared in this manuscript have proven to be selective in killing the pest, but not the beneficial insect.

  7. Incidence of a New Pest, the Cotton Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, on Sesame in North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenawi Gebregergis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum is one of the most important cash crops grown extensively for its seeds in Ethiopia. Production of sesame in the country is very crucial in many aspects, but the invasion of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is becoming a big deal in its production. A survey for mealybug infestation was conducted during 2016 production season in 15 localities of “Kafta Humera” district so as to assess the incidence and severity of the pest. In each locality 2 sesame farms have been selected and 6 samples per farm (2 samples from the road sides, 2 from camp surrounding, and 2 from the central part of the farms have been checked. During the survey, “Bowal” and “Sherif Hamad” have scored the higher incidence and severity of mealybugs. Road sides and camp surrounding of the farms were shown to have severe infestation. Stony and oxen plowed farms were also intensively invaded with cotton mealybugs. The pest has different natural means to infest new areas; thus its control measure has to be developing timely.

  8. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Prehistoric parasitism in Tennessee: evidence from the analysis of desiccated fecal material collected from Big Bone Cave, Van Buren County, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, C T; Patton, S; Johnson, S S

    1989-06-01

    Eight samples of desiccated human feces collected from Big Bone Cave (40VB103), Van Buren County, Tennessee, were analyzed to determine the presence of ecto- and endoparasitic infection among the prehistoric population using the cave. Radiocarbon-dated torch material from the cave indicated that it was a locus of human activity 2,177 +/- 145 yr ago. Parasitic species identified were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, fleas of the tribe Phalacropsyllini, and protozoan cysts. The cysts were identified as Giardia using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The only report of Giardia in a prehistoric context is the identification of cysts in 2 1,800-yr-old paleofecal specimens from a cave in Israel. This is the first report of Giardia from paleofeces in the New World.

  11. Assessing the impact of forest fragmentation due to natural gas development on wild turkey nesting success in Van Buren County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James Kendall

    Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.

  12. HUBUNGAN KUTU DOMPOLAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (CKLL. (HOMOPTERA : PSEUDOCOCCIDAE DAN SEMUT API SOLENOPSIS SP. (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE PADA DUA CARA BERTANAM NENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Association of mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae and fire ant, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on two pineapple–planting patterns.  A pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus  brevipes (Ckll.  (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae is an important insect pest in major pineapple growing areas.  Its feeding activity causes damage on the pineapple plants and it can also transmit pineapple wilt virus.  The mealybugs are often found in association with fire ants, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae that provide protection in exchange for the sweet honeydew liquid. The field study was conducted to determine the close association between  mealybugs and fire ants on  two plant row spacing (single and double row spacing four different plant stages (3, 7, 11, and 17 months after planting. The  results indicated  that there was a significant correlation between the mealybugs and the fire ant on two pineapple-planting patterns, particularly on late growth periods (11, and 17 months after planting. In this field study, population of mealybugs on double row spacing were more abundant  (ranging from 0 to 25.67 bugs/plant compared with that on single row spacing which ranged 0 to 3.67 bugs/plant. Moreover, general mean of population density of mealybugs (14.53 bugs/plant on double row was significantly higher  than that on single row spacing (1.83 bugs/plant. In  line with this mealybug-population development, mean numbers of fire ants caught on baited-sticky traps were ranged from 0 to 8.53 ants/trap on single row versus 0 to 23.57 ants/trap on double row spacing pattern. The general mean number of captured ants (12.73 ants/trap on double row was significantly higher compared with that on single row spacing (5.55 ants/trap. It appears that the patterns of population densities of mealybugs are closely related to that of fire ants that act as attendant species on two pineapple row spacing.

  13. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  14. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Lachaud, Jean P.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  15. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a serious pest of cotton and other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Arif, M.J.; Aslam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) was first recorded on cultivated cotton from Texas, USA in 1991. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton in Pakistan and India, and is now a serious threat to cotton in China and other cotton-growing countries worldwide. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. So far, it has been reported from 173 species in 54 plant families, and from 26 countries in different ecological zones. The study found that host plant species and meteorological conditions had significant effects, whereas locality had no significant effect on the fecundity of the mealybug. (author)

  16. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards that are infested or uninfested with Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhae, Catarina De Bortoli; Morini, Maria Santina De Castro; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2014-10-15

    The association between ants and mealybugs can result in damage to agriculture, including vineyards. In southern Brazil, the ant Linepithema micans F. contributes to the dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (ground pearl), a root mealybug that can lead to economic losses. In this study, the ant communities in vineyards that were infested or uninfested with ground pearls were evaluated in the primary municipalities that produce the Niágara Rosada variety of grapes in southeastern Brazil. The hypothesis of this study was that the composition of the ant community differs between vineyards with and without E. brasiliensis. The ants were collected using subterranean traps in 10 vineyards infested with this mealybug and 10 uninfested vineyards. There was no significant association between ground pearls and the composition or richness of the ant species. Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most frequently observed, and Pheidole aberrans (Mayr), Pheidole subarmata (Mayr), and Brachymyrmex incisus F. were common, especially in the rainy season when ground-pearl nymphs were prevalent in the state of São Paulo. Species from preserved or specialized environments were recorded in the vineyards, even with the use of conventional management techniques. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Arthropod prey of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mississippi sweetpotato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Tahir; Chen, Jian; Vogt, James T; McLeod, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    The red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), are generally considered pests. They have also been viewed as beneficial predators feeding on other insect pests of various agroecosystems. This study documents the foraging habits of fire ants in a sweetpotato field in Mississippi. Fire ant foraging trails connecting outside colonies to a sweetpotato field were exposed and foraging ants moving out of the field toward the direction of the colony were collected along with the solid food particles they were carrying. The food material was classified as arthropod or plant in origin. The arthropod particles were identified to orders. Fire ant foragers carried more arthropods than plant material. Coleoptera and Homoptera were the most abundant groups preyed upon. These insect orders contain various economically important pests of sweetpotato. Other major hexapod groups included the orders Hemiptera, Diptera and Collembola. The quantity of foraged material varied over the season. No damage to sweetpotato roots could be attributed to fire ant feeding. Imported fire ant foraging may reduce the number of insect pests in sweetpotato fields. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Fire ant venom alkaloids act as key attractants for the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Sharma, Kavita R.; Fadamiro, Henry Y.

    2009-12-01

    The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is an introduced parasitoid of imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in the USA. Although the assumption that phorid flies use fire ant alarm pheromones for host location is probably true, we demonstrated in a previous study the possible involvement of other ant semiochemicals in the response of P. tricuspis to fire ants. This study was conducted to determine the glandular sources and identity of the semiochemicals mediating this interaction. First, we tested the electroantennogram response of P. tricuspis to extracts of key body parts and glands of workers of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta Buren. The results confirm that the poison (venom) gland/sac is the key source of compounds which elicited strong antennal activity in P. tricuspis. Follow-up studies were conducted by using a combination of bioassay-guided fractionation and behavioral bioassays to test the hypothesis that attraction of this parasitoid to fire ants is mediated by venom alkaloids. The results confirm the response of P. tricuspis to physiologically relevant amounts of the two venom alkaloid fractions ( cis and trans alkaloid fractions) of S. invicta. Further analysis by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection revealed nine venom alkaloid components including two novel 2,6-dialkylpiperideines that elicited significant antennal activity in P. tricuspis. This is the first demonstration of the role of venom alkaloids of ants as attractants for their natural enemies. We propose a semiochemical-mediated host location mechanism for P. tricuspis involving both alarm pheromones and venom alkaloids. The ecological significance of these findings, including the attraction of male P. tricuspis to fire ant venom alkaloids, possibly for mate location, is discussed.

  19. VAN BUREN COUNTY, IOWA, USA, REDELINEATION, VAN BUREN COUNTY, IOWA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. A histochemical and X-ray microanalysis study of calcium changes in insect flight muscle degeneration in Solenopsis, the queen fire ant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.G.; Davis, W.L.; Vinson, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Potassium pyroantimonate histochemistry, coupled with ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA)-chelation and X-ray microprobe analysis, was employed to localize intracellular calcium binding sites in the normal and degenerating flight musculature in queens of Solenopsis, the fire ant. In normal animals, calcium distribution was light to moderate within myofibrils and mitochondria. In the early contracture stages of the insemination-induced degeneration, both myofilament and mitochondrial calcium loading was markedly increased. In the terminal stages of myofibril breakdown, only Z-lines (isolated or in clusters) with an associated filamentous residue persisted. These complexes were also intensely calcium positive. This study further documents the presence of increased sarcoplasmic calcium during muscle necrosis. Surface membrane defects, mitochondrial calcium overload, and calcium-activated proteases may all be involved in this ''normal'' breakdown process

  1. FLOODPLAIN, Van Buren COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the 1-percent-annual-chance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, VAN BUREN COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

  4. Intraspecific and Intracolonial Variation in the Profile of Venom Alkaloids and Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire ants are aggressive Neotropical ants that are extensively similar in general biology and morphology, making species identification difficult. Some fire ant species are top-rated pests spreading throughout the world by trade vessels. Many researchers attempted to sort between invasive and native species by using chemical characters, including patterns of venom alkaloids. The present study is the first to report intraspecific variation in some chemical characters, namely, cuticular hydrocarbons and venom alkaloids, within the Brazilian fire ant species Solenopsis saevissima and also reports on within-nest variations among members of different castes. Two different haplotypes (cryptic species of S. saevissima were clearly identified, one presenting a predominant combination of the venom alkaloids cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidine with the cuticular hydrocarbons C23, 3-Me-C23, 10-C25 : 1, C25, and 3-Me-C25, and the other a predominant combination of cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-tridecenylpiperidine with predominance of 12-C25 : 1, C25, 11-Me-C25, 3-Me-C25, 13-C27 : 1, C27, and 13-Me-C27. Intranest variations revealed that the proportions among these compounds varied sensibly among workers of different sizes, gynes, and males (no alkaloids were detected in the latter. Larva contained vestiges of the same compounds. The recorded chemical profiles are quite different from previous reports with S. saevissima samples from São Paulo. The finds thus support other recent claims that S. saevissima includes cryptic species; the study, moreover, adds the find that they can occur in the same geographical location.

  5. Phoretic Arthropods of the Red Imported Fire Ant in Central Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2011-01-01

    More than 4,665 phoretic arthropods comprising29species were collected from alates of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis inoicta Buren, preparing to fly from nests in Pineville, LA. A wide variety of taxonomic groups were represented, including two insect and 17 mite families. Most arthropods fell into two classes: 1) those that may be truly phoretic with more than...

  6. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  7. Novel use of aliphatic n-methyl ketones as a fumigant and alternative to methyl bromide for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiwei; Dhammi, Anirudh; van Kretschmar, Jaap B; Vargo, Edward L; Apperson, Charles S; Michael Roe, R

    2018-03-01

    Fumigants like phosphine, methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride are highly effective for the control of structural, storage and agricultural arthropod pests. Unfortunately, many of these synthetic compounds are highly toxic to people, many pests have developed resistance to these compounds and methyl bromide, the 'gold standard' for fumigants, was de-registered because of its contribution to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Alternative fumigant chemistry is needed. Several plant species produce n-aliphatic methyl ketones to prevent plant herbivory. To examine the use of methyl ketones as a fumigant, structure-mortality studies were conducted using the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, as a model. A new easy-to-use, inexpensive and disposable bioassay system was developed for this study. The LC 50 values for heptanone, octanone, nonanone and undecanone were 4.27, 5.11, 5.26 and 8.21 µg/cm 3 of ambient air, respectively. Although heptanone, octanone and nonanone were more effective than undecanone, subsequent research was conducted with 2-undecanone because this compound already has US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration as a biopesticide. In dose-response field studies, 12.4 mL of undecanone injected into mounds was the lowest application rate that produced no ant activity in the mound with no re-establishment of ants. Reagent grade undecanone was more cost-effective than methyl bromide for fire ants, adult German cockroaches and tobacco budworm eggs, but slightly more expensive for adult flour beetles. The naturally occurring methyl ketone undecanone has the potential to be an alternative to current fumigants for a variety of pest applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, M H; Tillman, P G; Hu, J S

    2014-06-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae),is a newly invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean, and to detect remains of crop-specific alternative prey in predators' guts as markers of predator migration between soybean and adjacent cotton. M. cribraria was found exclusively on soybean. Eight native generalist predators over both crops screened positive by specific PCR for DNA of the pest: Geocoris punctipes (Say), Geocoris uliginosus (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), Podisus maculicentris (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Zelus renardii (Kolenati), Oxyopes salticus Hentz, and Peucetia viridans (Hentz); a ninth predator, the exotic Solenopsis invicta Buren, also screened positive for M. cribraria DNA. P. viridans was the only arthropod that tested positive for DNA of this invasive pest in only one crop, cotton. Two plant-feeding pentatomid species, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) and Thyanta custator (F.), were found exclusively on soybean, and another, Euschistus tristigmus (Say), was specific to cotton in the context of this study. Detection of predation on a combination of M. cribraria and P. guildinii and T. custator in cotton and M. cribraria and E. tristigmus in soybean demonstrated that these predators dispersed between crops. These results strongly support the use of soybean habitats adjacent to cotton as part of a conservation biological control strategy against M. cribraria. This is the first report documenting predation on this exotic pest in the field via molecular gut-content analysis.

  9. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Page 1 272 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... The ants. (Solenopsis invicta) in this study are an important finding, these ants are known as important components of ecosystems because they act as ecosystem engineers. (Folgarait, 1998). The significant difference in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods between the Gallery forest and ...

  11. Development of genetic markers distinguishing two invasive fire ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three SNP markers were developed that are completely diagnostic in distinguishing the two fire ant species Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri. Although a fourth marker we developed is not fully diagnostic, it is still useful given one of the variants is confined to S. richteri. Joint use of these ma...

  12. BASEMAP, VAN BUREN COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, VAN BUREN COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. TERRAIN, VAN BUREN COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. BASEMAP, VAN BUREN COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  16. TERRAIN Submission for VAN BUREN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  17. Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

    1981-04-01

    In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

  18. Pseudacteon decapitating flies: Potential vectors of a fire ant virus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, S.M.; Porter, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV-1) is a positive-stranded RNA virus recently found to infect all stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV-1 and a second genotype have been tentatively assigned to the Dicistroviridae (Mayo 2002). Infected individuals or colonies did not exhibit any immediate, discernible symptoms in the field. However, under stress from introduction into the laboratory, brood death was often observed among infected colonies, ultimately leading to the death of the entire colony (Valles et al. 2004). These characteristics are consistent with other insect-infecting positive-stranded RNA viruses. They often persist as inapparent, asymptomatic infections that, under certain conditions, induce replication within the host, resulting in observable symptoms and often death (Christian and Scotti 1998; Fernandez et al. 2002). The SINV infection rate among colonies was reported to be around 25% in Gainesville, Florida (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV vertical and horizontal transmission were inferred based on RT-PCR detection of virus genome in eggs and successful colony to colony transfer under lab conditions (Valles et al. 2004). However, the exact mechanisms by which the virus is spread from nest to nest in the field are unknown. Our results indicate that SINV does not replicate within Pseudacteon decapitating flies that parasitize S. invicta. Flies appeared to develop normally from SINV-infected S. invicta workers. Mechanical transmission of SINV to uninfected ants by oviposition appears unlikely

  19. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Van Buren County, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. Basemap Framework Submission for Van Buren County IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital 4 band ortho imagery covering 41 counties in southwest Iowa was flown Spring 2010. Imagery was collected with Lecia ADS80-SH82 and ADS40-SH51 digital cameras...

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, VAN BUREN COUNTY, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. Martin Van Buren Elementary School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the title building, including educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team, and manufacturers and suppliers; and a case study of costs and specifications. (EV)

  3. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Van Buren County, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. Memoires d'une famille acadienne de Van Buren, Maine (Memoirs of an Acadian Family of Van Buren, Maine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marguerite

    These memoirs of an Acadian family present aspects of the cultural history of the Acadians in the St. John River Valley in Maine. The six chapters deal with the following topics: (1) a brief history of the land and the people; (2) the chronicles of a large Acadian family from the time of the arrival of their ancestors from France until the…

  5. Red imported fire ant impacts on upland arthropods in Southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, D.M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) have negative impacts on a broad array of invertebrate species. We investigated the impacts of fire ants on the upland arthropod community on 20???40 ha study sites in southern Mississippi. Study sites were sampled from 19972000 before, during, and after fire ant bait treatments to reduce fire ant populations. Fire ant abundance was assessed with bait transects on all sites, and fire ant population indices were estimated on a subset of study sites. Species richness and diversity of other ant species was also assessed from bait transects. Insect biomass and diversity was determined from light trap samples. Following treatments, fire ant abundance and population indices were significantly reduced, and ant species diversity and richness were greater on treated sites. Arthropod biomass, species diversity and species richness estimated from light trap samples were negatively correlated with fire ant abundance, but there were no observable treatment effects. Solenopsis invicta has the potential to negatively impact native arthropod communities resulting in a potential loss of both species and function.

  6. DCS Survey Submission for the City of Keosauqua, Van Buren County, IA, PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. DCS Hydraulics Submission for City of Keosauqua, Van Buren County, IA, PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for City of Keosauqua, Van Buren County, IA, PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. Attitudes and Values in a Rural Development Area: Van Buren County, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, William S.

    The general purposes of this study were (1) to identify the complex of attitudes and values held by rural people in a designated Rural Development Pilot County and (2) to relate these to certain measures of economic and social adjustment. A sample of 139 families were assessed by the Straus Rural Attitude Profile and by a structured interview…

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, VAN BUREN COUNTY (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, VAN BUREN COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  12. DCS Floodplain Mapping Submission for City of Keosauqua, Van Buren County, IA, PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  13. Regels en macht in geschillen over geluidshinder van buren: een verfijning van de theorie van geschilprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Vrielink, Mirjan

    2003-01-01

    Wat is het verband tussen de manier waarop individuen een geschil trachten te beslechten en de sociale relatie die zij onderhouden? Mirjan van Heffen-Oude Vrielink neemt deze vraag als basis voor een verfijning van de theorie van geschilprocessen. Zij formuleert theoretisch gefundeerde verwachtingen

  14. Etnische diversiteit, sociaal vertrouwen in de buurt en contact van allochtonen en autochtonen met de buren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; Dronkers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Putnam (2007) toont aan dat in de Verenigde Staten etnische diversiteit samengaat met minder solidariteit en sociaal kapitaal: in etnisch diverse wijken hebben bewoners de neiging in ‘hun schulp te kruipen’. Het onderling vertrouwen (zelfs in de eigen etnische groep) is lager, altruı¨sme en

  15. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  16. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  17. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Julian [University of Florida; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHD642 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD642 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11361-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) VHD642F 629 - - - - - - Show VHD642 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHD642 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11361-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...us erato cDNA clone He_wd2a1_74D09 5' similar to UniRef90_UPI000051A2A9 Cluster related to UPI000051A2A9; PREDICT...DNA, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-12 4 EE133491 |EE133491.1 SiJWH07ADU Lausanne fire ant library Solenopsis invicta

  19. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Horn

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  20. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Katherine C; Eubanks, Micky D; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  1. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  2. Introduced fire ants can exclude native ants from critical mutualist-provided resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Barnum, Thomas R; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2013-05-01

    Animals frequently experience resource imbalances in nature. For ants, one resource that may be particularly valuable for both introduced and native species is high-carbohydrate honeydew from hemipteran mutualists. We conducted field and laboratory experiments: (1) to test if red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) competed with native ants for access to mutualisms with aphids, and (2) to quantify the effects of aphid honeydew presence or absence on colony growth of native ants. We focused on native dolichoderine ants (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) because they are abundant ants that have omnivorous diets that frequently include mutualist-provided carbohydrates. At two sites in the southeastern US, native dolichoderine ants were far less frequent, and fire ants more frequent, at carbohydrate baits than would be expected based on their frequency in pitfall traps. A field experiment confirmed that a native ant species, Dorymyrmex bureni, was only found tending aphids when populations of S. invicta were suppressed. In the laboratory, colonies of native dolichoderine ants with access to both honeydew and insect prey had twice as many workers and over twice as much brood compared to colonies fed only ad libitum insect prey. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that introduced ants compete for access to mutualist-provided carbohydrates with native ants and that these carbohydrates represent critical resources for both introduced and native ants. These results challenge traditional paradigms of arthropod and ant nutrition and contribute to growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in mediating ecological interactions.

  3. Consequences of forest clear-cuts for native and nonindigenous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, J.A.; Taylor, M.D.; Allen, Craig R.; Spira, T.P.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the southern United States produces more timber than any other region in the world. Entire timber stands are removed through a harvesting method called clear-cutting. This common forestry practice may lead to the replacement of native ant communities with invasive, nonindigenous species. In four deciduous forest sites in South Carolina, we monitored the change in ant species richness, diversity, and abundance immediately after forest clearing for a period of 15 mo to 2 yr and determined the incidence of colonization of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta into these four newly disturbed sites. Each site consisted of an uncut, forested plot and a logged, pine-planted plot. Fire ants were collected in clear-cuts as early as 3 mo postcutting, and by the end of the experiment, they were found in all four treatment sites. Our study is the first to document, through a controlled experiment, that clear-cutting alters ant species assemblages by increasing S. invicta and Pheidole spp. populations and significantly reducing native ant numbers. Long-term studies are needed to assess how replacing native deciduous forests with pine monocultures affects ant assemblages. ?? 2004 Entomological Society of America.

  4. Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

  5. Field trial of gravel stabilization methods : Route 1, Cyr-Van Buren, ME : 1st interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This experimental construction project was developed, designed, and inspected by personnel from the University of Maine, Civil Engineering Staff. The experimental project was constructed on and as a part of Project #2586.00. This was a complete recon...

  6. Field trial of gravel stabilization methods : Route 1, Cyr-Van Buren, ME : 2nd interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This experimental construction project was developed, designed, and inspected by personnel from the University of Maine, Civil Engineering Staff. The experimental project was constructed on and as a part of Project #2586 00. This was a complete recon...

  7. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  8. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... U.S.-Canada border at Van Buren, Me. \\1\\ Specifically, the agreement includes trackage ``* * * between MP 260 and the connection with MMA's Van Buren Subdivision at MP 264 and between the connection with MMA's Van Buren Subdivision and MP V 22.7 of the Van Buren Subdivision, and between MP V 22.7 of...

  9. Molecular and social regulation of worker division of labour in fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Lucas, Christophe; Nicolas, Michael; Keller, Laurent; Shoemaker, Dewayne; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive and worker division of labour (DOL) is a hallmark of social insect societies. Despite a long-standing interest in worker DOL, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process have only been investigated in detail in honey bees, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms operating in other social insects. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, one of the most studied ant species, workers are permanently sterile and the tasks performed are modulated by the worker's internal state (age and size) and the outside environment (social environment), which potentially includes the effect of the queen presence through chemical communication via pheromones. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes are unknown. Using a whole-genome microarray platform, we characterized the molecular basis for worker DOL and we explored how a drastic change in the social environment (i.e. the sudden loss of the queen) affects global gene expression patterns of worker ants. We identified numerous genes differentially expressed between foraging and nonforaging workers in queenright colonies. With a few exceptions, these genes appear to be distinct from those involved in DOL in bees and wasps. Interestingly, after the queen was removed, foraging workers were no longer distinct from nonforaging workers at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, few expression differences were detected between queenright and queenless workers when we did not consider the task performed. Thus, the social condition of the colony (queenless vs. queenright) appears to impact the molecular pathways underlying worker task performance, providing strong evidence for social regulation of DOL in S. invicta. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  10. Propagule pressure and colony social organization are associated with the successful invasion and rapid range expansion of fire ants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Cheng; Ascunce, Marina S; Luo, Li-Zhi; Shao, Jing-Guo; Shih, Cheng-Jen; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2012-02-01

    We characterized patterns of genetic variation in populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in China using mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci to test predictions as to how propagule pressure and subsequent dispersal following establishment jointly shape the invasion success of this ant in this recently invaded area. Fire ants in Wuchuan (Guangdong Province) are genetically differentiated from those found in other large infested areas of China. The immediate source of ants in Wuchuan appears to be somewhere near Texas, which ranks first among the southern USA infested states in the exportation of goods to China. Most colonies from spatially distant, outlying areas in China are genetically similar to one another and appear to share a common source (Wuchuan, Guangdong Province), suggesting that long-distance jump dispersal has been a prevalent means of recent spread of fire ants in China. Furthermore, most colonies at outlier sites are of the polygyne social form (featuring multiple egg-laying queens per nest), reinforcing the important role of this social form in the successful invasion of new areas and subsequent range expansion following invasion. Several analyses consistently revealed characteristic signatures of genetic bottlenecks for S. invicta populations in China. The results of this study highlight the invasive potential of this pest ant, suggest that the magnitude of international trade may serve as a predictor of propagule pressure and indicate that rates and patterns of subsequent range expansion are partly determined by the interplay between species traits and the trade and transportation networks. © Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  12. Imported fire ant immunotherapy prescribing patterns in a large health care system during a 17-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymore, Bret R; McCoy, Robert L; Nelson, Michael R

    2009-05-01

    No large evaluation has been performed of the maintenance vial concentration commonly used by physicians when prescribing imported fire ant (IFA) immunotherapy since the publication of the first Stinging Insect Hypersensitivity Practice Parameter 10 years ago. To describe the prescribing patterns for IFA immunotherapy among practicing allergists in a large health care setting and the impact of published Practice Parameter recommendations. Data from the US Army Centralized Allergen Extract Laboratory were analyzed to determine IFA immunotherapy prescribing patterns from 1990 to May 2007. This extract laboratory provides prescriptions for more than 320 US Department of Defense, US Department of Veterans Affairs, and US Public Health Service clinics. A total of 1,091 patients were given 1,437 new or revised prescriptions for IFA immunotherapy. Monotherapy for Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri was prescribed in 169 (11.8%) and 3 (0.1%) instances, respectively, with the remainder of patients given both IFA antigens. The most commonly prescribed maintenance vial dose was 0.5 mL of a 1:200 (wt/vol) dilution, accounting for 36.3% of prescriptions. A total of 17.3% of prescriptions had a maintenance vial dose of 0.5 mL of a 1:100 (wt/vol) dilution, 4.6% had a dilution of 1:10 (wt/vol), and 50.6% had a dilution between 1:10 and 1:100 (wt/vol). The mean starting dose was 4.4 10-fold dilutions below the maintenance dose (5.4 vials per treatment set). The most commonly prescribed maintenance dose was 0.5 mL of a 1:200 (wt/vol) dilution, although most prescriptions used a maintenance dose consistent with recommended dosing in the Stinging Insect Practice Parameters. Both IFA antigens were used by most physicians. Further study evaluating the effective dose range for IFA immunotherapy is needed.

  13. Efficacy of Nootka Oil as a Biopesticide for Management of Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; Oliver, J B; O'Neal, P A; Youssef, N

    2017-08-01

    Recent concerns regarding the impact of traditional synthetic pesticides on nontarget organisms have generated demand for alternative products with lower environmental impact. This demand has led to increasing focus on plant essential oils as sources of new biopesticides. In this study, we demonstrate that the essential oil of the Alaskan yellow cedar, Cupressus nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, has activity against hybrid imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren × Solenopsis richteri Forel. In digging assays, ants were repelled by nootka oil and digging continued to be suppressed by nearly 50% in nootka oil-treated sand aged 6 mo in the laboratory. Higher worker mortality was also observed in contact and fumigation assays compared to control checks. In a field drench test, mortality of mounds treated with nootka oil lagged behind mounds treated with bifenthrin treatment for 7 wk, but both nootka oil and bifenthrin had higher mortality than the untreated check at the end of the 12-wk evaluation period. In a band application evaluation, nootka oil plots maintained a 90-95% reduction in fire ant mounds from the 2nd to 17th wk, when new mounds began to intrude on the field plots. The quarantine-approved bifenthrin band treatment maintained 100% control from the 2nd to 24th wk. Although the formulation tested here did not perform to Federal Imported Fire Ant Quarantine standards, other formulations may enable this product to reach 100% control. In addition, nootka oil could be beneficial in situations where ant suppression rather than complete quarantine elimination is the management goal. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

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    Dietrich Gotzek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  15. Associações entre Cinara atlantica, seus inimigos naturais e formigas

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    Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the relationship between species or populations is an excellent tool to learn about ecological phenomena. Among the possible interaction between two species, it is highlighted the mutualism between ants and insects that produce honeydew. While honeydew is "garbage" for the aphids it can be a food source for ants. The type of interaction between aphids and their natural enemies, known as "intraguild predation" or predation of natural enemies that share the same prey is an interaction that occurs in aphid communities. The majority of natural enemies in this system interact asymmetrically according to differences in body size, feeding strategy and priorities of each species. In agroecosystems, the consequence of this relation becomes particularly important for the biological control of pests of economic importance. In Brazil, few publications refer to the association among ants, aphids and their natural enemies, specifically in forest areas. Thus, this work had the objective to review studies regarding these association and discuss a field observed case involving the giant conifer aphid, Cinara atlantica (Hemiptera: Aphididae, its natural enemies and the ants Solenopsis invicta and Camponotus rufipes, occurring on Pinus taeda.

  16. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  17. Environmental engineering simplifies subterranean locomotion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Darya; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesize that ants engineer habitats which reduce locomotion control requirements. We studied tunnel construction, and locomotion, in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, body length L = 0 . 35 +/- 0 . 05). In their daily life, ants forage for food above ground and return resources to the nest. This steady-state tunnel traffic enables high-throughput biomechanics studies of tunnel climbing. In a laboratory experiment we challenged fire ants to climb through 8 cm long glass tunnels (D = 0.1 - 0.9 cm) that separated a nest from an open arena with food and water. During ascending and descending climbs we induced falls by a motion-activated rapid, short, downward translation of the tunnels. Normalized tunnel diameter (D / L) determined the ability of ants to rapidly recover from perturbations. Fall arrest probability was unity for small D / L , and zero for large D / L . The transition from successful to unsuccessful arrest occurred at D / L = 1 . 4 +/- 0 . 3 . Through X-Ray computed tomography study we show that the diameter of ant-excavated tunnels is independent of soil-moisture content (studied from 1-20%) and particle size (50-595 μm diameter), and has a mean value of D / L = 1 . 06 +/- 0 . 23 . Thus fire ants construct tunnels of diameter near the onset of fall instability.

  18. Allergens in Hymenoptera venom. XXV: The amino acid sequences of antigen 5 molecules and the structural basis of antigenic cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D R

    1993-11-01

    The complete amino acid sequences have been determined by solid-phase protein sequencing for eight different vespid venom antigen 5 molecules. These include five species of yellow jackets, Vespula squamosa, V. flavopilosa, V. germanica, V. pensylvanica and V. vidua, representing all three species groups; two variants from the European hornet, Vespa crabro; and a species of paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, from a second subgenus. The new sequences were compared with the seven previously published sequences from yellow jackets, hornets, and wasps, and to that of Solenopsis invicta 3 allergen from imported fire ant venom. These comparisons provided structural evidence to support the observed high degree of cross-reactivity among the antigens of the common group of yellow jackets and among those of the two common North American subgenera of paper wasps studied. The antigen 5 of V. squamosa and of V. vidua were significantly different from those of the vulgaris group. Common features that could generate immunologic cross-reactivity were seen among the antigen 5 molecules of hornets of both genera and among those of yellow jackets, hornets, and paper wasps. The imported fire ant allergen has only minimal conserved areas in common with the vespid allergens, which explains the lack of observed IgE cross-reactivity. These results provide the structural basis for the cross-reactivity patterns observed in clinical practice and suggest that the commercial extracts of yellow jacket and paper wasp could be prepared with fewer carefully selected species.

  19. Red imported fire ant impacts on wildlife: A decade of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Epperson, D.M.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The negative impacts of biological invasion are economically and ecologically significant and, while incompletely quantified, they are clearly substantial. Ants (family Formicidae) are an important, although often overlooked, component of many terrestrial ecosystems. Six species of ants are especially striking in their global ability to invade, and their impacts. This paper focuses on the impacts of the most destructive of those species, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), and focuses on impacts on native vertebrates. Red imported fire ants often become the dominant ant species in infested areas outside of their native range due to their aggressive foraging behavior, high reproductive capability and lack of predators and/or other strong competitors. The evidence suggests that mammals, birds and herpetofauna are vulnerable to negative impacts from fire ants, and some species are more likely to experience negative population-level impacts than other species. Assessing the ecological impacts of fire ants on wild animal populations is logistically difficult, and very few studies have combined replicated experimental manipulation with adequate spatial (>10 ha) and temporal (>1 y) scale. Thus, most studies have been observational, opportunistic, small-scale or 'natural' experiments. However, significant research, including an increase in experimental and mechanistic investigations, has occurred during the past decade, and this has led to information that can lead to better management of potentially affected species.

  20. Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A. Helms IV

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species are expanding their ranges in response to climate changes or species introductions. Expansion-related selection likely drives the evolution of dispersal and reproductive traits, especially in invasive species introduced into novel habitats. We used an agent-based model to investigate these relationships in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, by tracking simulated populations over 25 years. Most colonies of this invasive species produce two types of queens practicing alternate reproductive strategies. Claustral queens found new colonies in vacant habitats, while parasitic queens take over existing colonies whose queens have died. We investigated how relative investment in the two queen types affects population demography, habitat occupancy, and range expansion. We found that parasitic queens extend the ecological lifespan of colonies, thereby increasing a population’s overall habitat occupancy as well as average colony size (number of workers and territory size. At the same time, investment in parasitic queens slowed the rate of range expansion by diverting investment from claustral queens. Divergent selection regimes caused edge and interior populations to evolve different levels of reproductive investment, such that interior populations invested heavily in parasitic queens whereas those at the edge invested almost entirely in claustral queens. Our results highlight factors shaping ant life histories, including the evolution of social parasitism, and have implications for the response of species to range shifts.

  1. Are Invasive Species Stressful? The Glucocorticoid Profile of Native Lizards Exposed to Invasive Fire Ants Depends on the Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Freidenfelds, Nicole A; Thawley, Christopher J; Robbins, Travis R; Langkilde, Tracy

    Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures. Lizards directly exposed to brief attack by fire ants had elevated concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), suggesting that these encounters can be physiologically stressful. However, lizards exposed for longer periods to fire ants in field enclosures had lower concentrations of CORT. This may indicate that the combined effects of confinement and fire ant exposure have pushed lizards into allostatic overload. However, lizards from fire ant enclosures appeared to have intact negative feedback controls of the stress response, evidenced by functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone responsiveness and lack of suppression of innate immunity (plasma bactericidal capacity). We review previous studies examining the stress response of wild vertebrates to various anthropogenic stressors and discuss how these-in combination with our results-underscore the importance of considering context (the length, frequency, magnitude, and types of threat) when assessing these impacts.

  2. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  3. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  5. Genome-wide expression patterns and the genetic architecture of a fundamental social trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John; Ross, Kenneth G; Keller, Laurent

    2008-07-18

    Explaining how interactions between genes and the environment influence social behavior is a fundamental research goal, yet there is limited relevant information for species exhibiting natural variation in social organization. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is characterized by a remarkable form of social polymorphism, with the presence of one or several queens per colony and the expression of other phenotypic and behavioral differences being completely associated with allelic variation at a single Mendelian factor marked by the gene Gp-9. Microarray analyses of adult workers revealed that differences in the Gp-9 genotype are associated with the differential expression of an unexpectedly small number of genes, many of which have predicted functions, implying a role in chemical communication relevant to the regulation of colony queen number. Even more surprisingly, worker gene expression profiles are more strongly influenced by indirect effects associated with the Gp-9 genotypic composition within their colony than by the direct effect of their own Gp-9 genotype. This constitutes an unusual example of an "extended phenotype" and suggests a complex genetic architecture with a single Mendelian factor, directly and indirectly influencing the individual behaviors that, in aggregate, produce an emergent colony-level phenotype.

  6. The effects of kin selection on rates of molecular evolution in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of sociality represented a major transition point in biological history. The most advanced societies, such as those displayed by social insects, consist of reproductive and nonreproductive castes. The caste system fundamentally affects the way natural selection operates. Specifically, selection acts directly on reproductive castes, such as queens, but only indirectly through the process of kin selection on nonreproductive castes, such as workers. In this study, we present theoretical analyses to determine the rate of substitution at loci expressed exclusively in the queen or worker castes. We show that the rate of substitution is the same for queen- and worker-selected loci when the queen is singly mated. In contrast, when a queen is multiply mated, queen-selected loci show higher rates of substitution for adaptive alleles and lower rates of substitution for deleterious alleles than worker-selected loci. We compare our theoretical expectations to previously obtained genomic data from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, where queens mate multiply and the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, where queens mate singly and find that rates of evolution of queen- and worker-selected loci are consistent with our predictions. Overall, our research tests theoretical expectations using empirically obtained genomic data to better understand the evolution of advanced societies. © 2012 The Author(s).

  7. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200 have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia or PBAN receptor gene (in DG expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta.

  8. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

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    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  9. Incidence and factors associated with delayed graft function in renal transplantation at Carlos Van Buren Hospital, January 2000 to June 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, M M; Toro, J C; Poblete, H B; Perez, L F; Nicovani, V H; Carrera, M G

    2009-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is defined as the need for dialysis within the first week after renal transplantation, and slow graft function as persistence of serum creatinine concentration of at least 3 mg/dL on day 5 after the procedure. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence and risk factors for DGF at our center. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January 2000 and June 2008. Of these, 11 patients were excluded. Two of the remaining 95 patients received organs from living donors, and 93 received cadaver organs. Variables analyzed included donor age, cause of death, cause of chronic renal failure, recipient age, method and time of long-term renal replacement therapy, residual diuresis, panel of reactive antibodies (PRA), HLA mismatch, sex compatibility, cold and warm ischemia times, biopsy-confirmed episodes of acute rejection, urine output in the operating room and in the first 24 hours after the procedure, and intraoperative induction therapy. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) and Fisher exact tests and analysis of variance, and are given as mean (SD) and frequency. Variables associated with DGF at univariate analysis (P < .05) were divided between risk factors and predictors of DGF for inclusion in logistic regression models. The incidence of DGF was 32.6%; slow graft function, 16.8%; and immediate graft function, 50.5%. Cold ischemia time longer than 20 hours (P = .02) and donor age (P = .008) were directly associated with DGF. Twenty-four-hour urine output was a strong predictor of DGF. Patients with DGF demonstrated a 25% incidence of an episode of acute rejection before discharge from the hospital. No difference in DGF was observed for use of intraoperative induction therapy.

  10. Global Invasion History of the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata: A Stowaway on the First Global Trade Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological invasions are largely thought to be contemporary, having recently increased sharply in the wake of globalization. However, human commerce had already become global in scope by the mid-16th century, when the Spanish connected the New World with Europe and Asia via their Manila galleon and ...

  11. 33 CFR 117.123 - Arkansas Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position of the drawbridge span. (c) Across the Arkansas Waterway, the draw of the Van Buren Railroad Drawbridge, mile 300.8 at Van Buren, Arkansas, is maintained in the open position except as follows: (1) When...

  12. 78 FR 76305 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Vice President) 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-1414: 1. Van Buren Bancorporation... voting shares of Van Buren Bancorporation, Keosauqua, Iowa, and thereby indirectly acquire additional...

  13. 77 FR 56608 - Opportunity for Designation in the Champaign-Danville, IL; Emmett, MI; Davenport, IA; Enid, OK...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., Lee, and Van Buren Counties. Michigan Pursuant to Section 79(f)(2) of the United States Grain... line; the southern Kalamazoo and Van Buren County lines west to the Michigan State line; the western...

  14. 78 FR 54952 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... continue through Van Buren, AR, and then to an unloading facility in White Bluff, AR. The train cars will return to the terminus at North Platte via Van Buren. A copy of the petition, as well as any written...

  15. 76 FR 61954 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ..., Van Buren 190266 January 14, 1976, Emerg; July 2, 1987, ......do Do. County. Reg; October 18, 2011..., 2011, Susp. Farmington, City of, Van Buren 190267 June 19, 1975, Emerg; July 16, 1987, Reg; ......do Do. County. October 18, 2011, Susp. Keosauqua, City of, Van Buren 190268 January 14, 1975, Emerg; September 5...

  16. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Scott County Searcy County Stone County Van Buren County AQCR 022 Shreveport-Texarkana-Tyler... Van Buren County AQCR 022 Shreveport-Texarkana-Tyler Interstate Unclassifiable/Attainment Columbia... Stone County Van Buren County AQCR 022Shreveport-Texarkana-Tyler Interstate. Unclassifiable/Attainment...

  17. 77 FR 12909 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Subdivision extending from milepost 260 to milepost 264.13; (2) MMA's Van Buren Subdivision extending from milepost 0.0 to milepost 23.69; and (3) an additional 0.93 miles of rail line, including the Van Buren... Canadian Natl. Ry.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Bangor and Aroostook R.R. and Van Buren Bridge Co., FD 34014...

  18. 75 FR 75941 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... City of Romulus, City Born Road. of Wayne, Township of Van Buren. Just downstream of I- None +669 275... South Wayne Road, Wayne, MI 48184. Township of Van Buren Maps are available for inspection at 46425 Tyler Road, Van Buren Township, MI 48111. Harris County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas K100-00-00...

  19. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Investment into Offspring Number, Size, and Condition in a Social Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill D Wills

    Full Text Available Resource availability can determine an organism's investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation.

  20. Evolution of gene expression in fire ants: the effects of developmental stage, caste, and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Lino; Shoemaker, DeWayne; Ross, Kenneth G; Keller, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Ants provide remarkable examples of equivalent genotypes developing into divergent and discrete phenotypes. Diploid eggs can develop either into queens, which specialize in reproduction, or workers, which participate in cooperative tasks such as building the nest, collecting food, and rearing the young. In contrast, the differentiation between males and females generally depends upon whether eggs are fertilized, with fertilized (diploid) eggs giving rise to females and unfertilized (haploid) eggs giving rise to males. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the relative contributions of gender (sex), caste, developmental stage, and species divergence to gene expression evolution, we investigated gene expression patterns in pupal and adult queens, workers, and males of two species of fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri. Microarray hybridizations revealed that variation in gene expression profiles is influenced more by developmental stage than by caste membership, sex, or species identity. The second major contributor to variation in gene expression was the combination of sex and caste. Although workers and queens share equivalent diploid nuclear genomes, they have highly distinctive patterns of gene expression in both the pupal and the adult stages, as might be expected given their extraordinary level of phenotypic differentiation. Overall, the difference in the proportion of differentially expressed genes was greater between workers and males than between workers and queens or queens and males, consistent with the fact that workers and males share neither gender nor reproductive capability. Moreover, between-species comparisons revealed that the greatest difference in gene expression patterns occurred in adult workers, a finding consistent with the fact that adult workers most directly experience the distinct external environments characterizing the different habitats occupied by the two species. Thus, much of the evolution of gene expression in ants may

  1. Genetic regulation of colony social organization in fire ants: an integrative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Ross, Kenneth G

    2007-09-01

    Expression of colony social organization in fire ants appears to be under the control of a single Mendelian factor of large effect. Variation in colony queen number in Solenopsis invicta and its relatives is associated with allelic variation at the gene Gp-9, but not with variation at other unlinked genes; workers regulate queen identity and number on the basis of Gp-9 genotypic compatibility. Nongenetic factors, such as prior social experience, queen reproductive status, and local environment, have negligible effects on queen numbers which illustrates the nearly complete penetrance of Gp-9. As predicted, queen number can be manipulated experimentally by altering worker Gp-9 genotype frequencies. The Gp-9 allele lineage associated with polygyny in South American fire ants has been retained across multiple speciation events, which may signal the action of balancing selection to maintain social polymorphism in these species. Moreover, positive selection is implicated in driving the molecular evolution of Gp-9 in association with the origin of polygyny. The identity of the product of Gp-9 as an odorant-binding protein suggests plausible scenarios for its direct involvement in the regulation of queen number via a role in chemical communication. While these and other lines of evidence show that Gp-9 represents a legitimate candidate gene of major effect, studies aimed at determining (i) the biochemical pathways in which GP-9 functions; (ii) the phenotypic effects of molecular variation at Gp-9 and other pathway genes; and (iii) the potential involvement of genes in linkage disequilibrium with Gp-9 are needed to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying social organization in fire ants. Information that reveals the links between molecular variation, individual phenotype, and colony-level behaviors, combined with behavioral models that incorporate details of the chemical communication involved in regulating queen number, will yield a novel integrated view of the

  2. Molecular structure and diversity of PBAN/Pyrokinin family peptides in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yeon eChoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. These peptides, found in all insects studied thus far, have been conserved throughout evolution. The most well studied physiological function is regulation of moth sex pheromone biosynthesis through the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neurohormone (PBAN, although several developmental functions have also been reported. Over the past years we have extended knowledge of the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides to ants, focusing mainly on the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60 years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. However, virtually nothing is known about the regulation of these pheromone systems. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of PBAN/pyrokinin immunoreactive neurons in the fire ant, and identified and characterized PBAN and additional neuropeptides. We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects.

  3. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Costa-Milanez

    Full Text Available Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “veredas”, represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To assess how habitat within different veredas, and plantations surrounding them affect ant assemblages, we selected four independent vereda locations, two being impacted by Eucalyptus monoculture (one younger and one mature plantation and two controls, where the wetland was surrounded by cerrado vegetation. Ant sampling was conducted in May 2010 (dry season using three complementary methods, namely baits, pitfall traps, and hand collection, in the wetland and in the surrounding habitats. A total of 7,575 ants were sampled, belonging to seven subfamilies, 32 genera and 124 species. Ant species richness and abundance did not differ between vereda locations, but did between the habitats. When impacted by the monoculture, ant species richness and abundance decreased in wetlands, but were less affected in the cerrado habitat. Ant species composition differed between the three habitats and between vereda locations. Eucalyptus plantations had an ant species composition defined by high dominance of Pheidole sp. and Solenopsis invicta, while natural habitats were defined by Camponotus and Crematogaster species. Atta sexdens was strictly confined to native habitats of non-impacted “veredas”. Eucalyptus monocultures require high quantities of water in the early stages, which may have caused a decrease in groundwater level in the wetland, allowing hypogeic ants such as Labidus praedator to colonise this habitat.

  4. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Milanez, C B; Lourenço-Silva, G; Castro, P T A; Majer, J D; Ribeiro, S P

    2014-02-01

    Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as "veredas", represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To assess how habitat within different veredas, and plantations surrounding them affect ant assemblages, we selected four independent vereda locations, two being impacted by Eucalyptus monoculture (one younger and one mature plantation) and two controls, where the wetland was surrounded by cerrado vegetation. Ant sampling was conducted in May 2010 (dry season) using three complementary methods, namely baits, pitfall traps, and hand collection, in the wetland and in the surrounding habitats. A total of 7,575 ants were sampled, belonging to seven subfamilies, 32 genera and 124 species. Ant species richness and abundance did not differ between vereda locations, but did between the habitats. When impacted by the monoculture, ant species richness and abundance decreased in wetlands, but were less affected in the cerrado habitat. Ant species composition differed between the three habitats and between vereda locations. Eucalyptus plantations had an ant species composition defined by high dominance of Pheidole sp. and Solenopsis invicta, while natural habitats were defined by Camponotus and Crematogaster species. Atta sexdens was strictly confined to native habitats of non-impacted "veredas". Eucalyptus monocultures require high quantities of water in the early stages, which may have caused a decrease in groundwater level in the wetland, allowing hypogeic ants such as Labidus praedator to colonise this habitat.

  5. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Chicago River from the confluence of the branches then south to the vicinity of the West Van Buren Street... river to the vicinity of the West Van Buren Street Bridge in position 41[deg]52'36.4'' N, 087[deg]38'15... south branch of the river to the vicinity of the West Van Buren Street Bridge in position 41[deg]52'36.4...

  6. Better Buying Power: An Army Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Force acquisition and provides guidance on the content of the competitive acquisition strategies” ( Van Buren , D. M., 2011). The memorandum directs...the strategy to be tailored and released for Milestones A, B, and C ( Van Buren , D. M., 2011). February 2, 2011—“Myth-Busting”: Addressing...Retrieved from http://www.tradoc.army.mil/tpubs/regs/tr71-20.pdf Van Buren , D.M. (2011). Taxonomy for the Acquisition of Services—Obtaining Greater

  7. A peek at our neighbors. Wind energy in the Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium and Spain; Gluren bij de Buren. Wind energie in Nederland, Duitsland, Engeland, Belgie en Spanje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zuijlen, E. [Stichting Far and Large Offshore Wind FLOW, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Pluym, M. [Renewable Energy Factory, De Meern (Netherlands); Hertogs, K. [BLIX Consultancy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosch, G. [Bosch en Van Rijn, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Four brief articles in this issue deal with wind energy developments in the Netherlands and a few neighbouring countries: Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium, and Spain. One article compares Dutch regulations with regard to noise and safety with other countries in Europe (Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, France, and Denmark) [Dutch] In vier artikelen wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van de ontwikkelingen m.b.t. wind energie in Nederland en buurlanden Duitsland, Engeland, Belgie, en Spanje. In 1 artikel wordt de Nederlandse regelgeving m.b.t. geluid en veiligheid vergeleken met de regelgeving in andere landen in Europa (Belgie, Duitsland, Engeland, Frankrijk en Denemarken)

  8. Power to the People: Developing Electrical Co-Ops to Improve Stability in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    business&Itemid=266. 11. Linda Van Buren , "Europa World Plus, Nigeria: Economy," Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, accessed 29 August 2012, http...Haram." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed 10 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram. Buren , Linda Van . "Europa World Plus, Nigeria

  9. Cherokee Indians and the United States: A Failed Effort at Adaptation but Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    the Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren administrations were often sympathetic to the Cherokee Nation’s grievances but unable to enforce policy in the...finally culminated with President Van Buren . JOHN ROSS In a spectacular demonstration of organized resistance the Cherokee nation dramatically

  10. Second Seminole War: Establishing Favorable Conditions for Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Secretary of War Poinsett requested that President Martin Van Buren (1837- 1841) replace Governor Call with Judge Robert R. Reid in November 1839. Taylor...Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1838. Van Buren , Martin. Message from the President of the United States, Communicating: in Compliance with

  11. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    Wincup Druyun Fiester Druyun Money Hinnant Delaney Sambur Payton Van Buren MILSTAR NAVSTAR SBIRS High GBS Global Hawk C17 producibility C17 improvement...were reported in “then-year” dollars (unadjusted for inflation). Wincup Druyun Fiester Druyun Money Hinnant Delaney Sambur Payton Van Buren JSTARS

  12. Classification Demonstration at the Former Spencer Artillery Range, TN Open Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    estcp.org/content/download/9593/122667/file/MR-200603-FR.pdf. 5. Remedial Investigation, Former Spencer Artillery Range, Spencer/ Van Buren County...Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites, Former Spencer Artillery Range, Van Buren County, Tennessee

  13. Defining Antecedents for Noncommissioned Officer Self-Learning: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    in self-learning activities by creating a context that is conducive to continuous learning. Gephart, Marsick, Van Buren , and Spiro (1996) used the...Victoria J., Van Buren , Mark E., and Spiro, Michelle S. (1996). Learning organizations come alive. Training and Development, 50, 35-45. Gist, M

  14. Government Accountability Office Bid Protests in Air Force Source Selections: Evidence and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Van Buren , “Acquisition Improvement Plan Implementation,” Memorandum, SAF/AQ, Washington, D.C., May 8, 2009. 14 Light et al., 2011, describes the...Involving Defense Procurements, B-401197, Washington, D.C., April 9, 2009. Van Buren , David M., “Acquisition Improvement Plan Implementation

  15. Green Acquisition Gap Analysis of the United States Air Force Operational Contracting Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    GPP initiated in 2006 (Breedlove, Van Buren & Yonkers, 2011). The memo highlights the importance of building a sustainable Air Force using green...Conducting green procurement audits. Retrieved from http://e2s2.ndia.org/schedule/Documents/Abstracts/12254.pdf Breedlove, P., Van Buren , D

  16. Ode aan Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2017-01-01

    In het kader van de televisieserie Made in Europe, organiseerde deBuren in het voorjaar van 2017 in samenwerking met VPRO en Canvas een verdiepend podiumprogramma. Van een erotische schrijfwedstrijd tot gesprekken over de toekomst van Europa, acht weken lang toonde deBuren zich van zijn kleurrijkste kant. Elke avond begon met een ode aan het icoon dat die avond centraal stond. Ze werden geschreven door jonge makers die eerder deelnamen aan de deBuren schrijfresidentie in Parijs. Op 14 maart b...

  17. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    commissioned Officer (NCO) Corps at this time. “The Quick Wins Paradox,” by Mark E. Van Buren and Todd Safferstone lists five signs to watch to...Athanasopouos, “Improving Toxic Leadership,” Army Magazine. 7Tan and Gould. 8Mark E. Van Buren and Todd Safferstone, “The Quick Wins Paradox,” Harvard...inappropriate situation, that person could and may be labeled toxic. “The Quick Wins Paradox” by Mark E. Van Buren and Todd Safferstone lists some of these

  18. Studies on genetics, stability and possible mechanism of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BUSHRA SADDIQ

    Hence, deltamethrin re- sistance in P. solenopsis is unstable, autosomal, incompletely dominant, polygenic and mono-oxygenases based. These results provide basic information for designing and planning fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis. Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid that causes inhibition of acti-.

  19. Studies on genetics, stability and possible mechanism of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    All of these examples support our study that selection of P. solenopsis with deltamethrin has a great impact on development of insecticide resistance. Development of very high resistance in P. solenopsis might be due to excessive use of deltamethrin by farmers in the field for the control of this pest in cotton growing areas of ...

  20. 76 FR 10360 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc. and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Guident Technologies, Inc. of 198 Van Buren St., Herndon, VA; Impact Innovations Systems, Inc. of 9720 Capital Court, Suite 403, Manassas, VA; and Logistics Management Institute of 2000 Corporate Ridge, McLean...

  1. Directori ülesanne : pikk lahkumisavaldus / Marko Rillo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rillo, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Töösuhetest ettevõttes. Lahendusi pakuvad koolitusfirma Maintain juhataja ja Invicta kaastreener Maret Ahonen, põllumajandusministeeriumi personaliosakonna juhataja kohusetäitja Külli Kaldvee ning Tallinna Keraamikatehase juhataja Marko Arula. Vt. samas: Kohtukaasus Suurbritanniast

  2. Money can't buy good neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Miranda Vervoort; Jaco Dagevos

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Goede buren kun je niet kopen. What position do members of non-Western ethnic minorities occupy on the housing market? How is that position developing and how can it be explained? This study shows among other things the extent to which ethnic minority households live in an

  3. Hop, step, jump! : Building social capital by learning through bridging, bonding and linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Jong, de T

    2009-01-01

    Studies on social capital have produced major evidence for the contention that a firm's social capital has an important implication on organisational performance and innovation (Leana and Van Buren, 1999). More recently, there is research that suggest that there are highly significant links between

  4. 76 FR 3029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of Erigeron maguirei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... (ESA). Our review of the status of this species shows that populations are stable, threats are... searching for nectar (Alston and Tepedino 2005, p. 60). Pollinators include various flies, wasps, and bees...-5). Populations are stable (Van Buren and Harper 2002, p. 2). [[Page 3033

  5. A fifty-year journey of China towards the world economy : an empirical study on the determinants of China´s bilateral trade relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong

    2005-01-01

    Tot 1978 was de communistische volksrepubliek China een geïsoleerd land. De buitenlandse handel was een staatsmonopolie; de omvang was beperkt en het betrof voornamelijk transacties met naaste buren. Nu is China een van de belangrijkste handelsnaties in de wereld. Het aantal handelspartners – ook

  6. Francois Jacobus van Zyl, hoogleraar 1960-1978

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    langs die Groot-Maricorivier) ... Hierdie artikel is deur Professor P J van dcr Mcrwe saamgestel uit iwcc artikcls wal reeds in HTS verskyn het: Van der ...... En hoewel ons die 'secular meaning' wat Van Buren en andere aan die 'gospel' wil gee, ...

  7. Influence of near-edge processes in the elemental analysis using X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phys. Chem. 75, 1547 (2006) and references therein. [6] J P Gomilsek, A Kodre, I Arcon and V Nemanic, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B266, 677 (2008). [7] A Kodre, J P Gomilsek, A Mihelic and I Arcon, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 75, 188 (2006). [8] K S Hamad, R Roth, J Rockenberger, T van Buren and A P Alivisatos, Phys. Rev. Lett.

  8. KAAPSE PREDIKANTE VAN DIE SEWENTIENDE EN AGTIENDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Nooit of te nimmer het dit in die gedagte van die sestiende eeuse ... Daardie magtige beweging van die sestiende eeu was vir die Kerk ..... die vreemdsoortige boek van WERNER ScHMiDT-. PRETORïA, „Z)er A^u/furanie!/ Jes Deui.sc/:tHfns am des Buren- voices" wat voor die Tweede Wereldoorlog deur die Duitse gesant-.

  9. spiritualiteit in het lucasevangelie: verscheidenheid en gemeenschap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    buren, familie en rijke vrienden moeten worden uitgenodigd, maar armen, gebrekkigen, kreupelen en blinden; de maaltijd in het koninkrijk van God; de grote maaltijd waar de gasten zich verontschuldigen, en de maaltijd waar Jezus de gastheer is. Tussen al deze maaltijden zijn er verbanden die laten zien wat Lucas zich ...

  10. 78 FR 70319 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Historic District, Roughly bounded by Cedar R., 2nd & 3rd Aves., SE., 4th St., SE., Waverly, 13000922... Township), Cologne, 13000931 NEW JERSEY Burlington County West Hill, 1114 Oxmead Rd., Burlington, 13000944... Meduxnekeag R., Houlton, 93000202 Violette House, 464 Main St., Van Buren, 76000088 Hancock County Waldo...

  11. 76 FR 30906 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... complex, Bullard Avenue and Van Buren Street, Goodyear; Site 2 (133 acres)--within the 286-acre Surprise Pointe Business Park, Waddell Road and Litchfield Road, Surprise; Site 3 (235 acres)--within the 1,600... comment is invited from interested parties. Submissions (original and 3 copies) shall be addressed to the...

  12. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  13. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  14. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.

  15. Koolitusfirmade TOP aastal 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Koolitusfirmade TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibekasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Signe Sillasoo. Invicta tahab lähiaastail laieneda Eestis ja mujalgi; Ketlin Priilinn. Addenda kasutas ära majanduse soodsa seisu. Kommenteerib Heli Sõmer. Juhtide hoiakute muutmisega tõus esikolmikusse

  16. Diversity and distribution of ant communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1984-01-01

    I studied ants in upland tropical forest, grassland and agricultural land in San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico, to uncover factors responsible for the distribution and number of species in these communities. Observations, laboratory studies and field experiments were used. Microclimate influenced the distributions of Pheidole fallax, Solenopsis geminata and Monomorium ebeninum...

  17. Application of the T-Matrix Method to the Numerical Modeling of a Linear Active Sonar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    as written in King and Van Buren num1=(2*s+1)*(2*t+1)*fact(s-u)*fact(t-m+u)*fact(r+m)*fact((s+t+r)/2); dem1=fact((r+t-s)/2)*fact((r+s-t)/2)* fact((s+t...and Arrays for Underwater Sound. Springer Sci- ence+Business, 2007. [5] B. King and A. V. Buren , “A general addition theorem for spheroidal wave...t0),2)==0 t0=t1; else t0=t1+1; end; end; count3=1; clear Gtemp3 for t=t0:2:s+r % Van Buren’s paper used for defining the a %coeffcient and named this

  18. 05 Pavel 03.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (Skorupa 2004: 120–1). Het boek van een andere Duitse auteur, August Wildenstein, werd in 1900 vertaald door. Władysław Umiński (1865–1954) als Bohater spod Spionkopu (“De held van Spionkop”). In 1901 gaf Umiński hetzelfde boek onder zijn eigen naam uit. Eginhard van Barfus' Im. Lande der Buren (Barfus 1899b) ...

  19. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  20. Koosolek süvendab ühtekuuluvustunnet / Tiina Kilkson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kilkson, Tiina

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Invicta turundusjuht Urmas Pail ja Sideameti klienditeeninduse osakonna juhataja Marge Ensling koosolekute läbiviimisest oma ettevõttes. Lisad: Ajakavast tuleb rangelt kinni pidada; Kõik strateegilised ideed aruta koosolekul läbi; Koosolekule kutsuge vaid asjasse puutuvad inimesed. Vt. ka lk. 15: Karl Multer. Telefonikoosolek aitab hoida töötajate aega kokku. Lisa: Parema tulemuse nimel tuleb valida rahulikum tempo

  1. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Clarke, Jessica; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2010-10-07

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  2. Heat from harbor to city; Warmte van haven naar stad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    The Rotterdam harbor area is perfect for an industrial heat distribution network. Numerous major heat producers and many potential consumers of all sizes group together in this industrial area. The new Heat Company ('Warmtebedrijf') is making a detailed business plan to build a heat distribution system. [Dutch] Als er een regio is waar een industrieel warmtenet voor de hand ligt, is het het Rotterdamse havengebied wel. Tal van grote warmteproducenten en een woud aan kleinere en grotere afnemers zijn praktisch buren. Om handen en voeten te geven aan dit op papier mooie idee, stelt het kersverse Warmtebedrijf io een gedetailleerd businessplan op.

  3. Ants in a hospital environment and their potential as mechanical bacterial vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Ramos dos Santos Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We studied the richness and abundance of ant species, their bacteria and the bacteria isolated from patient clinical samples. Methods Ants were collected with baited traps at 64 sites in a public hospital in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil. Results In total, 1,659 ants from 14 species were captured. The most frequent species were Crematogaster victima, Solenopsis saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Camponotus vittatus and Paratrechina fulva. Forty-one species of bacteria were isolated from the ants and 18 from patients. Conclusions Ants are potential vehicles for pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, and they can represent a risk factor in nosocomial infections.

  4. Ants in a hospital environment and their potential as mechanical bacterial vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Wanda Ramos dos Santos; Marques, Sirlei Garcia; Rodrigues, Fernanda Souto; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2013-01-01

    We studied the richness and abundance of ant species, their bacteria and the bacteria isolated from patient clinical samples. Ants were collected with baited traps at 64 sites in a public hospital in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil. In total, 1,659 ants from 14 species were captured. The most frequent species were Crematogaster victima, Solenopsis saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Camponotus vittatus and Paratrechina fulva. Forty-one species of bacteria were isolated from the ants and 18 from patients. Ants are potential vehicles for pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, and they can represent a risk factor in nosocomial infections.

  5. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  6. El museo como representación de los conflictos culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cerón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca elucidar la manera en que el contexto expositivo activa en el espectador la capacidad de proyectar sus propias construcciones como significado de las obras de arte. De la mano de Douglas Crimp, explora los principios lógicos que son leídos como la marca de coherencia del espacio museal y que entran en conflicto con los usos sociales que se proyectan sobre él. Mediante el análisis de proyectos realizados por Daniel Buren, Hans Haacke, Marcel Broodthaers y Fred Wilson, indaga sobre la manera en que los conflictos culturales entrecruzados en el ámbito del museo constituyen el trasfondo de un importante segmento de las prácticas artísticas de los últimos cuarenta años. Finalmente, examina los fundamentos de los museos de arte moderno, para revisar su capacidad de enfrentarse al arte contemporáneo.

  7. Keanekaragaman dan struktur komunitas semut pada perkebunan lada di Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudiyanto Yudiyanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of ants in agricultural habitat is related to the availability of food resources as well as environmental condition for its nesting site. As predator, ants play an important role on controlling pest population in agricultural habitat. The objective of this research was to study the diversity of ants in pepper plantation. The research outcome can be used as basic information for cultivation management of pepper. Ecological observation was conducted in four regencies in Lampung Province with two selected plots on each regency. On each plot, ants were sampled using pitfall traps. In total, 28 ant species were recorded from pepper field in four regencies. Two species i.e. Anoplolepis gracilipes and Solenopsis geminataare well-known as tramp and invasive species. There is significantly different of ant species composition among regencies. The occurrence of ants in pepper plantationis probably affected by habitat condition surrounding pepper plantation and precipitation.

  8. Removal of Nonmyrmecochorous Seeds by Ants: Role of Ants in Cattle Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Escobar-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production models prevailing in Colombian Andes are simplified treeless pastures for extensive ranching, with the consequent reduction of environmental services, such as seed dispersal, due to lack of primary dispersers, scarcity of adequate sites for seedling establishment and competition with grasses. This study evaluated if, in these harsh environments, ants can promote the colonization of arboreal species through directed dispersion of seeds towards the nests. Ten seeds of each species were offered to ants in six grazing pastures. Ants removed 25% of the seeds (1827 in 48 hours. Preference for arillated and small-to-medium sized seeds, such as Pithecellobium dulce, and Guazuma ulmifolia, was observed. Cyphomyrmex major, Ectatomma ruidum, Solenopsis geminata and Atta cephalotes were the key ant species in seed removal. It was concluded that functional ant groups present in the pastures could contribute to secondary dispersion of seeds with potential for restoration.

  9. the macadamia nutborer (Ecdytolopha torticornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los depredadores juegan un papel fundamental en los programas de manejo integrado de plagas; sin embargo, por lo general, son poco utilizados debido a la falta de información sobre su efecto en las poblaciones plaga. En este estudio, se cuantificó la mortalidad de larvas y pupas de Ecdytolopha torticornis, causada por depredadores durante el período desde la caída de la nuez hasta la cosecha, en una plantación de macadamia en Costa Rica. Se encontró que los depredadores redujeron significativamente la abundancia de larvas del barrenador de la nuez, y que la hormiga de fuego, Solenopsis geminata F., fue el depredador más importante.

  10. Catalogue of Dacetini and Solenopsidini ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Antunes Ulysséa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant (Formicidae types of the Myrmicinae tribes Dacetini (Acanthognathus and Strumigenys and Solenopsidini (Allomeurs, Carebarella, Megalomyrmex, Monomorium, Oxyepoecus, Solenopsis, Carebara and Tropidomyrmex housed in the Formicidae collection of the Laboratório de Hymenoptera, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo/MZSP, Brazil. In total, the collection includes 141 types of these tribes, 41 of the Dacetini (nine holotypes and paratypes, 15 holotypes, 13 paratypes and four syntypes and 100 of the Solenopsidini (28 holotypes and paratypes, eight holotypes, 29 paratypes, 27 syntypes, four lectotypes and paralectotypes, one lectotype and three paralectotypes, of which 37 and 89 are of still recognized species, respectively. We record label information, condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes and type status, as well as provide indexes of the listed taxa.

  11. [Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as vectors for bacteria in two hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Fernandes dos; Fonseca, Alysson Rodrigo; Sanches, Newton Moreno

    2009-01-01

    The presence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in hospital environments may constitute a public health problem, especially since they are mechanical vectors for pathogenic organisms. This study aimed to survey the ant populations and analyze the presence of bacteria associated with them in two medium-sized regional hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Specimens were collected every monthly over a six-month period. The following ant species were found: Pheidole sp1 and sp2, Linepithema humile, Wasmannia auropunctata, Camponotus sp1 and sp2, Odontomachus sp, Solenopsis sp, Acromyrmex sp and Tapinoma melenocephalum. It was observed that these ants mechanically transported Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus. These results show the propensity for occurrences of hospital infections at these sites caused by mechanical transmission of pathogens by ants.

  12. ESTUDOS PRELIMINARES DA ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS DE ESPÉCIES DE PIPER LINNEUS (PIPERACEAE) EM OPERÁRIAS DE SOLENOPIS SAEVISSIMA F SMITH (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE), EM LABORATÓRIO

    OpenAIRE

    Souto, Raimundo Nonato Picanço; Harada, Ana Yoshi; Maia, José Guilherme de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo objetivou em caráter preliminar avaliar a atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L., P. callosumRuiz & Pav., P. divaricatum G. Mey., P. marginatum Jacq. var. anisatum e P. marginatum  Jacq var. marginatum em operárias adultas de Solenopsis saevissima, em laboratório. Para a avaliação da atividade inseticida por contato em superfície contaminada, foram utilizados papéis-filtro impregnados com 1 mL das concentrações 100, 500 e 1000 ppm dos óleos essenciais e da su...

  13. Intergrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program. Palisades plant, Consumers Power Company, Docket No. 50-255. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published its Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0820), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Consumers Power Company's Palisades Plant located in Covert, Van Buren County, Michigan. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for the Palisades Plant. The review has provided for (1) as assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when all supplements to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in April 1982

  14. Teologisering vir die gesekulariseerde mens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Koekemoer

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing theology for secularised man One of the problems of theology today is how to tell the stoiy of Jesus to modern man in such a way that he still can belief in God. Paul van Buren tried to make the gospel comprehensible to modern man by making use of the verification principle of linguistic analysis, and he consequently reduced the whole of the gospel to a single content, that of freedom, around which he them thematised a theology that according to him, should be relevant. By bringing about this reduction he argued that the gospel should be stripped of all metaphysical content so that it could pass the test of verification and lay claim to truth and reality. Because he argued in terms of the logic postivism we can not accept his method. But the issue is still on the table namely: How to translate the gospel and the simbols of the church in such a way that it still can communicate with modern man. On this issue the Dogmatics is still working and by using various methods tries to find answers on this important issue.

  15. Experimental study on the effects of trailing edge geometry on the propulsive performance and wake structure of bio-inspired pitching panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) were used to characterize the propulsive performance and three-dimensional wake structure of rigid, acrylic pitching panels with various trailing edge geometries. Experiments were carried out on multiple panels with bio-inspired planforms that were pitched about their leading edge. A trapezoidal panel geometry with a straight trailing edge was chosen as a baseline case, and deviations from a trapezoid were studied using panels with either a concave or convex trailing edge Previous work by van Buren et al. (Physical Review Fluids, 2017) has established that parameters such as coefficient of thrust and propulsive efficiency can be affected by changes in the trailing edge shape of pitching panels. In the current work, SPIV data were collected across the spanwise extent of the wake, and it is demonstrated that spanwise vortices are organized to form a reverse von Karman vortex street across much of the spanwise extent of the wake. The spanwise vortices are oriented in accordance with the trailing edge shape, i.e. a concave trailing edge sheds spanwise vortices that are bent inwards while a convex trailing edge sheds spanwise vortices that are bent outwards. The SPIV results also provide further insight into the three-dimensional wake behavior and structure as it relates to propulsive performance. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0418.

  16. Geloofsverskille: waar kom hulle vandaan en wat maak ons met hulle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WJ Jordaan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article about the origin of differences in faith and how we can/should deal with them, the article explores the extent to which language may guide or misguide our reflections about God as mystery, and how differences in faith become embedded in the nature and dynamics of religious discourse; both external and internal. Such discourses are then linked to four phases of faith which emerge in various permutations and combinations; are recursively linked; and together attest to faith as a journey and not as a fixed destination. These phases are: blind gullibility and stultification; conflict and doubt; outsidership; and a sense of wonder/fundamental trust. Focussing� on the latter faith �position� the author then explores how our talk about God can be guided by what the philosopher Paul van Buren calls the �edges of language� � where the word God serves as the final speech act when one wants deperately to say the most that is possible. Various examples from literature, the arts and Scripture are supplied to elucidate the edges of language and how these may retain connections with traditional/convential religious language utterances and the various phases of faith. Finally, the article explores the deeper meaning of commitment and which would allow the respectful accommodation of all such commitments.

  17. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Villani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in Mogi das Cruzes (SP, it was found that L. humile was capable of carrying eggs of A. lumbricoides both in the field and laboratory conditions (1 worker, as well as was Camponotus rufipes (2, Solenopsis saevissima (1 and Acromyrmex niger (1. The cysts of Escherichia coli were found over three workers of C. rufipes. Although the frequency of the workers found transporting pathogens was low, the capacity of common household species in carrying pathogens like nematodes and protists was demonstrated.Os Nematoda e Protista podem ser transmitidos ao homem de diversas maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão mecânica por intermédio de formigas. Assim, esse trabalho procurou investigar a transmissão mecânica de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e cistos de Entamoeba coli pelos Formicidae. Através de experimentos com espécies mantidas em ninhos no laboratório (Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile e Monomorium pharaonis e com 17 espécies de formigas de uma área antropizada na região de Mogi as Cruzes (SP, foi possível constar que os ovos A. lumbricoides foram transportados por L. humile, tanto no campo (1 operária como no laboratório (1 operária, por Camponotus rufipes (2, por Solenopsis saevissima (1 e por Acromyrmrex niger (1. Em três operárias de C. rufipes foram encontrados cistos de E. coli. Apesar da baixa incidência de transporte, as três primeiras espécies pelo fato de viverem muito próximas ao ser humano, podem levar para

  18. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae urbanas em um hospital no município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805 Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in a hospital in the city of Luz, Minas Gerais, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bernardes Faria Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As formigas urbanas, quando presentes em ambientes hospitalares, tornam-se um perigo potencial à saúde pública, pelo fato de terem a capacidade de transportar organismos patogênicos, podendo essas estar diretamente associadas ao problema de infecção hospitalar. Durante o período de um ano, foram realizadas coletas de formigas em um hospital do município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando-se iscas não-tóxicas. As mesmas foram distribuídas em 16 pontos de coleta, sendo três localizados na área externa e os demais na área interna do hospital. Foram encontradas formigas em 15 dos 16 pontos amostrados. Os gêneros mais abundantes foram Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, sendo sua presença registrada tanto na parte externa, quanto na interna. Salienta-se, ainda, a presença do gênero Camponotus, observada, geralmente, onde há disponibilidade de alimento (como cozinha, quarto, refeitório e local de acondicionamento de lixo e falhas estruturais nas paredes. Também foram coletados, no hospital, Wasmannia, Pheidole, Linepithema, Monomorium, Dorymyrmex, Solenopsis e Paratrechina, totalizando-se dez gêneros. Nossos resultados indicam possíveis implicações da precariedade em estruturas de construção em hospitais e a importância da limpeza nesses ambientes.Urban ants, when present in hospital environments, can be a potential danger to public health, because they can carry pathogenic organisms and are possibly directly associated with the hospital cross infection problem. During a one-year period, collections were carried out, using non-toxic baits in a hospital of Luz, Minas Gerais State. The samples were distributed in 16 sites, being three outside and the others inside the hospital. Ants were found in 15 of the 16 sampled points. The most abundant genera were Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, recorded inside and outside the hospital. The Camponotus genus was present as well, and generally collected where food was available (such as kitchen

  19. Fauna de Hymenoptera em Ficus spp. (Moraceae na Amazônia Central, Brasil Fauna of Hymenoptera in Ficus spp. (Moraceae in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Nazareno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A interação Ficus (Moraceae - vespas de figo é considerada um dos exemplos mais extremos de mutualismo entre planta e inseto. Neste trabalho, descreve-se a fauna de vespas de figo associada a cinco espécies de Ficus na Amazônia Central, considerando alguns aspectos do modo de polinização nas espécies Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. O estudo foi desenvolvido durante o período de abril a julho de 2004 em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Estado do Amazonas. O número de espécies de vespas de figo por hospedeiro variou de uma a 13. Vespas do gênero Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, polinizadoras de Ficus (Urostigma spp., apresentam pentes coxais e bolsos torácicos adaptados à coleta e ao transporte de pólen, indicando modo ativo de polinização. No subgênero Pharmacosycea, a polinizadora do gênero Tetrapus Mayr, 1885, não apresenta estrutura morfológica adaptada ao transporte de pólen, condizente com o modo passivo de polinização. Além das vespas de figo, F. (Pharmacosyceae maxima e F. (Urostigma pertusa apresentaram associação com ácaros, formigas (Solenopsis sp., Formicidae, besouros (Staphylinidae e larvas de Diptera e Lepidoptera.The interaction between Ficus (Moraceae and fig wasps is considered one of the most extreme examples of plant-insect mutualism. In the present study, we reported the fig wasp fauna associated with five Ficus species in the Central Amazon, Brazil, and considered some aspects of the pollination mode found in Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. The study was carried out from April to July 2004, in the cities of Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil. The number of fig wasp species per host tree varied from one to 13. Wasps of the genus Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, pollinators of

  20. Mitigating clogging and arrest in confined self-propelled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, William; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goldman, Daniel

    Ensembles of self-propelling elements, like colloidal surfers, bacterial biofilms, and robot swarms can spontaneously form density heterogeneities. To understand how to prevent potentially catastrophic clogs in task-oriented active matter systems (like soil excavating robots), we present a robophysical study of excavation of granular media in a confined environment. We probe the efficacy of two social strategies observed in our studies of fire ants (S. invicta). The first behavior (denoted as unequal workload) prescribes to each excavator a different probability to enter the digging area. The second behavior (denoted as reversal\\x9D), is characterized by a probability to forfeit excavation when progress is sufficiently obstructed. For equal workload distribution and no reversal behavior, clogs at the digging site prevent excavation for sufficient numbers of robots. Measurements of aggregation relaxation times reveal how the strategies mitigate clogs. The unequal workload behavior reduces the tunnel density, decreasing the probability of clog formation. Reversal behavior, while allowing clogs to form, reduces aggregation relaxation time. We posit that application of social behaviors can be useful for swarm robot systems where global control and organization may not be possible.

  1. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  2. Biodiversity on Broadway--enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae on the streets of New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pećarević

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, a larger proportion of the Earth's surface is urbanized, and a larger proportion of the people on Earth lives in those urban areas. The everyday nature, however, that humans encounter in cities remains poorly understood. Here, we consider perhaps the most urban green habitat, street medians. We sampled ants from forty-four medians along three boulevards in New York City and examined how median properties affect the abundance and species richness of native and introduced ants found on them. Ant species richness varied among streets and increased with area but was independent of the other median attributes measured. Ant assemblages were highly nested, with three numerically dominant species present at all medians and additional species present at a subset of medians. The most common ant species were the introduced Pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum and the native Thief ant (Solenopsis molesta and Cornfield ant (Lasius neoniger. The common introduced species on the medians responded differently to natural and disturbed elements of medians. Tetramorium caespitum was most abundant in small medians, with the greatest edge/area ratio, particularly if those medians had few trees, whereas Nylanderia flavipes was most abundant in the largest medians, particularly if they had more trees. Many of the species encountered in Manhattan were similar to those found in other large North American cities, such that a relatively small subset of ant species probably represent most of the encounters humans have with ants in North America.

  3. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

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    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  4. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  5. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

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    Andre Soliva Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two species of 25 genera in eight ant subfamilies were collected. Myrmicinae was the richest with 39 species, followed by Ponerinae (14, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae and Formicinae (two species each, Amblyoponinae, Proceratiinae and Dolichoderinae (one species each. The richest genera were Solenopsis and Hypoponera (12 morph-species each, and Pheidole (eight. Richness estimators indicated that the total number of species in the area should be between 68 and 85, in a confidence interval of 95%. In comparison, other locations of the evergreen Atlantic Forest have shown a significantly higher richness. Our hypothesis is that the proximity of regions of great urban concentration, allied to the factors that act on a local scale, modifies the structure of the local community of leaf litter ants.

  6. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

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    Debora R. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In the eucalyptus forests, the study examined both managed and unmanaged plantations. During five months, all undecomposed twigs between 10 and 30 cm in length containing ants found within a 16-m2 area on the surface of the leaf litter were collected. A total of 307 nests and 44 species were recorded. Pheidole, Solenopsis, and Camponotus were the most represented genera. Pheidole sp.13, Pheidole sp.43 and Linepithema neotropicum were the most populous species. The dense ombrophilous forest and a eucalyptus plantation unmanaged contained the highest number of colonized twigs; these communities were the most similar and the most species rich. Our results indicate that the twigs are important resources as they help to maintain the litter diversity of dense rain forest and abandoned eucalypt crops.

  7. Comunidade de formigas que nidificam em pequenos galhos da serrapilheira em floresta da Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Karine S. Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Community of ants that nest in dead twigs on the ground of Central Amazonian forest, Brazil. A total area of 2,880 m² in four forest sites, near Manaus, Brazil, was searched for ant colonies nesting in dead twigs on the ground. An amount of 3,706 twigs (0.5-5 cm in diameter were gathered, of which only 623 (16.8% had ants, which is equivalent to a density of 0.22 nests per m². Seventy species have been found. The predominant genera were Pheidole (Westwood, Crematogaster (Lund, and Solenopsis (Westwood. For most species, many of the nests found had only workers and brood, suggesting that colonies either use multiple twigs to nest or do not live exclusively in the twigs, using other types of substrate (e.g., leaf-litter, soil, fruit pods to nest. Most colonized twigs were hollow or partially hollow inside and relatively easy to break apart. There were significant differences among species with respect to the size (diameter of twig used as nest. No correlation was found between the number of twigs available and the number colonized by ants, suggesting that ant populations were not limited by the amount of nesting sites (twigs. The three most common Pheidole species had small colonies with less than 200 workers. Colony size was not related to twig size (volume, for any of these three species.

  8. Induced remanent magnetization of social insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Esquivel, D.M.S. E-mail: darci@cbpf.br

    2001-05-01

    The induced remanent magnetization (IRM) of honeybees Apis mellifera and ants as Pachycondyla marginata, a migratory species, and Solenopsis sp., a fire ant, was obtained using a SQUID magnetometer from 10 to 300 K. An anomalous sharp change of the remanent magnetization is observed at 67{+-}0.2 K for migratory ants. The IRM at room temperature indicates the presence of at least 10 times lower concentration of magnetic material in the whole fire ant as compared to the migratory ant abdomen (0.22{+-}0.33x10{sup -6} emu/ant, and 2.8{+-}1.2x10{sup -6} emu/abdomen, respectively). Our results in honeybee abdomen (4.6{+-}0.9x10{sup -6} emu/abdomen) agree with other reported values. IRM at room temperature in ants and honeybees indicates the presence of single domain (SD) or aggregates of magnetite nanoparticles. The loss of remanence from 77 to 300 K can be related to the stable-superparamagnetic (SPM) transition of small particles (less than ca. 30 nm). From these values and considering their estimated volumes an upper limit 10{sup 10} SPM and 10{sup 9} SD or aggregate particles are obtained in these insects.

  9. Induced remanent magnetization of social insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The induced remanent magnetization (IRM) of honeybees Apis mellifera and ants as Pachycondyla marginata, a migratory species, and Solenopsis sp., a fire ant, was obtained using a SQUID magnetometer from 10 to 300 K. An anomalous sharp change of the remanent magnetization is observed at 67±0.2 K for migratory ants. The IRM at room temperature indicates the presence of at least 10 times lower concentration of magnetic material in the whole fire ant as compared to the migratory ant abdomen (0.22±0.33x10 -6 emu/ant, and 2.8±1.2x10 -6 emu/abdomen, respectively). Our results in honeybee abdomen (4.6±0.9x10 -6 emu/abdomen) agree with other reported values. IRM at room temperature in ants and honeybees indicates the presence of single domain (SD) or aggregates of magnetite nanoparticles. The loss of remanence from 77 to 300 K can be related to the stable-superparamagnetic (SPM) transition of small particles (less than ca. 30 nm). From these values and considering their estimated volumes an upper limit 10 10 SPM and 10 9 SD or aggregate particles are obtained in these insects

  10. Microclimatic changes and the indirect loss of ant diversity in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, I; Vandermeer, J

    1996-11-01

    Recent changes in the coffee agroecosystem of Costa Rica were used to study the mechanism of biodiversity loss in transforming agroecosystems, focusing on the ground-foraging ant community. Coffee farms are being transformed from vegetationally diverse shaded agroforestry systems to unshaded coffee monocultures. We tested the hypothesis that the high-light environment and lack of leaf litter cover in the unshaded system are the determinants of the differences in ground-foraging ant diversity. Four treatments were established within the light gaps of a shaded plantation: shade, leaf litter, shade plus leaf litter, and a control (no shade or leaf litter added). Ants were sampled using tuna fish baits and light and temperature were measured. Shade and leaf litter had a significant effect on the ant fauna but probably for indirect reasons having to do with species interactions. In both shade treatments, Solenopsis geminata, the tropical fire ant, decreased significantly while the other species increased. The possibility that the physical factor changes the nature of competitive interactions between the most abundant species is discussed.

  11. CARÁBIDOS Y HORMIGAS DEL SUELO EN DOS ÁREAS CULTIVADAS CON MARACUYÁ AMARILLO (Passiflora edulis EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Arenas Clavijo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó la fauna de carábidos (Coleoptera: Carabidae y de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae que sobreviven en el suelo de un cultivo de maracuyá bajo condiciones de manejo convencional en Roldanillo,Valle del Cauca, en los meses de marzo y mayo (período lluvioso y junio y julio (período poco lluvioso de 2012. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de intensidad mensual en dos lotes con edades contrastantes, registrándose las especies presentes. Se encontraron 149 individuos de Carabidae distribuidos en diez especies y 2447 hormigas distribuidas en 19 morfoespecies. La especie más abundante de hormigas fue Solenopsis geminata, mientras que Megacephala (Tetracha sobrina fue la especie más abundante de Carabidae. Se encontró además que la abundancia y riqueza de carábidos tienden a ser mayor en la temporada lluviosa, mientras que algunas especies de hormigas mostraron una preferencia por alguno de los períodos estacionales. Se concluye que en el área de estudio sobrevive una rica fauna de carábidos y hormigas del suelo, que podrían contribuir al control de poblaciones de insectos fitófagos asociados al cultivo de maracuyá.

  12. Gut microbiota of Tenebrio molitor and their response to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Heo, Aram; Park, Yong Woo; Kim, Ye Ji; Koh, Hyelim; Park, Woojun

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial community analysis of the gut of Tenebrio molitor larvae was performed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A predominance of genus Spiroplasma species in phylum Tenericutes was observed in the gut samples, but there was variation found in the community composition between T. molitor individuals. The gut bacteria community structure was not significantly affected by the presence of antibiotics or by the exposure of T. molitor larvae to a highly diverse soil bacteria community. A negative relationship was identified between bacterial diversity and ampicillin concentration; however, no negative relationship was identified with the addition of kanamycin. Ampicillin treatment resulted in a reduction in the bacterial community size, estimated using the 16S rRNA gene copy number. A detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Spiroplasma-associated sequences originating from the T. molitor larvae were distinct from previously identified Spiroplasma type species, implying the presence of novel Spiroplasma species. Some Spiroplasma species are known to be insect pathogens; however, the T. molitor larvae did not experience any harmful effects arising from the presence of Spiroplasma species, indicating that Spiroplasma in the gut of T. molitor larvae do not act as a pathogen to the host. A comparison with the bacterial communities found in other insects (Apis and Solenopsis) showed that the Spiroplasma species found in this study were specific to T. molitor.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of three species of Pseudacteon (Diptera, Phoridae parasitoids of the fire ants using standard and molecular techniques

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    Mónica G. Chirino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudacteon flies, parasitoids of worker ants, are being intensively studied as potentially effective agents in the biological control of the invasive pest fire ant genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. This is the first attempt to describe the karyotype of P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. nocens Borgmeier and P. tricuspis Borgmeier. The three species possess 2n = 6; chromosomes I and II were metacentric in the three species, but chromosome pair III was subtelocentric in P. curvatus and P. tricuspis, and telocentric in P. nocens. All three species possess a C positive band in chromosome II, lack C positive heterochromatin on chromosome I, and are mostly differentiated with respect to chromosome III. P. curvatus and P. tricuspis possess a C positive band, but at different locations, whereas this band is absent in P. nocens. Heterochromatic bands are neither AT nor GC rich as revealed by fluorescent banding. In situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe revealed a signal on chromosome II in a similar location to the C positive band in the three species. The apparent lack of morphologically distinct sex chromosomes is consistent with proposals of environmental sex determination in the genus. Small differences detected in chromosome length and morphology suggests that chromosomes have been highly conserved during the evolutionary radiation of Pseudacteon. Possible mechanisms of karyotype evolution in the three species are suggested.

  14. Biodiversity on Broadway--enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae) on the streets of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećarević, Marko; Danoff-Burg, James; Dunn, Robert R

    2010-10-05

    Each year, a larger proportion of the Earth's surface is urbanized, and a larger proportion of the people on Earth lives in those urban areas. The everyday nature, however, that humans encounter in cities remains poorly understood. Here, we consider perhaps the most urban green habitat, street medians. We sampled ants from forty-four medians along three boulevards in New York City and examined how median properties affect the abundance and species richness of native and introduced ants found on them. Ant species richness varied among streets and increased with area but was independent of the other median attributes measured. Ant assemblages were highly nested, with three numerically dominant species present at all medians and additional species present at a subset of medians. The most common ant species were the introduced Pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum) and the native Thief ant (Solenopsis molesta) and Cornfield ant (Lasius neoniger). The common introduced species on the medians responded differently to natural and disturbed elements of medians. Tetramorium caespitum was most abundant in small medians, with the greatest edge/area ratio, particularly if those medians had few trees, whereas Nylanderia flavipes was most abundant in the largest medians, particularly if they had more trees. Many of the species encountered in Manhattan were similar to those found in other large North American cities, such that a relatively small subset of ant species probably represent most of the encounters humans have with ants in North America.

  15. Filamentous fungi vectored by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a public hospital in North-Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R S S; Silveira, S S; Pessoa, W F B; Rodrigues, A; Andrioli, J L; Delabie, J H C; Fontana, R

    2013-03-01

    The increase in opportunistic fungal infections has led to the search for putative sources of contamination in hospital environments. Ants in a public hospital in Itabuna, north-eastern Brazil were examined for carriage of filamentous fungi. During a year-long survey, ants from different hospital areas were sampled. Preference was given to locations where it was possible to observe ants actively foraging. The fungi found on the ants' integument were cultured and identified. A total of 106 ant workers belonging to 12 species in 11 genera were collected. A total of 47 fungal strains was isolated from 40% of the ants (N = 42). We found 16 fungal species in 13 genera associated with the ant workers. The prevalent fungal genera were Aspergillus, Purpureocillium and Fusarium. The ants Tapinoma melanocephalum, Paratrechina longicornis and Pheidole megacephala were associated with six fungal genera; and four genera of fungi were associated with Solenopsis saevissima workers. Fungal diversity was higher in the following hospital areas: nursery, hospital beds, breastmilk bank and paediatrics. Ants act as carriers of soil and airborne fungal species, and ant control in hospital areas is necessary to prevent the dissemination of such micro-organisms. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  17. Soil carabids and ants in two farming areas of yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis) at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Anderson; Armbrecht, Inge; Chacon, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and ants that survive in the soil of a passion fruit crop under conventional management in Roldanillo-Valle del Cauca was examined, in March and May (rainy season) and in June and July (dry season), 2012. We carried out four samplings of monthly intensity in two plots with plants of different ages, and registered the species found. We found 149 individuals of Carabidae, distributed into ten species and 2447 ants, distributed in 19 morphospecies. The most abundant species of ants was Solenopsis geminata, while Megacephala (Tetracha) sobrina was the most abundant species of Carabidae. It was also found that the abundance and richness of carabid beetles tend to be higher in the rainy season, while some ant species showed a preference for specific seasonal periods. We conclude that a rich fauna of ground carabids and ants survives in the study area, which could contribute in the control of phytophagous insects populations associated with the crops of passion fruit.

  18. Delamination evaluation of thermal barrier coating on turbine blade owing to isothermal degradation using ultrasonic C-scan image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Girl; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung

    2016-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an essential element consisting of a super-alloy base and ceramic coating designed to achieve long operational time under a high temperature and pressure environment. However, the top coat of TBC can be delaminated at certain temperatures with long operation time. As the delamination of TBC is directly related to the blade damage, the coupling status of the TBC should be assured for reliable operation. Conventional studies of nondestructive evaluation have been made for detecting generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) or qualitatively evaluating delamination in TBC. In this study, the ultrasonic C-scan method was developed to obtain the damage map inside TBC by estimating the delamination in a quantitative way. All specimens were isothermally degraded at 1,100°C with different time, having different partial delamination area. To detect partial delamination in TBC, the C-scan was performed by a single transducer using pulse-echo method with normal incidence. Partial delamination coefficients of 1 mm to 6 mm were derived by the proportion of the surface reflection signal and flaw signal which were theoretical signals using Rogers-Van Buren and Kim's equations. Using the partial delamination coefficients, the partial delamination maps were obtained. Regardless of the partial delamination coefficient, partial delamination area was increased when degradation time was increased in TBC. In addition, a decrease in partial delamination area in each TBC specimen was observed when the partial delamination coefficient was increased. From the portion of the partial delamination maps, the criterion for delamination was derived

  19. Delamination evaluation of thermal barrier coating on turbine blade owing to isothermal degradation using ultrasonic C-scan image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Girl; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an essential element consisting of a super-alloy base and ceramic coating designed to achieve long operational time under a high temperature and pressure environment. However, the top coat of TBC can be delaminated at certain temperatures with long operation time. As the delamination of TBC is directly related to the blade damage, the coupling status of the TBC should be assured for reliable operation. Conventional studies of nondestructive evaluation have been made for detecting generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) or qualitatively evaluating delamination in TBC. In this study, the ultrasonic C-scan method was developed to obtain the damage map inside TBC by estimating the delamination in a quantitative way. All specimens were isothermally degraded at 1,100°C with different time, having different partial delamination area. To detect partial delamination in TBC, the C-scan was performed by a single transducer using pulse-echo method with normal incidence. Partial delamination coefficients of 1 mm to 6 mm were derived by the proportion of the surface reflection signal and flaw signal which were theoretical signals using Rogers-Van Buren and Kim's equations. Using the partial delamination coefficients, the partial delamination maps were obtained. Regardless of the partial delamination coefficient, partial delamination area was increased when degradation time was increased in TBC. In addition, a decrease in partial delamination area in each TBC specimen was observed when the partial delamination coefficient was increased. From the portion of the partial delamination maps, the criterion for delamination was derived.

  20. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  1. Composition of ant assembly in a savannah area of the northern Amazon = Composição da assembleia de formigas em área de savana no norte da Amazônia

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    José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formicidae comprise one of the most important groups of social soil insects, identified as potential biological indicators of environmental degradation, and which provide important information in the management and conservation plans for any given region. The aim of this work therefore, was to inventory the composition of ant assembly and establish the predominant species, using two different collection methods (pitfall trap and sardine bait, in a savannah ecosystem of the Amazon. The ants were collected at six different times from December 2010 to January 2011. There were 12 plots, each 250 m in length, in which there were 10 sampling points spaced 25 m apart. At each point, two collection methods were used: pitfall trap and sardine bait, giving 120 subsamples per method. After collection, the samples were taken to the Aquatic Invertebrate Laboratory of the Centre for Biodiversity (CBIO/UFRR for sorting, and the specimens placed into bottles containing 70% alcohol for later taxonomic classification. Identification of the formicidae as to species and morphospecies was carried out at the National Research Institute of the Amazon (INPA. All materials were deposited in the invertebrate collection of INPA. It was found that the genera with greater occurrence were Camponotus, Crematogaster and Dorymyrmex, while those with the greatest species richness were Pheidole, Solenopsis and Camponotus. The species Crematogaster abstinens and Camponotus novogranadensis were predominant in the area of savannah under study. This is the first record of Kalathomyrmex emeryi in the State of Roraima. The collections made with pitfall traps were more efficient for evaluating ant richness. = Os formicídeos constituem um dos grupos mais importante de insetos sociais do solo, apontados como potenciais indicadores biológicos da degradação ambiental e fornecedores de informações importantes em planos de manejo e conservação de uma dada região. Assim, objetivou

  2. A riqueza das formigas relacionada aos períodos sazonais em Caxiuanã durante os anos de 2006 e 2007 The ants wealth in relation to seasonal Caxiuanã periods during years 2006 and 2007

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    Sérgio Rodrigo Quadros dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade temporal da fauna de formigas coletadas em Caxiuanã -PA, durante o protocolo de formigas de serrapilheira do Projeto TEAM/Caxiuanã , foram estudadas a partir das condições meteorológicas locais observadas nos meses de janeiro a abril (estação chuvosa, e julho a outubro (estação menos chuvosa, para os anos de 2006 e 2007. Para isso, foram utilizados dados meteorológicos da torre micrometeorológica de Caxiuanã . Durante a estação chuvosa, notou-se o predomínio de elevados valores de precipitação e umidade do solo, e baixas temperaturas do ar. Na estação menos chuvosa, observou-se comportamento oposto ao período chuvoso. Em geral, observou-se que a frequência de formigas é maior quando há redução da precipitação e da umidade do solo; e do aumento da temperatura do ar. Os gêneros das formigas Crematogaster, Hypoponera, Pheidole e Solenopsis apresentaram maior quantidade de indivíduos. Percebeu-se ainda, que as correlações estatísticas com função polinomial de segunda ordem, entre as variáveis atmosféricas e a frequência de formigas, mostram claramente que estas ocorrem de modo inverso com a precipitação e a umidade do solo, e direta com a temperatura do ar. Assim, os resultados deste estudo corroboram a alta variação da abundância dos quatro gêneros de formigas supracitados, em função das variáveis atmosféricas em áreas tropicais.The temporal variability of ant fauna collected in Caxiuanã -PA during the leaf litter ants protocol of the Project TEAM/Caxiuanã were studied based on the local meteorological conditions observed during the months from January to April (rainfall season, and July to October (dry season to 2006 to 2007. Data from the micrometeorological tower at Caxiuanã were used. During the rainfall season the predominance of high values of precipitation and soil moisture and low values of air temperatures is noted. In the dry season the opposite behavior compared to the

  3. Distribución espacio-temporal de hormigas en un gradiente de luz, dentro de un sistema agroforestal de café, en Turrialba, Costa Rica

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    Edgar H Varón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas agroforestales de café (Coffea arabica L. de Mesoamérica es frecuente la presencia de árboles de sombra. Estos sistemas pueden albergar una rica entomofauna, incluyendo hormigas, la cuales podrían depredar a plagas claves en dichos sistemas. Sin embargo, se desconoce el papel de la sombra sobre la distribución y abundancia de dichas hormigas, lo cual podría sugerir pautas para manipular ciertas condiciones de su hábitat y lograr su conservación e incremento. Por tanto, se estudió el efecto de la sombra sobre la distribución espacial y temporal de tres especies de hormigas (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii y Crematogaster curvispinosa que pueden depredar a la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae y al barrenador de las meliáceas, Hypsipyla grandella. Para ello se evaluó su abundancia a través de un gradiente de sol-sombra en un cafetal con cuatro parcelas alternas (desde pleno sol hasta sombra total, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. En la comunidad estudiada se recolectaron 28 especies de hormigas, de las cuales S. geminata fue la dominante (79 % del total de individuos, seguida por P. radoszkowskii (16 %. S. geminata y C. curvispinosa prefirieron las áreas soleadas, mientras que P. radoszkowskii no mostró una preferencia definida. Asimismo, en cuanto a su ubicación, S. geminata predominó en el suelo, mientras que P. radoszkowskii y C. curvispinosa lo hicieron en los arbustos de café.Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L. agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental

  4. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae associated to arboreal nests of Nasutitermes spp: (Isoptera, Termitidae in a cacao plantation in southeastern Bahia, Brazil Mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae associada a ninhos arborícolas de Nasutitermes spp: (Isoptera, Termitidae num cacaual do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil

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    Pollyanna Pereira Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants are among the most common arthropods that colonize termite nests. The aim of this study was to identify the ant fauna associated to termite nests found in a cacao plantation in the county of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, with emphasis on the fauna that uses the nests as foraging and/or nesting environment. For this purpose, 34 active, decadent and abandoned nests of Nasutitermes corniger, N. ephratae and Nasutitermes sp., with different volumes and degrees of activity, were dissected. A total of 54 ant species, belonging to 23 genera and five subfamilies, was found in the constructions. The active, decadent and abandoned termite nests presented, respectively, six, eight and 48 ant species. Crematogaster acuta and Ectatomma tuberculatum were the most frequent species in the active and decadent nests, respectively, while the most frequent species in the abandoned nests were Solenopsis pollux, Thaumatomyrmex contumax and Thaumatomyrmex sp. Twenty-six ant species had true colonies within the termitaria. The Formicidae species richness in the nests was inversely related to the degree of termite activity in the nests. The occurrence of living, decadent or abandoned termitaria of Nasutitermes spp. in cacao plantations foments the heterogeneity of habitats available in the plantations and favors the maintenance of high diversity of organisms that use obligatory or opportunistically this substrate.As formigas estão entre os mais comuns artrópodes colonizadores de ninhos de térmitas. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar a mirmecofauna associada a ninhos de térmitas encontrados em um cacaual no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil, com ênfase na fauna que utiliza os ninhos como ambiente de forrageio e/ou nidificação. Para tanto, 34 ninhos ativos, decadentes e abandonados de Nasutitermes corniger, N. ephratae e Nasutitermes sp., com diferentes volumes e graus de atividade, foram analisados. Um total de 54 espécies de formigas, pertencentes a 23

  5. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of the department of Antioquia, Colombia and new records for the country

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    Erika Valentina Vergara-Navarro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioquia is a state (department of Colombia, located in the northwestern Andes of South America. Geologically, the northwestern region of the Western Range in Antioquia and Chocó includes the fault resulting from the connection between the Isthmus of Panamá and South America. The Occidental and Central cordilleras in Colombia are characterized by a number of reliefs, valleys and water basins, containing historical biological refuges and endemisms. In this study, we present the first species-level checklist of the 255 species (in 64 genera and 14 subfamilies of ants currently known in Antioquia. One hundred and fifty-two (152 species had previously been registered for the state in different publications. Here, 103 additional species are recognized. Most of these species are distributed in other bioregions of the country as well. Forty-six percent are present in the Amazon Province and 36% in the Colombian Orinoco River basin. Less than 3% are found in the arid lands of the Colombian Caribbean area, Guyana, and the Colombian Pacific Province, plus the Caribbean islands. Sixty-three percent of the species are shared with Costa Rica. Our checklist constitutes the largest roster of ants at the species level for a state in Colombia to date and constitutes the beginning of the assessment of ant diversity in Antioquia. Many more field trips are necessary to gain a better understanding of the ant composition of this state. The following 13 species are new to the records for Colombia: Azteca diabolica, Camponotus amoris, C. eurynotus, C. pachylepis, C. propinquus, C. tonduzi, Cerapachys toltecus, Cylindromyrmex whymperi, Myrmicocrypta urichi, Pheidole angulifera, Pseudomyrmex lisus, Solenopsis subterranea and Trachymyrmex zeteki

  6. Species diversity and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador.

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    Kari T Ryder Wilkie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth. Although their species richness appears to be greatest in the New World tropics, global patterns of ant diversity and distribution are not well understood. We comprehensively surveyed ant diversity in a lowland primary rainforest in Western Amazonia, Ecuador using canopy fogging, pitfall traps, baits, hand collecting, mini-Winkler devices and subterranean probes to sample ants. A total of 489 ant species comprising 64 genera in nine subfamilies were identified from samples collected in only 0.16 square kilometers. The most species-rich genera were Camponotus, Pheidole, Pseudomyrmex, Pachycondyla, Brachymyrmex, and Crematogaster. Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex were most diverse in the canopy, while Pheidole was most diverse on the ground. The three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis and Pyramica. Crematogaster carinata was the most abundant ant species in the canopy; Wasmannia auropunctata was most abundant on the ground, and the army ant Labidus coecus was the most abundant subterranean species. Ant species composition among strata was significantly different: 80% of species were found in only one stratum, 17% in two strata, and 3% in all three strata. Elevation and the number of logs and twigs available as nest sites were significant predictors of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Canopy species richness was not correlated with any ecological variable measured. Subterranean species richness was negatively correlated with depth in the soil. When ant species were categorized using a functional group matrix based on diet, nest-site preference and foraging ecology, the greatest diversity was found in Omnivorous Canopy Nesters. Our study indicates ant species richness is exceptionally high at Tiputini. We project 647-736 ant species in this global hotspot of biodiversity. Considering the relatively small area surveyed, this

  7. Myrmecochores can target high-quality disperser ants: variation in elaiosome traits and ant preferences for myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura Carolina; Lima Neto, Mário Correia; de Oliveira, Antônio Fernando Morais; Andersen, Alan N; Leal, Inara R

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the traditional view of myrmecochory as a highly diffuse interaction between diaspores and a wide range of ant species attracted to their elaiosomes may not be correct. The effectiveness of dispersal varies markedly among ant species, and combined with differential attractiveness of diaspores due to elaiosome size and composition, this raises the potential for myrmecochorous plants to target ant species that offer the highest quality dispersal services. We ask the question: Do particular physical and chemical traits of elaiosomes result in disproportionate removal of Euphorbiaceae diaspores by high-quality disperser ants in Caatinga vegetation of north-eastern Brazil? We offered seeds of five euphorb species that varied in morphological and chemical traits of elaiosomes to seed-dispersing ants. High-quality seed-disperser ants (species of Dinoponera, Ectatomma and Camponotus) were identified as those that rapidly collected and transported diaspores to their nests, often over substantial distances, whereas low-quality disperser ants (primarily species of Pheidole and Solenopsis) typically fed on elaiosomes in situ, and only ever transported diaspores very short distances. Low-quality disperser ants were equally attracted to the elaiosomes of all study species. However, high-quality dispersers showed a strong preference for diaspores with the highest elaiosome mass (and especially proportional mass). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to identify a mechanism of diaspore selection by high-quality ant dispersers based on elaiosome traits under field conditions. Our findings suggest that myrmecochorous plants can preferentially target high-quality seed-disperser ants through the evolution of particular elaiosome traits.

  8. Influence of crop management practices on bean foliage arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Picanço, M C; Pereira, E J G; Silva, A A; Jakelaitis, A; Pereira, R R; Xavier, V M

    2010-12-01

    Crop management practices can affect the population of phytophagous pest species and beneficial arthropods with consequences for integrated pest management. In this study, we determined the effect of no-tillage and crop residue management on the arthropod community associated with the canopy of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Abundance and species composition of herbivorous, detritivorous, predaceous and parasitoid arthropods were recorded during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004 in Coimbra County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Arthropod diversity and guild composition were similar among crop management systems, but their abundance was higher under no-tillage relative to conventional cultivation and where residues from the preceding crop were maintained in the field. Thirty-four arthropod species were recorded, and those most representative of the impact of the crop management practices were Hypogastrura springtails, Empoasca kraemeri and Circulifer leafhoppers, and Solenopsis ants. The infestation levels of major insect-pests, especially leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), was on average seven-fold lower under no-tillage with retention of crop residues relative to the conventional system with removal of residues, whereas the abundance of predatory ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and springtails (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) were, respectively, about seven- and 15-fold higher in that treatment. Importantly, a significant trophic interaction among crop residues, detritivores, predators and herbivores was observed. Plots managed with no-tillage and retention of crop residues had the highest bean yield, while those with conventional cultivation and removal of the crop residues yielded significantly less beans. This research shows that cropping systems that include zero tillage and crop residue retention can reduce infestation by foliar insect-pests and increase abundance of predators and detritivores, thus having direct consequences for insect pest management.

  9. THE ACQUISITION OF PREPOSITION STRANDING AND PIED-PIPING BY INDONESIAN STUDENTS LEARNING ENGLISH

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    Drs. Suprapto, M.Hum. Drs. Suprapto, M.Hum.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article mainly deals with the acquisition of preposition stranding (PS and preposition pied-piping (PPP of English by the students of the English Department of Semarang State University. The main purpose of the study is to reveal their way of mastering this language area which is notably absent in their L1 system (PS. Based on the experience of the writer as a teacher, the different systems of preposition usage between L1 (Indonesian and L2(English constitutes a lot of learning problems. The PS and PPP learning problems encountered by the students are pedagogically appealing in that even the students of higher semester can often plunge into this particular problem (Mi Di 2006. English, and also other Germanic languages, permits both PS and PPP in their sentence constructions while in Indonesian and many other languages in the world the PS constructions do not appear to have a strong grammatical basis (Cable and Harris 2011; Sugisaki 2011. Researchers tried to understand the problem by viewing it through the notion of markedness theory in which language areas which are unmarked are relatively easier to learn than the ones marked. In the issue raised in this paper, the PPP is considered to be unmarked and the PS is more marked (van Buren and Smith 1985; Klein 1993. This study involves 62 students divided into two groups: 30 students of second semester and 32 students of fourth semester. They were given a task to construct sentences with wh-relative clauses using either PPP or PS forms employing different relative pronouns. The result shows that the second semester group tended to use more PPP than PS forms. They also used less PS than the intermediate group did. On the other hand, the fourth semester group tended to use more PS than the elementary did. These findings suggest a significant support towards the effectiveness of markedness theory. The results may also indicate that the theory works most effectively on lower level of learning and

  10. Efecto de la labranza mínima y la convencional en arroz (oryza sativa l. En la región Huetar norte de Costa Rica

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    Luis A. Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En la zona norte de Costa Rica en donde se establecieron dos lotes: uno de labranza mínima (3 ha, y otro de labranza convencional (0,80 ha. La siembra en ambos sistemas de labranza se realizó con una sembradora abonadora hidráulica. La variedad de arroz utilizada fue la CR 2515. En labranza mínima la siembra se realizó en condiciones de alta humedad, labor que prácticamente es imposible en labranza convencional. En este mismo sistema de labranza hubo una menor germinación y población de plantas de arroz, principalmente en donde había más rastrojo. En el ciclo 2001 en labranza mínima hubo mayor densidad de Murdania nudiflora, Echinocloa colonum y Digitaria sp. En labranza convencional la maleza predominante fue Cyperus rotundus. Las plagas y enfermedades no fueron factor limitante en el manejo del cultivo en ambos sistema de labranza, no obstante, en labranza mínima se observó una mayor población de hormigas del género Solenopsis. En el ciclo de siembra 2001 en labranza convencional hubo mayor número de panículas /m2 > a 20 cm que en labranza mínima, mientras que en el ciclo 2000 en labranza mínima la cantidad de panículas/m2>20cm fue muy baja. De igual forma, en labranza convencional el número de granos por panícula fue mayor en todas las longitudes de pan ículas y el peso de 1000 granos fue similar a labranza mínima en todas las longitudes de panículas. El rendimiento estimado fue mayor en labranza convencional con 6,74 t/ha, mientras que en labranza mínima fue de 5,91 t/ha.

  11. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presen

  12. Impact of set-aside management on soil mesofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Mazza, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    (MI) resulted significantly higher in set-aside managements than in conventional crops in Fagna and Metaponto sites. In contrast, Caorle was characterized by a significant soil degradation (prevalence of extreme colonizers) and any increase of MI values in the set-aside have been not detected. About microarthropods, the taxa richness was significantly higher in set-aside managements than conventional crops in all the sites sampled. QBS index showed the same trend, but the differences were not significant. Caorle site was characterized by a lack of balance in the relative abundance among soil microarthropods taxa. In particular, set-aside managements showed a strong prevalence of an aggressive ants Solenopsis fugax (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In conclusion, the best results were observed in Fagna and Metaponto sites, where MI and QBS values increased under set-aside management as compared to the conventional. Further analyses will be carried out over a long period to better understand the possible correlation between the enhancement of the organic matter observed in the soils less degraded and the biological quality improvement.

  13. Predictive Maturity of Multi-Scale Simulation Models for Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamturktur, Sez; Unal, Cetin; Hemez, Francois; Williams, Brian; Tome, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    and uncertainty quantification stemming beyond the originally proposed scope of the project. We have introduced a new metric for incorporating the concept of robustness into experiment-based validation of numerical models. This project has accounted for the graduation of two Ph.D. students (Kendra Van Buren and Josh Hegenderfer) and two M.S. students (Matthew Egeberg and Parker Shields). One of the doctoral students is now working in the nuclear engineering field and the other one is a post-doctoral fellow at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Additionally, two more Ph.D. students (Garrison Stevens and Tunc Kulaksiz) who are working towards graduation have been supported by this project.

  14. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical analyses

  15. Predictive Maturity of Multi-Scale Simulation Models for Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamturktur, Sez [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-16

    uncertainty quantification stemming beyond the originally proposed scope of the project. We have introduced a new metric for incorporating the concept of robustness into experiment-based validation of numerical models. This project has accounted for the graduation of two Ph.D. students (Kendra Van Buren and Josh Hegenderfer) and two M.S. students (Matthew Egeberg and Parker Shields). One of the doctoral students is now working in the nuclear engineering field and the other one is a post-doctoral fellow at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Additionally, two more Ph.D. students (Garrison Stevens and Tunc Kulaksiz) who are working towards graduation have been supported by this project.

  16. Noise in relation to climate change. A first orientation; Geluid in relatie tot Klimaatverandering. Een eerste Verkenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, I.

    2010-11-15

    installaties en windturbines en geluid van buren. Aan de geluidkant zou hierbij meer aandacht moeten worden besteed aan de verschillende geluidspectra en het aspect van trillingen. Aan de belevingskant aan percepties van, kennis over en acceptatie van nieuwe energie besparende maatregelen.