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Sample records for solenoidal electron spectrometer

  1. Magnetic quadrupole and solenoidal spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, H.; Schapira, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    General optical properties of magnetic quadrupole spectrometers are reviewed, together with experimental purposes for nuclear physics: background reduction, magnetic rigidity filtering for extreme forward angles measurements, light charged particle discrimination, ionic charge state separation, time of flight mass spectrometry and fast collection of radioactive nuclear reaction products. Possibility of alternative devices such as superconducting quadrupoles or solenoid spectrometers are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  3. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  4. Electron beam solenoid reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V.; Benford, J.; Cooper, R.; Dakin, D.; Ecker, B.; Lopez, O.; Putman, S.; Young, T.S.T.

    1977-01-01

    The electron Beam Heated Solenoid (EBHS) reactor is a linear magnetically confined fusion device in which the bulk or all of the heating is provided by a relativistic electron beam (REB). The high efficiency and established technology of the REB generator and the ability to vary the coupling length make this heating technique compatible with several radial and axial enery loss reduction options including multiple-mirrors, electrostatic and gas end-plug techniques. This paper addresses several of the fundamental technical issues and provides a current evaluation of the concept. The enhanced confinement of the high energy plasma ions due to nonadiabatic scattering in the multiple mirror geometry indicates the possibility of reactors of the 150 to 300 meter length operating at temperatures > 10 keV. A 275 meter EBHS reactor with a plasma Q of 11.3 requiring 33 MJ of beam eneergy is presented

  5. Lessons Learned for the MICE Coupling Solenoid from the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, Xinglong; Li, S.Y.; Zheng, S.X.; Virostek, Steve P.; DeMello, Allen J.; Li, Derun; Trillaud, Frederick; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have taught us some important lessons. The spectrometer magnet lessons learned fall into two broad categories that involve the two stages of the coolers that are used to cool the magnets. On the first spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the connection of the cooler 2nd-stage to the magnet cold mass. On the first test of the second spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the cooler 1st-stage temperature and its effect on the operation of the HTS leads. The second time the second spectrometer magnet was tested; the cooling to the cold mass was still not adequate. The cryogenic designs of the MICE and MuCOOL coupling magnets are quite different, but the lessons learned from the tests of the spectrometer magnets have affected the design of the coupling magnets.

  6. 2 T superconducting detector solenoid for the PANDA target spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, A.A.; Koshurnikov, E.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Lobanov, Y.Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lobanov@jinr.ru; Makarov, A.F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Orth, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Sissakian, A.N.; Vodopianov, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the JINR design of the large 2 T superconducting solenoid for the target spectrometer of the PANDA experiment at HESR (FAIR, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The solenoid coil has an inner radius of 1.08 m and a length of 2.90 m. This solenoid is non-centrally split providing a warm bore of 100 mm in diameter through the coil to accommodate sufficient space for the internal target installations. Maximally stored energy in the windings is 22.3 MJ. All tracking and calorimetric detectors surrounding the target point, with exception of a forward cone of 5{sup 0} opening, are placed inside the lqHe-cryostat. The main features of the design and technique are as follows: a copper stabilizer and soldering technique for the superconducting cable; a stainless steel cryostat; winding technique over a mandrel; coreless type of the coil; low operational current. The details of the PANDA solenoid design including the magnetic field and stress-strain calculations are covered.

  7. Progress on the Design and Fabrication of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each end of the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for the scintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The tracker modules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters and exits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnet consists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil matching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed design and analysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is well under way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet and mechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabrication issues and photos of the construction

  8. Field measurements in the Fermilab electron cooling solenoid prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, A C

    2003-01-01

    To increase the Tevatron luminosity, Fermilab is developing a high-energy electron cooling system [1] to cool 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring. The schematic layout of the Recycler Electron Cooling (REC) system is shown in Figure 1. Cooling of antiprotons requires a round electron beam with a small angular spread propagating through a cooling section with a kinetic energy of 4.3 MeV. To confine the electron beam tightly and to keep its transverse angles below 10 sup - sup 4 rad, the cooling section will be immersed into a solenoidal field of 50-150G. As part of the R and D effort, a cooling section prototype consisting of 9 modules (90% of the total length of a future section) was assembled and measured. This paper describes the technique of measuring and adjusting the magnetic field quality in the cooling section and presents preliminary results of solenoid prototype field measurements. The design of the cooling section solenoid is discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes details of a dedicated ...

  9. Electron Beam Size Measurements in a Cooling Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Thomas K; Burov, Alexey; Seletsky, Sergey; Shemyakin, Alexander V

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide effective cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable appertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20 m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper discusses the required beam parameters, the implimentation of the measurement system and results for our application.

  10. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  11. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Plasma heating in a long solenoid by a laser or a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the technology of a large energy laser and/or relativistic electron beam (REB) generator have made it possible to seriously consider a long solenoid reactor concept. This concept has been reviewed. The physical problems in the plasma heating of the long solenoid by a laser or a REB are studied

  13. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  14. Electron temperature control by an external magnetic field in solenoidal inductive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Hyong; Ku, Ju-Hwan; Hwang, Kwang-Tae; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2009-01-01

    Electron temperature control is performed by controlling the external magnetic field strength in a solenoidal inductive discharge. As the magnetic field strength increases, the electron temperature of the plasma bulk decreases. The temperature at the discharge center falls from 3.1 to 1.5 eV when a 52 G dc magnetic field is applied. This decrease in the temperature is accompanied by a decrease in the plasma density. The change in temperature by the magnetic field is caused by both the electron confinement and the restriction of electron transport by the magnetic field in solenoidal inductive discharge.

  15. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et

  16. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  17. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  18. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  19. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Okamura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.

    2012-01-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  20. High-voltage monitoring with a solenoid retarding spectrometer at the KATRIN experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erhard, M.; Bauer, S.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bonn, J.; Drexlin, G.; Goullon, J.; Groh, S.; Gluck, F.; Kleesiek, M.; Haussmann, N.; Höhn, T.; Johnston, K.; Kraus, M.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Schlosser, K.; Schupp, M.; Slezák, Martin; Thummler, T.; Vénos, Drahoslav; Weinheimer, C.; Wüstling, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, JUN (2014), P06022 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : real-time monitoring * spectrometers * control systems Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  1. Technical Design Report for the PANDA Solenoid and Dipole Spectrometer Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, O; Xu, H; Becker, J; Feldbauer, F; Heinsius, F -H; Held, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Pantea, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; De Napoli, M; Giacoppo, F; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Sfienti, C; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Czech, B; Kistryn, M; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; zycki, W Czy; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Wojnar, L; Gil, D; Hawranek, P; Kamys, B; Kistryn, St; Korcyl, K; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wronska, A; Al-Turany, M; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Flemming, H; Gerl, J; Goetzen, K; Hohler, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Mishra, D; Orth, H; Peters, K; Saitô, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Brinkmann, K -T; Freiesleben, H; Jaekel, R; Kliemt, R; Wuerschig, T; Zaunick, H -G; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Feshchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigorian, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Kudaev, V Ch; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevski, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, A; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Föhl, K; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Teufel, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tann, B; Tomaradze, A G; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Cecchi, A; Dalpiaz, P; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Negrini, M; Savri`e, M; Stancari, G; Dulach, B; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Macri, M; Marinelli, M; Parodi, R F; Brodski, I; Döring, W; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Gagyi-Palffy, Z; Hayrapetyan, A; Kotulla, M; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liu, M; Metag, V; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Salz, C; Schneider, J; Schoenmeier, P; Schubert, R; Spataro, S; Stenzel, H; Strackbein, C; Thiel, M; Thoering, U; Yang, S; Clarkson, T; Cowie, E; Downie, E; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Lehmann, I; Livingston, K; Lumsden, S; MacGregor, D; McKinnon, B; Murray, M; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Yang, G; Babai, M; Biegun, A K; Bubak, A; Guliyev, E; Jothi, V S; Kavatsyuk, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; García, F; Riska, D -O; Büscher, M; Dosdall, R; Dzhygadlo, R; Gillitzer, A; Grunwald, D; Jha, V; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Roeder, M; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Espi, M C Mora; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Hoeppner, C; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Mann, A; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Weitzel, Q; Khoukaz, A; Rausmann, T; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Varma, R; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Boucher, J; Hennino, T; Kunne, R; Ong, S; Pouthas, J; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Van de Wiele, J; Zerguerras, T; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Belikov, N I; Davidenko, A M; Derevshchikov, A A; Goncharenko, Yu M; Grishin, V N; Kachanov, V A; Konstantinov, D A; Kormilitsin, V A; Kravtsov, V I; Matulenko, Yu A; Melnik, Y M; Meshchanin, A P; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V V; Morozov, D A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Ryazantsev, A V; Semenov, P A; Soloviev, L F; Uzunian, A V; Vasilev, A N; Yakutin, A E; Baeck, T; Cederwall, B; Bargholtz, C; Geren, L; Tegnér, P E; Belostotskii, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kiselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Yu; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Fava, L; Panzieri, D; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Botta, E; Bressani, T; Bufalino, S; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Greco, M; Kugathasan, T; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Serbanut, G; Sosio, S; Bertini, R; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Szymanska, K; Tosello, F; Wheadon, R; Morra, O; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Szymanska, K; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Ekström, C; Calén, H; Grape, S; Hoeistad, B; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Borsuk, S; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kopec, J; Kozlovskii, T; Melnychuk, D; Plominski, M; Szewinski, J; Traczyk, K; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Gruber, A; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2009-01-01

    This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is subject to possible modifications arising during this process.

  2. Technical Design Report for the PANDA Solenoid and Dipole Spectrometer Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I; Krusche, B.

    2009-01-01

    This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is subject to possible

  3. Modeling mini-orange electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian da Silva, Nelson; Dietzsch, Olacio

    1994-01-01

    A method for calculating the transmission of mini-orange electron spectrometers is presented. The method makes use of the analytical solution for the magnetic field of a plane magnet in the calculation of the spectrometer spatial field distribution by superimposing the fields of the several magnets that compose the system. Electron trajectories through the spectrometer are integrated numerically in a Monte Carlo calculation and the transmission of the spectrometer as a function of the electron energy is evaluated. A six-magnet mini-orange spectrometer was built and its transmission functions for several distances from source to detector were measured and compared to the calculations. The overall agreement is found to be good. The method is quite general and can be applied to the design of systems composed of plane magnets, predicting their performance before assembling them. ((orig.))

  4. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, J.L.

    1963-12-01

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [fr

  6. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results suggest that the SEM-EDX is one of the potential tools for rapid detection of metals, namely, As and Cd in himematsutake. Key words: Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), himematsutake.

  7. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; den Ouden, A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron

  8. Optical spectrometer for an electron-probe microanalyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamoryanskaya, M.V.; Zamoryanskij, A.N.; Vajnshenker, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Optical spectrometer for the ''Kamebax'' electron-probe microanalyzer permitting to carry out cathodoluminescence analysis together with X-ray diffraction analysis of a sample microvolume, is described. The use of the optical spectrometer in certain cases permits to increase the sensitivity of microanalysis by 2-3 orders, to determine the valency of luminescenting impurities, to study structural defects of microvolumes. The optical spectrometer has the resolution not worse than 0.1 nm over the whole visible region of spectrum (35-750 nm). The spectrometer is used for the study of cathodoluminescence spectra of mineral microvolumes when solving certain problems of technological mineralogy

  9. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; den Ouden, A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron beam. A two-stage GM cryocooler, equipped with a first generation ErNi5 regenerator, cools the epoxy impregnated solenoid down to the operating temperature of about 7.5 K. This leaves a conservati...

  10. APES: Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer - A High Time Resolution Monodirectional Magnetic Deflection Electron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G., II; Ogasawara, K.; Miller, G.; Trevino, J. A.; Webster, J.; Stange, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) that was designed and built for the Ground-to-Rocket Electron Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) auroral sounding rocket mission. The purpose was to measure the precipitating electron spectrum with high time resolution, on the order of milliseconds. The trade-off made in order to achieve high time resolution was to limit the aperture to only one look direction. The energy selection was done by using a permanent magnet to separate the incoming electrons, such that the different energies would fall onto different regions of the microchannel plate and therefore be detected by different anodes. A rectangular microchannel plate (MCP) was used (15 mm x 100 mm), and there was a total of 50 discrete anodes under the MCP, each one 15 mm x 1.5 mm, with a 0.5 mm spacing between anodes. The target energy range of APES was 200 eV to 30 keV.

  11. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  12. PAES: Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hugenschmidt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES is a newly developed application for surface studies with high elemental selectivity and exceptional surface sensitivity. The instrument is operated by the Technische Universität München and is located at NEPOMUC.

  13. Performance of the electron energy-loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the electron energy-loss spectrometer incorporating a new high-resolution hemispherical monochromator are reported. The apparatus achieved an energy-resolution of 25 meV in the elastic scattering mode, and angular distributions of elastically scattered electrons were in excellent agreement with previous workers. Preliminary energy-loss spectra for several atmospheric gases demonstrate the excellent versatility and stable operation of the improved system. 12 references

  14. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension position-sensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown

  15. A search for excited electrons with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dusinberre Sudano, Elizabeth Jane

    2012-01-01

    A search for excited electrons using the CMS detector at the LHC with 36 pb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented. The search is performed for associated production of an electron and an excited electron followed by the decay of the excited electron to an electron and a photon for a final state of $ e e \\gamma$. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed. Interpreting the results in the context of production via novel four-fermion contact interactions and the subsequent decay via electroweak processes, upper limits on the production cross section are set. The exclusion region in the compositeness scale, $\\Lambda$, and excited electron mass, $M_{e^*}$ , parameter space is extended beyond previously established limits. For $\\Lambda$ = 2 TeV, excited electron masses below 760 GeV/c$^2$ are excluded at the 95% confidence level. The cross sections for masses between 200 and 1500 GeV/c$^2$ are limited to be less than 0.21 - 0.16 pb.

  16. Miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera-Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Stanley L.; Graham, Richard; Ramirez, Luis J.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the design, and implementation of a miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera Spectrometer (PICS). The PICS electronics demonstrate the application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and of analog hybrid technology to space flight multi-spectral systems. A discussion of the electronic system design illustrates how signals from a multi-sensor instrument containing an UV CCD, two visible CCDs, and a near-IR focal plane assembly can be processed through a common set of electronics. Following the system design discussion, the actual electronic design will be presented. Each miniaturized module will be discussed as to functionality and performance. The test setup for bench checkout of a cooled CCD and an IR FPA, including results with breadboard electronics and with the hybrids are also described.

  17. A multipurpose electron-ion spectrometer for measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttula, Marko; Harkoma, Matti; Nommiste, Ergo; Aksela, Seppo

    2001-01-01

    A multipurpose system has been constructed for ion and electron measurements. The system can be used as a time of flight ion mass spectrometer, conventional electron spectrometer or threshold electron spectrometer. In the future it is planned to use the system as a coincidence spectrometer between ions and electrons with selected kinetic energies. The construction of the system is described and some measured spectra are presented

  18. Performance of BPM Electronics for the LEP Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, E; Dehning, Bernd; Matheson, J; Prochnow, J; Torrence, E; Unser, K; Vismara, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    At the LEP e+/e- collider at CERN, Geneva, a Spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4. The Spectrometer measures the change in bending angle in a well-characterised dipole magnet as LEP is ramped. The beam trajectory is obtained using three beam position monitors (BPMs) on each side of the magnet. The error on each BPM measurement should not exceed 1 micron if the desired accuracy on the bending angle is to be reached. The BPMs used consist of an aluminium block with an elliptical aperture and four capacitive button pickup electrodes. The button signals are fed to customised electronics supplied by Bergoz. The electronics use time multiplexing of individual button signals through a single processing chain to optimise for long-term stability. We report on our experience of the performance of these electronics, describing measurements made with test signals and with beam. We have implemented a beam-based calibration procedure and have monitored the reproducibility of ...

  19. Calibrating the DARHT Electron Spectrometer with Negative Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Trainham , A. P. Tipton , and R. R. Bartech; LAO; LANL)

    2005-01-01

    Negative ions of hydrogen and oxygen have been used to calibrate the DARHT electron spectrometer over the momentum range of 2 to 20 MeV/c. The calibration was performed on September 1, 3, and 8, 2004, and it is good to 0.5% absolute, provided that instrument alignment is carefully controlled. The momentum in MeV/c as a function of magnetic field (B in Gauss) and position in the detector plane (X in mm) is: P = (B-6.28)/(108.404-0.1935*X)

  20. Spectrometric electronic equipment for a 90-channel cherenkov mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astvatsaturov, R.G.; Basiladze, S.G.; Ivanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Detecting spectrometric electronic equipment of a 90-channel cherenkov γ-spectrometer operating on-line with HP2116B type computer is described. The equipment contains linear amplifiers, analog memory blocks, a linear summator, discriminators, and a coincidence circuit. Three computer-controlled systems are used for checking the characteristics of the spectrometric electronic equipment, photomultipliers, and also for energy calibrations of the detectors. The long-term stability of the equipment has been measured with the aid of the checkup systems. It is established that the average instability of the pedestal magnitudes for all the channels is less than 10%, while the instability of the transmission coefficients is not worse than 0.5% for 5 days. The average nonlinearity over all the channels is 0.6%. The resolution time of the spectrometric equipment is 180 nsec

  1. Development of a mini-orange spectrometer for conversion electron study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, N.R.; Chakravarty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S.; Sastry, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Conversion electrons provide with an unique tool to have an unambiguous multipolarity assignment for the observed gamma transitions. The fabrication of an electron spectrometer to detect these conversion electrons is a non-trivial task

  2. New automated magnetic electron X-ray spectrometers: spectometer with technological accessories and manipulators, spectrometer for investigation of melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanova, I.N.; Dobysheva, L.V.; Varganov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Two unique automated magnetic electron X-ray spectrometers are described: spectrometer with technological aceessories and spectrometer for investigation of melts. The spectrometer design is based on the model of precision iron-free beta spectrometer with double focusing by nonuniform transverse magnetic field of axial symmetry. Characterictic X-radiation with energy depending on the choice of anode material is used for electron excitation in a sample. Photoelectrons escape from sample surface at 90 deg angle from the direction of quantum incidence angle and enter the analyzer through the inlet slit. The width of analyzed layer depends at that on quantum incidence angle and changes from tens uo to hundred Angstrom. Energy analyzer magnetic field produced in a gap between two coaxial coils provides double electron focusing. Electrons with different energy are focused depending on the current in coils creating the field. Focused electrons enter the detector through the outlet slit of energy analyzer. The detector signals enter pre-amplifier and then the scaling unit

  3. Accelerating field spectrometer for photons and electrons simultaneous measurement. Application to decay schemes study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busani, Jean.

    1982-09-01

    An original spectrometer was built to improve the measurement of the absolute emission intensities of radionuclides with converted low energy gamma transitions. In this spectrometer, the same Si(Li) detector simultaneously measures electrons and photons emitted by the studied radionuclide; an electrostatic field may be established between the source and the detector to modify the electrons energy. This field allows the electron and photon peaks to be separated, and the absorption and energy straggling by detector windows to be decreased. Special attention has been given to determine spectrometer efficiency calibration curves for electrons and photons. 147 Nd and 133 Ba were used to test the spectrometer improvement and the method used [fr

  4. Testing of the SPEDE conversion electron spectrometer at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2157167

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this work was to test the performance of the SPEDE detector in the MINIBALL setup at CERN’s ISOLDE laboratory. The main research objective of MINIBALL is to study properties of atomic nuclei employing radioactive ion beams. Radioactive Bi-207 and Hg-191 were used in this experiment. SPEDE detects internal conversion electrons which are created in transitions between states in atomic nucleus. The internal conversion is competing process to more common γ-ray emission. This way it is possible to measure different properties of nuclear structure for example the E0-transitions. The simultaneous γ and electron measurements are possible when SPEDE is used in conjunction with the MINIBALL spectrometer. The GEANT4 simulation results were used to help interpretation of experimental results. As a result, αK/L-ratio was determined for Bi-207 conversion electrons, for the 5^2− -> 1^2− transition αK/L = 3.29±0.06 and for the 13^2+-> 5^2− transition αK/L = 3.11±0.05 were obtained. Also, the partial...

  5. Preparations for Measurement of Electroweak Boson Production Cross-Sections using the Electron Decay Modes, with the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wardrope, D R

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid was designed to make discoveries at the TeV scale : to elucidate the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For any such discovery to be credible, it must first be demonstrated that the CMS detector is understood. One mechanism to make this demonstration is to measure “standard candle” processes, such as W and Z production. This thesis describes preparations undertaken to make these measurements using the electron decay modes, with an integrated luminosity of 10 inverse picobarns of collision data. The energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter was measured in test beam data. An improved method of deriving the optimised weights necessary for amplitude reconstruction is described. The measurement of electron charge using tracks is impaired by the electron showering in the tracker material. A novel charge measurement technique that is complementary to the existing method was assessed. Missing transverse energy is a pow...

  6. Small Explorer (SMEX) POsitron Electron Magnet Spectrometer (POEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LHeureux, Jacques; Evenson, Paul A.; Aleman, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the activities of Louisiana State University (LSU) under subcontract 26053-EX between LSU and the Bartol Research Institute (Bartol), which began January 1, 1994. The purpose of this subcontract was for LSU to participate in and support Bartol in the work to define the SMEX (Small Explorer)/POEMS (Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer) spaceflight mission under NASA Contract NAS5-38098 between NASA and Bartol. The conclusions of this study were that for a 1998 launch into a 600km altitude, 98 degrees, approximately sun synchronous orbit, (a) the total radiation dose would be typically a few k-rad per year, certainly less than 20 k-rad per year for the anticipated shielding and potential solar flare environment, (b) detector counting rates would be dominated by the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the horns of the Van Allen belts, (c) the galactic electron and positron 'signal' can be extracted from the albedo background and the trapped populations by detailed evaluation of the geomagnetic transmission function (cut-off) for each event, (d) POEMS could make significant contributions to magnetospheric science if sufficient downlink capacity were provided and, (e) a fully functioning, cost efficient, data processing and analysis facility design was developed for the mission. Overall, POEMS was found to be a relatively simple experiment to manifest, operate and analyze and had potential for fundamental new discoveries in cosmic, heliospheric, solar and magnetospheric science.

  7. A high Luminosity electrostatic spectrometer for conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.; Bodlund-Ringstroem, B.; Bohm, C.; Ekdahl, T.; Liljeqvist, D.

    1977-10-01

    The properties of the electrostatic mirror spectrometer, especially its luminosity at modest resolution, are investigated by means of computer simulation. On the basis of the results of the simulations a spectrometer is built, which has figures of merit in very good agreement with the computed results. For a circular source having a radius equal to one tenth of the radius of the inner cylinder of the spectrometer a resolution (fwhm) of 2.5 precent is reached. (author)

  8. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  9. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  10. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Figure 1: Some members of the solenoid and liquid argon teams proudly pose in front of the barrel cryosat, complete with detector and magnet. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. Figure 2: The alignment survey by Dirk Mergelkuhl and Aude Wiart. (EST-SU) At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. Figure 3: The solenoid on the insertion stand, with Akira Yamamoto the solenoid designer and project leader. Figure 4: Taka Kondo, ATLAS Japan spokesperson, and Shoichi Mizumaki, Toshiba project engineer for the ATLAS solenoid, celebrate the insertion. Aft...

  11. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  12. Double differential distributions of electron emission in ion-atom and electron-atom collisions using an electron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Deepankar; Thulasiram, K. V.; Fernandes, W.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Kadhane, U.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Yeshpal; Gulyás, L.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2009-01-01

    We study electron emission from atoms and molecules in collisions with fast electrons and heavy ions (C 6+). The soft collision electrons (SE), two center electron emission (TCEE), the binary encounter (BE) events and the KLL Auger lines along with the elastically scattered peaks (in electron collisions) are studied using a hemispherical electrostatic electron analyzer. The details of the measurements along with description of the spectrometer and data acquisition system are given. The angular distributions of the low energy (few eV) electrons in soft collisions and the binary encounter electrons at keV energies are compared with quantum mechanical models based on the first Born (B1) and the continuum distorted wave-Eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS).

  13. Double differential distributions of electron emission in ion-atom and electron-atom collisions using an electron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Deepankar [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)], E-mail: dmisra@tifr.res.in; Thulasiram, K.V.; Fernandes, W.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Kadhane, U.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Yeshpal [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Gulyas, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debreccen (Hungary); Tribedi, Lokesh C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)], E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in

    2009-01-15

    We study electron emission from atoms and molecules in collisions with fast electrons and heavy ions (C{sup 6+}). The soft collision electrons (SE), two center electron emission (TCEE), the binary encounter (BE) events and the KLL Auger lines along with the elastically scattered peaks (in electron collisions) are studied using a hemispherical electrostatic electron analyzer. The details of the measurements along with description of the spectrometer and data acquisition system are given. The angular distributions of the low energy (few eV) electrons in soft collisions and the binary encounter electrons at keV energies are compared with quantum mechanical models based on the first Born (B1) and the continuum distorted wave-Eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS)

  14. A wide-range magnetic spectrometer for electron scattering in medium energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhenlin

    1988-01-01

    A non-focusing magnetic spectrometer design for electron scattering in medium energy region is proposed. The positions read out from the position-sensitive detectors in the spectrometer are used for track reconstruction and momentum measurement by means of a computer program. The construction of this spectrometer is simple and there is no special technique and element for correction to aberration. It is suitable for usage of spectrometer with large solid angle and wide momentum range. The momentum resolution, momentum range and acceptance in a practical case are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

  15. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  16. Calculation of the optical-spectral characteristics of the prismatic electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, B.L.; Labazin, A.V.; Nikiforov, I.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of optical-spectral characteristic improvement of the prismatic electrostatic spectrometer with quadrupole lenses is considered. Aberration coefficients up to the 4-order inclusively are calculated and the spectral window form for two spectrometers, differing from one another in prism parameters, is obtained. The dependence of spectrometer resolution on the arm size (the distance from the entrance slit to the collimator lens) is investigated. On the basis of the obtained results practical recommendations of improvement primatic spectrometer parameters are given. It has been shown that spectrometer with the height of entrance and exit slits of about 4 mm is the optimum one. The optimum spectrometer arm showed not be less than 10 and more than 20 cm. The angular divergence of electron beam should be limited 3-4 deg

  17. Angular collection using solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1999-12-01

    Pion collection after the target is considered using solenoids. Two collection systems, involving solenoids, the quarter wave transformer and the adiabatic lens, widely used for the positron collection in linear accelerators, are described. Their main features, such as the acceptance volume in transverse phase space, the maximum source radius, the maximum transverse momentum acceptance, are described. The results are presented for the phase space associated with the canonical variables as well as for the trace space concerning the geometrical variables. The energy acceptances for both systems are presented and compared. Some special properties of the solenoids are then outlined. (author)

  18. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro, E-mail: yamakita@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(2{sup 3}S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  19. A flexible, on-line magnetic spectrometer for ultra-intense laser produced fast electron measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xulei; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yang, Su; Deng, Yanqing; Wei, Wenqing; Fang, Yuan; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2018-04-01

    We have developed an on-line magnetic spectrometer to measure energy distributions of fast electrons generated from ultra-intense laser-solid interactions. The spectrometer consists of a sheet of plastic scintillator, a bundle of non-scintillating plastic fibers, and an sCMOS camera recording system. The design advantages include on-line capturing ability, versatility of detection arrangement, and resistance to harsh in-chamber environment. The validity of the instrument was tested experimentally. This spectrometer can be applied to the characterization of fast electron source for understanding fundamental laser-plasma interaction physics and to the optimization of high-repetition-rate laser-driven applications.

  20. A magnetic lens electron spectrometer with simultaneous momentum and energy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, R.; Kantele, J.; Passoja, A.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary version of a combined swept-current magnetic lens plus Si(Li) electron spectrometer with simultaneous momentum and energy selection is presented. Results from test runs indicate that the spectrometer will be featuring good energy resolution and line shape, moderate transmission, and low background. The spectrometer is intended for in-beam measurements of conversion electron lines up to several MeV in energy and for nanosecond lifetime determinations, as well as for off-line studies of continuous beta-ray spectra and conversion lines from shortlived activities. (Auth.)

  1. Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prastyaningrum, I; Kartikaningsih, S.

    2017-01-01

    Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor. (paper)

  2. Highly effective portable beta spectrometer for precise depth selective electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldiyarov, N.U.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Seytimbetov, A.M.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: More broad application of the nuclear-physical method of precise Depth Selective Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (DS EMS) is limited by insufficient accessibility of highly-effective beta spectrometers with acceptable resolution. It should be mentioned that the method DS EMS is realized at a combined installation that consists of a highly-effective beta spectrometer and a conventional portable nuclear gamma-resonance spectrometer. Yet few available beta spectrometers have sophisticated design and controlling; in most cases they are cumbersome. All the attempts to simplify beta spectrometers resulted in noticeable worsening of depth resolution for the DS EMS method making the measurements non precise. There is currently an obvious need in a highly-effective portable easily controlled beta spectrometer. While developing such portable beta spectrometer, it is more promising to use as basis a simpler spectrometer, which has ratio of sample size to spectrometer size of about five times. The paper presents an equal-arm version of a highly-effective portable beta spectrometer with transverse heterogeneous sector magnetic field that assures double focusing. The spectrometer is equipped with a large-area non-equipotential source (a sample under investigation) and a position-sensitive detector. This portable spectrometer meets all requirements for achievement of the DS EMS depth resolution close to the physical limit and demonstrates the following main characteristics: equilibrium orbit radius ρ 0 = 80 mm, instrumental energy resolution 0.6 % at solid angle 1 % of 4π steradian, area of non-equipotential source ∼ 80 mm 2 , registration by position-sensitive detector of ∼ 10 % of the energy interval. Highly-effective portable beta spectrometer assures obtaining Moessbauer data with depth resolution close to physical limit of the DS EMS method. So in measurements at conversion and Auger electrons with energies of about units of keV and above, the achieved

  3. Back-view Auger electron spectrometer-diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.G.; Bol'shunov, I.B.; Romanov, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Design of a device on the base of quasispherical four-grid energy analyzer for recording the Auger electron spectra (AES) and observation of the patterns of slow electron diffraction (SED) on the side of an electron gun, is described. A layout of a small-sized electron gun providing for diffraction pattern recording up to the electron energies E ≅ 20 eV, is presented. At E=100 eV the gun current is ≅ 0.8 muA at electron beam diameter on a sample ≤ 1 mm. In the AES regime the gun allows one to record Auger spectra at electron energy E ≤ 3 keV, current ≅ 5 muA and electron beam diameter on a sample ≤ 0.2 mm. The maximum gun current is ≅ 25 muA for an increased beam diameter. Exapmles illustrating the device operation in AES and SED regimes, are presented

  4. High field laser heated solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A 10 kJ pulsed CO 2 laser and 3.8 cm bore, 15 T, 8 μs rise time, 1-m long fast solenoid facility has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of using long wavelength lasers to heat magnetically confined plasmas. The most critical physics requirement is the necessity of creating and maintaining an on-axis electron density minimum to trap the axially directed laser beam. Satisfaction of this requirement has been demonstrated by heating 1.5 Torr deuterium fill plasmas in 2.7 cm bore plasma tubes to line energies of approximately 1 kJ/m. (Auth.)

  5. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  6. A high performance angle-resolving electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rossnagel, K; Skibowski, M; Harm, S

    2001-01-01

    We report on our new versatile photoelectron spectrometer Angular Spectrometer for Photoelectrons with High Energy REsolution (ASPHERE) which is part of beamline W3.2 (photon energies from 5 to 40 eV) but also compatible with beamline BW3 (40-1500 eV) at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB). ASPHERE is a 180 deg. spherical analyzer (r sub 0 =100 mm) with a four-element input lens and is mounted on a two-axes goniometer with computer-controlled stepper motors which enables sequential angle-scanned measurements. The input lens is equipped with an iris aperture so that the angular resolution can be continuously adjusted from 0.2 deg. to 5 deg. sign . The fringe field of the condenser has been corrected for by tilting the angle of the input lens against the base plane of the hemispheres resulting in an overall energy resolution of 10 meV. To improve the speed of data acquisition three standard channeltron detectors are installed in the image plane of the analyzer which will be replaced by a multidet...

  7. High resolution electron spectrometers for characterizing the contrast of isolated 25 as pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Kun; Chang, Zenghu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The accuracy of characterizing the contrast of an isolated 25 attosecond pulse is highly dependent on the energy resolution of the electron energy spectrometer. • Magnetic-bottle electron energy spectrometer has insufficient resolution for accurate contrast measurement. • New design in the magnetic-bottle spectrometer improved the resolution by restricting the acceptance angle with a small pinhole. • The satellite pulse of the isolated 25 attosecond can be characterized with less than 10 percent error by the new magnetic-bottle spectrometer design. - Abstract: We quantify the effects of the energy resolution of a magnetic bottle electron spectrometer in an attosecond streak camera on the accuracy of measuring the relative amplitudes of satellite pulses around the main attosecond pulse. Our numerical simulations show that the spectral resolution can be significantly improved by restricting the acceptance angle using a pinhole located near the source of the photoelectrons. The intensity of the pre- and post-pulses which are 1% and 10% of a main 25 as pulse can potentially be measured with less than 10% error by two practical time-of-flight spectrometer designs

  8. Electron energy loss spectrometers the technology of high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    1991-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool in surface analysis Although the basic physics of this technique is well understood, instrument design has previously largely been left to intuition This book is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the electron optics involved in the production of intense monochromatic beams and the detection of scattered electrons It includes a full three-dimensional analysis of the electron optical properties of electron emission systems, monochromators and lens systems, placing particular emphasis on the procedures for matching the various components The description is kept mathematically simple and focuses on practical aspects, with many hints for writing computer codes to calculate and optimize electrostatic lens elements

  9. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. After a test insertion on 6th February and a few weeks of preparation work it was finally inserted on 27th February. A couple of hectic 24-hours/7-day weeks followed in order to connect all services in the cryostat bulkhead. But last Monday, 15th March, both warm flanges of the cryostat could be closed. In another week's time we expect to finish the connection of the cryogenic cooling lines and the superconducting bus lines with the external services. Then the cool-down and test will commence... ...

  10. On-line X-ray electron magnetic spectrometer for melt studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varganov, D.V.; Karpov, V.G.; Klyushnikov, O.I.; Trapeznikov, V.A.; Shabanova, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    An x-ray electron magnetic spectrometer for studying composition, electronic structure, chemical bonds of elements of metallic sample hyperfine surface layers both in solid and liquid states for a long time is described. For experiment control on-line data acquisition and processing system on the basis of local computer network was developed. Spectrometer resolution is 10 -4 , therewith halfwidth of graphite base CIs line with the use of ALK α1.2 radiaiton constitutes 1.2 eV, the system relative aperture is 0.085

  11. 2D electron systems viewed through an RF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, E.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Electrons trapped at the liquid helium-vacuum interface are an almost ideal realization of a 2D electron system. I will describe experiments probing the in-plane as well as the out-of-plane motion of the electrons. The former have emphasized the dynamics and thermodynamics of the electronic motion within the plane to understand the nature of the liquid-solid transition and to outline its phase boundary. The latter have studied the escape out of the electron layer and provided an opportunity to observe tunneling in a clean and well-characterized system as well as to measure the effects of correlations on the tunneling process. More recently experiments in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the direction of tunneling have revealed several novel phenomena associated with the magnetic coupling between the in-plane and the out-of-plane electronic motions. Together, these experiments helped uncover the multi-faceted physics that can be found in this system. (orig.)

  12. A low energy, high current, pulsed electron gun for Time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Pratap; Rao, K.C.; Sule, Uday; Rodrigues, S.M.; Bhushan, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    A compact, low energy, high current pulsed electron gun specifically intended for use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers has been developed. The electron gun consists of a thoriated tungsten hairpin type filament, a wehnelt electrode, series of extracting electrodes, an x-y deflector and a set of pulsing electrodes, all mounted on a CF35 conflat flange. The electron gun delivers ∼ 1 mA of current at 70 eV, in the dc mode. The gun can be pulsed in nanosecond pulses with a repetition rate of upto 50 KHz which can be externally synchronized with conventional time-of-flight electronics. The design and performance of the electron gun over the energy range 20eV to 500 eV is presented along with the pulsing mode operation demonstrated in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. (author)

  13. Test report: Electron-proton spectrometer qualification test unit, qualification test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Qualification tests of the electron-proton spectrometer test unit are presented. The tests conducted were: (1) functional, (2) thermal/vacuum, (3) electromagnetic interference, (4) acoustic, (5) shock, (6) vibration, and (7) humidity. Results of each type of test are presented in the form of data sheets.

  14. Temperature Regulating System for Use with an Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, J.

    1965-01-01

    A servosystem that controls the sample temperature in an electron spin resonance spectrometer is described. It is based upon the regulation of the combination of two nitrogen gas flows of different temperatures. The temperature can be preset with an accuracy to about 1 degC between -140 and 100°C...

  15. A high resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer to study electron and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A high resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer to study electron and heavy-ion impact atomic collisions. AJAY KUMAR, D MISRA, A H KELKAR, U R KADHANE, K V THULASIRAM and LOKESH C TRIBEDI. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India. E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in. MS received 9 March ...

  16. Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes--an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu(1-x)Zn(x) alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Malpha-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of pi- and sigma-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM.

  17. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, David J.; Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Matthews, Kenneth L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Hogstrom, Kenneth R., E-mail: hogstrom@lsu.edu; Carver, Robert L.; Gibbons, John P. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Liang, Edison P. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main MS-61, Houston, Texas 77005-1827 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. Methods: An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed using a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7–20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Results: Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to slightly lower

  18. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Shikhaliev, Polad M; Matthews, Kenneth L; Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Liang, Edison P

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed using a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7-20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to slightly lower energies. Energy calibration

  19. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  20. SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOIDS FOR THE MUON COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,M.A.; EYSSA,Y.; KENNY,S.; MILLER,J.R.; PRESTEMON,S.; WEGGEL,R.J.

    2000-06-12

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 {micro}s at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration.

  1. Superconducting Solenoids for the Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R.; Prestemon, S.; Weggel, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 micros at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration

  2. A conceptual design of an electron spectrometer for ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balascuta, S., E-mail: Septimiu.Balascuta@eli-np.ro; Turcu, I. C. E., E-mail: Septimiu.Balascuta@eli-np.ro [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, ELI-NP, Str. Reactorului, nr. 30, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    We present the geometry and field parameters of an Electron Spectrometer (ES) with two dipole magnets, considered for electron energy measurements at the High Fields QED experimental area at ELI-NP. The first magnet is a 2 meter long permanent magnet, placed inside the Interaction Chamber (IC). The second magnet is a 1.5 meters long electromagnet, placed outside IC. The pulsed electron beam will be produced by the 10 PW pulsed Laser, ‘pump-beam’, focused into one meter long capillary low density plasma cell. A second 10 PW pulsed Laser, ‘probe-beam’, will interact with the relativistic electron bunch providing the strong electromagnetic field. The ES will measure the subtle changes in the electron energy spectrum as a result of the electron beam interaction with the probe-beam field.

  3. A multichannel magnetic β-ray spectrometer for rapid measurements of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Komyo; Morikawa, Kaoru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make the magnetic β-ray spectrometer suitable for rapid measurements of electron spectra with short-lived nuclides, twelve small GM counters have been arrayed along the focal plane of a 180deg focusing flat type design. All the signal pulses from each one of these detectors are mixed together onto a single cable. By means of multichannel PHA, each pulse can be traced back to the specific detector which sent it out. In order to avoid time consuming evacuation procedures, the sample source is placed outside a thin window of the preevacuated analyzer chamber. By the use of this multichannel spectrometer a β-ray spectrum with maximum energy up to about 10 MeV can be measured within 1 min or so. Electron spectra measured with 113m In, 119m In and 144 Pr source are shown. (author)

  4. Modeling of possible localized electron flux in cosmic rays with Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2017-10-01

    Discrete quantum Boltzmann model together with the introduction of an external-field-tuned orientation parameter as well as the acoustic analog are adopted to study the possible localization of electron (fermion) flux in cosmic rays considering the precision measurement with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Our approximate results match qualitatively with those data measured with the AMS on the ISS.

  5. SU-D-BRCD-06: Measurement of Elekta Electron Energy Spectra Using a Small Magnetic Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, K; McLaughlin, D; Gibbons, J; Shikhaliev, P; Clarke, T; Henderson, A; Taylor, D; Shagin, P; Liang, E

    2012-06-01

    To demonstrate how a small magnetic spectrometer can measure the energy spectra of seven electron beams on an Elekta Infinity tuned to match beams on a previously commissioned machine. Energyspectra were determined from measurements of intensity profiles on 6″-long computed radiographic (CR) strips after deflecting a narrow incident beam using a small (28 lbs.), permanent magnetic spectrometer. CR plateexposures (energy spectra using the transformation from position (x) on the CR plate to energy (E) based on the Lorentz force law. The effective magnetic field and its effective edge, parameters in the transformation, were obtained by fitting a plot of most probable incident energy (determined from practical range) to the peak position. The calibration curve (E vs. x) fit gave 0.423 Tesla for the effective magnetic field. Most resulting energy spectra were characterized by a single, asymmetric peak with peak position and FWHM increasing monotonically with beam energy. Only the 9-MeV spectrum was atypical, possibly indicating suboptimal beam tuning. These results compared well with energy spectra independently determined by adjusting each spectrum until the EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculated percent depth-dose curve agreed well with the corresponding measured curve. Results indicate that this spectrometer and methodology could be useful for measuring energy spectra of clinical electron beams at isocenter. Future work will (1) remove the small effect of the detector response function (due to pinhole size and incident angular spread) from the energy spectra, (2) extract the energy spectra exiting the accelerator from current results, (3) use the spectrometer to compare energy spectra of matched beams among our clinical sites, and (4) modify the spectrometer to utilize radiochromic film. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. A condensed matter electron momentum spectrometer with parallel detection in energy and momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, P.; Caprari, R.S.; Clark, S.A.C.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.

    1994-03-01

    An electron momentum spectrometer has been constructed which measures electron binding energies and momenta by fully determining the kinematics of the incident, scattered and ejected electrons resulting from (e,2e) ionizing collisions in a thin solid foil. The spectrometer operates with incident beam energies of 20-30 keV in an asymmetric, non-coplanar scattering geometry. Bethe ridge kinematics are used. The technique uses transmission through the target foil, but it is most sensitive to the surface from which the 1.2 keV electrons emerge, to a depth of about 5 nm. Scattered and ejected electron energies and azimuthal angles are detected in parallel using position sensitive detection, yielding true coincidence count rates of 6 Hz from a 5.5 nm thick evaporated carbon target and an incident beam current of around 100 nA. The energy resolution is approximately 1.3 eV and momentum resolution approximately 0.15 a 0 -1 . The energy resolution could readily be improved by monochromating the incident electron beam. 28 refs., 15 figs

  7. Suprathermal electron studies in the TCV tokamak: Design of a tomographic hard-x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S.; Coda, S.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron current drive, disruptive events, and sawtooth activity are all known to produce suprathermal electrons in fusion devices, motivating increasingly detailed studies of the generation and dynamics of this suprathermal population. Measurements have been performed in the past years in the tokamak a configuration variable (TCV) tokamak using a single pinhole hard-x-ray (HXR) camera and electron-cyclotron-emission radiometers, leading, in particular, to the identification of the crucial role of spatial transport in the physics of ECCD. The observation of a poloidal asymmetry in the emitted suprathermal bremsstrahlung radiation motivates the design of a proposed new tomographic HXR spectrometer reported in this paper. The design, which is based on a compact modified Soller collimator concept, is being aided by simulations of tomographic reconstruction. Quantitative criteria have been developed to optimize the design for the greatly variable shapes and positions of TCV plasmas.

  8. The source of monoenergetic electrons for the monitoring of spectrometer in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Slezák, Martin

    The international project KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment. It is designed to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass by means of a unique electron spectrometer with sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. This is an improvement of one order of magnitude over the last results. Important part of the measurement will rest in continuous precise monitoring of high voltage of the KATRIN main spectrometer. The monitoring will be done by means of conversion electrons emitted from a solid source based on $^{83}$Rb decay. Properties of several of these sources are studied in this thesis by means of the semiconductor $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Firstly, measurement of precise energy of the 9.4 keV nuclear transition observed in $^{83}$Rb decay, from which the energy of conversion electrons is derived, is reported. Secondly, measurement of activity distribution of the solid sources by means of the Timepix detector is described. Finally, a report on measurement of r...

  9. Flight time beta spectrometer with position sensitive detectors for electronic structure investigation at points of hydrogen adsorption on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, V.S.; Petukhov, V.K.; Burminsky, V.P.; Lubov, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The basis of flight time beta spectrometer for investigation of electronic emission with energy not over 500 eV have been created. This device will be used for carrying out the first study of electronic structure at the points of hydrogen adsorption through the measuring of spectra of Auger relaxation electrons emitted by the system investigated surface-tritium. The momentum resolution of beta spectrometer accounts for (0,1 - 0,2)% at 'traditional' solid angle equals to 0,25% from 4π sr owing to the use positron sensitive start and stop detectors on a basis of microchannel plates. Taking into consideration that the area of our beta source is minimum 100 times larger as compared to 'traditional' spectrometers and a spectrum here is registered simultaneously over all energy interval containing useful information, we obtain high quality beta spectrometer. (author)

  10. Field and frequency modulated sub-THz electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Caspers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 260-GHz radiation is used for a quasi-optical electron spin resonance (ESR spectrometer which features both field and frequency modulation. Free space propagation is used to implement Martin-Puplett interferometry with quasi-optical isolation, mirror beam focusing, and electronic polarization control. Computer-aided design and polarization pathway simulation lead to the design of a compact interferometer, featuring lateral dimensions less than a foot and high mechanical stability, with all components rated for power levels of several Watts suitable for gyrotron radiation. Benchmark results were obtained with ESR standards (BDPA, DPPH using field modulation. Original high-field ESR of 4f electrons in Sm3+-doped Ceria was detected using frequency modulation. Distinct combinations of field and modulation frequency reach a signal-to-noise ratio of 35 dB in spectra of BDPA, corresponding to a detection limit of about 1014 spins.

  11. The XRS microcalorimeter spectrometer at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Gygax, J; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; Thorn, D B

    2007-08-22

    NASA's X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) microcalorimeter instrument has been operating at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since July of 2000. The spectrometer is currently undergoing its third major upgrade to become an easy to use, extremely high performance instrument for a broad range of EBIT experiments. The spectrometer itself is broadband, capable of simultaneously operating from 0.1 to 12 keV and has been operated at up to 100 keV by manipulating its operating conditions. The spectral resolution closely follows the spaceflight version of the XRS, beginning at 10 eV FWHM at 6 keV in 2000, upgraded to 5.5 eV in 2003, and will hopefully be {approx}3.8 eV in the Fall of 2007. Here we review the operating principles of this unique instrument, the extraordinary science that has been performed at EBIT over the last 6 years, and prospects for future upgrades. Specifically we discuss upgrades to cover the high-energy band (to at least 100 keV) with a high quantum efficiency detector, and prospects for using a new superconducting detector to reach 0.8 eV resolution at 1 keV, and 2 eV at 6 keV with high counting rates.

  12. The MEDUSA electron and ion spectrometer and the PIA ultraviolet photometers on Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Norberg

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The miniature electron and ion spectrometer MEDUSA on Astrid-2 consists of two "top-hat"-type spherical electrostatic analyzers, sharing a common top-hat. Fast energy sweeps (16 electron sweeps and 8 ion sweeps per second allow for very high temporal resolution measurements of a two-dimensional slice of the particle distribution function. The energy range covered, is in the case of electrons, 4 eV to 22 keV and, in the case of ions, 2 eV to 12 keV. MEDUSA is mounted with its aperture close to the spin plane of Astrid-2, which allows for good pitch-angle coverage when the local magnetic field is in the satellite spin plane. The PIA-1/2 spin-scanning ultraviolet photometers measure auroral emissions. Using the spacecraft spin and orbital motion, it is possible to create two-dimensional images from the data. Spin-scanning photometers, such as PIA, are low-cost, low mass alternatives to auroral imagers, but place constraints on the satellite attitude. Data from MEDUSA are used to study processes in the auroral region, in particular, electrodynamics of aurora and "black aurora". MEDUSA is also a technological development, paving the way for highly capable, miniaturized particle spectrometers.Key words. Ionosphere (instruments and techniques – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; instruments and techniques

  13. Electron optical analysis of a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer with a retarding Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, K.

    1992-09-01

    The transfer matrix up to the second-order aberrations has been formulated for an electron optical systems of a monochromator and an energy analyzer. Both of these instruments have two magnetic round lenses and a retarding Wien filter. The filter consists of a deceleration lens, a Wien filter, and an acceleration lens. The optimum excitation of the round lens is found to be that which provides parallel exit of electrons from the acceleration lens. The excitation of the Wien filter must be adjusted to focus the beam on the slit. The computed results are useful for finding the optimum operating conditions and for explaining experimental results of the high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer.

  14. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ducournau

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements.

  15. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements.

  16. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements. PMID:22291552

  17. Instrumentation for EXELFS measurements using convergent beam diffraction coupling to the electron energy loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zou Wei; Csillag, S.; Tafreshi, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    Convergent beam diffraction coupling between a JEOL-100C scanning transmission microscope and an electron energy loss spectrometer is realised for the purpose of Extended Energy Loss Fine Structure (EXELFS) measurements. The working principle, the instrumentation for this coupling mode and some specific details, such as condenser system, shadow image, focusing conditions and measurement of convergent angles are described and discussed. The combination of a quadrupole and cylindrical lens for magnifying the image and increasing the dispersion of spectrum, together with a new type of compensation circuit for stray magnetic fields and the arrangement of the parallel recording system are also reported

  18. Momentum mapping spectrometer for probing the fragmentation dynamics of molecules induced by keV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj; Bhatt, Pragya; Yadav, Namita; Shanker, R

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new experimental setup for studying the fragmentation dynamics of molecules induced by the impact of keV electrons using the well-known technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The apparatus consists of mainly a time- and position-sensitive multi-hit particle detector for ion analysis and a channel electron multiplier detector for detecting the ejected electrons. Different components of the setup and the relevant electronics for data acquisition are described in detail with their working principles. In order to verify the reliable performance of the setup, we have recorded the collision-induced ionic spectra of the CO 2 molecule by the impact of keV electrons. Information about the ion pairs of CO + :O + , C + :O + and O + :O + resulting from dissociative ionizing collisions of 20 and 26 keV electrons with a dilute gaseous target of CO 2 molecules has been obtained. Under conditions of the present experiment, the momentum resolutions of the spectrometer for the combined momenta of CO + and O + ions in the direction of the time-of-flight axis and perpendicular to the direction of an electron beam are found to be 10.0 ± 0.2 and 15.0 ± 0.3 au, respectively

  19. Temperature measurement of accelerator cell solenoid loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Fan; Dong Pan; Dai Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the research on temperature measurement of solenoid loop. The measuring temperature fiber is layered in solenoid loop for the accelerator cell. When the solenoid loop is supplied with high current form a constant current source, its temperature increases rapidly. The temperature fiber can measure the temperature of the solenoid loop and get temperature measurement rule. Experiment and simulation show temperature of interior solenoid loop the highest and it decreases from the interior to the exterior of solenoid loop. To control temperature of solenoid loop under 60 degree C, simulation displays load interval of constant current source with 80 A current should be at least is 17.5 minutes. (authors)

  20. Generation of ten kilotesla longitudinal magnetic fields in ultraintense laser-solenoid target interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, K. D.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhang, H.; Huang, T. W.; Li, R.; Qiao, B.; Cao, J. M.; Cai, T. X.; Ruan, S. C.; He, X. T.

    2018-01-01

    Production of the huge longitudinal magnetic fields by using an ultraintense laser pulse irradiating a solenoid target is considered. Through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the longitudinal magnetic field up to ten kilotesla can be observed in the ultraintense laser-solenoid target interactions. The finding is associated with both fast and return electron currents in the solenoid target. The huge longitudinal magnetic field is of interest for a number of impo...

  1. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H- ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  2. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H - ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO 2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  3. How to measure energy of LEReC electron beam with magnetic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-11

    For successful cooling the energies of RHIC ion beam and LEReC electron beam must be matched with 10-4 accuracy. While the energy of ions will be known with required accuracy, e-beam energy can have as large initial offset as 5%. The final setting of e-beam energy will be performed by observing either Schottky spectrum or recombination signal from debunched ions co-traveling with the e-beam. Yet, to start observing such signals one has to set absolute energy of electron beam with accuracy better than 10-2, preferably better than 5∙10-3. The aim of this exercise is to determine whether and how such accuracy can be reached by utilizing LEReC 180° bend as a spectrometer.

  4. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-15

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  5. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  6. Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Skoug, R. M.; Guthrie, A. A.; MacDonald, E. A.; Baldonado, J. R.; Harper, R. W.; Henderson, K. C.; Kihara, K. H.; Lake, J. E.; Larsen, B. A.; Puckett, A. D.; Vigil, V. J.; Friedel, R. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Niehof, J. T.; Reeves, G. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Hanley, J. J.; George, D. E.; Jahn, J.-M.; Cortinas, S.; De Los Santos, A.; Dunn, G.; Edlund, E.; Ferris, M.; Freeman, M.; Maple, M.; Nunez, C.; Taylor, T.; Toczynski, W.; Urdiales, C.; Spence, H. E.; Cravens, J. A.; Suther, L. L.; Chen, J.

    2013-11-01

    The HOPE mass spectrometer of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission (renamed the Van Allen Probes) is designed to measure the in situ plasma ion and electron fluxes over 4 π sr at each RBSP spacecraft within the terrestrial radiation belts. The scientific goal is to understand the underlying physical processes that govern the radiation belt structure and dynamics. Spectral measurements for both ions and electrons are acquired over 1 eV to 50 keV in 36 log-spaced steps at an energy resolution Δ E FWHM/ E≈15 %. The dominant ion species (H+, He+, and O+) of the magnetosphere are identified using foil-based time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry with channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors. Angular measurements are derived using five polar pixels coplanar with the spacecraft spin axis, and up to 16 azimuthal bins are acquired for each polar pixel over time as the spacecraft spins. Ion and electron measurements are acquired on alternate spacecraft spins. HOPE incorporates several new methods to minimize and monitor the background induced by penetrating particles in the harsh environment of the radiation belts. The absolute efficiencies of detection are continuously monitored, enabling precise, quantitative measurements of electron and ion fluxes and ion species abundances throughout the mission. We describe the engineering approaches for plasma measurements in the radiation belts and present summaries of HOPE measurement strategy and performance.

  7. Angle-resolving time-of-flight electron spectrometer for near-threshold precision measurements of differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Setiawan, A.; Panajotovic, R.; Harrison, J.; Lower, J. C. A.; Newman, D. S.; Mondal, S.; Buckman, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new type of low-energy crossed-beam electron spectrometer for measuring angular differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atomic and molecular targets. Designed for investigations at energies close to excitation thresholds, the spectrometer combines a pulsed electron beam with the time-of-flight technique to distinguish between scattering channels. A large-area, position-sensitive detector is used to offset the low average scattering rate resulting from the pulsing duty cycle, without sacrificing angular resolution. A total energy resolution better than 150 meV (full width at half maximum) at scattered energies of 0.5-3 eV is achieved by monochromating the electron beam prior to pulsing it. The results of a precision measurement of the differential cross section for electron-impact excitation of helium, at an energy of 22 eV, are used to assess the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer

  8. Pre-studies to the spectrometers of the KATRIN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatt, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis preparatory work for KATRIN was performed. So the Mainz spectrometer was changed in order to study different mechanisms of the background suppression in MAC-E filters. As main contribution to the background counting rate electrons, which have their origin on the electrodes, were found. These electrons can be hindered by a screen-grid electrode to penetrate into the sensitive spectrometer volume. This screen-grid electrode must exhibit an as low as possible surface coverage, in order to become not itself a source for secondary electrons. Such an electrode was realized. By this procedure it succeeded to reduce the background counting rate from an average value of 15 mHz during the tritium measurements to 2.8 mHz. The pure detector background amounted during the measurement 1.6 mHz, so that only 1.2 mHz contribute to the spectrometer background. The obtained results flowed into the design of the KATRIN pre-spectrometer, which was also elaborated in this thesis. The pres-spectrometer will consist of a vacuum tank, which will lie on high voltage, to spectrometer solenoids, and an inner electrode system. The electrode systems serves for the formation of the electric retardation field and consists of three electrodes, one of which will be a screen-grid electrode, as it was tested in the Mainz arrangement

  9. Installation and calibration of a grating spectrometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements using circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Johns, G.; Moeller, C.; Prater, R.

    1986-01-01

    The grating spectrometer installation on the DIII-D tokamak is discussed. It uses fundamental circular waveguide propagating the TE 11 lowest order mode followed by oversized circular guide carrying the low loss TE 01 mode. The short section of fundamental guide permits use of an electronic chopper operating at 50 kHz for both calibration and plasma operation. By using a.c.-coupled amplifiers tuned to the chopping frequency, the background signal generated in the InSb detectors by neutrons and x-rays is automatically subtracted and the system noise bandwidth is reduced. Compared with a quasi-optical system, the much smaller fundamental horn and front end waveguide allow the entire waveguide system to be located outside a gate valve. With this configuration the entire waveguide run, including the actual horn and vacuum window used during plasma operations, can be included in the calibration set-up

  10. Application Of Electronic Nose And Ion Mobility Spectrometer To Quality Control Of Spice Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, U.; Tiebe, C.; Huebert, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of electronic nose (e-nose) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to quality control and to find out product adulteration of spice mixtures. Therefore the gaseous head space phase of four different spice mixtures (spices for sausages and saveloy) was differed from original composition and product adulteration. In this set of experiments metal-oxide type e-nose (KAMINA-type) has been used, and characteristic patterns of data corresponding to various complex odors of the four different spice mixtures were generated. Simultaneously an ion mobility spectrometer was coupled also to an emission chamber for the detection of gaseous components of spice mixtures. The two main methods that have been used show a clear discrimination between the original spice mixtures and product adulteration could be distinguished from original spice mixtures.

  11. The data acquisition system used in one-dimension multichannel fast electron energy loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weichun; Zhu Linfan; Zhang Yijun; Xu Kezuo

    2010-01-01

    It describes a data acquisition system used in one dimension multichannel fast electron energy loss spectrometer, which can work in scan acquisition mode and static acquisition mode. The timing precision of the scan mode is less than 4 μs by utilizing the gated signal generated by data acquisition card DAQ2010 and an AND logic circuit. A timer card PCI8554 is used to synchronize the data acquisition card and the personal computer. The scan voltage supply is controlled by the personal computer through the RS232 interface. The multithreading technology is used in the acquisition software in order to improve the accommodating-err ability of the acquisition system. A satisfactory test result is given. (authors)

  12. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krave, S. T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tompkins, J. C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Flanagan, G. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Melconian, K. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  13. Report of the large solenoid detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Mori, S.; Pondrom, L.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

  14. Laser solenoid: an alternate use of lasers in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A unique laser assisted fusion approach is under development at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc. (MSNW). This approach captures one of the most developed aspects of high energy laser technology, the efficient, large, scalable, pulsed electron beam initiated, electric discharge, CO 2 infrared laser. This advanced technology is then combined with the simple geometry of a linear magnetic confinement system. The laser solenoid concept will be described, current work and experimental progress will be discussed, and the technological problems of building such a system will be assessed. Finally a comparison will be made of the technology and economics for the laser solenoid and alternative fusion approaches

  15. New Magnetospheric Substorm Injection Monitor: Image Electron Spectrometer On Board a Chinese Navigation IGSO Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Qiugang; Wang, Yongfu; Zou, Hong; Wang, Linghua; Rankin, Robert; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Substorm injections are one of the most dynamic processes in Earth's magnetosphere and have global consequences and broad implications for space weather modeling. They can be monitored using energetic electron detectors on geosynchronous satellites. The Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) on board a Chinese navigation satellite, launched on 16 October 2015 into an inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO), provides the first energetic electron measurement in IGSO orbit to the best of our knowledge. The IES was developed by Peking University and is named hereafter as BD-IES. Using a pin-hole technique, the BD-IES instrument measures 50-600 keV incident electrons in eight energy channels from nine directions covering a range of 180° in polar angle. Data collection by the BD-IES instrument have recently passed the 1 year mark, which reflects a successful milestone for the mission. The innermost and outermost signatures of substorm injection at L 6 and 12 have been observed by the BD-IES with a high L shell spatial coverage, complementary to the existing missions such as the Van Allen Probes that covers the range below L 6. There are another two BD-IES instruments to be installed in the coming Chinese Sun-synchronous and geosynchronous satellites, respectively. Such a configuration will provide a unique opportunity to investigate inward and outward radial propagation of the substorm injection region simultaneously at high and low L shells. It will further elucidate potential mechanisms for the particle energization and transport, two of the most important topics in magnetospheric dynamics.

  16. Dual Electron Spectrometer for Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: Results of the Comprehensive Tests of the Engineering Test Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanov, Levon A.; Gliese, Ulrik; Mariano, Albert; Tucker, Corey; Barrie, Alexander; Chornay, Dennis J.; Pollock, Craig James; Kujawski, Joseph T.; Collinson, Glyn A.; Nguyen, Quang T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is designed to study fundamental phenomena in space plasma physics such as a magnetic reconnection. The mission consists of four spacecraft, equipped with identical scientific payloads, allowing for the first measurements of fast dynamics in the critical electron diffusion region where magnetic reconnection occurs and charged particles are demagnetized. The MMS orbit is optimized to ensure the spacecraft spend extended periods of time in locations where reconnection is known to occur: at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. In order to resolve fine structures of the three dimensional electron distributions in the diffusion region (reconnection site), the Fast Plasma Investigation's (FPI) Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) is designed to measure three dimensional electron velocity distributions with an extremely high time resolution of 30 ms. In order to achieve this unprecedented sampling rate, four dual spectrometers, each sampling 180 x 45 degree sections of the sky, are installed on each spacecraft. We present results of the comprehensive tests performed on the DES Engineering & Test Unit (ETU). This includes main parameters of the spectrometer such as energy resolution, angular acceptance, and geometric factor along with their variations over the 16 pixels spanning the 180-degree tophat Electro Static Analyzer (ESA) field of view and over the energy of the test beam. A newly developed method for precisely defining the operational space of the instrument is presented as well. This allows optimization of the trade-off between pixel to pixel crosstalk and uniformity of the main spectrometer parameters.

  17. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resonance, mirror, and flat, satisfying electron cyclotron resonance condition along the axis of the plasma chamber. 2D Poisson software was used for designing. Details of design, fabrication, and magnetic field mapping of the solenoid coils are ...

  18. Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation Sequencing of Increasingly Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides on an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Riley, Nicholas M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    The structural characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates remains an important target for analytical chemists attributable to challenges introduced by the natural complexity of these mixtures and the defined need for molecular-level details to elucidate biological structure-function relationships. Tandem mass spectrometry has proven to be the most powerful technique for this purpose. Previously, electron detachment dissociation (EDD), in comparison to other methods of ion activation, has been shown to provide the largest number of useful cleavages for de novo sequencing of GAG oligosaccharides, but such experiments are restricted to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers (FTICR-MS). Negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) provides similar fragmentation results, and can be achieved on any mass spectrometry platform that is designed to accommodate ion-ion reactions. Here, we examine for the first time the effectiveness of NETD-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of GAG oligosaccharides. Compounds ranging in size from tetrasaccharides to decasaccharides were dissociated by NETD, producing both glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages that enabled the location of sulfate modifications. The highly-sulfated, heparin-like synthetic GAG, ArixtraTM, was also successfully sequenced by NETD. In comparison to other efforts to sequence GAG chains without fully ionized sulfate constituents, the occurrence of sulfate loss peaks is minimized by judicious precursor ion selection. The results compare quite favorably to prior results with electron detachment dissociation (EDD). Significantly, the duty cycle of the NETD experiment is sufficiently short to make it an effective tool for on-line separations, presenting a straightforward path for selective, high-throughput analysis of GAG mixtures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. High performance compact magnetic spectrometers for energetic ion and electron measurement in ultra intense short pulse laser solid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Link, A; van Maren, R; Patel, P; Shepherd, R; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-05-08

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets can generate relativistic electrons that then accelerate energetic protons and ions. These fast electrons and ions can effectively heat the solid target, beyond the region of direct laser interaction, and are vital to realizing the fast ignition concept. To study these energetic ions and electrons produced from the laser-target interactions, we have developed a range of spectrometers that can cover a large energy range (from less than 0.1 MeV to above 100 MeV). They are physically compact and feature high performance and low cost. We will present the basic design of these spectrometers and their test results from recent laser experiments.

  20. Large Gas Electron Multiplier Trackers for Super Bigbite Spectrometer at Jefferson lab Hall A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenboonruang, K.; Gnanvo, K.; Liyanage, N.; Nelyubin, V.; Sacher, S.; Cisbani, E.; Musico, P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2013-04-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) makes many exciting nuclear experiments possible. These experiments also require new high performance instrumentation. The Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) was proposed to perform a series of high precision nucleon form factor experiments at large momentum transfer. The SBS will be capable of operating at a very high luminosity and provide a large solid angle acceptance of 76 msr. SBS will be equipped with a double focal plane polarimeter. Thus, SBS will have three large trackers made of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers. The first, second, and third trackers will consist of six, four, and four tracking layers respectively. When completed in 2017, the SBS GEM trackers will form one of the largest sets of GEM chambers in the world. The GEM trackers allow the SBS to operate under high background rates over 500 kHz/cm^2, while providing an excellent spatial resolution of 70 μm. The first tracker will be constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, while the second and third trackers will be built at the University of Virginia. In 2012, the first UVa SBS GEM chamber prototype was successfully constructed and tested. The GEM chamber construction details and test results will be presented in this talk.

  1. A high resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer to study electron and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    charged (projectile) ions besides the performance test of the spectrometer. The design and performance of this crystal spectrometer along with the automation, using the LabVIEW technique, is described in the following sections. 2. Experimental details. The BARC–TIFR pelletron accelerator facility at TIFR has been used to ...

  2. Time-of-flight neutron-correlation spectrometers and their electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitovich, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    The review is made of the data published on neutron-correlation time-of-flight spectrometers. The operating principle of a correlation neutron time-of-flight spectrometer implies that the neutron beam serving as an input signal is modulated by an inadvertent law, and time spectrum is found by the way of measuring the mutually correlating function of the input signal and the output signal of the neutron detector. The correlation method is grounded in brief, and the specific features of the neutron-beam choppers, pulse analyzers and time encoders used in the correlation spectrometers are given. Also considered are the main functions of the computers operating in line with the spectrometers. As compared with the ordinary time-of-flight spectrometers, the neutron-correlation ones are more effective, which explains their wide application in nuclear spectrometry

  3. Results from the magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Joseph; O'Brien, Paul; Roeder, James; Reeves, Geoffrey; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  4. Initial Results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Van Allen Probes ECT Team

    2013-05-01

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of initial results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  5. Coupling sections, emittance growth, and drift compensation in the use of bent solenoids as beam transport elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norem

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Bent solenoids can transmit charged particle beams while providing momentum dispersion. While less familiar than quadrupole and dipole systems, bent solenoids can produce superficially simple transport lines and large acceptance spectrometers for use at low energies. Design issues such as drift compensation and coupling sections between straight and bent solenoids are identified, and aberrations such as shears produced by perpendicular error fields are discussed. Examples are considered which provide the basis for the design of emittance exchange elements for the cooling system of a muon collider.

  6. Superconducting Solenoid for Superfast THz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, A. V.; Khrushchev, S. V.; Kubarev, V. V.; Mezencev, N. A.; Tsukanov, V. M.; Sozinov, G. I.; Shkaruba, V. A.

    This project is related to new spectroscopy method in little-developed THz range. The method is founded on using of a free electron laser (NovoFEL) with high spectral power radiation which can be smoothly tuned in desirable range of spectrum. The objects of research of this method are fast processes in physics, chemical and biological reactions. Uniform magnetic field of 6 T value in the research area can considerably increase possibilities of this method. The magnetic field will modulate radiation of free molecules induction on characteristic frequencies of the Zeeman splitting that gives more possibilities of identification of molecules having even weak magnetic momentum. Moreover, the use of magnetic field allows essentially increase sensitivity of this method due to almost complete separation of weak measuring signals from powerful radiation of the laser. A superconducting solenoid was developed for this method. Its design and peculiarities are described in this paper.

  7. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max

    2012-12-15

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required. A quantity to rate the beam quality is the beam emittance. In the course of this thesis transverse emittance measurements by a solenoid scan could be realized and beyond that an improved theoretical description of a solenoid was successful. The foundation of emittance measurements are constituted by theoretical models which describe the envelope of a beam. Two different models were derived. The first is an often used model to determine the transverse beam emittance without considering space charge effects. More interesting and challenging was the development of an envelope model taking space charge effects into account. It is introduced and cross checked with measurements and simulations.

  8. CLIC Detector Main Solenoid Design & Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, Andrea; Herve, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The magnet system for the CLIC Detector concepts is composed of the central solenoid in combination with the two forward anti-solenoids and the ancillary systems necessary for their operation, including the so-called push-pull scenario, allowing the quick exchange of the two detectors on the beam line. An overview of the design parameters of the detector main solenoids is presented hereafter.

  9. Development of a superconducting solenoid for CADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Wang Zhijun; Wu Beiming

    2014-01-01

    A superconducting focusing solenoid has been designed and developed for the China Accelerator Driven System (CADS). In order to meet the requirement of focusing strength and fringe field while minimizing the physical size of the solenoid, the novel optimizing design method based on a linear programming method was employed. In this report, the design of the solenoid including magnetic field optimization, mechanical design and quench protection will be introduced. The solenoid has been fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the central field reached 8.4 T and the stray field was lower than 50 Gauss in the cavity zone. (authors)

  10. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  11. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  12. Laser-heated solenoid fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlases, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since the suggestion by Dawson, Hertzberg, and Kidder that high-energy CO 2 lasers could be used to heat magnetically confined plasma columns to thermonuclear temperatures, a great deal of theoretical and experimental work has been performed. In this paper we first review the experiments on the basic laser-plasma interaction phenomena, in which lasers with energies up to 1 kJ have been used to produce plasmas at n/sub e/ greater than 10 18 and T/sub e/ greater than 200 eV. The second part reviews fusion reactor studies based on the laser solenoid

  13. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  14. Electron and hadron separation by the system consisting of active converter, scintillation counter and total absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astvatsaturov, R.G.; Arkhipov, V.V.; Vasil'ev, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Hadron suppression is investigated, using 2 GeV/c momentum π - -meson beam, which contains 6% electrons, by means of detection system, including lead glass active counter, lead glass Cherenkov γ-spectrometers, 1 m length scintillation counter scanned by two photomultipliers from the ends. Selection of events by means of scintillation counter has allowed to reduce hadron contribution by one order at ≥ 90% efficiency of electron detection. Accuracy of determination of electromagnetic shower axis coordinate by time difference of light signal propagation in scintillation converter practically does not depend on converter thickness within 2-6 rad. un. thickness range and equals to 2.1 cm

  15. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  16. Exploring the Physics Limitations of Compact High Gradient Accelerating Structures Simulations of the Electron Current Spectrometer Setup in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Van Vliet, Philine Julia

    2017-01-01

    The high field gradient of 100 MV/m that will be applied to the accelerator cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), gives rise to the problem of RF breakdowns. The field collapses and a plasma of electrons and ions is being formed in the cavity, preventing the RF field from penetrating the cavity. Electrons in the plasma are being accelerated and ejected out, resulting in a breakdown current up to a few Amp`eres, measured outside the cavities. These breakdowns lead to luminosity loss, so reducing their amount is of great importance. For this, a better understanding of the physics behind RF breakdowns is needed. To study these breakdowns, the XBox 2 test facility has a spectrometer setup installed after the RF cavity that is being conditioned. For this report, a simulation of this spectrometer setup has been made using Geant4. Once a detailed simulation of the RF field and cavity has been made, it can be connected to this simulation of the spectrometer setup and used to recreate the data that has b...

  17. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  18. Design and construction of a high-stability, low-noise power supply for use with high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.; Davies, P.W.; Crowell, J.E.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design and construction of a high-stability, low-noise power supply which provides potentials for the lens and analyzer elements of a 127 0 Ehrhardt-type high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) is described. The supply incorporates a filament emission-control circuit and facilities for measuring electron beam current at each spectrometer element, thus facilitating optimal tuning of the spectrometer. Spectra obtained using this supply are shown to have a four-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and a higher resolution of the vibrational loss features when compared with spectra taken using a previously existing supply based on passive potential divider networks

  19. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  20. A high resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer to study electron and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied fast ion–atom and electron–atom collision processes using a reconditioned high resolution X-ray spectrometer. The X-rays, generated by the collisions, are dispersed by a curved ADP crystal (Johansson geometry) and detected by a gas proportional counter. A self-written LabVIEW based program has ...

  1. Workshop on CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] spectrometer magnet design and technology: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The planned experimental program at CEBAF includes high-resolution, large acceptance spectrometers and a large toroidal magnetic, detector. In order to take full advantage of the high quality beam characteristics, the performances required will make these devices quite unique instruments compared to existing facilities in the same energy range. Preliminary designs have shown that such performances can be reached, but key questions concerning design concepts and most appropriate and cost-effective technologies had to be answered before going further with the designs. It was the purpose of the Workshop on CEBAF Spectrometer Magnet Design and Technology, organized by the CEBAF Research and Engineering Divisions, to provide the most complete information about the state-of-the-art tools and techniques in magnet design and construction and to discuss the ones most appropriate to the CEBAF spectrometers. In addition, it is expected that this Workshop will be the staring point for further interactions and collaborations between international magnet experts and the CEBAF staff, during the whole process of designing and building the spectrometers

  2. A novel approach to electron data background treatment in an online wide-angle spectrometer for laser-accelerated ion and electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, F. H.; Bin, J. H.; Englbrecht, F.; Haffa, D.; Bolton, P. R.; Gao, Y.; Hartmann, J.; Hilz, P.; Kreuzer, C.; Ostermayr, T. M.; Rösch, T. F.; Speicher, M.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P. G.; Schreiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-based ion acceleration is driven by electrical fields emerging when target electrons absorb laser energy and consecutively leave the target material. A direct correlation between these electrons and the accelerated ions is thus to be expected and predicted by theoretical models. We report on a modified wide-angle spectrometer, allowing the simultaneous characterization of angularly resolved energy distributions of both ions and electrons. Equipped with online pixel detectors, the RadEye1 detectors, the investigation of this correlation gets attainable on a single shot basis. In addition to first insights, we present a novel approach for reliably extracting the primary electron energy distribution from the interfering secondary radiation background. This proves vitally important for quantitative extraction of average electron energies (temperatures) and emitted total charge.

  3. Impact of the Tilted Detector Solenoid on the Ion Polarization at JLEIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu N.; Derbenev, Ya S.; Lin, F.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) is a figure-8 collider “transparent” to the spin. This allows one to control the ion polarization using a universal 3D spin rotator based on weak solenoids. Besides the 3D spin rotator, a coherent effect on the spin is produced by a detector solenoid together with the dipole correctors and anti-solenoids compensating betatron oscillation coupling. The 4 m long detector solenoid is positioned along a straight section of the electron ring and makes a 50 mrad horizontal angle with a straight section of the ion ring. Such a large crossing angle is needed for a quick separation of the two colliding beams near the interaction point to make sufficient space for placement of interaction region magnets and to avoid parasitic collisions of shortly-spaced 476 MHz electron and ion bunches. We present a numerical analysis of the detector solenoid effect on the proton and deuteron polarizations. We demonstrate that the effect of the detector solenoid on the proton and deuteron polarizations can be compensated globally using an additional 3D rotator located anywhere in the ring. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contracts DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. A laser desorption-electron impact ionization ion trap mass spectrometer for real-time analysis of single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hanna, S. J.; Robb, D. B.; Hepburn, J. H.; Blades, M. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    A novel aerosol ion trap mass spectrometer combining pulsed IR laser desorption with electron impact (EI) ionization for single particle studies is described. The strengths of this instrument include a two-step desorption and ionization process to minimize matrix effects; electron impact ionization, a universal and well-characterized ionization technique; vaporization and ionization inside the ion trap to improve sensitivity; and an ion trap mass spectrometer for MSn experiments. The instrument has been used for mass spectral identification of laboratory generated pure aerosols in the 600 nm-1.1 [mu]m geometric diameter range of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as for tandem mass spectrometry studies (up to MS3) of single caffeine particles. We investigate the effect of various operational parameters on the mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. The single particle detection limit of the instrument was found to be a 325 nm geometric diameter particle (8.7 × 107 molecules or 22 fg) for 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Lower single particle detection limits are predicted to be attainable by modifying the EI pulse. The use of laser desorption-electron impact (LD-EI) in an ion trap is a promising technique for determining the size and chemical composition of single aerosol particles in real time.

  5. Calibration of the OHREX high-resolution imaging crystal spectrometer at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Bamberg 96049 (Germany); Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report the calibration of the Orion High-Resolution X-ray (OHREX) imaging crystal spectrometer at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at Livermore. Two such instruments, dubbed OHREX-1 and OHREX-2, are fielded for plasma diagnostics at the Orion laser facility in the United Kingdom. The OHREX spectrometer can simultaneously house two spherically bent crystals with a radius of curvature of r = 67.2 cm. The focusing properties of the spectrometer allow both for larger distance to the source due to the increase in collected light and for observation of extended sources. OHREX is designed to cover a 2.5°–3° spectral range at Bragg angles around 51.3°. The typically high resolving powers at these large Bragg angles are ideally suited for line shape diagnostics. For instance, the nominal resolving power of the instrument (>10 000) is much higher than the effective resolving power associated with the Doppler broadening due to the temperature of the trapped ions in EBIT-I. The effective resolving power is only around 3000 at typical EBIT-I conditions, which nevertheless is sufficient to set up and test the instrument’s spectral characteristics. We have calibrated the spectral range for a number of crystals using well known reference lines in the first and second order and derived the ion temperatures from these lines. We have also made use of the 50 μm size of the EBIT-I source width to characterize the spatial focusing of the spectrometer.

  6. H- beam neutralization measurements in a solenoidal beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Pitcher, E.; Stevens, R.; Allison, P.

    1992-01-01

    H minus beam space-charge neutralization is measured for 65-mA, 35-keV beams extracted from a circular-aperture Penning surface-plasma source, the small-angle source. The H minus beam is transported to a RFQ matchpoint by a two-solenoid magnet system. Beam noise is typically ±4%. A four-grid analyzer is located in a magnetic-field-free region between the two solenoid magnets. H minus potentials are deduced from kinetic energy measurements of particles (electrons and positive ions) ejected radially from the beam channel by using a griddled energy analyzer. Background neutral gas density is increased by the introduction of additional Xe and Ar gases, enabling the H minus beam to become overneutralized

  7. Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M; Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V; Daido, H; Tampo, M; Schollmeier, M

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10 12 particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  8. Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V [GSI - Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Plasmaphysik and PHELIX, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Daido, H; Tampo, M [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-city, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Schollmeier, M, E-mail: k.harres@gsi.d [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10{sup 12} particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  9. Progress of the BESS Superconducting Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haino, S. E-mail: haino@icepps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Abe, K.; Anraku, K.; Fuke, H.; Hams, T.; Ikeda, N.; Itasaki, A.; Izumi, K.; Kumazawa, T.; Lee, M.H.; Maeno, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsui, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Mitchell, J.W.; Moiseev, A.A.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Omiya, H.; Orito, S.; Ormes, J.F.; Sanuki, T.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E.S.; Shikaze, Y.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Tanizaki, K.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamato, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K

    2004-02-01

    Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) is a balloon-borne spectrometer to study elementary particle phenomena in the early Universe as well as the origin and the propagation of cosmic radiation. The instrument has a unique feature of a thin superconducting solenoid which enables a large acceptance with a cylindrical configuration. Nine balloon flights have been successfully carried out since 1993. In 2002, the detector was upgraded as the BESS-TeV spectrometer to extend primary cosmic-ray spectra up to 1 TeV. For further studies of low-energy antiprotons, a new spectrometer, BESS-Polar, with a ultra-thin superconducting solenoid is being developed for long duration balloon flights in Antarctica.

  10. Embedded Solenoid Transformer for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A resonant power converter for operation in the radio frequency range, preferably in the VHF, comprises at least one PCB-embedded transformer. The transformer is configured for radio frequency operation and comprises a printed circuit board defining a horizontal plane, the printed circuit board...... comprising at least two horizontal conductive layers separated by an isolating layer, a first embedded solenoid forming a primary winding of the transformer and a second embedded solenoid being arranged parallel to the first solenoid and forming a secondary winding of the transformer, wherein the first...

  11. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Yung Szen, E-mail: yungszen@utm.my [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Tabuchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro, E-mail: kitagawa@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  12. New reference and test materials for the characterization of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers at scanning electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackwitz, Vanessa; Krumrey, Michael; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2015-04-01

    Checking the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers as well as validation of the results obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) involve the use of (certified) reference and dedicated test materials. This paper gives an overview on the test materials mostly employed by SEM/EDX users and accredited laboratories as well as on those recommended in international standards. The new BAM reference material EDS-CRM, which is currently in the process of certification, is specifically designed for the characterization of EDS systems at a SEM through calibration of the spectrometer efficiency in analytical laboratories in a simple manner. The certification of the spectra by means of a reference EDS is described. The focus is on the traceability of EDS efficiency which is ensured by measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of silicon drift detectors (SDD) and Si(Li) detectors at the laboratory of the PTB using the electron storage ring BESSY II as a primary X-ray source standard. A new test material in development at BAM for testing the performance of an EDS in the energy range below 1 keV is also briefly presented.

  13. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  14. SU-F-T-84: Measurement and Monte-Carlo Simulation of Electron Phase Spaces Using a Wide Angle Magnetic Electron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englbrecht, F; Lindner, F; Bin, J; Wislsperger, A; Reiner, M; Kamp, F; Belka, C; Dedes, G; Schreiber, J; Parodi, K [LMU Munich, Munich, Bavaria (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To measure and simulate well-defined electron spectra using a linear accelerator and a permanent-magnetic wide-angle spectrometer to test the performance of a novel reconstruction algorithm for retrieval of unknown electron-sources, in view of application to diagnostics of laser-driven particle acceleration. Methods: Six electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 MeV, 40cm × 40cm field-size) delivered by a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator were recorded using a permanent-magnetic wide-angle electron spectrometer (150mT) with a one dimensional slit (0.2mm × 5cm). Two dimensional maps representing beam-energy and entrance-position along the slit were measured using different scintillating screens, read by an online CMOS detector of high resolution (0.048mm × 0.048mm pixels) and large field of view (5cm × 10cm). Measured energy-slit position maps were compared to forward FLUKA simulations of electron transport through the spectrometer, starting from IAEA phase-spaces of the accelerator. The latter ones were validated against measured depth-dose and lateral profiles in water. Agreement of forward simulation and measurement was quantified in terms of position and shape of the signal distribution on the detector. Results: Measured depth-dose distributions and lateral profiles in the water phantom showed good agreement with forward simulations of IAEA phase-spaces, thus supporting usage of this simulation source in the study. Measured energy-slit position maps and those obtained by forward Monte-Carlo simulations showed satisfactory agreement in shape and position. Conclusion: Well-defined electron beams of known energy and shape will provide an ideal scenario to study the performance of a novel reconstruction algorithm using measured and simulated signal. Future work will increase the stability and convergence of the reconstruction-algorithm for unknown electron sources, towards final application to the electrons which drive the interaction of TW-class laser

  15. Low energy X-ray spectra measured with a mercuric iodide energy dispersive spectrometer in a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Huth, G. C.; Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A mercuric iodide energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, with Peltier cooling provided for the detector and input field effect transistor, has been developed and tested in a scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectra were obtained with the 15 keV electron beam. An energy resolution of 225 eV (FWHM) for Mn-K(alpha) at 5.9 keV and 195 eV (FWHM) for the Mg-K line at 1.25 keV has been measured. Overall system noise level was 175 eV (FWHM). The detector system characterization with a carbon target demonstrated good energy sensitivity at low energies and lack of significant spectral artifacts at higher energies.

  16. GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécz, Zs.; Konoplev, I. V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.

  17. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  18. Ultimate Performance of the ATLAS Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, R; Kawai, M; Kondo, Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kate, H ten; Kondo, T; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2007-01-01

    A 2 tesla, 7730 ampere, 39 MJ, 45 mm thin superconducting solenoid with a 2.3 meters warm bore and 5.3 meters length, is installed in the center of the ATLAS detector and successfully commissioned. The solenoid shares its cryostat with one of the detector's calorimeters and provides the magnetic field required for the inner detectors to accurately track collision products from the LHC at CERN. After several years of a stepwise construction and test program, the solenoid integration 100 meters underground in the ATLAS cavern is completed. Following the on-surface acceptance test, the solenoid is now operated with its final cryogenic, powering and control system. A re-validation of all essential operating parameters is completed. The performance and test results of underground operation are reported and compared to those previously measured.

  19. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  20. Arrival of the ATLAS solenoid from Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L. to r.: Photo 01: L. to r.: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson). Photo 02: (truck on the right side) with the LAr barrel calorimeter cryostat (also built in Japan) on the left side. From left to right are the following ATLAS people: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Marzio Nessi (Technical Coordinator), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson)

  1. Advances in laser solenoid fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Quimby, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The laser solenoid is an alternate fusion concept based on a laser-heated magnetically-confined plasma column. The reactor concept has evolved in several systems studies over the last five years. We describe recent advances in the plasma physics and technology of laser-plasma coupling. The technology advances include progress on first walls, inner magnet design, confinement module design, and reactor maintenance. We also describe a new generation of laser solenoid fusion and fusion-fission reactor designs

  2. Concepts of plasticity in solenoid stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmestani, H.; Vaghar, M.R.; Markiewicz, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    The concepts of plasticity are reviewed in the context of solenoid magnet design. The von Mises and Hill yield functions are introduced and related to flow rules. The derivation of equations for an elastic-plastic analysis of solenoids is discussed. Material properties are derived from Nb 3 Sn conductors and used in example calculations. The results of elastic-plastic analyses are compared with those of elastic analyses under various assumptions

  3. Conceptual design of the Mu2e production solenoid cold mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Lamm, M.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nicol, T.H.; Page, T.M.; Pronskikh, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    The Muon-to-Electron conversion experiment (Mu2e), under development at Fermilab, seeks to detect direct muon to electron conversion to provide evidence for a process violating muon and electron lepton number conservation that cannot be explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. The required magnetic field is produced by a series of superconducting solenoids of various apertures and lengths. This paper describes the conceptual design of the 5 T, 4 m long solenoid cold mass with 1.67 m bore with the emphasis on the magnetic, radiation and thermal analyses.

  4. E-beam heated linear solenoid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Bailey, V.; Oliver, D.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and system analysis shows that electron beam heated linear solenoidal reactors are attractive for near term applications which can use low gain fusion sources. Complete plant designs have been generated for fusion based breeders of fissile fuel over a wide range of component parameters (e.g., magnetic fields, reactor lengths, plasma densities) and design options (e.g., various radial and axial loss mechanisms). It appears possible that a reactor of 100 to 300 meters length operating at power levels of 1000 MWt can economically produce 2000 to 8000 kg/yr of 233 U to supply light water reactor fuel needs beyond 2000 A.D. Pure fusion reactors of 300 to 500 meter lengths are possible. Physics and operational features of reactors are described. Beam heating by classical and anomalous energy deposition is reviewed. The technology of the required beams has been developed to MJ/pulse levels, within a factor of 20 of that needed for full scale production reactors. The required repetitive pulsing appears practical

  5. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  6. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-08-29

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  8. Light-trap design using multiple reflections and solid-angle attenuation - Application to a spaceborne electron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of a new light trap for a spaceborne electron spectrometer are described. The light trap has a measured photon-rejection ratio of 2 x 10 exp -11, allowing only one in 5 x 10 exp 10 incident photons to reach the sensitive area of the instrument. This rejection is more than sufficient because the ambient UV in earth orbit requires a rejection no better than 10 exp -8 to maintain the photon interference to less than 10 count/s. The light trap uses triple reflections to keep most of the light passing through the entrance slit away from the sensitive area of the spectrometer. It is shown that the average reflectance of all the internal surfaces must be less than 0.006, which is consistent with the data on the black coating applied to all surfaces. The analysis makes it possible to compare the photon contributions of each of the internal reflecting areas and to estimate the effective scattering width of the metallic electrode edge.

  9. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  10. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-09-21

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  12. Grating spectrometer installation for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the DIII-D tokamak using circular waveguide and synchronous detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Jahns, G.; Moeller, C.; Prater, R.

    1986-01-01

    The grating spectrometer installation on the DIII-D tokamak uses fundamental circular waveguide propagating the TE 11 lowest-order mode followed by oversized circular guide carrying the low-loss TE 01 mode. The short section of fundamental guide permits use of an electronic chopper operating at 100 kHz for both calibration and plasma operation. By using ac-coupled amplifiers tuned to the chopping frequency, the background signal generated in the indium antimonide detectors by neutrons and x rays is automatically subtracted and the system noise bandwidth is reduced. Compared with a quasi-optical system, the much smaller fundamental horn and front-end waveguide allow the waveguide system to be located outside a gate valve. With this configuration the entire waveguide run, including the actual horn and vacuum window used during plasma operations, can be included in the calibration setup

  13. Conceptual design of the Radial Gamma Ray Spectrometers system for α particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, Massimo; Tardocchi, Marco; Barnsley, Robin

    2017-01-01

    We here present the principles and main physics capabilities behind the design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers (RGRS) system for alpha particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER. The diagnostic benefits from recent advances in gamma-ray spectrometry for tokamak plasmas and combines...... space and high energy resolution in a single device. The RGRS system as designed can provide information on α particles on a time scale of 1/10 of the slowing down time for the ITER 500 MW full power DT scenario. Spectral observations of the 3.21 and 4.44 MeV peaks from the 9Be (α, nϒ) 12C reaction make...

  14. Distinguishing new science from calibration effects in the electron-volt neutron spectrometer VESUVIO at ISIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A., E-mail: dreismann@chem.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Chemistry (Sekr. C2), Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Gray, E. MacA., E-mail: e.gray@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Blach, T.P., E-mail: t.blach@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    The 'standard' procedure for calibrating the Vesuvio eV neutron spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, forming the basis for data analysis over at least the last decade, was recently documented in considerable detail by the instrument's scientists. Additionally, we recently derived analytic expressions of the sensitivity of recoil peak positions with respect to fight-path parameters and presented neutron-proton scattering results that together called into question the validity of the 'standard' calibration. These investigations should contribute significantly to the assessment of the experimental results obtained with Vesuvio. Here we present new results of neutron-deuteron scattering from D{sub 2} in the backscattering angular range ({theta}>90 Degree-Sign ) which are accompanied by a striking energy increase that violates the Impulse Approximation, thus leading unequivocally the following dilemma: (A) either the 'standard' calibration is correct and then the experimental results represent a novel quantum dynamical effect of D which stands in blatant contradiction of conventional theoretical expectations; (B) or the present 'standard' calibration procedure is seriously deficient and leads to artificial outcomes. For Case (A), we allude to the topic of attosecond quantum dynamical phenomena and our recent neutron scattering experiments from H{sub 2} molecules. For Case (B), some suggestions as to how the 'standard' calibration could be considerably improved are made.

  15. A high resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer to study electron and heavy-ion impact atomic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Misra, D.; Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U. R.; Thulasiram, K. V.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-06-01

    We have studied fast ion-atom and electron-atom collision processes using a reconditioned high resolution X-ray spectrometer. The X-rays, generated by the collisions, are dispersed by a curved ADP crystal (Johansson geometry) and detected by a gas proportional counter. A self-written LabVIEW based program has been used to give precise and controlled movement to the crystal and for data acquisition. The performance was tested by detecting the Kα diagram and satellite lines of several elements. The Kα satellite lines of Al have been studied in collision with 3-12 keV electrons and 40 MeV C^{4+} ions. In ion collisions as large as four L-vacancies are created simultaneously with the K-vacancy, compared to two satellites in case of the e-impact. In addition, we have measured the X-rays from H-, He- and Li-like Si ions which arise due to the electron loss/capture process in highly charged 80 MeV Si^{7+} ions in collision with thin carbon foil. Approximate charge state distribution has been obtained using this new technique.

  16. Central Solenoid On-surface Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    2004-01-01

    A full scale on-surface test of the central solenoid has been performed before its final installation in the ATLAS cavern starting in November. The successful integration of the central solenoid into the barrel cryostat, as reported in the March 2004 ATLAS eNews, was hardly finished when testing started. After a six-week period to cool down the LAr calorimeter, the solenoid underwent a similar procedure. Cooling it down to 4.6 Kelvin from room temperature took just over five and a half days. Cold and superconducting, it was time to validate the functionality of the control and safety systems. These systems were largely the same as the systems to be used in the final underground installation, and will be used not only for the solenoid and toroid magnets, but parts of it also for other LHC experiments. This solenoid test was the first occasion to test the system functionality in a real working environment. Several days were spent to fine tune the systems, especially the critical safety system, which turned out...

  17. High-efficiency cross-beam magnetic electron-impact source for improved miniature Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrometer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjar, O.; Fowler, W. K.

    2012-06-01

    We describe a newly designed cross-beam magnetic electron-impact ion source (CBM-EI). We demonstrate its superiority in comparison with a conventional source (CB-EI) when used with a commercial miniature sector-field-type, non-scanning mass spectrometer featuring Mattauch-Herzog geometry (MH-MS) and a permanent sector-field magnet. This paper clearly shows the value of the CBM-EI for enhancing MH-MS sensitivity. Unlike secondary electron-multiplier type detectors, the pixelated detector (IonCCD™) used in the commercial MH-MS has no gain. The MH-MS/IonCCD system is therefore challenged to compete with time-of-flight and quadrupole MS systems due to their higher ion transmissions and detector gains. Using the new CBM-EI, we demonstrate an instrument sensitivity increase of 20-fold to 100-fold relative to the CB-EI-equipped instrument. This remarkable signal increase by the simple addition of the magnet assembly arises from the magnet-induced gyromotion of the thermionic electrons, which vastly increases the effective path length of the electrons through the ionization region, and the collimated nature of the electron flux, which optimizes the ion transmission through the 100-μm object slit of the MH-MS. Some or all of the realized sensitivity increase may be exchanged for an increase in resolution and/or mass range through the use of a narrower object slit, or for a reduction in ion-source pressure to limit quenching. The CBM-EI should facilitate development of a differentially pumped ion source to extend the lifetime of the filament, especially in otherwise intractable applications associated with oxidizing and corrosive samples.

  18. The plastic ball spectrometer - an electronic 4π detector with particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baden, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.

    1982-04-01

    For the high multiplicity events occuring in relativistic nuclear collisions an electronic 4π detector with particle identification has been built. It consists of 815 ΔE-E telescopes and 176 TOF telescopes covering 97% of 4π. Very good particle identification has been obtained for hydrogen and helium isotopes and also π + have been detected with high efficiency. (orig.)

  19. The read-out system of the one-dimension position-sensitive detector used in electron energy loss coincident spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Yujin; Yang Tao; Zhao Bo; Yu Xiaoqi

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the read-out system of the one-dimension Position-Sensitive Detector used in Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometer (EELCS), which is consisted of charge sensitive pre-amplifier (PA), main amplifier (MA), position signal sampling circuit and interface circuit. The one-dimension Position-Sensitive Detector can improve detector efficiency greatly. A satisfactory experiment result was given

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPER-STABLE DATUM POINT FOR MONITORING THE ENERGY SCALE OF ELECTRON SPECTROMETERS IN THE ENERGY RANGE UP TO 20 keV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vénos, Drahoslav; Zbořil, Miroslav; Kašpar, Jaromír; Dragoun, Otokar; Bonn, J.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebeda, Ondřej; Lebedev, N. A.; Ryšavý, Miloš; Schlosser, K.; Špalek, Antonín; Weinheimer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2010), s. 305-312 ISSN 0543-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0002; GA MŠk LA318; GA MŠk LC07050; GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nuclear transition energy * conversion electrons * electron spectrometer Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.154, year: 2010

  1. Electron-Impact Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Molecular Beams,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-15

    AL. UNLSSIFIED 15 APR 99 TR-0086(6909)-i SD-TR-99-25 F/O 7/4 M LNLE 9mmm ohhh 7hmol U L- 1.06 111W14 UTION TESI CHAR1 liii, 1. III_~~ . Electron...mechanics, heat transfer and flight dynamics; chemical and electric propulsion, propellant chemistry , chemical dynamics, environmental chemistry , trace...propagation, laser effects and countermeasures. Chemistry and Physics Laboratory: Atmospheric chemical reactions, atmospheric optics, light scattering, state

  2. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S.J.; Putman, P.T.; Fang, H.; Alessandrini, M.; Salama, K.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample

  3. First Operation of the Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. It was cooled down from the 17th to 23th May 2006, and the first kA was put into it the same evening as it was cold and superconductive. That makes our solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas. The Central Solenoid in its final position at the heart of ATLAS. The coil current (red line) and voltage (blue line) showing the operation at nominal current of 7.73 kA for a magnetic field of 2.0 T and the subsequent successful commissioning up to 8 kAT The cool down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems and was achieved in perfect collaboration with the liquid argon detector with which it shares the Barrel Cryostat. Powering up to nominal current had to wait until the last week of July when the End-Cap Calorimeters were in closed position. The Tile Barrel and E...

  4. Successful mapping of the solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M.

    The ATLAS solenoid coil is about 5.3m long, has a diameter of 2.5m and is designed to deliver a magnetic field of approximately 2T for the ATLAS inner detector. The superconducting solenoid coil has been integrated inside the LAr barrel cryostat and was installed at its final position inside the cavern in November 2005. This summer - after completion of the extended barrel calorimeters and before the installation of the inner detector - the end cap calorimeters (LAr end caps and Tile extended barrels) were moved for the first time into their final position in order to create conditions as close as possible to final for the solenoid tests and for mapping the field inside the solenoid bore. Design and construction of the mapping machine The requirement on the absolute precision of the field measurements are 0.05% on the field integrals seen by particles; if this is achieved the momentum error coming from insufficient knowledge of the magnetic field will be negligible compared to the error stemming from the inn...

  5. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  6. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  7. Flowfield Analysis of a Pneumatic Solenoid Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheam-Chyun Lin

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic solenoid valve has been widely used in the vehicle control systems for meeting the rapid-reaction demand triggered by the dynamic conditions encountered during the driving course of vehicle. For ensuring the safety of human being, the reliable and effective solenoid valve is in great demand to shorten the reaction time and thus becomes the topic of this research. This numerical study chooses a commercial 3/2-way solenoid valve as the reference valve for analysing its performance. At first, CFD software Fluent is adopted to simulate the flow field associated with the valve configuration. Then, the comprehensive flow visualization is implemented to identify the locations of adverse flow patterns. Accordingly, it is found that a high-pressure region exists in the zone between the nozzle exit and the top of iron core. Thereafter, the nozzle diameter and the distance between nozzle and spool are identified as the important design parameters for improving the pressure response characteristics of valve. In conclusion, this work establishes a rigorous and systematic CFD scheme to evaluate the performance of pneumatic solenoid valve.

  8. Development of solenoid-induced helical wiggler with four poles per period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Kiyochi, M.; Nakao, N.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Nakai, S.; Mima, K.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of helical wiggler consisting of two staggered-iron arrays inserted into a solenoid field has been developed. The field measured by a test wiggler showed linear increment with the period. It was seen that 24% of the solenoid field contributed to the induced wiggler field when the gap length and the period of the wiggler were 16 and 24 mm, respectively. This wiggler would be useful for an FEL with a low-energy electron beam propagating in a strong axial guiding field

  9. Development of solenoid-induced helical wiggler with four poles per period

    CERN Document Server

    Ohigashi, N; Kiyochi, M; Nakao, N; Fujita, M; Imasaki, K; Nakai, S; Mima, K

    1999-01-01

    A new type of helical wiggler consisting of two staggered-iron arrays inserted into a solenoid field has been developed. The field measured by a test wiggler showed linear increment with the period. It was seen that 24% of the solenoid field contributed to the induced wiggler field when the gap length and the period of the wiggler were 16 and 24 mm, respectively. This wiggler would be useful for an FEL with a low-energy electron beam propagating in a strong axial guiding field.

  10. Novel MEMS-based fabrication technology of micro solenoid-type inductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, S; Yang, Z Q; Takagi, H; Itoh, T; Maeda, R; Zhang, Y; Toda, A; Hayase, M

    2013-01-01

    Solenoid configuration of micro inductor, which has advantages of high quality factor and low loss, is needed in micro energy and power electronics applications but it is difficult to prepare using conventional microfabrication processes. In this work, we present a new microelectromechanical systems-based technology of micro solenoid-type inductor by a newly developed cylindrical projection photolithography method. Direct electroplating process of copper film on coil patterns was also successfully developed for achieving thick windings so that thick photoresist-based electroplating molds are not needed. Micro solenoid-type inductor prototypes of the winding pitch of about 40 µm, the winding number of 20 and 50, and the winding thickness of about 14 µm, were successfully fabricated on a 1 mm diameter glass capillary. The prepared 20-turn and 50-turn micro inductors were of inductance of 69 and 205 nH at 30 MHz, respectively. (paper)

  11. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  12. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-01-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons

  13. Dynamic analysis of fast-acting solenoid valves using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ki Tae; Han, Hwa Taik

    2001-01-01

    It is intended to develop an algorithm for dynamic simulation of fast-acting solenoid valves. The coupled equations of the electric, magnetic, and mechanical systems should be solved simultaneously in a transient nonlinear manner. The transient nonlinear electromagnetic field is analyzed by the Finite Element Method (FEM), which is coupled with nonlinear electronic circuitry. The dynamic movement of the solenoid valve is analyzed at every time step from the force balances acting on the plunger, which include the electromagnetic force calculated from the finite element analysis as well as the elastic force by a spring and the hydrodynamic pressure force along the flow passage. Dynamic responses of the solenoid valves predicted by this algorithm agree well the experimental results including bouncing effects

  14. Trigger and readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS forward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger and tracking...

  15. Trigger and Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Forward Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas (MM) and small strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger ...

  16. Time dependence of electron and positron fluxes measured with the AMS-02 spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081963; Duranti, Matteo

    The electrons (e-) and positrons (e+) are a rare component of Cosmic Rays (CRs) since they constitute respectively only a 1% and 0.1% of cosmic radiation. However, the correct detection of e+- covers a great importance in the astrophysics field since, unlike the hadronic component, they are subjected to strong energy losses through the interaction with Interstellar Medium. As consequence e with energies above GeV that reach the Earth are galactic, with the source inside Kpc and through the study of their primary spectra it is possible to probe the local interstellar medium (LIS) and to indirectly detect new possible sources like pulsar or dark matter. However, these spectra, when measured near Earth, are significantly affected by the solar activity and we have the so-called solar modulation of CRs (SM). The solar activity has a cycle which period is ~11 years, during which it increases reaching a maximum and then decreases again. The intensity of cosmic ray radiation is correlated (or rather anticorrelated...

  17. Biomedical applications of electronic microscopy and elementary analysis with spectrometer of x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarria, F.; Saenz, A.; Freer, E.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic microscopy has advanced from its invention 60 years ago and its application in biomedical sciences has been very big. Parallel to the development of new technology in this field and that has allowed to reach a resolution of 1,4 amstrong for the transmission microscope and from 30 to 70 amstrong for the racking microscope its has been adapted to these microscopes by other devices that allow to realize an elementary analysis of the sample that is being examined in the microscope. The advantage of this procedure is that the sample is being examined in the microscope in real time can be analyzed in his chemical composition without being destroyed. Additional it is possible to realize an analysis of the distribution of its elements in the whole sample. The application of this new method in the biological sciences is very wide. We can detect inorganic materials as the lead, arsenic, calcium, mercury, aluminium, etc. in different tissue of the body, obtained of biopsy or autopsy. A practical application is the analysis of the composition of vesiculary calculus or urinary determining in that way the physiopathogeny of the process. (Author) [es

  18. Inside the ATLAS solenoid cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Scientists are seen working on the inside of the ATLAS cryostat, which will be used to cool liquid argon to 90 K in the electromagnetic calorimeter. Thin lead plates immersed in the cooled liquid will produce electromagnetic showers of particles when an electron, positron or photon enter the detector. This causes the argon to glow, allowing the initial particle energy to be measured.

  19. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-11-01

    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries [1-1], but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations [1-2] provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools [1-3] contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field [1-4]. Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy [1-5] and Warm Dense Matter experiments [1-6], although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca{copyright} code [1-7] and some

  20. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 μm) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 μm). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  1. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-15

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 {mu}m) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 {mu}m). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  2. Construction of compact FEM using solenoid-induced helical wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of compact Free-Electron Maser (FEM) has been designed for the operation in a usual small laboratory which does not have electric source capacity available enough. The electron energy is 60-120 keV. As it is lower, stronger guiding magnetic field is necessary in addition to wiggler field. To fulfil this condition a solenoid-induced helical wiggler is applied from the viewpoint of saving the electric power of restricted source capacity. The wiggler, for example, with the period of 12 mm creates the field of 92 G in the guiding field of 3.2 kG. The whole system of FEM has been just constructed in a small-scale laboratory. It is so small to occupy the area of 0.7x2.9 m 2

  3. Monolithic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  4. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-01-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10 11 , which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator

  5. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  6. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  7. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  8. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  9. Inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the operation of a typical magnetron mass spectrometer with an internal ion source and that of an inverse magnetron mass spectrometer with an external ion source. It is found that for discrimination of the same mass using the inverse design of mass spectrometers it is possible to employ either r 2 /r 1 times lesser magnetic fields at equal accelerating source-collector voltages, or r 2 /r 1 higher accelerating voltages at equal magnetic fields, as compared to the typical design (r 1 and r 2 being radii of the internal and external electrodes of the analyser, respectively). The design of an inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer is described. The mass analyzer is formed by a cylindrical electrode of 3 mm diameter and a coaxial tubular cylinder of 55 mm diameter. External to the analyzer is an ionizing chamber at the pressure of up to 5x10 -6 torr. The magnetic field along the chamber axis produced by a solenoid was 300 Oe. At the accelerating voltage of 100 V and mass 28, the spectrometer has a resolution of 30 at a half-peak height

  10. Stable particle motion in a linear accelerator with solenoid focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The equation governing stable particle motion in a linear ion accelerator containing discrete rf and either discrete or continuous solenoid focusing was derived. It was found for discrete solenoid focusing that: cos μ = (1 + dΔ) cos theta/2 + (lΔ/theta - dtheta/2l - thetaΔd 2 /4l) sin theta/2, Δ = 1/f and l + 2d = βlambda, where μ, theta, f, l, and d are the phase advance per cell, precession angle in the solenoid, focal length of the rf lens, length of the solenoid in one cell, and the drift distance between the center of the rf gap and the effective edge of the solenoid. The relation for a continuous solenoid is found by setting d equal to zero. The boundaries of the stability region for theta vs Δ with fixed l and d are obtained when cos μ =+-1

  11. Survey of the laser-solenoid fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amherd, N.A.

    1975-09-01

    This report surveys the prospects for a laser-solenoid fusion reactor. A sample reactor and scaling laws are used to describe the concept's characteristics. Experimental results are reviewed, and the laser and magnet technologies that undergird the laser-solenoid concept are analyzed. Finally, a systems analysis of fusion power reactors is given, including a discussion of direct conversion and fusion-fission effects, to ascertain the system attributes of the laser-solenoid configuration

  12. An elementary argument for the magnetic field outside a solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Aritro

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the magnetic field inside and outside a uniform current density infinite solenoid of uniform cross-section is an elementary problem in classical electrodynamics that all undergraduate Physics students study. Symmetry properties of the cylinder and the judicious use of Ampere's circuital law leads to correct results; however it does not explain why the field is non zero for a finite length solenoid, and why it vanishes as the solenoid becomes infinitely long. An argument is p...

  13. The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Fields Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of "realistic" solenoids on low energy particle transport. The findings in this paper may be applicable to the lower energy particle transport system design.

  14. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fournier

    Full Text Available Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others. While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/.

  15. Measurement of the X-ray Spectrum of a Free Electron Laser with a Wide-Range High-Resolution Single-Shot Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Inubushi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-shot X-ray spectrometer for wide-range high-resolution measurements of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL pulses. The spectrometer consists of a multi-layer elliptical mirror for producing a large divergence of 22 mrad around 9070 eV and a silicon (553 analyzer crystal. We achieved a wide energy range of 55 eV with a fine spectral resolution of 80 meV, which enabled the observation of a whole SASE-XFEL spectrum with fully-resolved spike structures. We found that a SASE-XFEL pulse has around 60 longitudinal modes with a pulse duration of 7.7 ± 1.1 fs.

  16. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Jayakumar, R.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    2001-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  17. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    1999-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  18. Calculus of the Cryebis 2 supraconductor solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, G.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the design of the superconducting solenoid CRYEBIS 2. With the prescribed parameters (5 Teslas central field, 120mm for inner diameter, 1600 mm for length), one determinates the dimensions of coil, its energy, the conductor, the working point of the magnet with its critical limits (intensity, field, temperature). The superconducting switch is calculated in the same manner. The study of a quench shows the good behaviour of the coil which is always safe even the detection system is in failure. In final, the mechanical stresses are verified lower than yield strength [fr

  19. Conceptual design of a 20 Tesla pulsed solenoid for a laser solenoid fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.J.; Averill, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Design considerations are described for a strip wound solenoid which is pulsed to 20 tesla while immersed in a 20 tesla bias field so as to achieve within the bore of the pulsed solenoid at net field sequence starting at 20 tesla and going first down to zero, then up to 40 tesla, and finally back to 20 tesla in a period of about 5 x 10 -3 seconds. The important parameters of the solenoid, e.g., aperture, build, turns, stored and dissipated energy, field intensity and powering circuit, are given. A numerical example for a specific design is presented. Mechanical stresses in the solenoid and the subsequent choice of materials for coil construction are discussed. Although several possible design difficulties are not discussed in this preliminary report of a conceptual magnet design, such as uniformity of field, long-term stability of insulation under neutron bombardment and choice of structural materials of appropriate tensile strength and elasticity to withstand magnetic forces developed, these questions are addressed in detail in the complete design report and in part in reference one. Furthermore, the authors feel that the problems encountered in this conceptual design are surmountable and are not a hindrance to the construction of such a magnet system

  20. Measurement of laser activated electron tunneling from semiconductor zinc oxide to adsorbed organic molecules by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongying; Fu Jieying; Wang Xiaoli; Zheng Shi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Irradiation of photons with energies more than the band gap generates electron–hole pairs. ► Electron tunneling probability is dependent on the electron mobility. ► Tunneling electrons are captured by charge deficient atoms. ► Unpaired electrons induce cleavages of chemical bonds. - Abstract: Measurement of light induced heterogeneous electron transfer is important for understanding of fundamental processes involved in chemistry, physics and biology, which is still challenging by current techniques. Laser activated electron tunneling (LAET) from semiconductor metal oxides was observed and characterized by a MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) mass spectrometer in this work. Nanoparticles of ZnO were placed on a MALDI sample plate. Free fatty acids and derivatives were used as models of organic compounds and directly deposited on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Irradiation of UV laser (λ = 355 nm) with energy more than the band gap of ZnO produces ions that can be detected in negative mode. When TiO 2 nanoparticles with similar band gap but much lower electron mobility were used, these ions were not observed unless the voltage on the sample plate was increased. The experimental results indicate that laser induced electron tunneling is dependent on the electron mobility and the strength of the electric field. Capture of low energy electrons by charge-deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules causes unpaired electron-directed cleavages of chemical bonds in a nonergodic pathway. In positive detection mode, electron tunneling cannot be observed due to the reverse moving direction of electrons. It should be able to expect that laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is a new technique capable of probing the dynamics of electron tunneling. LAET offers advantages as a new ionization dissociation method for mass spectrometry.

  1. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  2. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  3. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  4. Adjustment of Adiabatic Transition Magnetic Field of Solenoid-Induced Helicla Wiggler

    CERN Document Server

    Tsunawaki, Y

    2005-01-01

    We have been constructed a solenoid-induced helical wiggler for a compact free electron maser operated in a usual small laboratory which does not have electric source capacity available enough. It consists of two staggered-iron arrays inserted perpendicularly to each other in a solenoid electromagnet. In order to lead/extract an electron beam into/from the wiggler, adiabatic transition (AT) field is necessary at both ends of the wiggler. In this work the AT field was produced by setting staggered-nickel plates with different thickness in the five periods. The thickness of each nickel plate was decided by the field analysis using the MAGTZ computational code based on a magnetic moment method. Exact thickness was, however, found by the precise measurement of the field distribution with the greatest circumspection to obtain a homogeneous increment of the AT field. The change of AT field distribution was studied by referring to an equivalent electric circuit of the wiggler.

  5. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the solenoids act as thick lenses to collect, select, and focus the secondary beam into a scattering cham- ber. Many experiments with radioactive light particle beams (RNB) such as 6He, 7Be,. 8Li, 8B have been performed at these two facilities.

  6. Plasma confinement apparatus using solenoidal and mirror coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.; Condit, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    A plasma confinement apparatus is described, wherein multiple magnetic mirror cells are linked by magnetic field lines inside of a solenoid with the mirroring regions for adjacent magnetic mirror cells each formed by a separate mirror coil inside of the solenoid. The magnetic mirror cells may be field reversed

  7. TRT Trigger Performance in the Solenoidal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sivoklokov, S Yu

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the solenoidal magnetic field for the existing Level 2 Trigger TRT tracking algorithms has been studied in comparison with the ideal solenoid homogeneous field. The contribution of drift-time measurements to the quality of the reconstruction in the TRT is investigated.

  8. The development of a wide band dynamic polarization spectrometer. Applications to the study of spectra due to electronic spin interactions with free nitroxide radicals in the solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, Hubert

    1970-01-01

    A dynamic polarization spectrometer working over the 2-8 GHz range is described. An inverse and anisotropic Overhauser effect is obtained with nitroxide free radicals in the solid phase. This effect is studied as a function of the frequency for a group of nitroxide free radicals which exhibit very different exchange interactions. The results show that the effective spectral density of the interactions between electronic spins is very intense at low frequencies. At low temperature a considerable decrease in the effect is observed. This is explained by a saturation of the exchange reservoir. (author) [fr

  9. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m∕z channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular

  10. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David O.; Allan, James; Rami Alfarra, M.; Aumont, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS) is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular fingerprints. Therefore

  11. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor, Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-01-01

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report

  12. Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, K.; Alber, I.; Guenther, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Otten, A.; Schuetrumpf, J.; Roth, M.; Tauschwitz, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Daido, H.; Tampo, M.; Schollmeier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 10 12 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  13. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-02-04

    The {beta}-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments ({delta}a)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to ({delta}a{sup (syst.)})/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is ({delta}a{sup (stat.)})/(a){approx}1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  14. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The β-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments (δa)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to (δa (syst.) )/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is (δa (stat.) )/(a)∼1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  15. Broadband 2D electronic spectrometer using white light and pulse shaping: noise and signal evaluation at 1 and 100 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Nicholas M; Mehlenbacher, Randy D; Jones, Andrew C; Zanni, Martin T

    2017-04-03

    We have developed a broad bandwidth two-dimensional electronic spectrometer that operates shot-to-shot at repetition rates up to 100 kHz using an acousto-optic pulse shaper. It is called a two-dimensional white-light (2D-WL) spectrometer because the input is white-light supercontinuum. Methods for 100 kHz data collection are studied to understand how laser noise is incorporated into 2D spectra during measurement. At 100 kHz, shot-to-shot scanning of the delays and phases of the pulses in the pulse sequence produces a 2D spectrum 13-times faster and with the same signal-to-noise as using mechanical stages and a chopper. Comparing 100 to 1 kHz repetition rates, data acquisition time is decreased by a factor of 200, which is beyond the improvement expected by the repetition rates alone due to reduction in 1/f noise. These improvements arise because shot-to-shot readout and modulation of the pulse train at 100 kHz enables the electronic coherences to be measured faster than the decay in correlation between laser intensities. Using white light supercontinuum for the pump and probe pulses produces high signal-to-noise spectra on samples with optical densities 200 nm bandwidth.

  16. Mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlov, V.E.; Nedelin, P.N.; Lukichev, A.N.; Sapozhkov, L.K.; Turubarov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometers of different types are suggested to use for qualitative and quantitative analyses of gas. The operation principles of static and dynamic mass spectrometer are studied. In static mass spectrometers mass separation of ions is performed by changing the value of accelerating voltage in the ion source when retaining the magnetic field intensity. Such devices are stationary. The device mass is conditioned by the magnet mass. Mass separation in dynamic mass spectrometers is dependent on the degree of energy increment of ions in HF-electric fields. Radio frequency mass spectrometers are used with advantage for studying upper layers of an atmosphere and are installed on radiosondes and satellites. The main technical characteristics of the MX-1330 mass spectrometer, the basis of which is the analyzer with 180 deg deviation of an ion beam in the field of permanent magnet, are presented. The device is intended for controlling the environment and permits to analyze gases with a molecular mass up to 450 using various systems of gas filling. The error of determination of molecular substance is not greater than +-3 %; the magnetic field intensity constitutes 4.8x10 5 A/m; the supply voltage is 380/220 V; the total power is 5.0 kVA [ru

  17. Validation of Quench Simulation and Simulation of the TWIN Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Pots, Rosalinde Hendrika

    2015-01-01

    For the Future Circular Collider at CERN a multi-purpose detector is proposed. The 6T TWIN Solenoid, a very large magnet system with a stored energy of 53 GJ, is being designed. It is important to protect the magnet against quenches in the system. Therefore several existing quench protection systems are evaluated and simulations have be performed on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid. The simulations on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid have been performed with promising results; the hotspot temperatures do not exceed 120 K and layer to layer voltages stay below 500 V. Adding quench heaters to the system might improve the quench protection system further.

  18. Effect of the first axial field spectrometer in the CERN intersecting storage rings (ISR) on the circulating beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.; Kantardjian, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effect on a circulating beam of a superconducting solenoid spectrometer which was installed in the ISR is shown. This spectrometer consists of a superconducting solenoid magnet with a nominal central field of 1.5T, cylindrical drift chambers, scintillation counters and two arrays of the lead glass Cherenkov counters. No operational restrictions have been imposed on the ISR by the solenoid and physical conditions have not been in any way degraded. In the low-β run where β is betatron amplitudes, at 26 GeV/c with the solenoid, the beam currents were 27x27A 2 and the starting luminosity was 3.6x10 31 cm -2 s -1 with an average beam decay rate of 3x10 -6 )min -1 over the 63-hour run

  19. Development of a Robust, High Current, Low Power Field Emission Electron Gun for a Spaceflight Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and

  20. Solenoid hammer valve developed for quick-opening requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Quick-opening lightweight solenoid hammer valve requires a low amount of electrical energy to open, and closes by the restoring action of the mechanical springs. This design should be applicable to many quick-opening requirements in fluid systems.

  1. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding

  2. The dilepton spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegneswaran, A.; Claesson, G.; Fulton, R.; Hendrie, D.L.; Krebs, G.F.; Lallier, E.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Mulera, T.; Naudet, C.; Nesbitt, D.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Beedoe, S.; Bystricky, J.; Carroll, J.; Gordon, J.; Igo, G.; Oillataguerre, P. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Christo, S.; Gilot, J.F.; Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, I. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Force, P.; Landaud, G. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Miller, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The dilepton spectrometer (DLS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac has been designed and constructed to investigate the production of electron-positron pairs with low mass and low transverse momentum in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for incident-beam kinetic energies of 5 A GeV and less. This article briefly recalls the physics objectives of the program, discusses the methodology of the measurement, presents details of the design of the spectrometer and the detector elements, and reports on their performance. Selected experimental results are given to illustrate the capability of the DLS and to demonstrate the level to which it is possible to realize the physics objectives with the spectrometer. (orig.).

  3. A solenoidal and monocusp ion source (SAMIS) (abstract)ab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, E.J.; Brainard, J.P.; Draper, C.H.; Ney, R.H.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Williams, M.D.; Wilde, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new magnetic monocusp ion source for single aperture applications such as neutron generators. Coupling solenoidal magnetic fields on both sides of a monocusp magnetic field has generated over 70% atomic deuterium ions at pressures as low as 0.4 Pa (3 mTorr). This article describes the performance and characteristics of the solenoidal and monocusp ion source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. The Compact Muon Solenoid Detector Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient experiment operation, contributing to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC changes. CMS sub-detector’s bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. A protection mechanism ensures that the sub-detectors are locked in a safe mode whenever a potentially dangerous situation exists. The system is supervised from the experiment control room by a single operator. A small set of screens summarizes the status of the detector from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency. The automation allows now for configuration commands that can be used to automatically pre-configure hardwar...

  5. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  6. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin. The tests identified problems with the cryogenic system and the 2800 refrigerator. Procedures for successful operation and quenching of the superconducting magnet were developed. 19 references

  7. Solenoid for Laser Induced Plasma Experiments at Janus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sallee; Leferve, Heath; Kemp, Gregory; Mariscal, Derek; Rasmus, Alex; Williams, Jackson; Gillespie, Robb; Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R.

    2017-10-01

    Creating invariant magnetic fields for experiments involving laser induced plasmas is particularly challenging due to the high voltages at which the solenoid must be pulsed. Creating a solenoid resilient enough to survive through large numbers of voltage discharges, enabling it to endure a campaign lasting several weeks, is exceptionally difficult. Here we present a solenoid that is robust through 40 μs pulses at a 13 kV potential. This solenoid is a vast improvement over our previously fielded designs in peak magnetic field capabilities and robustness. Designed to be operated at small-scale laser facilities, the solenoid housing allows for versatility of experimental set-ups among diagnostic and target positions. Within the perpendicular field axis at the center there is 300 degrees of clearance which can be easily modified to meet the needs of a specific experiment, as well as an f/3 cone for transmitted or backscattered light. After initial design efforts, these solenoids are relatively inexpensive to manufacture.

  8. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  10. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  11. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  12. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250 degrees Centigrade, and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  13. Isotope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectrometer studies of heterogeneous zircons from radioactive granites in the Grenville structural province, Quebec and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimsaite, J.

    1981-01-01

    Heterogeneous zircons yielded discordant Pb-U, Pb-Th, and 207 Pb- 206 Pb isotopic ages. Most data points fall below the concordia curve, implying losses of daughter elements, bqt they define a discordia line that intersects the concordia at approximately 90 Ma and 1020 Ma. To obtain evidence for mobilization of U and radiogenic Pb, zircon grains were studied using a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer. High magnification backscattered and secondary electron images of the zircon revealed narrow fractures, zoning and diverse mineral inclusions. Three groups of mineral inclusions observed were: 1) those predating zoned zircon and apparently serving as a nucleus; 2) uraninite, feldspar, and apatite associated with the growth and zoning of the host zircon; and 3) fracture-fillings that postdate crystallization of the host zircon. The U- and Pb-rich inclusions incorporated into the zircon grains during and after its crystallization markedly affect isotopic ages of the host zircon. Migration of Pb and U have occurred along fractures in zircon. Zircon, uraninite, and other associated minerals have decomposed and complex reactions have taken place between the liberated Zr, U, Th and other elements to produce overgrowths on mineral grains and unidentified Zr-bearing material in fractures

  14. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL electron beam ion trap and radiation properties facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.V. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: gregbrown@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Boyce, K.R. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Chen, H. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gu, M.F. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Kahn, S.M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); May, M. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Porter, F.S. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Szymkowiak, A.E. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Thorn, D. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Widmann, K. [High Energy Density and Astrophysics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. It is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include X-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, X-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and X-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low-temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  15. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

    2005-08-18

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  16. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.

    1997-04-01

    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  17. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects in the JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Guohui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, Fulvia C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The JLEIC detector solenoid has a strong 3 T field in the IR area, and its tails extend over a range of several meters. One of the main effects of the solenoid field is coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions which must be corrected in order to preserve the dynamical stability and beam spot size match at the IP. Additional effects include influence on the orbit and dispersion caused by the angle between the solenoid axis and the beam orbit. Meanwhile it affects ion polarization breaking the figure-8 spin symmetry. Crab dynamics further complicates the picture. All of these effects have to be compensated or accounted for. The proposed correction system is equivalent to the Rotating Frame Method. However, it does not involve physical rotation of elements. It provides local compensation of the solenoid effects independently for each side of the IR. It includes skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and anti-solenoids to cancel perturbations to the orbit and linear optics. The skew quadrupoles and FFQ together generate an effect equivalent to adjustable rotation angle to do the decoupling task. Details of all of the correction systems are presented.

  18. Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

  19. Transport of intense proton beams in an induction linac by solenoid lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, W.; Choe, J. Y.; Uhm, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed proton induction linac at NSWC, a 100 A and 3 μs proton beam is accelerated to 5 MeV through a series of accelerating gaps. This beam can be effectively focused by solenoid lenses in this low energy regime and can be transported by adjusting the focusing strength in each period. For the transport channel design to reduce the number of independently controlled lenses, a theory of matched beams in the space-charge dominated regime has been developed. This study can be applied to cost efficient designs of induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion and free electron lasers.

  20. Aharonov-Bohm effect without contact with the solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César R.; Romano, Renan G.

    2017-10-01

    We add a scalar potential to the 2D Aharonov-Bohm (AB) model which properly diverges both at the solenoid border and at infinity so that the resulting operator is essentially self-adjoint and has a discrete spectrum; the former property is interpreted as no contact of the particle with the solenoid border since there is no need of boundary conditions. We study gauge transformations to get the usual periodic behavior of the AB properties as a function of the magnetic flux. The presence of the AB effect is proven through the ground state energy, which is shown to be smooth in case it is simple and with a nonzero derivative if the ground state is real valued; such properties are verified in the case of circular solenoids, for which it is shown to be a nonconstant periodic function with a minimum at integer and a maximum at half-integer circulations (at half-integer circulations, it is doubly degenerated).

  1. Construction of a photoelectron spectrometer of hemispherical type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.Y.; Kim, S.K.; Lee, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    We constructed the double focusing electron spectrometer for the ultraviolet photonelectron spectroscopy(UPS). The spectrometer is hemispherical type with the high resolution power with a vaule of about 100. The efficiency of the spectrometer was examined by the thermoelectron spectroscopy and UPS of the valence band of the Pd. It is merit of the present spectrometer that is very simple and small. (Author)

  2. MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  3. Experimental study of a laser-heated solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the interaction of an intense CO 2 laser beam with a column of initially uv-ionized hydrogen immersed in a steady magnetic field of up to 100 kG. Under the intense laser radiation, the gas becomes ionized and heated to temperatures as high as 150 eV (1.6 x 10 6 0 K). The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the properties of the dense, hot plasma formed in this manner. Time and space resolved measurements of the plasma electron density were made using holographic interferometry along the axis and Mach--Zehnder interferometry across the column. The temperature was determined by measuring the decay rate of a line from CV in the quartz uv. These measurements were supplemented by streak photography to provide data on the development of the luminosity of the plasma column, radially and axially, as a function of time. From these various diagnostic techniques, it was possible to determine that a density minimum is formed on-axis within a few tens of nanoseconds after initiation of the laser pulse. This effectively produces a light pipe which traps the beam, and suggests that long columns can be formed by laser irradiation. The beam energy was efficiently absorbed and plasma loss rates appeared to be those expected from classical MHD modelling. While a completely unambiguous answer as to the mode of laser discharge propagation occurring in the experiment was not obtained, the bulk of the evidence suggests a ''bleaching wave'' rather than a laser driven detonator. In summary, the experiment was successful in demonstrating the creation of dense, slender columns by laser breakdown, in support of the ''laser-heated solenoid'' fusion concept

  4. Operating experience feedback report - Solenoid-operated valve problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1991-02-01

    This report highlights significant operating events involving observed or potential common-mode failures of solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) in US plants. These events resulted in degradation or malfunction of multiple trains of safety systems as well as of multiple safety systems. On the basis of the evaluation of these events, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concludes that the problems with solenoid-operated valves are an important issue that needs additional NRC and industry attention. This report also provides AEOD's recommendations for actions to reduce the occurrence of SOV common-mode failures. 115 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungil

    2006-01-01

    The Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) project carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is an effort to bring cold neutron instrumentation to Korea's only large scale research reactor, HANARO, located in Daejeon. As part of the CNRF project, a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer (Cold-TAS) is being developed along with other five: 40 m long and 12 m long small angle neutron scattering instruments (40m-SANS and 12m-SANS), disk-chopper time-of-flight spectrometer (DC-ToF), Bio- Reflectometer (Bio-REF) and the reflectometer with vertical sample geometry (REF-V). For those cold neutron instruments, the performance of an individual instrument depends not only on its design but also on the guide that feeds cold neutrons to the instrument. Therefore, the quality of the neutron flux at an instrument position has to be checked with the specification of the instrument. As for the Cold-TAS, since the instrument requires a tall beam and a high flux of short wavelength neutrons, it was tentatively decided that it would use the cold guide 4 (CG4). The detailed specification of the guide is listed. Checking the neutron flux of the guide at the instrument position is the obvious next step

  6. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p T particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p T > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p T quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic medium produced in HI interactions. The larger Q 2 causes jets to materialize very soon after the collision. They are thus embedded in and propagate through the dense environment as it forms and evolves. Through their interactions

  7. Optical simulations for the S3 project - Super separator spectrometer - gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy of a transfermium nucleus: the 251Md101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechery, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    In analogy with the atomic closed shells giving rise to the stability and high ionisation energies of noble gases, nuclear physics also has its magic numbers of protons and neutrons which enhance nuclear structure stability. Knowledge of the structure of doubly-magic nuclei, both proton and neutron numbers, is crucial to parameterize theoretical models. The discovery of the next and ultimate magic numbers will provide a strong constraint on the many predictions. These two numbers are like the centre coordinates of an area of enhanced stability of the nuclear chart, well known as 'island of stability'. These superheavy nuclei only exist due to pure quantum shell effects. My thesis work deals with two distinct, but complementary, aspects of fundamental physics with the common goal of studying these extreme mass nuclei structure. The first part corresponds to the development of a next generation instrument for nuclear physics to allow synthesis and spectroscopy studies of superheavy nuclei: the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 . This project will be installed at SPIRAL2 (GANIL) and has been approved by the French Research National Agency (ANR) within the EQUIPEX framework. It has been designed to take advantage of the high intensity heavy ion beam from the LINAC, giving access to a wide range of physical programs. The second part corresponds to the preparation, realisation and analysis of an experiment on 251-Mendelevium in which the very first prompt gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy was performed for a transfermium nuclei. (author) [fr

  8. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  9. Exact cancellation of emittance growth due to coupled transverse dynamics in solenoids and rf couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David H.; Zhou, Feng; Schmerge, John

    2018-01-01

    Weak, rotated magnetic and radio frequency quadrupole fields in electron guns and injectors can couple the beam's horizontal with vertical motion, introduce correlations between otherwise orthogonal transverse momenta, and reduce the beam brightness. This paper discusses two important sources of coupled transverse dynamics common to most electron injectors. The first is quadrupole focusing followed by beam rotation in a solenoid, and the second coupling comes from a skewed high-power rf coupler or cavity port which has a rotated rf quadrupole field. It is shown that a dc quadrupole field can correct for both types of couplings and exactly cancel their emittance growths. The degree of cancellation of the rf skew quadrupole emittance is limited by the electron bunch length. Analytic expressions are derived and compared with emittance simulations and measurements.

  10. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yimin; Pan Wanjiang; Wu Songtao; Wan Yuanxi

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the super-conducting experiment condition

  11. Structure design of the central solenoid in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Shuji; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Kuramochi, Masaya; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2009-09-01

    The upgrade of JT-60U magnet system to superconducting coils (JT-60SA: JT-60 Super Advanced) has been decided by parties of Japanese government (JA) and European commission (EU) in the framework of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement. The magnet system for JT-60SA consists of a central solenoid (CS), equilibrium field(EF) coils, toroidal field(TF) coils. The central solenoid consists the four winding pack modules. In order to counteract the thermal contraction as well as the electric magnetic repulsion and attraction together with other forces generated in each module, it is necessary to apply pre-loading to the support structure of the solenoid and to pursue a structure which is capable of sustaining such loading. In the present report, the structural design of the supporting structure of the solenoid and the jackets of the modules is verified analytically, and the results indicate that the structural design satisfies the 'Codes for Fusion Facilities - Rules on Superconducting Magnet Structure -'. (author)

  12. Electromagnetic behaviour of the shield in turbogenerators with superconducting solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, P.; Veca, G.M.; Sacerdoti, G.

    1975-11-01

    The structure of turbogenerators with superconducting solenoids is analyzed and the investigation of electromagnetic behaviour of the rotating shield is presented. The cases considered are: (a) An hypothetical operation with a single phase with nominal current; (b) Steady-state operation in inverse sequence with 10% of the nominal current; (c) A step variation of the magnetic field intensity in the shield

  13. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems ...

  14. Teichmüller theory of the punctured solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert; Sari´c, Dragomir

    2008-01-01

    The punctured solenoid plays the role of an initial object for the category of punctured surfaces with morphisms given by finite covers branched only over the punctures. The (decorated) Teichmüller space of is introduced, studied, and found to be parametrized by certain coordinates on a fixed tri...

  15. Modeling plasma flow in straight and curved solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boercker, D.B.; Sanders, D.M.; Storer, J.; Falabella, S.

    1991-01-01

    The ''flux-tube'' model originated by Morozov is a very simple and numerically efficient method for simulating ion motion in plasma filters. In order to test its utility as a design tool, we compare the predictions of the model to recent experimental measurements of plasma flow in both straight and curved solenoids

  16. Completion of the ITER central solenoid model coils installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.

    1999-01-01

    The short article details how dozens of problems, regarding the central solenoid model coils installation, were faced and successfully overcome one by one at JAERI-Naga. A black and white photograph shows K. Kwano, a staff member of the JAERI superconducting magnet laboratory, to be still inside the vacuum tank while the lid is already being brought down..

  17. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to generate magnetic field for an ECR proton source. S K JAIN. ∗. , P A NAIK and P R HANNURKAR. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 e-mail: skjain@rrcat.gov.in. MS received 3 March 2010; revised 9 June 2010; accepted 13 ...

  18. Explicit representation of roots on p-adic solenoids and non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measures on p-adic solenoids is solved under a certain natural condition. Keywords. Solenoid; root multiplicity; infinite divisibility; one-parameter subgroup; embedding problem; convolution semigroup; uniqueness of embedding. 1. Introduction. Given a prime number p let Sp denote the p-adic solenoid, i.e. the subgroup of ...

  19. Non-Solenoidal Startup Research Directions on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Pegasus research program has been focused on developing a physical understanding and predictive models for non-solenoidal tokamak plasma startup using Local Helicity Injection (LHI). LHI employs strong localized electron currents injected along magnetic field lines in the plasma edge that relax through magnetic turbulence to form a tokamak-like plasma. Pending approval, the Pegasus program will address a broader, more comprehensive examination of non-solenoidal tokamak startup techniques. New capabilities may include: increasing the toroidal field to 0.6 T to support critical scaling tests to near-NSTX-U field levels; deploying internal plasma diagnostics; installing a coaxial helicity injection (CHI) capability in the upper divertor region; and deploying a modest (200-400 kW) electron cyclotron RF capability. These efforts will address scaling of relevant physics to higher BT, separate and comparative studies of helicity injection techniques, efficiency of handoff to consequent current sustainment techniques, and the use of ECH to synergistically improve the target plasma for consequent bootstrap and neutral beam current drive sustainment. This has an ultimate goal of validating techniques to produce a 1 MA target plasma in NSTX-U and beyond. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  20. Versatile central spectrometer for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.; Goulianso, K.; Knapp, B.; Rosen, J.; Schlein, P.

    1975-01-01

    A large aperture magnetic spectrometer is proposed to study hadrons and leptons produced in the central region at Isabelle. The essential element of the spectrometer is a large double-dipole magnet system with common flux return straddling the intersection region. The air gaps provide magnetic analysis of charged particle for up to 50 percent of the azimuthal angular range. Drift chambers, Cherenkov counters and shower detectors positioned on both sides of the beam lines comprise two spectrometers for analysis of hadrons and electrons. Muons can be momentum analyzed over a large fraction at the azimuthal angle by utilizing the upper and lower sections on the magnet yoke to provide hadron filtering and magnetic deflection. Cylindrical chambers around the vacuum pipe provide multiplicity information for events of interest. The proposed magnet configuration allows unobscured coverage of smaller angle particles with the addition of septum magnet spectrometers downstream of the central magnet in both arms.

  1. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. T.; MacAskill, J. A.; Mojarradi, M.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-01

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  2. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R T; MacAskill, J A; Mojarradi, M; Chutjian, A; Darrach, M R; Madzunkov, S M; Shortt, B J

    2008-09-01

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  3. Design and fabrication of a 30 T superconducting solenoid using overpressure processed Bi2212 round wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-18

    High field superconducting magnets are used in particle colliders, fusion energy devices, and spectrometers for medical imaging and advanced materials research. Magnets capable of generating fields of 20-30 T are needed by future accelerator facilities. A 20-30 T magnet will require the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and therefore the challenges of high field HTS magnet development need to be addressed. Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) conductors fabricated by the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) technique have demonstrated the capability to carry large critical current density of 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Available in round wire multi-filamentary form, Bi2212 may allow fabrication of 20-50 T superconducting magnets. Until recently the performance of Bi2212 has been limited by challenges in realizing high current densities (Jc ) in long lengths. This problem now is solved by the National High Magnetic Field Lab using an overpressure (OP) processing technique, which uses external pressure to process the conductor. OP processing also helps remove the ceramic leakage that results when Bi-2212 liquid leaks out from the sheath material and reacts with insulation, coil forms, and flanges. Significant advances have also been achieved in developing novel insulation materials (TiO2 coating) and Ag-Al sheath materials that have higher mechanical strengths than Ag-0.2wt.% Mg, developing heat treatment approaches to broadening the maximum process temperature window, and developing high-strength, mechanical reinforced Bi-2212 cables. In the Phase I work, we leveraged these new opportunities to prototype overpressure processed solenoids and test them in background fields of up to 14 T. Additionally a design of a fully superconducting 30 T solenoid was produced. This work in conjunction with the future path outlined in the Phase II proposal would

  4. The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delepine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will study protonproton collisions at unprecedented energies and luminosities. In this article we providefi rst a brief general introduction to particle physics. We then explain what CERN is. Thenwe describe the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the most powerful particle acceleratorever built. Finally we describe the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, its physics goals,construction details, and current status.El experimento Compact Muon Solenoid en el Large Hadron Collider del CERN estudiarácolisiones protón protón a energías y luminosidades sin precedente. En este artículo presentamos primero una breve introducción general a la física de partículas. Despuésexplicamos lo que es el CERN. Luego describimos el Large Hadron Collider, el más potente acelerador de partículas construido por el hombre, en el CERN. Finalmente describimos el experimento Compact Muon Solenoid, sus objetivos en física, los detalles de su construcción,y su situación presente.

  5. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fourier Transform Spectrometer project demonstrates the efficacy of a miniaturized spectrometer for flight applications.A spectrometer is an instrument used to...

  6. Development of the DAQ System of Triple-GEM Detectors for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387583

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After a long technical stop in 2019-2020, the LHC will restart and run at a luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, twice its nominal value. This will in turn increase the rate of particles to which detectors in CMS will be exposed and affect their performance. The muon spectrometer in particular will suffer from a degraded detection efficiency due to the lack of redundancy in its most forward region. To solve this issue, the GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. Within the GEM collaboration, the Data Acquisition (DAQ) subgroup is in charge of the development of the electronics and software of the DAQ system of the detectors. This thesis presents th...

  7. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  8. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  9. Smartphone Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Andrew J S; Wilkes, Thomas C; Pering, Tom D; Willmott, Jon R; Cook, Joseph M; Mims, Forrest M; Parisi, Alfio V

    2018-01-14

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a 'lab in a phone' capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  10. Study of Static Microchannel Plate Saturation Effects for the Fast Plasma Investigation Dual Electron Spectrometers on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanov, L. A.; Gliese, U.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Chornay, D. J.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Mariano, A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Imaging detecting systems based on microchannel plates (MCPs) are the most common for low energy plasma measurements for both space borne and ground applications. One of the key parameters of these detection systems is the dynamic range of the MCP's response to the input fluxes of charged particles. For most applications the dynamic range of the linear response should be as wide as possible. This is especially true for the Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission because a wide range of input fluxes are expected. To make use of the full available dynamic range, it is important to understand the MCP response behavior beyond the linear regime where the MCPs start to saturate. We have performed extensive studies of this during the characterization and calibration of the DES instruments and have identified several saturation effects of the detection system. The MCP itself exhibits saturation when the channels lack the ability to replenish charge sufficiently rapidly. It is found and will be shown that the ground system can significantly impact the correct measurement of this effect. As the MCP starts to saturate, the resulting pulse height distribution (PHD) changes shape and location (with less pulse height values), which leads to truncation of the PHD by the threshold set on the detection system discriminator. Finally, the detection system pulse amplifier exhibits saturation as the input flux drives pulse rates greater than its linear response speed. All of these effects effectively change the dead time of the overall detection system and as a result can affect the quality and interpretation of the flight data. We present results of detection system saturation effects and their interaction with special emphasis on the MCP related effects.

  11. Front-End Electron Transfer Dissociation Coupled to a 21 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer for Intact Protein Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Syka, John E. P.; Early, Lee; Mullen, Christopher; Dunyach, Jean-Jacques; English, A. Michelle; Anderson, Lissa C.; Blakney, Greg T.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.; Hunt, Donald F.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry is a key technology for in-depth protein characterization. High-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables high-level interrogation of intact proteins in the most detail to date. However, an appropriate complement of fragmentation technologies must be paired with FTMS to provide comprehensive sequence coverage, as well as characterization of sequence variants, and post-translational modifications. Here we describe the integration of front-end electron transfer dissociation (FETD) with a custom-built 21 tesla FT-ICR mass spectrometer, which yields unprecedented sequence coverage for proteins ranging from 2.8 to 29 kDa, without the need for extensive spectral averaging (e.g., 60% sequence coverage for apo-myoglobin with four averaged acquisitions). The system is equipped with a multipole storage device separate from the ETD reaction device, which allows accumulation of multiple ETD fragment ion fills. Consequently, an optimally large product ion population is accumulated prior to transfer to the ICR cell for mass analysis, which improves mass spectral signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and scan rate. We find a linear relationship between protein molecular weight and minimum number of ETD reaction fills to achieve optimum sequence coverage, thereby enabling more efficient use of instrument data acquisition time. Finally, real-time scaling of the number of ETD reactions fills during method-based acquisition is shown, and the implications for LC-MS/MS top-down analysis are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Information-theoretical feature selection using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer for the classification of glass traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Daniel; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2011-10-31

    In this work, a selection of the best features for multivariate forensic glass classification using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) has been performed. This has been motivated by the fact that the databases available for forensic glass classification are sparse nowadays, and the acquisition of SEM-EDX data is both costly and time-consuming for forensic laboratories. The database used for this work consists of 278 glass objects for which 7 variables, based on their elemental compositions obtained with SEM-EDX, are available. Two categories are considered for the classification task, namely containers and car/building windows, both of them typical in forensic casework. A multivariate model is proposed for the computation of the likelihood ratios. The feature selection process is carried out by means of an exhaustive search, with an Empirical Cross-Entropy (ECE) objective function. The ECE metric takes into account not only the discriminating power of the model in use, but also its calibration, which indicates whether or not the likelihood ratios are interpretable in a probabilistic way. Thus, the proposed model is applied to all the 63 possible univariate, bivariate and trivariate combinations taken from the 7 variables in the database, and its performance is ranked by its ECE. Results show remarkable accuracy of the best variables selected following the proposed procedure for the task of classifying glass fragments into windows (from cars or buildings) or containers, obtaining high (almost perfect) discriminating power and good calibration. This allows the proposed models to be used in casework. We also present an in-depth analysis which reveals the benefits of the proposed ECE metric as an assessment tool for classification models based on likelihood ratios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P.; Kirn, T.; Yearwood, G.Roper; Schael, S.

    2007-01-01

    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  14. The large superconducting solenoids for the g-2 muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.; Cullen, J.; Danby, G.

    1994-01-01

    The g-2 muon storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory consists of four large superconducting solenoids. The two outer solenoids, which are 15.1 meters in diameter, share a common cryostat. The two inner solenoids, which are 13.4 meters in diameter, are in separate cryostats. The two 24 turn inner solenoids are operated at an opposite polarity from the two 24 turn outer solenoids. This generates a dipole field between the inner and outer solenoids. The flux between the solenoids is returned through a C shaped iron return yoke that also shapes the dipole field. The integrated field around the 14 meter diameter storage ring must be good to about 1 part in one million over the 90 mm dia. circular cross section where the muons are stored, averaged over the azimuth. When the four solenoids carry their 5300 A design current, the field in the 18 centimeter gap between the poles is 1.45 T. When the solenoid operates at its design current 5.5 MJ is stored between the poles. The solenoids were wound on site at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cryostats were built around the solenoid windings which are indirectly cooled using two-phase helium

  15. IE Information Notice No. 85-17, Supplement 1: Possible sticking of ASCO solenoid valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This notice is to inform recipients of the results of follow up investigations regarding the reasons for sticking of Automatic Switch Company (ASCO) solenoid valves used to shut main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) under accident conditions. GE has recommend that the licensee replace the potentially contaminated MSIV solenoid valves and institute a periodic examination and cleaning of the MSIV solenoid valves. Grand Gulf has replaced the eight MSIV HTX832320V dual solenoid valves with fully environmentally qualified ASCO Model NP 8323A20E dual solenoid valves. The environmentally qualified valve Model NP 8323A20E was included in a control sample placed in the test ovens with the solenoid valves that stuck at Grand Gulf. The environmentally qualified model did not stick under the test conditions that cause sticking in the other solenoid valves

  16. LPI: electron source for LIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1991-01-01

    This is where the beam for LEP began. The round metal box at the far right contains the electron-emitting cathode. After extraction, the low-energy electrons are focused with solenoids (blue) and formed into bunches. The "buncher", partly buried in the first solenoid, is fed by the descending brown transmission line. From there on, it was a long way through LIL-V, LIL-W, EPA, PS, SPS, and finally LEP.

  17. Upgrade of the Global Muon Trigger for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356020; Widmann, Eberhard

    The Large Hadron Collider is a large particle accelerator at the CERN research laboratory, designed to provide particle physics experiments with collisions at unprecedented centre-of-mass energies. For its second running period both the number of colliding particles and their collision energy were increased. To cope with these more challenging conditions and maintain the excellent performance seen during the first running period, the Level-1 trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment --- a sophisticated electronics system designed to filter events in real-time --- was upgraded. This upgrade consisted of the complete replacement of the trigger electronics and a full redesign of the system's architecture. While the calorimeter trigger path now follows a time-multiplexed processing model where the entire trigger data for a collision are received by a single processing board, the muon trigger path was split into regional track finding systems where each newly introduced track finder receives data from all th...

  18. Ultrafast probing of magnetic field growth inside a laser-driven solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C.; Pollock, B. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Hazi, A.; Divol, L.; Farmer, W. A.; Haberberger, D.; Javedani, J.; Johnson, A. J.; Kemp, A.; Levy, M. C.; Grant Logan, B.; Mariscal, D. A.; Landen, O. L.; Patankar, S.; Ross, J. S.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Swadling, G. F.; Williams, G. J.; Fujioka, S.; Law, K. F. F.; Moody, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid. ALE3D modeling shows that target disassembly and current diffusion may limit the B-field increase for longer laser drive. Scaling of these experimental results to a National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum target size (˜0.2 cm3 ) indicates that it is possible to achieve several tens of Tesla.

  19. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  20. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  1. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS

  2. Conceptual design of the CMS 4 Tesla solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baze, J.M.; Desportes, H.; Duthil, R.; Lesmond, C.; Lottin, J.C.; Pabot, Y.

    1992-02-01

    A large and important meeting 'Toward the LHC experimental programme' is due to be held at EVIAN-les-BAINS, on 5-8 March 1992. The major goal accurate measurement of muon momenta makes necessary, for the detectors, the use of large and powerful magnetic system producing high bending power. The CMS experiment is based on a solenoidal magnetic configuration. It has been designed to produce a high magnetic induction (4 T) in a 14 m long, 5.9 m bore cylindrical volume surrounding the interaction point. The diameter has been fixed to the maximum dimension compatible with road transportation to CERN. This long solenoid with its 12 500 ton iron yoke is a fully shielded magnet. The paper presents the conceptual design of the superconducting coil and its technical characteristics

  3. HIE-ISOLDE CRYO-MODULE Assembly - Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Leclercq, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of the cryo-module components in SM18 cleanroom. The superconducting solenoid (housed inside its helium vessel) is cleaned, prepared then installed on the supporting frame of the cryo-module and connected to the helium tank, prior to the assembly of the RF cavities on the structure. The completed first 2 cryo-modules installed inside the HIE-ISOLDE-LINAC ready for beam operation is also shown.

  4. Superconducting solenoids for an international muon cooling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Rey, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The international muon ionization cooling experiment MICE will consist of two focusing cooling cells and a pair of uniform field solenoids used for particle identification and emittance measurements. The 2.75-meter long cooling cells have a pair of field flip coils and a coupling coil. The 0.52-meter diameter field flip coils surround an absorber that removes transverse and longitudinal momentum from the muons to be cooled. The beam in the absorber is at a minimum beta point so that scattering of the muons is minimized. The 1.7-meter diameter coupling coils are outside of conventional 201.25 MHz RF cavities that accelerate the muons putting longitudinal momentum into the muons without putting back the transverse momentum into the beam. A third set of flip coils helps the muon beam transition from and to the experimental solenoids. The 0.6-meter diameter experimental solenoids have a uniform field region (good to about 1 part in 1000) that is 1.3-meters long. The MICE experiment magnets must operate as a single unit so that the field profile will produce the maximum muon cooling

  5. Ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikver, R.; Suurmaa, Eh.; Syugis, A.; Tammik, A.; Lippmaa, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with Fourier transformation intended for investigating mass specta and chemical reaction kinetics in the gaseous phase is described. The mass-spectrum of CO and N 2 positive ions is shown. The spectrometer consists of an electromagnet with power supply, a vacuum system, a cell with electronic equipment and a minicomputer. In the vacuum system (5x10 -9 Torr) there is a cubic measuring cell heated up to 400 deg C. The spectrometer mass resolution is of the 10 5 order. The spectrometer is able to operate as a high-resolution analytical mass-spectrometer of positive and negative ions. The experience of the spectrometer operation confirms its effectiveness for investigating ion-molecular reactions, in particular, proton transfer reactions

  6. Information-theoretical feature selection using data obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer for the classification of glass traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Daniel; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A selection of the best features for multivariate forensic glass classification using SEM-EDX was performed. → The feature selection process was carried out by means of an exhaustive search, with an Empirical Cross-Entropy objective function. → Results show remarkable accuracy of the best variables selected following the proposed procedure for the task of classifying glass fragments into windows or containers. - Abstract: In this work, a selection of the best features for multivariate forensic glass classification using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) has been performed. This has been motivated by the fact that the databases available for forensic glass classification are sparse nowadays, and the acquisition of SEM-EDX data is both costly and time-consuming for forensic laboratories. The database used for this work consists of 278 glass objects for which 7 variables, based on their elemental compositions obtained with SEM-EDX, are available. Two categories are considered for the classification task, namely containers and car/building windows, both of them typical in forensic casework. A multivariate model is proposed for the computation of the likelihood ratios. The feature selection process is carried out by means of an exhaustive search, with an Empirical Cross-Entropy (ECE) objective function. The ECE metric takes into account not only the discriminating power of the model in use, but also its calibration, which indicates whether or not the likelihood ratios are interpretable in a probabilistic way. Thus, the proposed model is applied to all the 63 possible univariate, bivariate and trivariate combinations taken from the 7 variables in the database, and its performance is ranked by its ECE. Results show remarkable accuracy of the best variables selected following the proposed procedure for the task of classifying glass fragments into windows (from cars or buildings) or containers

  7. Investigation of merging/reconnection heating during solenoid-free startup of plasmas in the MAST Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, H.; Yamada, T.; Watanabe, T.; Gi, K.; Inomoto, M.; Imazawa, R.; Gryaznevich, M.; Scannell, R.; Conway, N. J.; Michael, C.; Crowley, B.; Fitzgerald, I.; Meakins, A.; Hawkes, N.; McClements, K. G.; Harrison, J.; O'Gorman, T.; Cheng, C. Z.; Ono, Y.; The MAST Team

    2017-05-01

    We present results of recent studies of merging/reconnection heating during central solenoid (CS)-free plasma startup in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). During this process, ions are heated globally in the downstream region of an outflow jet, and electrons locally around the X-point produced by the magnetic field of two internal P3 coils and of two plasma rings formed around these coils, the final temperature being proportional to the reconnecting field energy. There is an effective confinement of the downstream thermal energy, due to a thick layer of reconnected flux. The characteristic structure is sustained for longer than an ion-electron energy relaxation time, and the energy exchange between ions and electrons contributes to the bulk electron heating in the downstream region. The peak electron temperature around the X-point increases with toroidal field, but the downstream electron and ion temperatures do not change.

  8. How to Design a Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeline, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Designing a spectrometer requires knowledge of the problem to be solved, the molecules whose properties will contribute to a solution of that problem and skill in many subfields of science and engineering. A seemingly simple problem, design of an ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrometer, is used to show the reasoning behind the trade-offs in instrument design. Rather than reporting a fully optimized instrument, the Yin and Yang of design choices, leading to decisions about financial cost, materials choice, resolution, throughput, aperture, and layout are described. To limit scope, aspects such as grating blaze, electronics design, and light sources are not presented. The review illustrates the mixture of mathematical rigor, rule of thumb, esthetics, and availability of components that contribute to the art of spectrometer design.

  9. Design of a Solenoid Actuator with a Magnetic Plunger for Miniaturized Segment Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Woo Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a solenoid actuator with a ferromagnetic plunger to generate both rectilinear and turning motions of a multi-segmented robot. Each segment of the miniaturized robot is actuated by a pair of solenoids, and in-phase and out-of-phase actuations of the solenoid pair cause the linear and turning motions. The theoretical analysis on the actuation force by the solenoid with the magnetic plunger is implemented based on the Biot-Savart law. The optimal design parameters of the solenoid are determined to actuate a segmented body. We manufacture the miniaturized robot consisting of two segments and a pair of solenoids. Experiments are performed to measure the linear and angular displacements of the two-segmented robot for various frictional conditions.

  10. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head; Conception et realisation d'un spectrometre de masse a temps de vol spatialisable de type 'reflectron' electronique et tete de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, P

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  11. Design and fabrication of the PDX poloidal field solenoid utilizing fiberglass reinforced epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.S.C.

    1975-11-01

    This paper discusses the basic design of the Poloidal Field Solenoid Coil. It will be mainly concerned with the more unique features of the Solenoid such as the copper coil windings and the design of the epoxy-glass structural support mandrels. The center solenoid coil of the PDX machine consists of five different coil systems (OH No. 8, No. 9; NF No. 11; DF No. 7; EF Solenoid and CF No. 9). Three concentric fiberglass reinforced epoxy cylinders fabricated in-house will act as mandrels to support and to house the coils that will result as an integral unit

  12. Beam dynamics of the interaction region solenoid in a linear collider due to a crossing angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tenenbaum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Future linear colliders may require a nonzero crossing angle between the two beams at the interaction point (IP. This requirement in turn implies that the beams will pass through the strong interaction region solenoid with an angle, and thus that the component of the solenoidal field perpendicular to the beam trajectory is nonzero. The interaction of the beam and the solenoidal field in the presence of a crossing angle will cause optical effects not observed for beams passing through the solenoid on axis; these effects include dispersion, deflection of the beam, and synchrotron radiation effects. For a purely solenoidal field, the optical effects which are relevant to luminosity exactly cancel at the IP when the influence of the solenoid’s fringe field is taken into account. Beam size growth due to synchrotron radiation in the solenoid is proportional to the fifth power of the product of the solenoidal field, the length of the solenoid, and the crossing angle. Examples based on proposed linear collider detector solenoid configurations are presented.

  13. What caused the failures of the solenoid valve screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, T.P.; Mumford, J.R.; Hossain, F.

    2001-01-01

    At Seabrook Station on May 5,1998 following a lengthy purge of the pressurizer steam space through Containment isolation sample valve 1-RC-FV-2830, the UL status light associated with this solenoid valve did not come on when the valve was closed from the plant's main control board. The UL status light is used to confirm valve closure position to satisfy the plant's Technical Specification requirements. The incorrect valve position indication on the main control board was initially believed to have resulted from excessive heat from a failed voltage control module that did not reduce the voltage to the valve's solenoid coil. This conclusion was based on a similar event that occurred in November of 1996. Follow-up in-plant testing of the valve determined that the voltage control module had not failed and was functioning satisfactorily. Subsequent investigations determined the root cause of the event to be excessive heat-up of the valve caused by high process fluid temperature and an excessively long purge of the pressurizer. The excessive heat-up of the valve from the high temperature process fluid weakened the magnetic field strength of the valve stem magnet to the extent that the UL status light reed switch would not actuate when the valve was closed. Since the voltage control module was tested and found to be functioning properly it was not replaced. Only the UL status light reed switch was replaced with a more sensitive reed that would respond better to a reduced magnetic field strength that results from a hot magnet. During reed switch replacement, three terminal block screws in the valve housing were found fractured and three other terminal block screws fractured during determination of the electrical conductors. This paper describes the initial plant event and ensuing laboratory tests and examinations that were performed to determine the root cause of the failure of the terminal block screws from the Containment isolation sample solenoid valve. (author)

  14. A micro-TCA based data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. The architecture of the readout system is based on the use of the microTCA standard hosting FPGA-based Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) and of the Versatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the on-detector electronics to the micro-TCA boards. For the front-end electronics a new ASIC, called VFAT3, is being developed. On the detector, a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA mezzanine board, called the OptoHybrid, has to collect the data from 24 VFAT3s and to transmit the data optically to the off-detector micro-TCA electronics, as well as to transmit the trigger data at 40 MHz to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) trigger. The microTCA electronics provides the interfaces from the detector (and front-end electronics) to the CMS DAQ, TTC (Timing, Trigger and Control) and Trigger systems. In this paper, we will describe the DAQ system of the Triple-GEM project and provide results from the latest test beam campaigns done at CERN.

  15. Photo ion spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  16. Magnetoelectric excitations in hexaferrites utilizing solenoid coil for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine, E-mail: c.vittoria@neu.edu

    2015-11-01

    We have developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric hexaferrite materials in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel excitation method incorporating solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed and tested for sensor detections. For H-field sensing we obtained sensitivity of about 3000 V/mG and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10{sup −4} G/Vm{sup −1}. Tunability of about 0.1% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. However, the proposed designs lend themselves to significant (~10{sup 6}) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  17. Applications of a 6.5T Superconducting Solenoidal Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 6.5 Tesla superconducting gas-filled solenoid (SOLITAIRE has been developed at the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility at the ANU as a reaction product separator. Key features of the device allowing its application for precise measurement of heavy ion fusion cross sections are described. The physical separation of beam particles and the high efficiency (~80% transport of heavy ion fusion products open up applications in nuclear structure physics, and in materials science. Finally, the developments to allow its application to providing beams of light radioactive isotopes (SOLEROO are described.

  18. HB+ prepares for insertion into the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Barney, CERN

    2006-01-01

    With calibration of the first half of the barrel Hadron Calorimeter (HB+) complete (using a radioactive source), preparations begin for its insertion into the solenoid for the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC). It was moved out of its alcove at the beginning of March - a non-trivial (but completely successful) operation due to the proximity of one of the barrel yoke rings (YB+1). The other half of the barrel Hadron Calorimeter (HB-) and one of the endcaps (HE+) should also be calibrated before the MTCC.

  19. Triple-axis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    A triple-axis spectrometer has been designed for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter. Because of the limited number of other operational equipment the triple axis spectrometer was used in a multi purpose regime, e.g. high resolution diffractometry, strain analysis, reflectometry, quasielastic and inelastic scattering. A polarization setup was also tested on this spectrometer. (R.P.)

  20. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  1. Laser heated solenoid as a neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Rose, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual designs are presented for a radiation test facility based on a laser heated plasma confined in a straight solenoid. The thin plasma column, a few meters in length and less than a centimeter in diameter, serves as a line source of neutrons. Test samples are located within or just behind the plasma tube, at a radius of 1-2 cm from the axis. The plasma is heated by an axially-directed powerful long-wavelength laser beam. The plasma is confined radially in the intense magnetic field supplied by a pulsed solenoid surrounding the plasma tube. The facility is pulsed many times a second to achieve a high time-averaged neutron flux on the test samples. Based on component performance achievable in the near term (e.g., magnetic field, laser pulse energy) and assuming classical physical processes, it appears that average fluxes of 10 13 to 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 -sec can be achieved in such a device. The most severe technical problems in such a facility appear to be rapid pulsing design and lifetime of some electrical and laser components

  2. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  3. Background reduction of the KATRIN spectrometers. Transmission function of the pre-spectrometer and systematic tests of the main-spectrometer wire electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prall, Matthias

    2011-07-04

    precision). These measurements, together with the results of various quality assurance tests are stored in a database allowing to reconstruct the properties and history of each single electrode module. The UHV-compatible, fail-save, non-magnetic high voltage distribution, routing 46 voltages to the electrode modules inside the MS, was designed, tested systematically and its installation was started. The pre-spectrometer (PS), which has the same working principle as the MS is placed in front of it in the KATRIN experiment. It is foreseen to operate the MS at a potential of about 18.57 keV and the PS at about 18.3 keV reducing the rate of {beta}-decay electrons entering the MS to about 10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. This measure reduces the electron scattering probability in the MS and thus the background rate. Like this, however, electrons are confined longitudinally between the spectrometer potentials and radially by the strong magnetic field of a solenoid, placed between them. The electrons trapped in this Penning trap can also produce background. This work investigates the possibility to diminish this background source by reducing the PS potential by several keV worsening the trapping conditions. In this configuration, however, the PS transmission probability could be reduced as an adiabaticity requirement guaranteeing that electrons follow the magnetic field lines through the PS and are transmitted, is potentially violated. This phenomenon would introduce an additional systematic uncertainty for KATRIN. Therefore, the pre-spectrometer transmission at several magnetic fields settings. These investigations show that there are no non-adiabatic transmission losses for magnetic fields larger, or equal to 2.25 T (50% KATRIN design value).

  4. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R.W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D.C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. A detailed description of the concepts they developed and the work they performed can be found in a report titled ''Silicon Subsystem Mechanical Engineering Work for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration'' which they submitted to the SSC Laboratory. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report

  5. Using Experiment and Computer Modeling to Determine the Off-Axis Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietor-Santos, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ideal solenoid is a common topic among introductory-based physics textbooks and a typical current arrangement in laboratory hands-on experiences where the magnetic field inside a solenoid is determined at different currents and at different distances from its center using a magnetic probe. It additionally provides a very simple…

  6. Three-dimensional Simulation and Prediction of Solenoid Valve Failure Mechanism Based on Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Xiao, Mingqing; Liang, Yajun; Tang, Xilang; Li, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The solenoid valve is a kind of basic automation component applied widely. It’s significant to analyze and predict its degradation failure mechanism to improve the reliability of solenoid valve and do research on prolonging life. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis model of solenoid valve is established based on ANSYS Workbench software. A sequential coupling method used to calculate temperature filed and mechanical stress field of solenoid valve is put forward. The simulation result shows the sequential coupling method can calculate and analyze temperature and stress distribution of solenoid valve accurately, which has been verified through the accelerated life test. Kalman filtering algorithm is introduced to the data processing, which can effectively reduce measuring deviation and restore more accurate data information. Based on different driving current, a kind of failure mechanism which can easily cause the degradation of coils is obtained and an optimization design scheme of electro-insulating rubbers is also proposed. The high temperature generated by driving current and the thermal stress resulting from thermal expansion can easily cause the degradation of coil wires, which will decline the electrical resistance of coils and result in the eventual failure of solenoid valve. The method of finite element analysis can be applied to fault diagnosis and prognostic of various solenoid valves and improve the reliability of solenoid valve’s health management.

  7. Development of Tandem, Double-Focusing, Electron Impact, Gas Source Mass Spectrometer for Measurement of Rare Double-Substituted Isotoplogues in Geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Edward D. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-30

    This project culminated in construction and delivery of the world’s first large-radius gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometer that permits unparalleled analyses of the stable isotopic composition of methane gas. The instrument, referred to as the “Panorama” and installed at UCLA in March 2015, can now be used to determine the relative abundances of rare isotopic species of methane that serve as tracers of temperature of formation and/or subsequent processing of gas. With this technology we can begin to delineate different sources and sinks of methane isotopically in ways not possible until now.

  8. A large superconducting thin solenoid for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Report describes the 4.4 meter, warm bore diameter, thin superconducting solenoid, for the proposed STAR experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The STAR solenoid will generate a very uniform central magnetic induction of 0.5 T within a space which is 4.0 meters in diameter by 4.2 meters long. The solenoid and its cryostat will be 0.7 radiation lengths thick over a length of 5.45 meters, about the center of the magnet making it the largest solenoid less than one radiation length to be built. This report describes a proposed design for the solenoid and cryostat, its flux return iron, its cryogenic system and its power supply and quench protection system

  9. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; Makida, Y; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Aoki, K; Haruyama, T; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Wachi, Y; Mine, S; Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test. (7 refs).

  10. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Makida, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kawai, M.; Aoki, K.; Haruyama, T.; Kondo, T.; Mizumaki, S.; Wachi, Y.; Mine, S.; Haug, F.; Delruelle, N.; Passardi, G.; ten Kate, H.

    2002-05-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project. The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit. In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test.

  11. Detector solenoid compensation in the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.; Sullivan, M.

    1995-01-01

    The PEP-II experimental detector includes a strong 1.5 T solenoid field in the interaction region (IR). With the fringe fields, the solenoid extends over a range of 6 m. Additional complications are that (1) it is displaced longitudinally from the interaction point (IP) by about 40 cm, (2) neither beam is parallel to the solenoid axis, and (3) the solenoid overlaps a dipole and a quadrupole on either side of the IP. In each half IR the correction system includes a set of skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and normal quadrupoles to independently compensate the coupling, orbit perturbation, dispersion and focusing effect produced by the solenoid. The correction schemes for the Low Energy Ring (LER) and for the High Energy Ring (HER) are described, and the impact on the dynamic aperture is evaluated

  12. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  13. Alternative connections for the large MFTF-B solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are a set of twelve closely coupled, large superconducting magnets with similar but not exactly equal currents. Alternative methods of connecting them to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for operating conditions and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the current induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include separate power supplies, combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, series dump resistors and combinations of these. A new circuit that contains coupling resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed in detail

  14. Design of the pancake-winding central solenoid coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Masataka; Tsuji, Hirosi

    1995-01-01

    There was a debate over whether a pancake-winding or layer-winding technique is more appropriate for the Central Solenoid (CS) coil for ITER superconducting magnet. The layer-winding CS has the advantage of homogeneous winding supporting the TF centering force without weak joints, but has many difficulties during manufacturing and quality control. On other hand, the pancake-winding has the advantage of better quality control during manufacturing and module testing but has difficulties with joints and feeders, and pipes located in the load path of the bucking force from the toroidal field coils. The compact joints, reinforcement by preformed amour, sharp bending, and double seals are applied to the design of pancake-winding CS coil and demonstrated by hardware developments. The pancake-winding CS coil by using modified existing technology is compatible with the bucking concept of the ITER magnet system. (author)

  15. Conceptual fusion reactor designs based on the laser heat solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the laser heated solenoid (LHS) as an approach to fusion and fusion-fission commercial power generation has been examined. The LHS concept is based on magnetic confinement of a long slender plasma column which is partly heated by the axially directed beam from a powerful long wavelength laser. As a pure fusion concept, the LHS configurations studied so far are characterized by fairly difficult engineering constraints, particularly on the magnet, a large laser, and a marginally acceptable system energy balance. As a fusion-fission system, however, the LHS is capable of a very attractive energy balance, has much more relaxed engineering constraints, requires a relatively modest laser, and as such holds great potential as a power generator and fissile fuel breeding scheme

  16. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors based on the laser solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Quimby, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission reactors, based on the laser solenoid concept, can be much smaller in scale than their pure fusion counterparts, with moderate first-wall loading and rapid breeding capabilities (1 to 3 tonnes/yr), and can be designed successfully on the basis of classical plasma transport properties and free-streaming end-loss. Preliminary design information is presented for such systems, including the first wall, pulse coil, blanket, superconductors, laser optics, and power supplies, accounting for the desired reactor performance and other physics and engineering constraints. Self-consistent point designs for first and second generation reactors are discussed which illustrate the reactor size, performance, component parameters, and the level of technological development required

  17. submitter Starting Manufacture of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Libeyre, P; Dolgetta, N; Gaxiola, E; Jong, C; Lyraud, C; Mitchell, N; Journeaux, J Y; Vollmann, T; Evans, D; Sgobba, S; Langeslag, S; Reiersen, W; Martovetsky, N; Everitt, D; Hatfield, D; Rosenblad, P; Litherland, S; Freudenberg, K; Myatt, L; Smith, J; Brazelton, C; Abbott, R; Daubert, J; Rackers, K; Nentwich, T

    2016-01-01

    The central solenoid (CS) is a key component of the ITER magnet system to provide the magnetic flux swing required to drive induced plasma current up to 15 MA. The manufacture of its different subcomponents has now started, following completion of the design analyses and achievement of the qualification of the manufacturing procedures. A comprehensive set of analyses has been produced to demonstrate that the CS final design meets all requirements. This includes in particular structural analyses carried out with different finite-element models and addressing normal and fault conditions. Following the Final Design Review, held in November 2013, and the subsequent design modifications, the analyses were updated for consistency with the final design details and provide evidence that the Magnet Structural Design Criteria are fully met. Before starting any manufacturing activity of a CS component, a corresponding dedicated qualification program has been carried out. This includes manufacture of mockups using the re...

  18. Behaviour of large cylindrical drift chambers in a superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, W. de; Fues, W.; Grindhammer, G.; Kotthaus, R.; Lierl, H.; Moss, L.

    1980-04-01

    We describe the construction and behaviour of a set of cylindrical drift chambers operating inside a superconducting solenoid with a central magnetic field of 1.3 T. The chambers are part of the 4 π detector CELLO at the e + e - storage ring PETRA in Hamburg. The chambers were designed without field shaping to keep them as simple as possible. In order to parametrize accurately the nonlinear space-time relation, we used a computer simulation of the drift process in inhomogenous electric and magnetic fields. With such a parametrization we achieved a resolution of 210 μm, averaged over the whole drift cell and angles of incidence up to 30 0 . (orig.)

  19. Start-up of spherical tokamak without a center solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    For low-aspect tokamak reactors, spherical tokamak reactors, ST-type FESF/CTFs, it is essential to remove or minimize a central solenoid (CS). Even with the minimized CS, non-inductive start up of the plasma current is required. Rapid increase in the spontaneous plasma current at the final stage of current start-up drives ignition. At the initial stage, formation of plasma and magnetic surfaces are required. As non-inductive plasma start-up scenarios, ECH/ECCD, LHCD, HHFW, DC HELICITY injection, plasma merging and NBI have been studied. In the present article, the present status and future prospect of experimental and theoretical works on these subjects. (author)

  20. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  1. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified design of coil for testing ITER superconducting cable is presented. • Numerical analysis allowed design verification. • Three-dimensional current sharing temperature distributions are obtained from the results. - Abstract: The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4 K, no current, (3) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4 K, no current, and temperature 4 K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor

  2. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodak, Andrei, E-mail: akhodak@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Modified design of coil for testing ITER superconducting cable is presented. • Numerical analysis allowed design verification. • Three-dimensional current sharing temperature distributions are obtained from the results. - Abstract: The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4 K, no current, (3) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4 K, no current, and temperature 4 K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor

  3. Small-sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer with beam particle ionization by electron impact developed for the measurement of pulsed hydrogen beam parameters, is described. Duration of electron beam current pulses in the mass-spectrometer ionizer is varied within the 2-20 μs, interval electron pulse current is 0.6 mA, electron energy is 250 eV. Time resolution of the mass spectrometer is determined by the period of electron beam current pulse repetition and equals 40 μs. The ion drift range is 16 cm. Mass resolution ΔM/M=1/5 is sufficient for the determination of hydrogen beam composition. The mass spectrometer has 100% transparency in the direction of molecular beam particle movement. In this direction the mass spectrometer size is 7 cm

  4. Repeatable intensity calibration of an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seah, M.P.; Spencer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, NPL developed an infrastructure for calibrating the intensity response functions of electron spectrometers for Auger electron and for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Two software systems were developed: one for Auger electron spectrometers or for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined, and one for X-ray photoelectron spectrometers on their own; the latter being applied if no suitable electron gun is available. The system for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined has been used regularly to calibrate the Metrology Spectrometer II at NPL and experience shows that this gives an instrumental intensity consistency of 0.4% over 10 years. Evaluations have not previously been reported at this level. The system for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined is used here in preference to the system solely for X-ray photoelectron spectrometers since it is more robust to the sample condition and can be used over a wider energy range. These issues, and how observed variations in the instrument intensity response may arise, are explained

  5. A new generation of superconducting solenoids for heavy-ion linac application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Kim, S. H.; Lessner, E. S.; Shepard, K. W.; Laxdal, R. E.; Wheatley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The beam dynamics of superconducting (SC) heavy-ion linacs operating in the velocity range below 0.4c require a compact accelerating-focusing lattice. The use of SC solenoids together with SC RF resonators within a common cryostat can solve the real-estate problem. The solenoids must have low fringe fields to avoid magnetic-flux capture in the SC RF resonators. Also, incorporating dipole steering coils together with the SC solenoids in one magnet assembly can increase the compactness of the linac lattice. R and D work has been carried out to determine the feasibility of combining the three elements of high solenoid field, low fringe field, and integral dipole field, into one compact package. A 9-Tesla magnet has been initially designed and will be prototyped, with the goal of eventually developing 14-Tesla solenoids of similar design. The most important design issues are: (1) to minimize stray field in the RF cavity region using SC bucking coils and (2) to achieve adequate mechanical stability of the transverse dipole windings in the presence of forces produced by the solenoid/bucking coil assembly. The assembly, including terminals, switches, and protection circuit, are designed to fit inside a 25-cm diameter helium reservoir. The results of the preliminary design of the solenoid, including numerical simulations of the beam dynamics, are reported

  6. New Generation of Superconducting Solenoids for Heavy-Ion Linac Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Kim, S. H.; Lessner, E. S.; Shepard, K. W.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    The beam dynamics of superconducting (SC) heavy-ion linacs operating in the velocity range below 0.4c require a compact accelerating-focusing lattice. The use of SC solenoids together with SC RF resonators within a common cryostat can solve the real-estate problem. The solenoids must have low fringe fields to avoid magnetic-flux capture in the SC RF resonators. Also, incorporating dipole steering coils together with the SC solenoids in one magnet assembly can increase the compactness of the linac lattice. R&D work has been carried out to determine the feasibility of combining the three elements of high solenoid field, low fringe field, and integral dipole field, into one compact package. A 9-Tesla magnet has been initially designed and will be prototyped, with the goal of eventually developing 14-Tesla solenoids of similar design. The most important design issues are: (1) to minimize stray field in the RF cavity region using SC bucking coils and (2) to achieve adequate mechanical stability of the transverse dipole windings in the presence of forces produced by the solenoid/bucking coil assembly. The assembly, including terminals, switches, and protection circuit, are designed to fit inside a 25-cm diameter helium reservoir. The results of the preliminary design of the solenoid, including numerical simulations of the beam dynamics, are reported.

  7. The Compact Muon Solenoid silicon tracker testing of hybrids, modules and substructures at operating temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose detectors which are foreseen to operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is presently being built at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) in Switzerland. The central tracker of CMS consists of a pixel system, which is located close to the interaction point and a silicon strip tracker (SST) which instruments the intermediate and outer region. The SST is composed of 15148 silicon microstrip detector modules which contain the read-out electronics (hybrids) and sensors. These modules will be assembled into substructures with control electronics and optics for transmitting data. The substructures will be integrated into the subsystems of the SST. The SST will be operated for up to ten years in the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. The lifetime of the SST will be extended by operating the detector at lowered temperature. The sensors, which are very delicate parts in respect to radiation damage, will be operated at a maximum ...

  8. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Solenoidal Magnetic Field I: Weak Magnetic Field Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D., Startsev, E. A., Sefkow, A. B., Davidson, R. C.

    2008-10-10

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite- length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to infuence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ωce > ωpeβb, where ωce = eβ/mec is the electron gyrofrequency, ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, and βb = Vb/c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement.

  9. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Solenoidal Magnetic Field I: Weak Magnetic Field Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Davidson, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite-length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to influence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ω ce ∼> ω pe β b , where ω ce = eB/m e c is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β b = V b /c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, J.J.

    1970-01-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [fr

  11. Design of solenoid magnet with slender majority of transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhiyong; Liu Chengjun

    1998-12-01

    The solenoid magnet design for a 20 MeV flash X-radiography is presented. Prototype solenoid magnets have been demonstrated that it has a magnetic axis tilt less than 1 mrad and magnetic axis offset 0.2 mm, respectively. The design features of the solenoid magnets, which are slender majority of transverse magnetic field and high precision of magnetic alignment, have been proved to meet the 20 MeV linear induction accelerator performance goals by the experiments of the 2 MeV injector

  12. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  13. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  14. New method for generating linear transfer matrices through combined rf and solenoid fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    We present a new method for computing the transverse transfer matrix for superimposed axisymmetric rf and solenoid field maps. The algorithm constructs the transfer matrix directly from one-dimensional rf and solenoid field maps without computing numerical derivatives or eigenfunction expansions of the field map data. In addition, this method accurately describes the dynamics of low energy particles starting from a solenoid-immersed cathode, allowing the method to simulate transport through both rf and electrostatic guns. Comparison of particle tracking with the transfer matrix, and direct integration of the equations of motion through several field setups, shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  15. New method for generating linear transfer matrices through combined rf and solenoid fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for computing the transverse transfer matrix for superimposed axisymmetric rf and solenoid field maps. The algorithm constructs the transfer matrix directly from one-dimensional rf and solenoid field maps without computing numerical derivatives or eigenfunction expansions of the field map data. In addition, this method accurately describes the dynamics of low energy particles starting from a solenoid-immersed cathode, allowing the method to simulate transport through both rf and electrostatic guns. Comparison of particle tracking with the transfer matrix, and direct integration of the equations of motion through several field setups, shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  16. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  17. New development of hadron physics at new laser electron beam line (LEP2) of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Norihito; Niiyama, Masayuki; Yosoi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the outline of LEPS2 beam line and two types of large detectors (electromagnetic calorimeter BGOegg and solenoid spectrometer), LEPS2/BGOegg experiment, and the target physics using LEPS2 solenoid spectrometer. In LEPS2 beam line, experiments are performed with the improvement of beam intensity by nearly one digit due to the simultaneous incidence of multiple lasers of high output, as well as with the installation of a large solid angle high-resolution detector. In LEPS2/BGOegg experiment, direct observation with a large solid angle of mesons such as π 0 , η, η', and ω has become possible, which has given expectation for new physics. As one of the physics at the core of BGOegg experiments, there is the systematic examination of interaction between η' and nucleus/nucleon. In the physics using a solenoid spectrometer, the first target is the measurement of penta-quark particle Θ + . (A.O.)

  18. HIE-Isolde: Commissioning and first results of the Mathilde system monitoring the positions of cavities and solenoids inside cryomodules

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, Guillaume; Klumb, Francis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The new superconducting HIE-ISOLDE Linac replaced most of pre-existing REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. This upgrade involves the design, construction, installation and commissioning of 4 high-β cryomodules. Each high-β cryomodule houses five superconducting cavities and one superconducting solenoid. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, located inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The Monitoring and Alignment Tracking for HIE-ISOLDE (MATHILDE) system has been developed to fulfil the alignment and monitoring needs for components exposed to non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. MATHILDE is based on opto-electronic sensors (HBCAM) observing, through high quality viewports, spher...

  19. An Infrared Drill Borehole Spectrometer for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Foote, M.; Johnson, E.; Daly, J.; Loges, P.; Puscasu, I.; Gorevan, S.; Chu, P.; Granahan, J.

    2005-08-01

    The best clues to Mars past may be hidden below the surface of Mars. Long exposure to the sun, high winds and dust storms, large diurnal temperature excursions, and eons of space weathering combine to render a greatly modified surface, in many instances remarkable for its appearance of uniform composition. Drilling can provide access to the layers in the caps, to the permafrost and possibly, to pristine crustal material. The drilling process is complex with high demand on support resources. It is vital to make the drilling process as efficient as possible. A most promising approach is to instrument the drill string itself, thereby avoiding the complexity of sample handling, speeding and simplifying drill operations, and allowing examination of freshly exposed surfaces within the borehole. A solid-state IR spectrometer is being integrated with a blackbody source into a package to fit within an existing Mars drill design. The borehole IR spectrometer is used to monitor facies encountered throughout the drilling process. The spectrometer/IR combination is used in reflectance spectrometer mode to monitor H2O and CO2 content, as well as iron and carbonate mineralogies. Integration required adapting the existing spectrometer to fit within the drill -- including attaching the detectors directly to the spectrometer waveguide, developing the techniques required to seal the micro-thermopile detectors to the waveguide, implementing miniaturized digital conversion electronics, combining the spectrometer with the IR source and coupling them to a suitable window, implementing a suitable sealed package to fit within the drill, integrating and testing the package on a drill, and establishing the proper gain for both stimulus and spectrometer to permit reasonable range of Mars soil analogs. Tests have shown that both sapphire and diamond windows perform well in the drilling environment. Testing of the integrated spectrometer and drill will be completed in the coming year.

  20. Confinement of laser plasma by solenoidal field for laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laser ion source can provide high current, highly charged ions with a simple structure. However, it was not easy to control the ion pulse width. To provide a longer ion beam pulse, the plasma drift length, which is the distance between laser target and extraction point, has to be extended and as a result the plasma is diluted severely. Previously, we applied a solenoid field to prevent reduction of ion density at the extraction point. Although a current enhancement by a solenoid field was observed, plasma behavior after a solenoid magnet was unclear because plasma behavior can be different from usual ion beam dynamics. We measured a transverse ion distribution along the beam axis to understand plasma motion in the presence of a solenoid field.

  1. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  2. The influence of the iron shield of the solenoid on spin tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the iron shield of the solenoid on spin tracking is studied in this paper. In the case of the 200 MeV proton, the study has been numerically done in the ZGOUBI code. The distribution of the magnetic field was done by POISSON. We have come to the conclusion that the influence of the solenoid’s shielding on spin tracking is the same at its entrance and exit and that is directly proportional to the intensity of the magnetic induction B on the axis of the solenoid. We have also determined that the influence of the solenoid’s shielding is much stronger on transversal components of the spin than on its longitudinal component. The differences between components of the spin for the shielded and not-shielded solenoid diminish with the in crease in the distance from the solenoid.

  3. Proceedings of the international workshop on solenoidal detectors for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Fumio; Hasegawa, Katsuo

    1990-07-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the International Workshop on solenoidal detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Design and analysis of direct action solenoid valve based on computational intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qianfeng; Bo Hanliang; Qin Benke

    2010-01-01

    Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism (CRHDM) is a newly invented patent of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology Tsinghua University which owns CRHDM's independent intellectual property rights while the integrated valve made up of three direct action solenoid valves is the key part of this mechanism. Therefore, the performance of the solenoid valve affects the integrated valve and the CRHDM directly. In this paper, we present a method to design the parameters of the direct action solenoid valve based on orthogonal experiment design, back propagation (BP) neural network and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The result proves that the method is feasible and accurate to design the parameters in order to obtain the biggest electromagnetic force. Besides, the result also shows that it is the current which influences the electromagnetic force of the direct action solenoid valve most.

  5. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Bell, M G; Ono, M; Bigelow, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Lee, K C; Maqueda, R; Menard, J; Paul, S

    2007-05-23

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  6. Applications of a superconducting solenoidal separator in the experimental investigation of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D J; Carter, I P; Dasgupta, M; Simpson, E C; Cook, K J; Kalkal, Sunil; Luong, D H; Williams, E

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes applications of a novel superconducting solenoidal separator, with magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla, for studies of nuclear reactions using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility at the Australian National University. (paper)

  7. Characterization of a Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Electron Gun for the VAPoR Miniaturized Pyrolysis-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Li, Mary; Costen, Nicholas; Hess, Larry; Feng, Steve; King, Todd; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Glavin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the VAPoR (Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) instrument towards studying soil composition, volatiles, and trapped noble gases in the polar regions of the Moon. VAPOR will ingest a soil sample and conduct analysis by pyrolysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS). Here, we describe miniaturization efforts within this development, including a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron gun that is under consideration for use as the electron impact ionization source for the ToF-MS.

  8. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (ams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), once installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra up to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and missing matter. A prototype version of the detector was operated successfully on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS apparatus and present the results of the measurements of the fluxes of proton, electron, positron and helium from the STS-91 flight.

  9. Performance of solenoids vs. quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length ap...

  10. A solenoidal and monocusp ion source (SAMIS) (abstract){sup a}{sup b}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.J.; Brainard, J.P.; Draper, C.H.; Ney, R.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0516 (United States); Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Williams, M.D.; Wilde, S.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    We have developed a new magnetic monocusp ion source for single aperture applications such as neutron generators. Coupling solenoidal magnetic fields on both sides of a monocusp magnetic field has generated over 70{percent} atomic deuterium ions at pressures as low as 0.4 Pa (3 mTorr). This article describes the performance and characteristics of the solenoidal and monocusp ion source. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Fourier Bessel transform method for efficiently calculating the magnetic field of solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachamkin, J.; Maggiore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical procedure for calculating the magnetic field of a selenoid is derived. Based on the properties of Bessel functions, the procedure is shown to be convergent everywhere, including within the windings of the solenoid. The most critical part of the procedure is detailed in the main text. A simple method is used to ensure numerical significance while allowing economical computational times. In the appendix the procedure is generalized to universal convergence by appropriate partitioning of the solenoid windings

  12. A superconducting solenoid and press for permanent magnet fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a superconducting solenoid (SCM) was used to increase the remnant magnetization of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs). In particular, improved magnetic alignment of commercial-grade PM powder was achieved, as it was axial die pressed into 12.7-mm diameter cylindrical compacts in the 76.2-mm warm bore of a 9-T SCM. The press used to compact the powder is unique and was specifically designed for use with the SCM. Although the press was operated in the batch mode for this proof of concept study, its design is intended to enable automated production. In operation, a simple die and punch set made of nonmagnetic materials was filled with powder and loaded into a nonmagnetic press tube. The cantilevered press tube was inserted horizontally, on a carrier manually advanced along a track, into the SCM. The robustness of the mechanical components and the SCM, in its liquid helium dewar, were specifically designed to allow for insertion and extraction of the magnetic powder and compacts, while operating at 9 T. Compaction was achieved by pressing the punches between the closed end of the press tube and the hydraulic cylinder mounted on the opposite end. Improvements up to 10% in magnetization and 20% in energy products of the permanent magnets were obtained, as the alignment fields were increased above the 2-T maximum field of the electromagnets used in industry. Increases in magnetization of 3% are significant in the mature sintered magnet industry

  13. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of Δp/p ∼ 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,Δp/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets

  14. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  15. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R. W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D. C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H. J.

    The authors' group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report.

  16. Tor forms a dimer through an N-terminal helical solenoid with a complex topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretić, Domagoj; Berndt, Alex; Ohashi, Yohei; Johnson, Christopher M.; Williams, Roger L.

    2016-04-01

    The target of rapamycin (Tor) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates a range of anabolic and catabolic processes. Tor is present in two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, in which the Tor-Lst8 heterodimer forms a common sub-complex. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of Tor bound to Lst8. Two Tor-Lst8 heterodimers assemble further into a dyad-symmetry dimer mediated by Tor-Tor interactions. The first 1,300 residues of Tor form a HEAT repeat-containing α-solenoid with four distinct segments: a highly curved 800-residue N-terminal 'spiral', followed by a 400-residue low-curvature 'bridge' and an extended `railing' running along the bridge leading to the 'cap' that links to FAT region. This complex topology was verified by domain insertions and offers a new interpretation of the mTORC1 structure. The spiral of one TOR interacts with the bridge of another, which together form a joint platform for the Regulatory Associated Protein of TOR (RAPTOR) regulatory subunit.

  17. Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

  18. Plasma current start-up experiments without the central solenoid in the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.; Adachi, Y.; Ishii, N.; Kasahara, H.; Nuga, H.; Ono, Y.; Oosako, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shimada, Y.; Sumitomo, N.; Taguchi, I.; Tojo, H.; Tsujimura, J.; Ushigome, M.; Yamada, T.; Hanada, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Sasaki, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Mitarai, O.

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques for initiating the plasma current without the use of the central solenoid are being developed in TST-2. While TST-2 was temporarily located at Kyushu University, two types of start-up scenarios were demonstrated. (1) A plasma current of 4 kA was generated and sustained for 0.28 s by either electron cyclotron wave or electron Bernstein wave, without induction. (2) A plasma current of 10 kA was obtained transiently by induction using only outboard poloidal field coils. In the second scenario, it is important to supply sufficient power for ionization (100 kW of EC power was sufficient in this case), since the vertical field during start-up is not adequate to maintain plasma equilibrium. In addition, electron heating experiments using the X-B mode conversion scenario were performed, and a heating efficiency of 60% was observed at a 100 kW RF power level. TST-2 is now located at the Kashiwa Campus of the University of Tokyo. Significant upgrades were made in both magnetic coil power supplies and RF systems, and plasma experiments have restarted. RF power of up to 400 kW is available in the high-harmonic fast wave frequency range around 20 MHz. Four 200 MHz transmitters are now being prepared for plasma current start-up experiments using RF power in the lower-hybrid frequency range. Preparations are in progress for a new plasma merging experiment (UTST) aimed at the formation and sustainment of ultra-high β ST plasmas

  19. Enhanced collective focusing of intense neutralized ion beam pulses in the presence of weak solenoidal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of ion drivers for warm dense matter and high energy density physics applications and heavy ion fusion involves transverse focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams to a small spot size on the target. To facilitate the process, the compression occurs in a long drift section filled with a dense background plasma, which neutralizes the intense beam self-fields. Typically, the ion bunch charge is better neutralized than its current, and as a result a net self-pinching (magnetic) force is produced. The self-pinching effect is of particular practical importance, and is used in various ion driver designs in order to control the transverse beam envelope. In the present work we demonstrate that this radial self-focusing force can be significantly enhanced if a weak (B ∼ 100 G) solenoidal magnetic field is applied inside the neutralized drift section, thus allowing for substantially improved transport. It is shown that in contrast to magnetic self-pinching, the enhanced collective self-focusing has a radial electric field component and occurs as a result of the overcompensation of the beam charge by plasma electrons, whereas the beam current becomes well-neutralized. As the beam leaves the neutralizing drift section, additional transverse focusing can be applied. For instance, in the neutralized drift compression experiments (NDCX) a strong (several Tesla) final focus solenoid is used for this purpose. In the present analysis we propose that the tight final focus in the NDCX experiments may possibly be achieved by using a much weaker (few hundred Gauss) magnetic lens, provided the ion beam carries an equal amount of co-moving neutralizing electrons from the preceding drift section into the lens. In this case the enhanced focusing is provided by the collective electron dynamics strongly affected by a weak applied magnetic field.

  20. Calibration of high-dynamic-range, finite-resolution x-ray pulse-height spectrometers for extracting electron energy distribution data from the PFRC-2 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the full x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) emitted from a plasma over a large dynamic range of energies can yield valuable insights about the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of that plasma and the dynamic processes that create them. X-ray pulse height detectors such as Amptek's X-123 Fast SDD with Silicon Nitride window can detect x-rays in the range of 200eV to 100s of keV. However, extracting EEDF from this measurement requires precise knowledge of the detector's response function. This response function, including the energy scale calibration, the window transmission function, and the resolution function, can be measured directly. We describe measurements of this function from x-rays from a mono-energetic electron beam in a purpose-built gas-target x-ray tube. Large-Z effects such as line radiation, nuclear charge screening, and polarizational Bremsstrahlung are discussed.

  1. Using the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to do mineral identification and compositional point counting on unconsolidated marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and accurate method of point-counting sands and silt-size in unconsolidated open-ocean sediments. As traditional techniques for this operation cannot be employed on the fine-grained material which frequently forms the bulk of deep sea marine sediments, an alternative method has been sought. The method described makes use of equipment known as QUANTEX-RAY comprising a computerised data acquisition and reduction system designed for use in X-ray energy spectrometry and used in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grains that cannot be identified by their visual morphology in the scanning electron microscope are analysed by X-ray spectrometry. Spectra are acquired in 200 seconds or less and processed by a sequence of software routines under semi-automatic control producing a listing of oxide concentrations as the final result. Each user must customize the control programme and operating conditions to suit his requirements

  2. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  3. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  4. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  5. Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, M.; Beckford, B.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Han, Y. C.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kanda, H.; Kimura, C.; Maeda, K.; Nakamura, S. N.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Yamazaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    A large-acceptance spectrometer, Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2 (NKS2), was newly constructed to explore various photoproduction reactions in the gigaelectronvolt region at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS, currently ELPH), Tohoku University. The spectrometer consisted of a dipole magnet, drift chambers, and plastic scintillation counters. NKS2 was designed to separate pions and protons in a momentum range of less than 1 GeV/ c, and was placed in a tagged photon beamline. A cryogenic H2/D2 target fitted to the spectrometer were designed. The design and performance of the detectors are described. The results of the NKS2 experiment on analyzing strangeness photoproduction data using a 0.8-1.1 GeV tagged photon beam are also presented.

  6. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Electronique Physique; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  7. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E.; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  8. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  9. Characterizing high-energy-formed particulates with the scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer system. Progress report, March--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, A.W.; Biermann, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is being sought that will allow the differentiation between particulates formed in implosions and particulates formed in explosions. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) were used to measure and compare particle size, shape, surface morphology, and composition. Implosion and explosion detonations yielded spherical, smooth particles within the same size range. Although the particle size, shape, and morphology were the same for comparable samples of different detonation type, there were distinct differences in composition. It is not certain whether differences in composition reflect differences in device components or differences in the nature of the detonation

  10. Study of electron pair and photon production in lead-gold collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Ravinovich, I; Fraenkel, Z; Gnaenski, A

    2002-01-01

    This is a continuation of the NA45 experiment dedicated to the measurement of electron-positron pairs and direct photons produced in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies. The main goal remains as outlined in NA45. The strong enhancement of low-mass pairs, over the expected yield from hadronic sources, observed in S-Au collisions by NA45, adds considerably to the physics potential and to the interest in the measurement of these variables. \\\\\\\\The figure shows the layout of the CERES spectrometer which has been upgraded to cope with the higher multiplicities and background of central Pb-Pb collisions. The basic spectrometer remains unchanged, namely two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors (RICH), one situated before the other after a short superconducting double solenoid. The main elements of the upgrade are additional detectors, two silicon radial-drift chambers (instead of one in the original set-up) and a pad chamber (a large MWPC with pad readout) located behind the spectrometer. They allow real tracking and help...

  11. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0 degrees C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0 degrees C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length

  12. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  13. Large-format, high-speed, X-ray pnCCDs combined with electron and ion imaging spectrometers in a multipurpose chamber for experiments at 4th generation light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strueder, Lothar [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany); University of Siegen, Emmy-Noether Campus, Walter Flex Str. 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Epp, Sascha; Rolles, Daniel [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Soltau, Heike; Eckart, Rouven; Reich, Christian; Heinzinger, Klaus; Thamm, Christian [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, D-80803 Muenchen (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany); Rudenko, Artem; Krasniqi, Faton [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kuehnel, Kai-Uwe; Bauer, Christian; Schroeter, Claus-Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Moshammer, Robert [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Techert, Simone [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer biophysikalische Chemie, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Miessner, Danilo; Porro, Matteo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-11

    Fourth generation accelerator-based light sources, such as VUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FEL), deliver ultra-brilliant (approx10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} photons per bunch) coherent radiation in femtosecond (approx10-100 fs) pulses and, thus, require novel focal plane instrumentation in order to fully exploit their unique capabilities. As an additional challenge for detection devices, existing (FLASH, Hamburg) and future FELs (LCLS, Menlo Park; SCSS, Hyogo and the European XFEL, Hamburg) cover a broad range of photon energies from the EUV to the X-ray regime with significantly different bandwidths and pulse structures reaching up to MHz micro-bunch repetition rates. Moreover, hundreds up to trillions of fragment particles, ions, electrons or scattered photons can emerge when a single light flash impinges on matter with intensities up to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}. In order to meet these challenges, the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) within the Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL) has designed the CFEL-ASG MultiPurpose (CAMP) chamber. It is equipped with specially developed photon and charged particle detection devices dedicated to cover large solid-angles. A variety of different targets are supported, such as atomic, (aligned) molecular and cluster jets, particle injectors for bio-samples or fixed target arrangements. CAMP houses 4pi solid-angle ion and electron momentum imaging spectrometers ('reaction microscope', REMI, or 'velocity map imaging', VMI) in a unique combination with novel, large-area, broadband (50 eV-25 keV), high-dynamic-range, single-photon-counting and imaging X-ray detectors based on the pnCCDs. This instrumentation allows a new class of coherent diffraction experiments in which both electron and ion emission from the target may be simultaneously monitored. This permits the investigation of dynamic processes in this new regime of ultra-intense, high-energy radiation-matter interaction. After an introduction into

  14. The third generation of multichannel Raman spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Deffontaine, A.; Bridoux, M.; Delhaye, M.; Da Silva, E.; Hug, W.

    1984-01-01

    A new multichannel Raman spectrometer is described. Each component of the optical part (sample compartment, sample adjustment provisions, filters, fore-monochromator, spectrograph) have been carefully designed to build a high quality, high reliability and easy to use instrument. The detection system uses a self-scanned photodiode array and the read-out electronics and data acquisition system are based on electronic circuits and logics specially developed to give a high dynamic range with low ...

  15. Study of preshower in the PANDA target spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Kamal; Kalita, Kushal; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Roy, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstdt) is one of the major projects at FAIR, GSI, Germany. The main objective of this experiment is to study the fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD in pp¯ annihilation using high intensity cooled anti-proton beams with momenta between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c. To achieve high momentum resolution and full solid angle coverage, the PANDA detector is split in to two parts: target spectrometer and forward spectrometer. The target spectrometer is a complex detector consisting of several subsystems surrounding the interaction point. It is surrounded by a 2 T superconducting solenoid magnet. A Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), close to interaction point, detects secondary vertices of D and Hyperon decays. The Straw Tube Tracker (STT) is the central tracking system around the MVD. A cherenkov counter named DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light), provides π/K separation for particle momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c. The barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector, consists of plastic scintillator tiles with a time resolution of 100 ps. It is used to identify particles of momentum below cherenkov threshold

  16. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. {omega}-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-15

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons {rho}(770), {omega}(783) and {phi}(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  17. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. ω-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-01

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e + e - pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c 2 in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons ρ(770), ω(783) and φ(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well. Conclusions are given in chapter

  18. Study of a microstrip gas detector for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    The micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) were realized due to the technological advances in the field of micro-electronics. The wire of usual gas counters is replaced in these detectors by metallic stripes as a periodic sequence of electrodes (anodes and cathodes) spaced by around 200 μm. At a distance of 3 mm above the strip containing substrate, a metallic plane is placed, thus defining the gaseous room where the passage of a charged particle produces by ionization a primary electron signal collected by the detector anodes. Due to its granularity a MSGC can operate under very high particle fluxes since charge can be collected very rapidly. Also, the impact parameters can be determined with high accuracy due to the high space and time resolutions. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) or the MSGC detectors planned to equip one of the experiments proposed for LHC should detect, in extreme operational conditions, the particle impacts in a 4 Tesla magnetic field, for around ten years and for a particle flux of around 10 4 Hz/mm 2 . The CMS detector is described in chapter 2. The operation principle and the problems encountered in the development of MSGC detectors are summarized in chapter 3. The chapter 4 is dedicated to the study of the performances of MSGCs in magnetic fields. In the chapters 5 to 7 the processing of the signal from detectors of this type is described, particularly, the performances of various ways of treat the signal in terms of detection efficiency and counting loads are presented.The chapter 8 presents the results obtained with the prototype obtained at IPNL while the chapter 9 gives the conclusions of the performed works. (author)

  19. Large acceptance spectrometers for π0 mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Obenshain, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer composed of lead-oxide loaded glass blocks has been constructed for detection of neutral pi mesons emitted in low energy heavy ion reactions. The spectrometer detects the Cerenkov radiation emitted when the high energy photons (Eγ approx. 70 MeV) resulting from π 0 decay create electron-position pairs in the glass, initiating electromagnetic showers. A geometric acceptance of better than 5% of 4π is possible; the π 0 detection efficiency varies between this value at T/sub π/ = 0 MeV and 1% for T/sub π/ approx. 100 MeV

  20. What Caused the Lead burn-out in Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrometer solenoids are supposed to be the first magnets installed in the MICE Cooling Channel. The results of the test of Spectrometer Magnet 2B are reported in a previous MICE Note. Magnet 2B was tested with all five coils connected in series. The magnet failed because a lead to coil M2 failed before it could be trained to its full design current of 275 A. First, this report describes the condition of the magnet when the lead failure occurred. The lead that failed was between the cold mass feed-through and the heavy lead that connected to coil M2 and the quench protection diodes. It is believed that the lead failed because the minimum propagation zone (MPZ) length was too short. The quench was probably triggered by lead motion in the field external to the magnet center coil. The effect of heat transfer on quench propagation and MPZ length is discussed. The MPZ length is compared for a number of cases that apply to the spectrometer solenoid 2B as built and as it has been repaired. The required heat transfer coefficient for cryogenic stability and the quench propagation velocity along the leads are compared for various parts of the Magnet leads inside the cold mass cryostat. The effect of the insulation on leads on heat transfer is and stability is discussed.

  1. Compton backscattering axial spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad'ko, V.E.; Mokrushin, A.D.; Razumovskaya, I.V.

    1981-01-01

    Compton gamma backscattering axial spectrometer of new design with the 200 time larger aperture as compared with the known spectrometers at the equal angular resolution (at E=159 keV) is described. Collimator unit, radiation source and gamma detector are located in the central part of the spectrometer. The investigated specimen (of cylindrical form) and the so called ''black body'' used for absorption of photons, passed through the specimen are placed in the peripheric part. Both these parts have an imaginary symmetry axis that is why the spectrometer is called axial. 57 Co is used as the gamma source. The 122 keV spectral line which corresponds to the 83 keV backscattered photon serves as working line. Germanium disk detector of 10 mm diameter and 4 mm height has energy resolution not worse than 900 eV. The analysis of results of test measurements of compton water profile and their comparison with data obtained earlier show that only finity of detector resolution can essentially affect the form of Compton profile. It is concluded that the suggested variant of the spectrometer would be useful for determination of Compton profiles of chemical compounds of heavy elements [ru

  2. Manufacture and Test of a Small Ceramic-Insulated Nb$_{3}$Sn Split Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Rossi, L; Tommasini, D

    2008-01-01

    A small split solenoid wound with high-Jc Nb3Sn conductor, constituted by a 0.8 mm Rod Re-stack Process (RRP®) strand, was built and tested at CERN in order to study the applicability of: 1) ceramic wet glass braid insulation without epoxy impregnation of the magnet; 2) a new heat treatment devised at CERN and particularly suitable for reacting RRP® Nb3Sn strands. This paper briefly describes the solenoid and the experimental results obtained during 4.4 K and 1.9 K tests. The split solenoid consists of two coils (25 mm inner diameter, 51.1 mm outer diameter, 12.9 mm height). The coils were initially separately tested, in an iron mirror configuration, and then tested together in split solenoid configuration. In all the tests at 4.4 K the coils reached a current higher than 95 % of their short sample limits at the first quench; in split solenoid configuration the maximum field values in the coils and in the aperture were respectively 10.7 T and 12.5 T. At 1.9 K the coils had premature quenches due to self fi...

  3. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  4. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL

  5. Limits on the field of ohmic heating solenoids, applied to a tokamak TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    If the ohmic heating solenoid for the TNS or other large tokamak is an ungraded cryostable superconducting solenoid, with NbTi at 4.2 K as the superconductor, then the smallest outer diameter is not achieved at the highest attainable field. There is a lower optimum field which minimizes the outer diameter for a given volt-second requirement. At higher fields the mean diameter decreases; but the high fields require more superconductor, more copper stabilizer, more stainless steel for support, and more liquid helium coolant. For the GA-ANL design for TNS, the optimum field is 7.55 T and the minimum outside diameter for the solenoid is 2.15 m. If, on the other hand, the solenoid is graded, with more NbTi, copper, and stainless steel on the inner turns where the field is higher, then the volt-seconds can always be increased, for a given outer diameter, by adding more turns at a higher field inside until either the critical field is reached or the solenoid bore is filled. However, the material and money required to add a few more volt-seconds increases rapidly with field

  6. Experimental study on coil of direct action solenoid valve with temperature increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Liu Qianfeng; Bo Hanliang

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic control rod drive technology (HCRDT) is a newly invented patent and Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University owns HCRDT's independent intellectual property rights. The integrated valve which is made up of three direct action solenoid valves is the key part of this technology, so the performance of the solenoid valve directly affects the function of the integrated valve and the HCRDT. Based on the conditions occurring in the operation of the control rod hydraulic drive system, the coil of the direct action solenoid valve with temperature increasing was studied by the experiment and analyzed by ANSYS code. The result shows that the temperature of the coil for the solenoid valve increases with the current increasing firstly. The temperature of the inner wall of the coil is higher than that of the exterior wall. The temperature of the middle coil is higher than that of the edge of the coil. The design of the direct action solenoid valve can be optimized. (authors)

  7. Increasing the reliability of solution exchanges by monitoring solenoid valve actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzmendi, Jerónimo Andrés; Moffatt, Luciano

    2010-01-15

    Solenoid valves are a core component of most solution perfusion systems used in neuroscience research. As they open and close, they control the flow of solution through each perfusion line, thereby modulating the timing and sequence of chemical stimulation. The valves feature a ferromagnetic plunger that moves due to the magnetization of the solenoid and returns to its initial position with the aid of a spring. The delays between the time of voltage application or removal and the actual opening or closing of the valve are difficult to predict beforehand and have to be measured experimentally. Here we propose a simple method for monitoring whether and when the solenoid valve opens and closes. The proposed method detects the movement of the plunger as it generates a measurable signal on the solenoid that surrounds it. Using this plunger signal, we detected the opening and closing of diaphragm and pinch solenoid valves with a systematic error of less than 2ms. After this systematic error is subtracted, the trial-to-trial error was below 0.2ms.

  8. Strength assessment of a cryostat used by the hollow electron test station.

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The following report explains the work I have done on my summer student work project and the experience I have gained during the process. The work consisted of a strength assessment of a cryogenic vacuum insulated vessel according to European regulations. The cryogenic vacuum insulated vessel is used for the cooling of the solenoids. The solenoids are used in the hollow electron test station and create the magnetic fields used for testing electron guns and validating the concept of a hollow electron lens.

  9. Gas Electron Multipler (GEM) detectors for parity-violating electron scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, John; Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Solid Collaboration; Moller Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The JLab Parity Violation In Deep Inelastic Scattering (PVDIS) experiment will use the upgraded 12 GeV beam and proposed Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) to measure the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in DIS of polarized electrons with high precision in order to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Unlike many prior Parity-Violating Electron Scattering (PVES) experiments, PVDIS is a single-particle tracking experiment. Furthermore the experiment's high luminosity combined with the SoLID spectrometer's open configuration creates high-background conditions. As such, the PVDIS experiment has the most demanding tracking detector needs of any PVES experiment to date, requiring precision detectors capable of operating at high-rate conditions in PVDIS's full production luminosity. Developments in large-area GEM detector R&D and SoLID simulations have demonstrated that GEMs provide a cost-effective solution for PVDIS's tracking needs. The integrating-detector-based JLab Measurement Of Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction (MOLLER) experiment requires high-precision tracking for acceptance calibration. Large-area GEMs will be used as tracking detectors for MOLLER as well. The conceptual designs of GEM detectors for the PVDIS and MOLLER experiments will be presented.

  10. A feasibility study of a linear laser heated solenoid fusion reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1976-02-01

    This report examines the feasibility of a laser heated solenoid as a fusion or fusion-fission reactor system. The objective of this study, was an assessment of the laser heated solenoid reactor concept in terms of its plasma physics, engineering design, and commercial feasibility. Within the study many pertinent reactor aspects were treated including: physics of the laser-plasma interaction; thermonuclear behavior of a slender plasma column; end-losses under reactor conditions; design of a modular first wall, a hybrid (both superconducting and normal) magnet, a large CO 2 laser system; reactor blanket; electrical storage elements; neutronics; radiation damage, and tritium processing. Self-consistent reactor configurations were developed for both pure fusion and fusion-fission designs, with the latter designed both to produce power and/or fissile fuels for conventional fission reactors. Appendix A is a bibliography with commentary of theoretical and experimental studies that have been directed at the laser heated solenoid

  11. The SISSI project: An intense secondary ion source using superconducting solenoid lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, A.; Baron, E.; Grunberg, C.; Mittig, W.; Ripouteau, F.; Larson, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary beams are routinely produced at GANIL for experiments from a target placed in the high energy beam line of the accelerator. In order to make a better use of the higher beam intensities soon available at GANIL, a proposal called 'SISSI' was presented in 1989. This project is now funded. It consists of a set of two superconducting solenoid lenses of very short focal length (.6m). The first solenoid is used to sharply focus the incoming beam on a fast moving target. The second increases the angular acceptance of the beam line downstream the target for charged reaction products. Calculations show that from a .4mm diameter beam spot on the target, an acceptance angle of up to 80 mrad will be reached without significant emittance growth due to aberration effects. Technical aspects of that project are then presented concerning both the solenoids and the cryogenic devices as well as the solid target

  12. Magnetic precision alignment of a long horizontal ultra-straight solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.; Good, J.A.; Wilkins, P.

    1989-01-01

    We present a magnetic alignment method for long horizontal ultra-straight solenoids based on the rotating Hall probe technique. We demonstrate how the sag can be eliminated, which otherwise would cause serious alignment errors. Only a flat Hall probe with a 4 1/2 digit controller and two standard ball-bearings are needed, which makes our method very inexpensive. It requires a position accuracy which can be easily achieved with a ruler and an angular precision which can be eyeballed. We give detailed instructions for our simple, straightforward method which allows one to align a solenoid very accurately in lees than one hour. Our analysis and our results indicate that our solenoid is aligned within two-hundredths of a millimeter

  13. A study of ISO Solenoid Valve with static and dynamic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Ju, M. J.; Oh, Y. C.; Kim, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The technology of ISO Solenoid Valves is now considered as a core technology in the fields of the production line of semi-conductor chips and the ISO fluid chips for medical applications. And ISO Solenoid Valves, which operate by compressed air, are characterized by high speed response, great repeatability and that the pressure on the cross sectional area of poppet is kept constant regardless of the fluctuation of the pressure exerted on the ports. The primary objective of this study is to compare the optimally designed Solenoid Valve with the actually produced one and to design a power saving circuit which can highly improve the efficiency by providing optimal current according to mechanical load.

  14. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  15. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  16. MIRI spectrometer optical design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, B.; Visser, H.; Pel, J.W.; Moddemeijer, K.; Smorenburg, C.

    2004-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid InfraRed Instrument) is one of the focal plane instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope. The instrument comprises a camera and a spectrometer module. The instrument plays the following key roles in the JWST science program. Discovery of the "first light". Assembly of galaxies:

  17. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  18. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless-steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth-order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification.

  19. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification.

  20. Non-solenoidal Startup with High-Field-Side Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Pierren, C.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Weberski, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique utilizing electron current injectors at the plasma edge to initiate a tokamak-like plasma at high Ip . Recent experiments on Pegasus explore the inherent tradeoffs between high-field-side (HFS) injection in the lower divertor region and low-field-side (LFS) injection at the outboard midplane. Trade-offs include the relative current drive contributions of HI and poloidal induction, and the magnetic geometry required for relaxation to a tokamak-like state. HFS injection using a set of two increased-area injectors (Ainj = 4 cm2, Vinj 1.5 kV, and Iinj 8 kA) in the lower divertor is demonstrated over the full range of toroidal field available on Pegasus (BT 0 PMI on both the injectors and the lower divertor plates was observed during HFS injection, and was substantively mitigated through optimization of injector geometry and placement of local limiters to reduce scrape-off density in the divertor region. Ip up to 200 kA is achieved with LHI as the dominant current drive, consistent with expectations from helicity balance. To date, experiments support Ip increasing linearly with helicity injection rate. The high normalized current (IN >= 10) attainable with LHI and the favorable stability of the ultra-low aspect ratio, low-li LHI-driven plasmas allow access to high βt-up to 100 % , as indicated by kinetically-constrained equilibrium reconstructions. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. Report of the DOE Office of Energy Research review committee on the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration of the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    At the request of Dr. James F. Decker, Deputy Director of DOE's Office of Energy Research, a technical review committee was assembled to perform a peer review of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) from October 26 to October 30, 1992, at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). The Energy Research Review Committee (ERC) evaluated the technical feasibility, the estimated cost, the proposed construction schedule, and the management arrangements for the SDC detector as documented in the SDC Technical Design Report, SDC Project Cost/Schedule Summary Book, SDC draft Project Management Plan, and other materials prepared for and presented to the Committee by the SDC management. The SDC detector is one of two major detector facilities anticipated at the SSC. The SDC project will be carried out by a worldwide collaboration of almost 1000 scientists, engineers, and managers from over 100 universities, national laboratories, and industries. The SDC will construct a state-of-the-art, general-purpose detector weighing over 26,000 tons and the size of an eight-story building, to perform a broad class of high energy physics experiments at the SSC beginning in the fall of 1999. The design of the SSC detector emphasizes tracking in a strong solenoidal magnetic field to measure charged-particle momenta and to assist in providing good electron and muon identification; identification of neutrinos and other penetrating particles using a hermetic calorimeter; studies of jets of hadrons using both calorimeter and tracking systems; and studies of short-lived particles, such as B mesons, and pattern recognition within complex events using a silicon-based vertex tracking system. These capabilities are the result of the intensive research, development, and design activities undertaken since 1989 by this very large and capable collaboration

  2. CO2-laser--produced plasma columns in a solenoidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offenberger, A.A.; Cervenan, M.R.; Smy, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A 1-GW CO 2 laser pulse has been used to produce extended column breakdown of hydrogen at low pressure in a 20-cm-long solenoid. Magnetic fields of up to 110 kG were used to inhibit radial losses of the plasma column. A differential pumping scheme was devised to prevent formation of an opaque absorption wave travelling out of the solenoid back toward the focusing lens. Target burns give direct evidence for trapped laser beam propagation along the plasma column

  3. Fabrication of a solenoid-type inductor with Fe-based soft magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chong; Zhou Yong; Gao Xiaoyu; Ding Wen; Cao Ying; Choi, Hyung; Won, Jonghwa

    2007-01-01

    A solenoid-type inductor was fabricated by MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technique. The fabrication process uses UV-LIGA, dry etching, fine polishing, and electroplating technique to achieve high performance of the solenoid-type inductor. Fe-based soft magnetic thin film was sputtered as the magnetic core, and polyimide was used as the insulation materials. The inductor was in size of 4x4 mm with coil width of 20 μm and space of 35 μm. The inductance is 1.61 μH at a frequency of 5 MHz with the maximum quality factor of 1.42

  4. Force characteristics of solenoid electromagnet with ferromagnetic disc in the coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorgiev, Vultchan; Yatchev, Ivan; Alexandrov, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the construction and characteristics of a solenoid electromagnet with ferromagnetic disc placed in the coil. The presence if the disc leads to change of the force characteristic compared with conventional solenoid electromagnets - increasing the force at large air gaps and decreasing the force at small air gaps. This could be very useful for some actuators. It has been studied how the force characteristic depend on disc size, position and material. Finite element method has been used for field and force calculations of the electromagnet. (Author)

  5. ASME XI stroke time testing of solenoid valves at Connecticut Yankee Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company has developed the capability of measuring the stroke times of AC and DC solenoid valves. This allows the station to measure the stroke time of any solenoid valve in the plant, even those valves which do not have valve stem position indicators. Connecticut Yankee has adapted the ITI MOVATS Checkmate 3 system, using a signal input from a Bruel and Kjaer (B&K) Model 4382 acoustic accelerometer and the Schaumberg Campbell Associates (SCA) Model SCA-1148 dual sensor, which is a combined accelerometer and gaussmeter.

  6. ASME XI stroke time testing of solenoid valves at Connecticut Yankee Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company has developed the capability of measuring the stroke times of AC and DC solenoid valves. This allows the station to measure the stroke time of any solenoid valve in the plant, even those valves which do not have valve stem position indicators. Connecticut Yankee has adapted the ITI MOVATS Checkmate 3 system, using a signal input from a Bruel and Kjaer (B ampersand K) Model 4382 acoustic accelerometer and the Schaumberg Campbell Associates (SCA) Model SCA-1148 dual sensor, which is a combined accelerometer and gaussmeter

  7. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  8. In Situ Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In Situ Mass Spectrometer projects focuses on a specific subsystem to leverage advanced research for laser-based in situ mass spectrometer development...

  9. Characterization of MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Diaa; Sabry, Yasser; Omran, Haitham; Medhat, Mostafa; Hafez, Amr; Saadany, Bassam

    2011-03-01

    In this work we present the full characterization of an optical MEMS Fourier Transform Infra Red FTIR spectrometer fabricated by Deep Reactive Ion Etching DRIE Technology on Silicon substrate. Both electrical and optical properties of the spectrometer are measured. The presented techniques allows to build an engineering model for the spectrometer and to predict its main specifications taking into account the specificity of the MEMS technology used in the spectrometer fabrication.

  10. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  11. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.).

  12. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA))

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies.

  13. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  14. Portable, low-power, mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.A.; Cork, C.P.; Fabris, L.; Madden, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    A light-weight portable mechanically cooled γ-ray spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer is based on a high-purity n-type Ge coaxial crystal, ∼5 cm longx5 cm diameter, a small, low-power Stirling cycle microcooler, and a low-power custom electronics package. The energy resolution of the spectrometer is ∼3.5 keV at E γ =662 keV, the power requirements are ∼15 W DC, and the combined weight of the Ge, housing, and controller is approximately 10 pounds. The spectrometer qualifies therefore as ''hand held''. It is suitable for field operations, because of its light-weight, low-power draw, and operational lifetime. The microcooler itself has a MTBF >30,000 h, and the spectrometer runs for several months (at least 6) before a 2 day recycle is required

  15. A spectrometer for the NSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the capabilities of a magnetic spectrometer are needed to fully exploit the research programme involving charged particle detection to be carried out on the Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) presently under construction at Daresbury. Performance requirements for such a spectrometer are examined indicating that the QMG/2 spectrometer of the Groningen type is very well suited to the high resolution work which will be possible using beams of light - heavy ions (A < 40). Consequently, and following the recommendations of the Magnetic Spectrometer Working Party, this spectrometer is to be installed at the NSF. (U.K.)

  16. Evolution of solenoidal and dilatational perturbations in transitional supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Omar; Hickey, Jean-Pierre; Scalo, Carlo; Hussain, Fazle

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated the interaction between the dilatational and solenoidal components of instability waves relying on DNS simulations of temporally-evolving compressible boundary layers ranging from Mach numbers of 2.0 to 10.0. For idealized flow conditions at subsonic-to-moderate supersonic speeds, transition to turbulence occurs due to amplification of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves (first Mack mode) exponentially amplified until nonlinear breakdown and transition to turbulence occurs. Under the same conditions, at hypersonic speeds, transition is governed by acoustically resonating trapped waves (second Mack mode). While the former are expected to be solenoidal in nature and the latter predominantly dilatational, we demonstrate that, in general, they always coexist and that, even at Mach=10 there is an appreciable energy transfer from the dilatational to the solenoidal at limit-cycle amplitude conditions in 2D simulations. In three-dimensional simulations very rapid breakdown is observed. Mechanisms of energy exchange between the dilatational and solenoidal components during the transition will be discussed.

  17. Experiments with a double solenoid system: Measurements of the 6He + p Resonant Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampa Condori R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent experiment has been performed in the double solenoid system Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil (RIBRAS by impinging a pure 6He secondary beam on a thick CH2 target to measure the 6He + p excitation function. Results of this experiment will be presented.

  18. The Magnetic Field inside a Long Solenoid--A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David; Carlton, Kevin; Lisgarten, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a technique for measuring the magnetic field inside a long solenoid using computer data logging. This is a new approach to a standard student practical. The design and construction of the sensors is described; they significantly reduce the cost of the apparatus. The approach of the practical is for the students to…

  19. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  20. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Hofmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  1. Compact Muon Solenoid: largest physics experiment to be held in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Atkins, William

    2007-01-01

    "over the last fifteen years about 2'300 engineers and scientists from over 150 scientific institutions in 37 countries around the world have worked together to design and build a gigantic general-purpose particle detector, what is called the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS)." (1 page)

  2. TESTING OF FRAMED STRUCTURE PARTS OF COMPACT MUON SOLENOID BY NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Larchenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension parts of a compact muon solenoid for Large Hadron Collider have been tested in the paper. The paper describes a steady-state and cyclic “tension-compression” load created by superconducting electromagnet with energy of 3 GJ and magnetic induction of 4 tesla. A nondestructive testing method has been applied in the paper.

  3. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  4. ITER central solenoid model coil heat treatment complete and assembly started

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, R.J.; Okuno, K.

    1998-01-01

    A major R and D task in the ITER program is to fabricate a Superconducting Model Coil for the Central Solenoid to establish the design and fabrication methods for ITER size coils and to demonstrate conductor performance. Completion of its components is expected in 1998, to be followed by assembly with structural components and testing in a facility at JAERI

  5. Explicit representation of roots on p-adic solenoids and non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This note generalizes known results concerning the existence of roots and embedding one-parameter subgroups on -adic solenoids. An explicit representation of the roots leads to the construction of two distinct rational embedding one-parameter subgroups. The results contribute to enlighten the group structure of ...

  6. Explicit representation of roots on p-adic solenoids and non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This note generalizes known results concerning the existence of roots and embedding one-parameter subgroups on p-adic solenoids. An explicit representation of the roots leads to the construction of two distinct rational embedding one-parameter subgroups. The results contribute to enlighten the group structure ...

  7. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  8. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  9. Moessbauer backscattering spectrometer for mineralogical analysis of the Mars surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Foh, J.; Held, P.; Jaeger, H.; Kankeleit, E.; Teucher, R.

    1992-01-01

    A Moessbauer spectrometer for the mineralogical analysis of the Mars surface is under development. This instrument will be installed on a Mars-Rover, included in the Soviet Union Mars-94/96 Mars mission. Due to power and mass restrictions the electromechanical drive and the electronic components have been extremely miniaturized in comparison to standard systems. Solid state detectors (PIN-diodes) are used for γ- and x-ray detection. The whole spectrometer is controlled by a microprocessor (transputer). An additional application as X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is proposed. (orig.)

  10. The Terabit/s Super-Fragment Builder and Trigger Throttling System for the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, Michele; Gutíerrez-Mlot, Esteban; Gutleber, Johannes; Jacobs, Claude; Kim, Jin Cheol; Klute, Markus; Lipeles, Elliot; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, Gaetano; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Murray, Steven; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Sumorok, Konstanty; Suzuki, Ichiro; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider reads out event fragments of an average size of 2 kilobytes from around 650 detector front-ends at a rate of up to 100 kHz. The first stage of event-building is performed by the Super-Fragment Builder employing custom-built electronics and a Myrinet optical network. It reduces the number of fragments by one order of magnitude, thereby greatly decreasing the requirements for the subsequent event-assembly stage. By providing fast feedback from any of the front-ends to the trigger, the Trigger Throttling System prevents buffer overflows in the front-end electronics due to variations in the size and rate of events or due to back-pressure from the down-stream event-building and processing. This paper reports on new performance measurements and on the recent successful integration of a scaled-down setup of the described system with the trigger and with front-ends of all major sub-detectors. The on-going commissioning of...

  11. Continuous, edge localized ion heating during non-solenoidal plasma startup and sustainment in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus spherical tokamak are initiated and grown by the non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive technique. The LHI system consists of three adjacent electron current sources that inject multiple helical current filaments that can reconnect with each other. Anomalously high impurity ion temperatures are observed during LHI with T i,OV  ⩽  650 eV, which is in contrast to T i,OV  ⩽  70 eV from Ohmic heating alone. Spatial profiles of T i,OV indicate an edge localized heating source, with T i,OV ~ 650 eV near the outboard major radius of the injectors and dropping to ~150 eV near the plasma magnetic axis. Experiments without a background tokamak plasma indicate the ion heating results from magnetic reconnection between adjacent injected current filaments. In these experiments, the HeII T i perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to scale with the reconnecting field strength, local density, and guide field, while {{T}\\text{i,\\parallel}} experiences little change, in agreement with two-fluid reconnection theory. This ion heating is not expected to significantly impact the LHI plasma performance in Pegasus, as it does not contribute significantly to the electron heating. However, estimates of the power transfer to the bulk ion are quite large, and thus LHI current drive provides an auxiliary ion heating mechanism to the tokamak plasma.

  12. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  13. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  14. Design and testing of focusing magnets for a compact electron linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qushan; Qin, Bin; Liu, Kaifeng; Liu, Xu; Fu, Qiang; Tan, Ping; Hu, Tongning; Pei, Yuanji

    2015-10-01

    Solenoid field errors have great influence on electron beam qualities. In this paper, design and testing of high precision solenoids for a compact electron linac is presented. We proposed an efficient and practical method to solve the peak field of the solenoid for relativistic electron beams based on the reduced envelope equation. Beam dynamics involving space charge force were performed to predict the focusing effects. Detailed optimization methods were introduced to achieve an ultra-compact configuration as well as high accuracy, with the help of the POISSON and OPERA packages. Efforts were attempted to restrain system errors in the off-line testing, which showed the short lens and the main solenoid produced a peak field of 0.13 T and 0.21 T respectively. Data analysis involving central and off axes was carried out and demonstrated that the testing results fitted well with the design.

  15. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  16. The ALICE muon spectrometer dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE detector consists of two large magnets, the huge red solenoid which can be seen on the right, and the blue dipole magnet. The solenoid was used for the L3 experiment when LEP was in use between 1989 and 2000, but the dipole has been built especially for the new ALICE detector. The dipole was successfully tested on 14 July 2005 when it ran at the operating current of 6 kiloamps for 24 hours.

  17. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  18. An improved billet on billet extrusion process of continuous aluminium alloy shapes for cryogenic applications in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, S S

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. CMS will contain the largest and the most powerful superconducting solenoid magnet ever built in terms of stored energy. It will work at 4.2 K, will have a magnetic length of 12.5 m, with a free bore of 6m and will be manufactured as a layered and modular structure of NbTi cables embedded in a high purity (99.998%) Al- stabiliser. Each layer consists of a wound continuous length of 2.55 km. In order to withstand the high electromagnetic forces, two external aluminium alloy reinforcing sections are foreseen. These reinforcements, of 24 mm multiplied by 18 mm cross-section, will be continuously electron beam (EB) welded to the pure Al-stabiliser. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcements due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened state, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperatures and ready EB weldability. Ea...

  19. Fabrication of solenoid-type inductor with electroplated NiFe magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoyu; Cao Ying; Zhou Yong; Ding Wen; Lei Chong; Chen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Solenoid-type inductor with ultra-low profile was fabricated by MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technique. NiFe film was electroplated as the magnetic core, and polyimide with a low relative permittivity was used as the insulation material. In the fabrication process, UV-LIGA, dry etching, fine polishing and electroplating technique have been adopted to achieve high performance of the solenoid-type inductor. The inductor was in size of 1.5 mmx0.9 mmx0.1 mm with coil width of 20 μm and aspect ratio of 5:1. The inductance and the quality factor were 0.42-0.345 μH and 1.8-5.3 in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz, respectively

  20. Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on the Beam Size in Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Y.

    2004-08-05

    In this paper, the authors discuss the optics effects of the realistic detector solenoid field on beam size at the Interaction Point (IP) of a future Linear Collider and their compensation. It is shown that most of the adverse effects on the IP beam size arise only from the part of the solenoid field which overlaps and extends beyond the final focusing quadrupoles. It is demonstrated that the most efficient and local compensation can be achieved using weak antisolenoids near the IP, while a correction scheme which employs only skew quadrupoles is less efficient, and compensation with strong antisolenoids is not appropriate. One of the advantages of the proposed antisolenoid scheme is that this compensation works well over a large range of the beam energy

  1. Effect Of The LEBT Solenoid Magnetic Field On The Beam Generation For Particle Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmohammadi Satri, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 for upgrade of the LHC injectors with higher intensity and eventually an increase of the LHC luminosity. Linac4 structure is a source, a 45 keV low energy beam transport line (LEBT) with two solenoids, a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a Medium Energy Beam Transport line (MEBT), a 50 Mev DTL, a 100 Mev CCDTL and PIMS up to 160 Mev. We use Travel v4.07 and PathManager code for simulation. Firstly, we need to a file as a source and defining the beginning point (last point in tracking back) of simulation. We recognise the starting point base on the solenoid magnetic property of LEBT.

  2. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  3. Recent high field Nb3Sn tape solenoids of large radial access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, F.S.; Tanksi, J.V.; Damiano, D.A.; Markiewicz, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Large radial access in a high field solenoid magnet is important in applications of current interest. Several magnets produced recently provide examples of two types of large radial access split solenoids. The variable gap split magnet provides flexibility in allowing fields above 15 T in a ''closed position'' without radial access and, in the same magnet, allowing fields above 13 T with radial access sufficient to test large cryostable conductors. The requirement of large solid angle view of the central field region is met with a second type of split magnet incorporating conical windings. The structural support of the windings above large radial ports is a critical design issue. Procedures developed recently for the use of cryogenic strain gages in magnetic field environments have been adopted to measure support stresses. The strain gage procedure, measurement results, and comparison with analysis are presented. 6 refs

  4. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  5. On the Suitability of a Solenoid Horn for the ESS Neutrino Superbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegård, Maja; Ruber, R; Ziemann, R; Koutchouk, J -P

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), now under construction in Lund, Sweden, offers unique opportunities for experimental physics, not only in neutron science but potentially in particle physics. The ESS neutrino superbeam project plans to use a 5 MW proton beam from the ESS linac to generate a high intensity neutrino superbeam, with the final goal of detecting leptonic CP-violation in an underground megaton Cherenkov water detector. The neutrino production requires a second target station and a complex focusing system for the pions emerging from the target. The normal-conducting magnetic horns that are normally used for these applications cannot accept the 2.86 ms long proton pulses of the ESS linac, which means that pulse shortening in an accumulator ring would be required. That, in turn, requires H- operation in the linac to accommodate the high intensity. As an attractive alternative, we investigate the possibility of using superconducting solenoids for the pion focusing. This solenoid horn system needs ...

  6. Design of a Solenoid Actuator for a Cylinder Valve in a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Ryeol Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green vehicles include electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCV, and vehicles running on fuel such as a biodiesel or an ethanol blend. An FCV is equipped with a cylinder valve installed in an ultra-high pressure vessel to control the hydrogen flow. For this purpose, an optimum design of the solenoid actuator is necessary to ensure reliability when driving an FCV. In this study, an electromagnetic field analysis for ensuring reliable operation of the solenoid actuator was conducted by using Maxwell V15. The electromagnetic field analysis was performed by magneto static technique, according to the distance between magnetic poles, in order to predict the attraction force. Finally, the attraction force was validated through comparison between the Maxwell results and measurement results. From the results, the error of attraction force ranged from 2.33 to 3.85 N at testing conditions.

  7. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo,, E-mail: wibowo-uns@yahoo.com; Zakaria,, E-mail: zakaaria27@gmail.com; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Triyono,, E-mail: tyon-bila@yahoo.co.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  8. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  9. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo,; Zakaria,; Lambang, Lullus; Triyono,; Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  10. The nanopore mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Joseph; Maulbetsch, William; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Wiener, Benjamin; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Moon, Wooyoung; Pruitt, Cole; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-01

    We report the design of a mass spectrometer featuring an ion source that delivers ions directly into high vacuum from liquid inside a capillary with a sub-micrometer-diameter tip. The surface tension of water and formamide is sufficient to maintain a stable interface with high vacuum at the tip, and the gas load from the interface is negligible, even during electrospray. These conditions lifted the usual requirement of a differentially pumped system. The absence of a background gas also opened up the possibility of designing ion optics to collect and focus ions in order to achieve high overall transmission and detection efficiencies. We describe the operation and performance of the instrument and present mass spectra from solutions of salt ions and DNA bases in formamide and salt ions in water. The spectra show singly charged solute ions clustered with a small number of solvent molecules.

  11. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  12. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  13. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Burris-Mog, T.; Harres, K.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Bussmann, M.; Deppert, O.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joost, M.; Sobiella, M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we prese...

  14. Large high current density superconducting solenoids for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Taylor, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Very often the study of high energy physics in colliding beam storage-rings requires a large magnetic field volume in order to detect and analyze charged particles which are created from the collision of two particle beams. Large superconducting solenoids which are greater than 1 meter in diameter are required for this kind of physics. In many cases, interesting physics can be done outside the magnet coil, and this often requires that the amount of material in the magnet coil be minimized. As a result, these solenoids should have high current density (up to 10 9 A m -2 ) superconducting windings. The methods commonly used to stabilize large superconducting magnets cannot be employed because of this need to minimize the amount of material in the coils. A description is given of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory program for building and testing prototype solenoid magnets which are designed to operate at coil current densities in excess of 10 9 A m -2 with magnetic stored energies which are as high as 1.5 Megajoules per meter of solenoid length. The coils use intrinsically stable multifilament Nb--Ti superconductors. Control of the magnetic field quench is achieved by using a low resistance aluminum bore tube which is inductively coupled to the coil. The inner cryostat is replaced by a tubular cooling system which carries two phase liquid helium. The magnet coil, the cooling tubes, and aluminum bore tube are cast in epoxy to form a single unified magnet and cryogenic system which is about 2 centimeters thick. The results of the magnet coil tests are discussed

  15. CALCULATIONS FOR A MERCURY JET TARGET IN A SOLENOID MAGNET CAPTURE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; PALMER, R.B.; THIEBERGER, P.; WEGGEL, R.J.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    A mercury jet is being considered as the production target for a muon storage ring facility to produce an intense neutrino beam. A 20 T solenoid magnet that captures pions for muon production surrounds the mercury target. As the liquid metal jet enters or exits the field eddy currents are induced. We calculate the effects that a liquid metal jet experiences in entering and exiting the magnetic field for the magnetic configuration considered in the Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study II

  16. Engineering design solutions of flux swing with structural requirements for ohmic heating solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Here a more detailed publication is summarized which presents analytical methods with solutions that describe the structural behavior of ohmic heating solenoids to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between the functional variables that can provide the basis for recommended design improvements. The solutions relate the requirements imposed by structural integrity to the need for producing sufficient flux swing to initiate a plasma current in the tokamak fusion machine. A method is provided to perform a detailed structural analysis of every conducting turn in the radial build of the solenoid, and computer programmed listings for the closed form solutions are made available as part of the reference document. Distinction is made in deriving separate models for the regions of the solenoid where turn-to-turn radial contact is maintained with radial compression or with a bond in the presence of radial tension, and also where there is turn-to-turn radial separation due to the absence or the loss of bonding in the presence of would be radial tension. The derivations follow the theory of elasticity for a body possessing cylindrical anisotropy where the material properties are different in the radial and tangential directions. The formulations are made practical by presenting the methods for reducing stress and for relocating the relative position for potential turn-to-turn radial delamination by permitting an arbitrary traction at the outer radial surface of the solenoid in the form of pressure or displacement such as may be applied by a containment or a shrink fit structural cylinder

  17. View through the CMS detector during the cooldown of the solenoid on February 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon, UC Davis

    2006-01-01

    Image looking along the beam direction through CMS. One can see, from the inside out: the patch panels and cables for the Preshower and ECAL; the front of the endcap HCAL; some cathode strip chambers (CSCs) for detecting muons; the sealed solenoid (the first circular silver-coloured ring) currently being cooled to operating temperature and held by the central barrel yoke ring (red and orange); one of the other barrel yoke rings installed with many muon chambers (silver rectangular boxes).

  18. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  19. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.

  20. Solenoid-free Plasma Startup in NSTX using Coaxial Helicity Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Raman; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Bell, Michael G.; Dennis Mueller; Nelson, Brian A.; Benoit LeBlanc; Charles Bush; Masayoshi Nagata; Ted Biewer

    2005-01-01

    The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. Recent experiments on the HIT-II ST at the University of Washington, have demonstrated the capability of a new method, referred to as transient CHI, to produce a high quality, closed-flux equilibrium that has then been coupled to induction, with a reduced requirement for transformer flux [R. Raman, T.R. Jarboe, B.A. Nelson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (February 2003) 075005-1]. An initial test of this method on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced about 140 kA of toroidal current. Modifications are now underway to improve capability for transient CHI in NSTX

  1. NdFeB Magnets Aligned in a 9-T Superconducting Solenoid (asterisk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-08-01

    Commercial-grade magnet powder (Magnequench UG) was uniaxial die-pressed into cylindrical compacts, while being aligned in the 1-T to 8-T DC field of a superconducting solenoid at Argonne National Laboratory. Then, the compacts were added to normal Magnequench UG production batches for sintering and annealing. The variations in magnet properties for different strengths of alignment fields are reported for 15.88-mm (5/8-in.) diameter compacts made with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios in the range 3 0.25 and L 1. The best magnets were produced when the powder-filled die was inserted into the active field of the solenoid and then pressed. Improvements in the residual flux density of 8% and in the energy product of 16% were achieved by increasing the alignment field beyond the typical 2-T capabilities of electromagnets. The most improvement was achieved for the compacts with the smallest L/D ratio. The ability to make very strong magnets with small L/D, where self-demagnetization effects during alignment are greatest, would benefit most the production of near-final-shape magnets. Compaction of the magnet powder using a horizontal die and a continuously active superconducting solenoid was not a problem. Although the press was operated in the batch mode for this proof-of-concept study, its design is intended to enable automated production.

  2. The Cold Mass Support System and the Helium Cooling System for the MICE Focusing Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Stephanie Q.; Green, Michael A.; Lau, Wing W.; Senanayake, Rohan S.; Witte, Holger

    2006-01-01

    The heart of the absorber focus coil (AFC) module for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is the two-coil superconducting solenoid that surrounds the muon absorber. The superconducting magnet focuses the muons that are cooled using ionization cooling, in order to improve the efficiency of cooling. The coils of the magnet may either be run in the solenoid mode (both coils operate at the same polarity) or the gradient (the coils operate at opposite polarity). The AFC magnet cold mass support system is designed to carry a longitudinal force up to 700 kN. The AFC module will be cooled using three pulse tube coolers that produce 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. One of the coolers will be used to cool the liquid (hydrogen or helium) absorber used for ionization cooling. The other two coolers will cool the superconducting solenoid. This report will describe the MICE AFC magnet. The cold mass supports will be discussed. The reasons for using a pulsed tube cooler to cool this superconducting magnet will also be discussed

  3. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-08-08

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.

  4. Design and R and D for the central solenoid for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, R.J.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.; Smith, B.A.; Vieira, R.; Thomas, P.; Olmstead, M.; Mann, W.R.; Winn, P.; Titus, P.; Myatt, L.

    1989-01-01

    The CR will require a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, pulsed poloidal field coil system for plasma heating, shaping and control. The central solenoid will have a bore diameter of 0.8 m., a height of 4.8 m., and a central field of 23-25 T. Geometric restrictions are such that an aggressive structural concept is required. Two options are being considered for the machine. The first would require a central solenoid which is self supporting and which would consist of a stack of explosively bonded copper/Alloy 718 plates with a copper/Alloy 718 ratio of 50/50. Each plate is cut into eight turns by a water jet cutting process. This paper presents features of this design and selected results from an R and D program which is under way. Full-scale plates have been fabricated and cut, and prototypical mechanical and electrical joints have been tested. The other machine design option would allow the central solenoid to receive partial support from the TF coil system. In this case the operating scenario and stresses are substantially different. R and D tasks have been started to evaluate conductor lifetime under simulated operating conditions for alumina dispersion strengthened (ADS) copper. Explosively bonded copper/Alloy 718 plates remain an option, but with a substantial increase in the ratio of copper to Alloy 718 to 70/30. A status of test results and plans for these materials is given. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. High field solenoids and cryogenic refrigeration system for the MFTF α + T tandem mirror facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.; Diatchenko, N.

    1984-01-01

    MFTF-α + T is a next step mirror device, specifically designed to be an upgrade of the MFTF-B tandem mirror facility into a generic nuclear testing facility for the magnetic fusion program. The solenoid magnet concepts, in particular an 18 T choke coil and a 12 T central cell coil, reflect the dependence of the tandem mirror concept on high performance, highly irradiated solenoids. The achievement of an 18 T solenoid with a 22 cm bore is a significant accomplishment in the total absence of radiation. The achievement of a normal magnet with a fluence of 4 x 10 12 rads of absorbed neutron and gamma radiation in its insulation is a significant achievement in the total absence of field. The achievement of a superconducting magnet with an instantaneous radiation absorption of 65 mW/cm 3 and an insulation fluence of 10 10 rads, let along a magnet with a peak field of nearly 16 T and a 107 cm bore is unprecedented. The superconducting and normal coils in the 18 T magnet system are also subjected to asymmetric axial loads from external magnets, adding the requirement of being able to support normal and fault loads in either axial direction. Nevertheless, it appears that design solutions do exist. The possible approaches to the simultaneous achievement of very high field, very high irradiation and asymmetric loading are the subject of this paper, using MFTF-α + T as the worked example

  6. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon spectrometer at small angles. After a brief description of the forward muon spectrometer, ...

  7. ATF beamline 1 analysis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design parameters and expected performance of the analysis spectrometer for beamline 1 at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The spectrometer should be well suited for measuring the change in energy caused by the first generation laser acceleration experiments

  8. A rare gas optics-free absolute EUV photon spectrometer for solar system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daybell, M. D.; Gruntman, M. A.; Judge, D. L.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications which require long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer operating at a few eV, and followed by an electron multiplying detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process is essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided.

  9. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was produced at 2.45 GHz using 200 – 750 W microwave power. The plasma was produced from argon gas at a pressure of 2 × 10−4 mbar. Three water-cooled solenoid coils were used to satisfy the ECR resonant conditions inside the plasma chamber. The basic parameters of ...

  10. Rutherford X-ray spectrometer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    Rutherford electronic X-ray spectrometer readout is based on the combination of two established techniques (a) the detection and location of soft X-rays by means of multichannel electron multiplier arrays (MCP's), and (b) the electronic readout of charge distributions (generally in multi-wire proportional counters) by means of the delay line techniques. In order for the latter device to function well a charge signal of approximately 10 6 electrons must be available to the delay line wand. This is achieved in the present device by means of two cascaded MCP's which can produce electron gains up to approximately 10 8 , and so operate the delay line from the single electron pulses generated at the front face of an MCP by a soft X-ray. The delay line readout technique was chosen because of its simplicity (both in terms of the necessary hardware and the associated electronics), robustness, and ease of implementation. In order to achieve the target spatial resolution of 50 μm (fwhm) or 20 μm (standard deviation) it was necessary to adapt the charge collection system so that the readout takes place from a length of delay line 200 mm long. The general layout of the system and the functions of the electronic circuits are described. Performance testing, setting up procedures and trouble shooting of the system are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. ELECTRON COOLING OF RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.; BARTON, D.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV.

  12. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  13. Calibration of VUV spectrometer-detector system using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, A.; Rouze, N.; Westerveld, W.B.; Risley, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A new technique and apparatus have been developed for the measurement of absolute electron impact photoemission cross sections in the 30--150-nm wavelength range. Synchrotron light is used as the primary intensity standard for the calibration of the detection efficiency of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer-detector system. A multiadjustable manipulator was used to position precisely a Seya-Namioka-type spectrometer-detector system with respect to a narrow ray of synchrotron radiation. By scanning the beam of synchrotron radiation across the surface of the grating in the spectrometer, precise simulation of the geometry of the light source encountered in the electron impact photoemission mesurement was realized. Analysis of the results underscores the fact that for spectrometer calibrations in the VUV, the calibration procedure depends on the geometry of the experimental source. The simultaneous determination of the absolute apparatus response function of the spectrometer--detector system and the geometrical factors pertaining to the electron impact photoemission source allows photoemission cross sections in the VUV to be determined with unparalleled precision

  14. Neutron range spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  15. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  16. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  17. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  18. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlov, B.N.; Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.; Shebelin, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing a pulsed ion source with an electron gun and two electrodes limiting ionization range, drift space and ion acceptor, is described. To expand functional possibilities, a slot collimator of the gas stream, two quantum generators and two diaphragms for the inlet of quantum generator radiation located on both sides of the ion source, are introduced in the ion source. The above invention enables to study details of the complex interaction process of laser radiation with molecules of the gas stream, which is actual for laser isotope separation

  19. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  20. Full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelepov, V.P.; Filchenkov, V.V.; Konin, A.D.; Rudenko, A.I.; Solovieva, G.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    A full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons (volume of scintillator = 24 l) has been developed and employed in investigations of muon catalysed processes. Its application allows: (a) Considerably increasing the rate of accummulation of events; (b) efficiently using muon catalysis multiplicity for fuller and more reliable determination of its parameters; (c) significantly reducing uncertainty in the calculated and experimentally found values of neutron detection efficiency. The device combines good spectrometric properties for neutron energies E n = 1-6 MeV and reliable n-γ separation (the degree of separation for a Pu-Be source 3 starting from an electron energy of 50 keV). (orig.)